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Companion for IMPERATOR The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar By Philip Katz
Copyright 2012 by Philip Katz All Rights Reserved Cover Design by Philip Katz Imperator is a work of fiction based on historical information and is a product of the author’s imagination. Any resemblance to persons living in the last 2000 years is purely coincidental.
The Media Hails IMPERATOR; the Life of Gaius Julius Caesar
…Katz, it should be noted, has an exciting narrative style. The words pop on the page and he keeps the story moving. As an author, he has a natural sense of plot and timing and has written snappy dialogue that stays in the vernacular of the time period. “Imperator” is truly a historical novel, bursting with historically accurate details, but the story is told in such a way as to never be dry or lifeless... ---- Eve Marx, Record Review Newspaper. …I devoured each (chapter) in absolute awe of anyone who could absorb history in such fine detail and then turn it around and personalize it in such a way, that you could actually believe Caesar himself to be the author. /…/Katz starts in Caesar's childhood, introduces us to life in the Subura, gives us a taste of his family and culture. He then captures the brutality of war, the conundrums of politics and the sense of history this man was making...----Laura Novak, Reporter; ABC/CBS/NYTimes. …Caesar becomes a flesh and blood person before your eyes. His courage, his organization, his far seeing political abilities all come to life on these pages. Really just a great, involving read. Highly recommended! ---Brian Heffron, KLCS-TV, PBS Los Angeles, Ca.
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Synopsis......................................................................................................................................8 Imperator; the Life of Gaius Julius Caesar...............................................................................8 Author’s Note...............................................................................................................................9 Why Write Another Novel About Caesar?................................................................................9 Historical Characters from Imperator.........................................................................................11 A Brief Political History of Ancient Rome....................................................................................13 Appendix from Imperator........................................................................................................13 The Founding thru the Late Republic.....................................................................................13 Rome and Romans.............................................................................................................13 Rome’s Ascent to Empire...................................................................................................15 The Spoils of War...............................................................................................................16 Civil Unrest and Civil War...................................................................................................17 Sacrosanct Blood Spilled on Sacred Ground......................................................................18 The Fabric of the Republic Begins to Unravel.....................................................................19 Many say the USA is like the Modern Day Roman Empire, but is it?.........................................20 A Comparative Essay by Philip Katz......................................................................................20 The Roman Legions: Soldiers Building or Builders Soldiering?.................................................23 Why Assassinate Caesar?.........................................................................................................25 Roman Zombies?......................................................................................................................29 Death and the After-Life in Late Republican Rome................................................................29 Excerpts from Imperator............................................................................................................31 ROME 2010...........................................................................................................................31 CHAPTER I............................................................................................................................33 The Battle with the Invading German Tribes.......................................................................33 CHAPTER XI..........................................................................................................................34 Destiny’s Day......................................................................................................................34 Glossary....................................................................................................................................37 Appendix from Imperator........................................................................................................37 Roman Republican Government................................................................................................50
Appendix from Imperator........................................................................................................50 Source Materials - Hardcopy.....................................................................................................54 Appendix from Imperator........................................................................................................54 Source Material- Electronic Library............................................................................................57 Appendix from Imperator........................................................................................................57 Press.........................................................................................................................................61 RECORD REVIEW................................................................................................................61 Lewisboro Ledger...................................................................................................................63 Good Reviews...........................................................................................................................64 Reviews on Amazon for IMPERATOR...................................................................................64 Reviews from other Sources..................................................................................................66 Bad Review...............................................................................................................................74 About the Author........................................................................................................................75
About the Author
Imperator; the Life of Gaius Julius Caesar,
the first in the series, is a fictional memoir by Julius Caesar in which he tells the story of his youth, in the first person, as it goes from the halcyon days of childhood to the bloody war-torn days of his teens. The engrossing adventure story and political thriller moves quickly, as the impoverished but charismatic young Roman nobleman, Julius Caesar, becomes the protégé of his uncle the great general and statesman Gaius Marius. An unmistakable sign from the gods’ for-telling of Caesar’s future greatness is revealed to Caesar and Marius cementing the bond between the two as Marius takes the young Caesar under his wing for the uncertain days ahead. Young Caesar becomes embroiled in the politics of Rome, and eventually the civil war between Marius and Sulla. Young Caesar learns fights and loves against the backdrop of the beginning of the collapse of the four centuries old Roman Republic that ruled the World but could not govern its self. Witness through the eyes of young Caesar the great events and great personalities that are reborn as flesh and blood people struggling with the day to day decisions that would resonate through the millennia. Imperator details the political struggles, the lust for power and the ideological fight to preserve Rome by a small group of pragmatic reformers that would result in Civil War on an epic scale time and time again and how one exceptional young man makes his way to manhood in such a world. Imperator is filled with gritty battle scenes, political strife, sex and civil war against the rich cultural backdrop of Republican Rome and her Empire.
Why Write Another Novel About Caesar?
