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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL URNBAN MIGRATION

(A Case Study of Islamabad)


This paper is being initiated by Mr. Ghulam Samad, Research Assistant, CORDAPS with the assistance of MSc, Mphil students of Development Economics, under the supervision of Dr. Pervez Zamurrad Janjua, Principal Investigator, CORDAPS.

1. INTRODUCTION
Our study is going to focus on the causes and effects of rural urban migration. In this study we will discuss the main causes of the migrations like Push Factors such as poverty and unemployment, Long work hours, lower payments, fascism, high taxes, hatred toward them, crop failures could not pay for their land, lack of farmland, famine, or war at home.conditions in the place of origin which are perceived by migrants as detrimental to their well-being or economic security, and Pull factors Jobs and Social Factors, Wages, Education, Employment and high standard of living. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of the study are: 1. To find out the main causes of rural urban migration in the study area. 2. To study the changes in socio-economic conditions as a result of migration on the status of migrants. 3. To identify the problems of migrants in urban area. 4. To suggest recommendations on the basis of findings. 3. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY Following are the hypotheses of the study:

1. More and better wages, education, political and social stability, better technologies, employment/ business opportunities in urban areas lead to rural urban migration. 2. The circumstances in the villages such as poverty and unemployment, Long work hours, lower payments, fascism, high taxes, hatred toward a group of people by strong tribe, crop failures could not pay for their land, lack of farmland, famine, or war at home encourage rural urban migration. 6. 6.1 DATA Sources of Data:

The main source of data upon which the whole reliance is made, will be the primary data collected in the field or in the project area. Secondary data will also be used where ever the need was felt during the study. For this purpose the bureau of statistics and provincial population department will be consulted. 6.2 Sample Size:

The sample size selected for this study is 200 respondents. The sample technique which will be used is random sampling. The area for the data collection is Islamabad with the main stress on congested areas, where most of the people have migrated from mostly rural areas. 6.3 Data Collection Technique:

The data in the field will collected through a simple interview schedule. The data will be collected face to face in the field by making interviews of the respondents randomly. 6.4 Analysis of the Data

We will only collect the data according to our interview schedule, then tabulate the data and according to these tabulations we will make explanation of our all variants.

SCHEDULE OF PAPER Phas e 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Activities Literature Research & Review Data Collection from different sources Tabulation & Estimation Analysis and Compilation Final Paper Time 15.06.06-15.07.06 (1 Month) 16.07.06-15.9.06 (2 Month) 16.09.06-30.09.06 (15 Days) 01.10.06-15.10.06 (15 Days) 16.10.06-31.10.06 (15 Days)

Estimated Costs Phas e 1. Costs TA/DA Research Literature Photocopies Misc. Subtotal Remuneration: 200 Samples/5 Surveyors 40 Sample/Surveyor (100.00/Sample) 4000.00 * 5 TA/DA: (75.00/Surveyor/Day) 75 * 5 * 8 Subtotal Tabulation/Estimation Analysis and Compilation Proofreading/Editing/Printing 3,000.00 + 1,000.00 + 1,000.00 Total Costs (excluding 3 & 4) Amounts 4,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 10,000.00 20,000.00 3,000.00 23,000.00 ? ? 5,000.00 38,000.00

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