I set out to write Imperator because I felt I could bring a unique layman’s point of view to the subject of Caesar, and the fall of the Roman Republic, free from the traditional dogmatic approach taken by the academic community. In addition I believe the tale of the fall of the Roman Republic is a timely and relevant cautionary tale for us in 21st century America. It is far too simplistic to attribute Caesar’s vast accomplishments to ambition and lust for absolute power alone. While Caesar was referred to commonly as tyrant and was allegedly assassinated for the same reason, Caesar never altered the Republican form of government which he is accused of destroying. Closer examination of the facts presented in the extant sources only make sense when seen in context of an extremely complex personality capable of great compassion for individuals and what was seemingly cold disregard for the lives of millions. In the pages of Imperator a character comes into focus from the extant documents of the period taking into account just how subjective these accounts were. In fact most of the sources for the period, with the notable exception of Caesar’s own writings and those of the orator Cicero, were written many years after the events that took place in the time of Caesar and were written by those opposed to the factions to whom Caesar belonged. The story of Caesar must be viewed within the context of the unique time in which he lived and the unique situation into which he was born. My interest in Roman Republican history began with the BBC’s production of Graves’ “I Claudius” and McCullough’s “Masters of Rome” series of novels and continued over ten years of avid reading on the subject finally bringing me to Italy in 2005. It was after I visited Italy and the Forum Romanum in particular, that I was inspired to write Imperator. Any relevant work about Republican Rome must be derived from the city’s long history and complex religious practices. For the story of Imperator the principle research is from extant histories from the subject period of the story, first century BC Rome, and is supported by the archaeological and literary records including the vast amount of modern scholarship on the subject. The principle literary sources from the period for the historical frame work, upon which the Imperator series was constructed, are the works of Appian of Alexandria writing in the Imperial period of the second century AD and Plutarch, a Greek writing in the second half of the first century AD again in the Imperial period. They clearly wrote from a point of view prevalent centuries after the events about which they write. It must be
10 assumed by the reader that Plutarch and Appian relied upon sources, such as the writings of Sulla and Polio, which no longer exist to which they explicitly added their own interpretation of events. Caesar’ “Gallic Wars” and “Civil Wars” and Cicero’s “Letters to Atticus” and “Selected Political Speeches” are the principle extant contemporary accounts of the events of their lifetimes. For historical background for early Rome I rely heavily on the Romans Livy and Virgil writing in the time of Augustus in the first century BC. And again we have “Plutarch’s Lives” and the work of another Greek, Polybius’ “The Rise of The Roman Empire” written in the middle of the second century BC. No book about the Roman Empire could be written without building a strong geographical context around the story. For this I relied mainly upon on Michael Grant’s “A Guide to the Ancient World” and the Encyclopedia Britannica’s World Atlas. In addition I referred to Jacquetta Hawkes’ “Atlas of Ancient Archaeology”. Imperator was very much the product of the massive proliferation of information that is the internet and our digital age. While the vast majority of information included in Imperator came from the pages of real books, globes and atlases I was also able to gather vast amounts of information from disparate sources with great speed and very little wasted time through the use of search engines and online libraries such as, Questia.com, a popular online subscription research site. By these means I had a powerful research tool wherever there was broad band internet available. All editions of “Imperator; The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar” contain informative appendices and they are available free bellow and at: www.Blog.ImperatorBlog.com. Happy Reading! -Philip Katz
Historical Characters from Imperator
By Philip Katz
"Imperator" is an historically accurate fictional recreation; the principle players in the story are drawn from history. For the purpose of the story the biographies contained here-in are intentionally sparse and contain very little information as to what took place beyond the time in which the novel takes place. Naturally the story of Caesar is a matter of historical record so it is no secret how the story ends. For dramatic effect for those who are not well acquainted with the fall of the Roman Republic I chose to allow the story develop and unfold in a natural way without knowledge of the “future”. In addition ancillary characters are not included beyond their involvement in the text of the story. Gaius Julius Caesar the elder, 140 BC- 85 BC, was the patrician father of Gaius Julius Caesar. He was married to Aurelia Cotta a woman of noble birth. He fathered two girls, both named Julia, or a variation there of, the traditional family name for female members of the Julii, and one son. He was a patrician nobleman and politician from the gens Julii, descendants of the goddess Venus and Anchises of Troy. His mother was named Marcia, whose father was consul and she was of the family of Ancus Marcius Rex, King of Rome. Aurelia Cotta, 120 BC- 54 BC, was the patrician mother of Gaius Julius Caesar. Her father, grandfather and uncle were consuls. Her maternal uncle was consul as well. Julia Caesaris, 130 BC- 69 BC, was the paternal aunt of Gaius Julius Caesar and wife of the great general and statesman Gaius Marius. Gaius Marius, 157 BC- 86 BC, was born in the village of Cereatae in the district of Arpinum approximately 50 miles from Rome. He was a plebeian and considered a “New Man” or homo novus which is to say he was thought of as an upstart and a country bumpkin at Rome. He rose through the Cursus Honorum or path to power to the rank of consul. He instituted major reforms to the Roman army and introduced the secret ballot at Rome. As a general he defeated Spanish tribes in revolt, Jugurtha the usurper of the Numidian thrown in North Africa and he defeated an enormous invading army of German tribes that had defeated a number of Roman armies before Marius. Cornelia Cinna (Cinnilla), B? - 69 BC was the first wife of Gaius Julius Caesar. She was the daughter of the patrician politician Lucius Cornelius Cinna a political ally of Gaius Marius.
12 Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus or Pompey the Great, 106 BC- 52 BC was from the district of Picenum on the Adriatic side of the Apennines and the son of the homo novus, plebeian, statesman and general Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo. Servilia Caepionis, 107 BC- ? , was the daughter of the consul Caepio and Livia Drusa, sister of the plebeian politician, Marcus Livius Drusus, advocate for the rights of the Italian allied states. Servilia’s half brother, Marcus Porcius Cato, was fathered in an extramarital affair which was exposed resulting in a great public scandal and divorce. Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106 BC- 43 BC, was a plebeian statesman from the district of Arpinum just as Gaius Marius was. He was a homo novus and is mainly known for his oratory and skill as an advocate in the law courts. Quintus Tullius Cicero, 102 BC- 43 BC, brother of Marcus the noted orator and statesman. He was a statesman in his own right. Titus Pomponius (Atticus), 110 BC- 30 BC, was a Roman capitalist and Publicani (provincial tax collector). He was a friend and confidante of Cicero the orator. Marcus Licinius Crassus, 115 BC- 53 BC, was a plebeian statesman and the the son of a consul. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 138 BC- 78 BC was from an impoverished patrician family and was the first of his family to attain public office in generations. He served as a legate (an officer of senatorial rank) in the armies of Gaius Marius. Quintus Sertorius, ? BC- 73 BC was a homo novus, plebeian, statesman and military man, from Nursia in the Sabine territory. He served in Gaius Marius’ armies. Martha, ? BC- ? BC, was a Syrian Prophetess. Her talents were discovered in Rome by Gaius Marius’ wife Julia and she was conveyed to North Africa to serve as an advisor to Gaius Marius. Mithredates VI Eupator King of Pontus, 134 BC- 63 BC, was of Greek and Persian descent and ruled his territory in northern Anatolia on the black sea, from a Hellenized court. He took advantage of anti Roman sentiment in the eastern provinces to seize large territories from Rome for which Rome went to war to regain control of. Ptolemy Cleopatra, 69 BC- 30 BC, Queen of Alexandria and Pharaoh Egypt was the daughter of Ptolemy XI Aluletes. The Ptolemy were descendents of Alexander the greats’ Macedonian general Ptolemy. Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, were centurions in Caesar’s army and were singled out for bravery in Caesar’s Commentaries in the “Gallic Wars”.
A Brief Political History of Ancient Rome
Appendix from Imperator The Founding thru the Late Republic
Rome and Romans In the year 753 BC a man named Romulus was elected king of a city-state in central Italy that would come to bear his name. The city of Rome was the result of the incorporation of a group of hilltop and valley communities situated in central Italy on the banks of the Tiber River. The citizens of Rome of the higher classes as determined by wealth generally made their fortunes, from farming their estates’ fertile lowlands surrounding the city, using laborers and slaves. Most wealthy landowners had their town homes on the high ground of the hills in and around the city while the lower classes, lesser landholders, artisans, common farm labor and freedmen, made their homes in a central valley between the hills. This area would come to be known as the Subura. The objective of incorporating these communities was to pool resources to provide for the common defense and oppose the ruling Etruscan kings to which these communities were subject. Previous to the incorporation of the city of Rome, each community was governed as a separate tribe in which the wealthiest of landholders would occupy positions on ruling councils. The councils were responsible for electing magistrates that were responsible for oversight and administration of religious observance, resolving disputes among members of the community, levying troops for the common defense, the administration of public works and so forth. Upon Rome’s incorporation the council members from these communities met at a specially designated area that is located at the base of the Palatine hill and the sacred Capitoline hill. This meeting place came to be known as the Forum Romanum or Roman Forum or simply the Forum. The group of council members came to be known as the Senate and the council members were known as Senators. The meeting place was a small field that was specially drained for the purpose of such meetings, as it was quite wet most of the year. This drain, which emptied into the Tiber River, still exists to this day and is known as the Cloaca Maxima, Rome’s first sewer. The original Senators, their families and descendants formed an exclusive group within Roman society known as Patricians. The name is derived from the word pater or father. These Patricians were entitled to hold public office and priesthoods from which the
14 common folk, known as the Plebeians or Plebs were excluded no matter how much wealth they might accumulate. As time went on the Plebs agitated continuously for more political influence. This social strife would only yield to foreign invasion, disease or famine. The founding senators elected a man named Romulus the first king of Rome. Romulus was the surviving brother of a pair of twins that were set adrift on the Tiber and were found in a basket on a flood plain within the city which is now called the Velabrum where a she wolf had sustained the boys for days before Faustillus a herdsman found the boys. Romulus had proved himself worthy of the kingship by virtue of his great intelligence and martial prowess. He proved an energetic and innovative ruler by inviting all the dispossessed and otherwise unaffiliated persons of Italy to come and become citizens of Rome. These prospective citizens were further enticed with grants of land to farm. In this way he was able to swell the numbers of Romans that could be called up for military service to protect the city from the many aggressors surrounding Rome’s territories including the Etruscans. In order to do this however it was necessary to take “donations” of land from the Patricians, which diminished their wealth and power, causing them much displeasure. Rome’s founder and first king, Romulus met his end, the patricians said, by disappearing in a cloud of smoke, as if by Divine intervention, although the agency of his vanishing was most likely regicide. Rome remained under the rule of kings for over two centuries during which a king was elected but never the less ruled with absolute power. Very often the kings were coopted from neighboring communities such as the Etruscans or the Sabines. The early kings were responsible for the development of Rome’s religious, civic and military institutions by melding the practices of the separate communities or tribes into a unified if complex Roman state. The end of the Roman Monarchy came in 510 BC with the expulsion of the king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus by Lucius Junius Brutus, supposedly the ancestor of Marcus Junius Brutus, one of Julius Caesar’s assassins. From that point in time Rome was ruled by a republic which consisted of the Senate and the Assemblies of the People. Magistrates were elected and laws were passed by the people who voted in groups called Tribes in which the winner of the tribal vote takes all. The voting is concluded when one side has accumulated a majority of the tribes. This seemingly democratic ideal was in fact only somewhat democratic for the uppermost classes of Roman society. Hundreds of years of political strife and conflict between the classes was to follow and despite the fact that membership in the senate
15 had been opened to plebeians (common folk), only those of sufficient means and social standing could stand for election and thereby be admitted to the Senate, Rome’s supreme governing body. The Senate had agreed that ten Tribunes of the Plebs should be elected from the ranks of Plebeians to protect the people from abuses by the nobles or the Senate. They had the power to veto any measure or action. Rome’s Ascent to Empire Warfare on the Italian peninsula had been virtually continuous throughout Rome’s first several centuries resulting in Rome’s domination of her neighbors. Many of the wars involving Rome came about as a result of Rome coming to the aid of an “Ally and Friend of the Roman People”. This status could result from a sovereign petitioning the senate for this special status to be granted or from a negotiated or imposed treaty between the Senate and People of Rome and the allied state. It is safe to say that Rome’s dominion expanded not through offensive war but by maintaining an aggressive defensive policy toward foreign affairs. Primarily Rome’s strategy was to repulse attackers and to seek vengeance on the invader and their allies or by the honoring of treaties and agreements to give aid to an ally against some foe resulting in victory after victory. In 264bc a new period for Rome began with the first of the three Punic (Latin word for Carthaginian) wars between the expanding Roman state and Carthage the dominant state in the western Mediterranean. The First Punic War began with a conflict in Sicily, a large island across a narrow straight from Italy on one side and not far from Carthage on the African side. This series of wars are known as the Punic wars. These wars lasted over a century and cost hundreds of thousands of lives. The first Punic war was the result of the Roman Senate making a dubious decision to ally with the city of Messana that lay across the strait of Sicily (straight of Messina) in their conflict with neighboring Syracuse. The holders of the city of Messana were a group of Mercenaries called the Mamertines that had recently taken the city by deceit from the rightful residents. The Mamertines had appealed for help from both Carthage and Rome and even though the Mamertines had taken the place through guile, Rome could not have Carthage’s army so close to Italy. For similar reasons Carthage chose to support the Syracuse’ king. Rome won this war and levied war reparations upon Carthage, which were later, increased by Rome’s Assemblies, much to the displeasure of the Carthaginians. During the second Punic war, while fighting Hannibal for control of Italy, Rome also fought in the first Macedonian war in an effort to keep the Greeks and Macedonians from rendering aid to Carthage. Once again Rome emerged victorious
16 In the middle of the second century BC, Rome destroyed the city of Carthage brining to a victorious close, the third Punic war. Rome was now in control of the Carthaginian Empire by virtue of conquest. Prior to the first Punic war in which Rome fought for and won the island of Sicily from Carthage, Rome had never fielded an army outside of Italy. After emerging victorious from three hard fought wars with Carthage and the Macedonian wars, Rome now found herself in possession of a vast empire that required defending on a continuous basis as opposed limiting military activities to the traditional campaign season. The newly acquired provinces, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain and Africa plus Illyrica and Macedonia were extremely lucrative sources of goods and revenue. The revenues for the state were primarily in the form of tribute paid by supplicant foreign powers to Rome’s treasury. In addition public land in these provinces came into the possession of the senate and people of Rome. The Spoils of War Public land or ager publicus on the Italian peninsula had been accumulated during Rome’s conquest and consolidation of control over Italy. Far from remaining public, control of this land had come to be amassed into great estates by Rome’s ruling oligarchy, the senatorial families. As well as money and land, Rome’s martial prowess brought the Romans the commensurate foreign influences a thriving empire brings with it. More specifically the recently vanquished Carthaginians were of Phoenician origin; thereby Rome also came to be in control of a vast trading network established in the most remote antiquity. Rome’s markets came to be filled with colors and sounds and smells and strange religions and ideas new to Rome’s conservative populace. This influx of vast wealth both public and private created a building boom that changed the landscape while new ideas particularly of Greek origin created disruptions in the fabric of the republic itself. Roman society was undergoing huge changes in the first century B.C. and there were a very few that were able to recognize the fact that the Roman ruling traditions of a city state which had proved so successful, that the Romans were able to conquer and hold sway over the Italian peninsula, were no longer able to adapt to governing so vast an empire as was now Rome’s dominion. Crises both internal and external were becoming more frequent and more severe and this situation threatened Rome’s very existence from one day to the next. Civil Unrest and Civil War With few exceptions those who challenged the prevailing social and political order were destined to be short lived. Gaius and his brother Tiberius Gracchus died as a result of their reform programs aimed at forming a more equitable society through redistribution
17 of the public land, among other measures. Most of the lands in question had been absorbed into great estates most of which were owned by senatorial families or prominent knights. Armies of slaves worked these great estates or latifundia and the revenues collected from their operations formed the basis for much of the senator’s collective legitimate income and wealth. That wealth and the means by which that wealth was acquired were strictly regulated as a requirement for membership in the Senate. Once again the distribution of land for the public good would cause great problems, as it had many times before, for those who advocated such policies. In the late second century this political conflict produced two opposing factions among Rome’s ruling class. The conservatives whom came to be known as the Optimates and the reformers came to be known as Populares. As the Tribune of People, a magistracy created to defend the interests of the common people or Plebeians from the abuses of the Patricians or ruling aristocracy, Tiberius Gracchus put forth legislation aimed at the removal of a portion of the Public Land from the control of the senatorial class and placing on the land the traditional smallholder farmers from which Rome had formerly drawn her army. Prior to the first century BC there was a minimum property requirement for Rome’s soldiers. The reasons for this are, that if a soldier had to supply his own gear and food for the campaign season and he had property to loose in defeat he would be more likely to emerge victorious. This more than any other aspect of Rome is the core of what it is to be Roman. This military service on behalf of the state by the property owners of the state made them one with that state. Service rendered by the people of Rome in her armies made them shareholders in the guardianship of Rome and thereby entitled them to liberty, entitled them to vote and entitled them to lodge a last will and testament with the Vestal virgins. This system was created by a city-state whose campaigns were of a local nature and the campaign season was only part of the year thereby allowing the small farmer time to tend his land and look after his family’s affairs. In the period beginning with the Punic wars the campaigns were far a field and of longer duration. This condition was taking its toll on those who could least afford it. The small family farmer would return after years of service abroad only to find upon his return that his land had been inadequately tended or not at all, allowing weeds to overgrow the fields, his livestock in deplorable condition and very often found himself loaded with debt if not foreclosed upon. Many times veterans would have to mortgage the property just to make ends meet. The mortgage holders were usually members of the senatorial class. While this deplorable situation progressed, those properties that were foreclosed upon, were being massed into great estates worked by armies of slaves many of which were from the
18 populations of defeated enemies instead of being worked by free Romans and Italians. These were the same plantations owned by and large by the senatorial families thereby consolidating their grip on power. And so it was that the greedy senators had gained control of the public lands and were also taking the public’s land. While there were attempts through the years to try to help the small farmer who served in the legions, the senate had no intention of making any kind of change to this condition when in fact it was the senate’s policies that exacerbated the problem. In practice the aristocracy was drying up its well of manpower. In addition many of the displaced landowners subsequently became Rome’s urban poor. In essence Rome’s aristocracy was consuming its young and jeopardizing its own existence. Sacrosanct Blood Spilled on Sacred Ground The brothers Gracchi were trying to remedy these abuses with their Agrarian or farmland redistribution, legislative proposals. Since it was the senators who were those who stood to lose the most from this initiative, it was those within the senate’s factions who were responsible for the brothers’ sacrilegious deaths. Another problem for the senators came about as a consequence of the hastily passed Agrarian legislation promulgated by Tiberius Gracchus. It was the creation of the Publicani or tax farmers. These tax farmers were created to provide funding for the function of the agrarian commission, which was charged with redistributing the public lands. These Tax farmers were private contractors hired by the state to collect Rome’s taxes from the provincials. As time went on the tax collected by the Publicani from the provinces along with the Italian allies had advanced well beyond its original purpose and had taken on the collection of all taxes, tribute and tolls throughout the expanding empire making the Publicani extremely useful to the state while at the same time a threat to the senators’ supremacy. The censors, Rome’s most senior magistrates were in charge of letting public contracts. The policy with regard to the farming of taxes was such that the Publicani were required to provide Rome’s treasury with the sums prescribed in the contract in advance and the Publicani were free to collect whatever they could extort from the provincials over and above the prescribed sum. These Publicani had at their disposal the Roman army to collect delinquent taxes although the mere word of a Roman delegation resplendent in their purple striped tunics beneath their white togas, a sign of knightly rank, in the provinces held the weight of law. As a result these tax farmers who were of the second class known as the ordo equester or knights became immensely wealthy thereby accumulating influence among the senators, in Rome and throughout the provinces. As if the knights had not become enough of a problem to the senators, Gaius Gracchus managed to get a law passed that took the senate’s right to staff the juries of the law courts away and placed the knights in the juries instead. This took from the senators the
19 ability to decide on issues in which they had significant interest, such as cases involving corruption or crimes involving senators or their families. The Fabric of the Republic Begins to Unravel In the closing years of the second century BC (110BC) the Roman’s nightmare came to pass. Rome’s armies were over extended and had suffered a number of military disasters due to incompetent generalship and senatorial jealousy. This resulted in a dearth of qualified soldiers at a time when Rome was threatened by a barbarian horde from the darkest reaches of the German wilderness. These invaders were possessed of such large numbers that Rome was completely exposed to being overrun and occupied as had happened nearly 300 years before. The collective memory of the sacking of Rome by the Gauls in 395bc was perpetuated through stories and legend, remaining strong in all Romans, a bogey in every child’s nightmares and a nagging possibility in the hearts of every adult. In order to man the legions for the wars abroad and the defense of Rome a senator, former consul and accomplished general, named Gaius Marius proposed a law that was subsequently passed despite vigorous opposition from the majority of the senators. This law removed the property requirement for service in the army thereby opening the legions to the poorest of Rome’s citizens and for the first time the army would be equipped and paid for exclusively out of public purse. This gave rise to Rome’s first professional army which was dependent upon its general to provide for their livelihood and eventual retirement from the legions. These veterans hoped to be granted a small plot of land by the state they had served. The senate, being adamantly opposed to veterans’ settlements in the provinces or in Italy, effectively, made the soldiers loyal to their general and not to Rome. Hence began the undoing of the Roman Republic.
Many say the USA is like the Modern Day Roman Empire, but is it?
A Comparative Essay by Philip Katz
Despite being separated in time by millennia the United States’ history and society are remarkably similar to that of ancient Rome. Naturally there are glaring differences but even in those differences there are similarities. The principle difference was that Italy was in the center of a thriving and dynamic Mediterranean world, whereas the United States was largely isolated from the western world for much of its history. Had the people of the US been under similar conditions we might very well have developed a similar bellicose nature. While there is no way to determine the exact nature of the conditions under which Rome became an incorporated city, the agreed upon year is 753 BC. The reason for uncertainty is due to the fact that in 395 BC the city was sacked and completely destroyed by the Gauls. We do know something of the geopolitical nature of the period from other sources. Even at that early time the Mediterranean world was dominated by large empires whose central monarchies held massive resources in materiel and man power. The shifting coalitions of the Greek city states were also a formidable force in antiquity in addition to being the foundation of today’s western world.
In Italy it was the Etruscans that held sway over northern and central Italian peninsula. It is valid to assume the original tribes that incorporated to form the city of Rome did so in order to pool resources for the common defense and to free the communities that inhabited the hills and central valley that made up the city of Rome from the yoke of the Etruscan’s tyrannical rule. In America the European powers held sway over the fate of the colonies that would become the United States of America. Very much like the original tribes of Rome the 13 colonies united to overthrow the Imperial government which subjected them to military oppression and unfairly levied tribute.
Following the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the new Romans formed a council that would come to be called the Senate and the Assemblies of the People. The Senate was made up of representatives from the tribes of Rome that were elected by the citizens to represent their interests when governing the city and to oversee the public purse. The Assemblies were meetings of the people to vote for magistrates and vote on propositions put before them in order to make laws.
21 Following the founding of the United States in 1776 AD the Americans formed the congress, a bi cameral legislative branch of the US government; The Senate, two Senators per State, and the House of Representatives with the number of Representatives corresponding to the number of citizens in the state. Both “Houses” meet to consider and vote on legislation and oversee the public purse. Romulus, no doubt a great general, was elected the first king of Rome. He is thought to have invited all the dispossessed people of Italy to come and make their home within Rome’s territories to help populate the city and provide soldiers for the army. The same can be said of the early United States with the election of George Washington a great general and the US’s liberal immigration policies. Eventually the Roman’s elected Monarchy was replaced with the Roman Republic which was governed by annually elected magistrates instead of the king in addition to the Senate and the Assemblies (For background info see http://www.imperatorbook.com ).
Having conquered or otherwise acquired possession of the Italian peninsula, Romans embarked upon a series overseas wars that were defensive in nature or on behalf of her allies. Having vanquished the Carthaginians and Macedonia, Rome emerged from the three Punic Wars as one of the ancient world’s two superpowers, the other being the Persian empire of The Parthians far to the east. Having conquered or otherwise acquired possession of what is now the continental United States, Americans embarked upon overseas wars that were defensive in nature or on behalf of our allies and after the Spanish American War and two World Wars the US emerged as one of two superpowers of the modern world, the second being the Russian Empire of the Soviet Union far to the east.
Upon Rome’s ascension to the pinnacle of power throughout the western world an unprecedented period of freedom of movement ensued, insured by Rome’s Legions and her roads, ushering in a golden age for those subjects of the empire in good standing. Upon the United States’ ascension to the pinnacle of power throughout the world an unprecedented period of freedom of movement ensued, courtesy of the U.S. Navy ensuring largely peaceful navigation of the world’s oceans.
In Rome, in the early first century BC, Romans guarded their citizenship jealously and bestowed it on grudgingly only upon certain prominent men of the Provinces. While
22 Rome had subjugated the entire Mediterranean Basin’s population, the citizenship of Rome was for Romans only and only Romans had say in the way the world was ruled with their votes in the Assemblies. In addition citizens had the right of appeal to the consul in capital cases and had the right to lodge a last will and testament with the Vestal Virgins at the Forum Romanum. The allied communities of Italy were required by treaty to provide soldiers for Rome’s armies for centuries. These allied communities constantly agitated for the same rights as Romans of Rome since they had contributed in a very real and substantial way to Rome’s success. Following the assassination of a leading Roman and advocate for the enfranchisement of the Italian communities, war broke out. The so called “Social War” between Rome with a very few loyal Italian allies and the rest of the Italian states was fought in two theaters, north and south and brought suffering to all of the people of Italy. After two years of bloody, destructive war the allies were granted the citizenship and with that the reason for fighting was gone for all but the most implacable enemies of Rome. For years to come the laws regarding voting rights of the new citizens were skewed against them sparking periodic political and civil unrest. In America in the 1860’s War Between the States raged destroying vast amounts of property and costing millions of lives. Until that point in the American South, Black Africans and their descendants were held as property, worked as slaves, and denied the rights of citizens of the United States despite their centuries of contribution to America’s success. The South was vanquished by the anti slavery forces of the North and the slaves were freed yet they would endure a century of efforts to limit their voting and civil rights, sparking periodic political and civil unrest.
In Rome following approximately 50 years of unprecedented economic growth and undisputed world domination the mechanism of the state came to be corrupted. Massive wealth was concentrated in the hands of capitalists who bought the favors of the ruling oligarchy and thereby influenced the working of government for their own benefit. This caused the government to make laws to increase its own power and that of its benefactors at the expense of the people. In this way the financiers and politicians further consolidated their hold on power and control of the country’s resources resulting in the collapse of the Roman Republic and the death of liberty in Rome. In America…
The Roman Legions: Soldiers Building or Builders Soldiering?
By Philip Katz To most people the mere mention of the Roman Legion conjures images of massive armies overwhelming their hapless enemies and leaving only scorched earth and dead bodies in their wake. There is no doubt about the Legion’s martial effectiveness but there is much more to the story of the Roman army than workman like butchery. Rome’s armies had begun under the kings as a citizen army. The male citizens of Rome were required to serve in the legions in times of national crisis. Naturally the men brought with them the skills from civilian life. The Romans being supremely practical and organized brought these added skills to the art of warfare making them supreme on the field of battle and in the Mediterranean world for over two thousand years. First of all the Roman legionary was the most well rested soldier of the ancient world. When on the march the army, no matter how big (40,000 was the biggest army the Romans felt they could field effectively through the late Republic) slept inside a fortified marching camp, with ditches, palisade walls (Made from wooden poles, carried individually by the men and reused each night.) and four gates, which was built every night at the end of the day’s march and taken down each morning. The Romans far flung empire dictated the need for effective deployment of large numbers of men and materiel in a timely manner and that they arrive at their destination in good shape, hence the Roman roads. Thousands of miles of paved roads were built by? You guessed it, the legions. Very often the Roman’s feats of engineering were enough to cow an enemy and thereby they could defeat an enemy without bloodshed. There are many reasons for military operations including securing and stabilizing one’s frontiers. During the time of Julius Caesar the main threat to Rome was from instability caused by German incursions across the Rhine River into Gaul. The German tribe’s martial prowess was well established at that time and it was up to Caesar to ensure that they not threaten Rome herself, as they had a mere fifty years before. From “The Gallic War” by Julius Caesar: “…Caesar had determined to cross the Rhine: but as far as crossing by boat was concerned, he judged that it was not sufficiently safe, and he was not convinced that such a method of crossing was in accord with either his own dignity or that of the Roman people. So despite the extreme difficulty of the task of constructing a bridge which lay before him (because the river was so broad swift and deep) nonetheless he concluded that he must attempt a crossing by bridge or not take his army across at all….Within ten days of the materials being gathered together the entire structure was completed and the army transported across…(the Germans)…had been making ready for flight ever since the construction of the bridge began; now they departed from their own land, carried off all their property, and hid themselves in the isolated parts of the forest.
24 Caesar lingered a few days in their territory, set fire to all their settlements and buildings, and cut down the corn…So after spending a total of eighteen days on the other side of the Rhine he judged that he had achieved enough in terms of both honor and advantage, returned to Gaul and tore down the bridge.”-Caesar. From the banks of the Rhine River to the heights of Masada, Rome’s builders proved that none were beyond Rome’s reach and more specifically the legendary Tenth Legion.
Why Assassinate Caesar?
By Philip Katz Caesar’s great accomplishments during his governorship of the Roman Gallic Province(Southern France) and Illyria(Balkans) were unmatched, even by his friend and fellow Triumvir, Pompey the Great. Caesar had amassed unprecedented honors and added all of Western Europe to Rome’s growing Empire. His achievements in politics, oratory, literature, the law and in war brought immense power and wealth to an adept political operator and statesman. In a society where republican government was cherished and regal ambition violently opposed, it was easy to brand a man such as Caesar as tyrant and of having aspirations of kingship, by his political enemies. As had been demonstrated time and time again, nothing was impossible in Roman politics. An innocent man, a hero in fact, could be exiled from his country by his political enemies on trumped up charges of extortion or bribery. Camillus, second founder of Rome and the conqueror of the invading Gauls was exiled, and Caesar, nephew of the third founder of Rome Gaius Marius conqueror of the invading Germans himself declared an enemy of the state and hunted down like a criminal, was not going to let that happen to him. Caesar, his officers and his legions, numbering about 40,000 over a nine year period succeeded in subduing and pacifying all of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) at one point defeating the combined armies of all the Gallic nations under the great Gallic General and Statesman Vercingetorix, believed to number in excess of 200,000 well equipped infantry and heavy cavalry. In Gaul Caesar rewarded his friends and allies with positions of trust within the native Gallic tribes, installing regimes favorable to Rome. These client kings brought with them the client ship of their entire nation. No Roman had ever had that kind of political influence both at home and abroad with one notable exception, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Pompey the Great. Pompey was one of the Triumvirs (“Three Men” Caesar, Pompey and Crassus) that held immense power within Rome and her electorate. Indeed Caesar continuously rewrote the book on Roman politics and foreign policy long after Pompey’s best days had passed. Caesar was the junior member of the Triumvirate and was the political glue that held the volatile group together. He delivered the “Goods” so to speak, ultimately collecting a five year governorship of Roman Gaul and Illyria as his cut. In exchange for this unusual but not unheard of command (The dictator Sulla governed Rome’s Cilician Province for five years early in his career to contain the Pontic King Mithredates) Caesar had Pompey’s veteran colonies
26 established and Crassus was awarded the command of an expeditionary force sent against the Parthian Empire in the East. Caesar’s governorship was extended for another five year period by law with the support of Pompey the Great. However as Pompey’s best years were behind him and Caesar seeming to have no limit to his achievements in the name of Rome, began to eclipse his old friend and fellow Triumvir. It was through Pompey’s jealousy and somewhat gullible nature that Caesar’s opponents began their campaign against him by swaying Pompey’s feelings. The final break between them came upon the death of Caesar’s daughter Julia, the wife of Pompey, in childbirth. From this point misinformation and guile made political enemies of former friends. With Pompey’s support some in the Senate moved to have Caesar’s command ended before its legal term had expired. Caesar was ordered to lay down his command and return to Rome to face charges related to voting impropriety during his consulship some 9 years before. Caesar resisted the Senate on constitutional grounds and by citing precedent. Had Caesar retained his command for its full term he would return to Rome eligible after ten years to stand once again for the consulship making him immune to prosecution for the term of office giving Caesar time back in Rome to defend his interests properly rather than return to Rome for the first time in 9 years with no protection under the law. The course for Caesar was clear. Resist. And with one undermanned legion, the Thirteenth (unlucky number then too) Caesar took all of Italy, bloodlessly from the combined forces of the “senate” and of Pompey the Great. Still retaining the immense talent for organization that was Pompey’s hallmark, he evacuated his entire army and the Senators who wished to follow from Brundisium (Modern Brindisi) retreating East to Greece where Pompey retain immense political power and prestige. Pompey ruled the seas and had vast resources in men and materiel available to him in the East. Caesar, the conqueror of Gaul had his fanatically loyal veteran legions. Blooded and hardened by 9 years of hard fighting in hostile territory, they were unequalled in history, save for Alexander’s Army. I believe it was Caesar’s intention to reconcile with Pompey and restore the Republic under their guidance. Instead Pompey was betrayed and murdered in Egypt following Caesar’s victory at Pharsalus, Greece.
27 The war between the Pompeians and Caesar’s supporters went on for years in which the Pompeians showed their true savage nature time and time again while Caesar’s Clemency became known to all. In Spain the men in the camps of the two sides began to fraternize between battles, particularly near the river where bathing was a common practice for both sides, both being Roman. The men of both armies frequented each other’s camps freely to visit with friends and relatives. Upon hearing of this the Pompeian commander had the Caesarian soldiers arrested and executed. Caesar allowed the Pompeians safe passage back to their camp, those that wanted to go that is. Pompeian commanders taken prisoner under arms against Caesar were granted clemency and allowed to go in peace. They were rarely accorded the same treatment twice. Following Caesar’s final victory against the Pompeians at Munda, Spain, he returned to Rome instituting many massive public works projects at his own expense and prepared an expeditionary force to Parthia to recover his fellow fallen Triumvir, Marcus Crassus lost Golden Eagles. On March 15, 44 BC Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators, men who he had pardoned on the battlefield and allowed to return to Rome and assume their former places in Roman society. The Great Caesar was murdered in Pompey’s Senate House beneath the statue of his friend. In his will each and every Roman received a cash payment. Much of Caesar’s property in Rome was donated to Rome for the benefit of the people for their recreation and enjoyment. But most significant of all was that Caesar’s young nephew Gaius Octavian was posthumously adopted as Caesar’s son had inherited all that was Caesar’s in terms of wealth and the command of the loyal legions. In my humble opinion, Caesar was betrayed because he had so far out done anyone in all aspects of what it was to be a Great Roman, achieved every endeavor no matter how great, and when his political enemies tried to destroy him it was at their own peril. As a result of Caesar’s political enemies’ conspiracies to destroy him and his “rival” Pompey the Great in a destructive civil war, all of Rome lived at Caesar’s pleasure, their offices and honors granted by him and his Freedman deputies in the uncertain period following the civil war; truly an intolerable condition for Haughty Roman Nobles. In my heart I feel Caesar had committed "Suicide by Senate". Had the spineless senators failed, the Parthians Probably would have done it. His failing health and constant betrayals made life not worth living. He is quoted as saying, “Caesar has lived long enough for history and long
28 enough for Caesar.” He sent his heir Octavian then 17 away for safe keeping with the army he would inherit according to Caesar's will. It just seems like like he planned it.
Death and the After-Life in Late Republican Rome
By Philip Katz 10/31/10
Arguably the Roman Legion was the ancient world’s most efficient weapon of mass destruction for over two thousand years. Having dispatched more barbarian souls to their respective after-lives than any force on the field of battle, what did the Romans believe about the after-life? Rome developed as a multi layered strictly stratified class society, yet there were no distinctions when it came to one’s ultimate fate. Upon the death of a citizen, a coin is placed in the mouth of the deceased to pay for passage across the river Styx that divided the worlds of the living and the dead and the body is removed from within the sacred boundary of the city. It is the right of all citizens to lodge a will with the Vestal Virgins at the Regia. The Regia is the official testament repository for Rome. It is also the residence of the Pontifex Maximus, Rome’s chief priest. It is located next to the round temple of Vesta on the Via Sacra, the main street leading to the Forum. Upon removing the bodies from within the sacred boundary of the city, the site is purified. The deceased’s funeral club representative notifies the Urban Praetor or magistrate elected by the people to administrate civic business, at his tribunal on the Forum. At the Regia the representative must first make a propitious sacrifice to be settled with the club each Nundinae or market day. After some time the club’s man is then presented with the will. The Will is then executed and the deceased given their funeral. All of this having been completed the will is submitted to the Urban Praetor to close the affair. And so it went time after time through the centuries. For a common citizen, a modest libation of wine and simple offering was interred with the body, as a rudimentary memorial, provided by the deceased’s funeral club. For the wealthy, funerals included elaborate sacrifices, feasts and games, including gladiatorial combat. For illustrious family members a death mask was made from wax and displayed prominently in the family home. The wax masks of the family’s ancestors were brought out for the funeral procession, where actors were hired to play the part of the deceased at the funeral. The deceased was carried on a bier usually in a sitting position through the streets. In the late republic cremation and inhumation were practiced and varied only based on family practice. The funeral feast included the spirit of the deceased, the goddess Ceres and the living, before the deceased boards the ferry bound for the underworld.
30 There was no uniform understanding of the afterlife but the living family members did care for family burial sites and Romans celebrated the Paternalia, the festival for Rome’s ancestors, on February 13. Romans believed that the spirits of the dead could help them in life and were sacrificed to regularly. They also believed that souls denied entry to the underworld would wander for eternity. Sometimes coffin lids would be weighted or the heads of the deceased were cut off to prevent the deceased from rising! Happy Halloween!
Excerpts from Imperator
A limousine from the Ethiopian embassy rolled up the narrow streets and alleys of Rome. The car stopped as close as possible to the door of the Bibliotheca Casanatense, a centuries old public library run by the Italian government. Two body guards emerged from the passenger side and walked around the car. The bulges beneath their tailored suits betrayed the fact that they were heavily armed. One of the men opened the door, took the hand of a stunning woman and helped her out of the car. She was tall and slender, dressed in a black pinstriped business suit with her hair pulled back in a bun. Her dark skin was perfect and she was possessed of an ageless beauty. The lady was unadorned with the exception of a sculpted gold spear, tied with golden ribbons and garlands, on a gold chain around her neck and a simple iron ring on her finger. Next a large suitcase was passed out of the door of the limousine to one of the bodyguards. Last to emerge from the car was an elderly Rabbi from the Ethiopian Tribe of Israelites, the Beta Israel. He appeared to be old and frail but his eyes were bright and his gait lively. They were greeted by a small number of exited graduate students standing before the antique wood doors of the library. The party was ushered through the great room that contained the library’s vast collection. They passed four enormous globes, beneath the vaulted ceiling, on their way to an examining room where the head librarian in a white lab coat and various scientists and academics anxiously awaited the party’s arrival. “Welcome, welcome,” the head librarian greeted his guests and introduced his companions. “I am pleased to meet you. My name is Martha. I have brought you the memoir of Gauis Julius Caesar. My ancestress, Martha took an oath that she and her descendants would protect the memoir of Great Caesar for eighty generations. Ethiopia’s Jewish community, the Beta Israel, has granted us asylum and protected the manuscript for over two thousand years.” The librarian, wringing his hands excitedly, could no longer contain himself. “How extraordinary! May we see it?” Martha handed over a disc to the exited man and in moments the big screens lit up with images from the remote past.
32 “They are codices! They are books not scrolls! How extraordinary!” “You can substantiate the age?” the librarian asked. Martha produced a second disc. “On this disc you will find the results of carbon dating of the parchment and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analyses of the ink. You will note we have used multiple labs and results are indisputable.” A brash, longhaired American graduate student interrupted, “Okay, so we know they are old but can you prove its Caesar’s work?” Martha looked at the young man and he seemed to shrink under the weight of her deep black eye’s gaze. She removed the lone ring from her finger and placed it on the table. A middle-aged British academic in a tweed coat stepped up. “May I pick it up?” Martha motioned. “Please do. You will find it…” The man cut her off and continued in her stead. “It is a two thousand five hundred year old Roman Senator’s ring from the regal period. Only an old family like the Julius Caesars would have had a ring like this and as far as I know, if this is real, it is the only one in existence.” “There is another,” Martha said. “It is a copy of this original, commissioned by Augustus. It was placed by him, before Martha, Servilia and Mark Antony, inside the altar of Divas Caesar, at the Forum.” A collective gasp came from all in attendance. The archaeologists were particularly vocal and they dispatched their junior member, cell phone in hand, to begin to verify Martha’s claim. The senior curator of the Forum stepped up. “There is sonic imaging evidence to support your claim,” he said. “Then you would be the descendant of the Syrian prophetess, Martha?” a young female classical history professor asked. “Your histories are not entirely correct. My family is of Syrian and Nubian Kush descent, but you are essentially correct,” Martha answered. “How extraordinary!” the librarian exclaimed. “I’m sorry for the interruptions. We must endeavor to be more methodical. Please, Martha, do go on.” “There are ten volumes. We have made copies, but these images are of the original manuscript. It was given to the first Martha by Gaius Octavian, Rome’s Emperor
33 Augustus. I have brought the first volume for you to examine,” Martha explained as one of the bodyguards placed the suitcase on the table and opened it to reveal a nitrogen filled container. “I must insist that the original be handled as little as possible.” “I think you will find our preparations and methods are cutting edge.” The librarian began to put on gloves. “How were your people able to manage all these years?” he asked. A smile came over Martha’s face. “Great Caesar was most generous. His endowment was immeasurable.” “How extraordinary!”
The Battle with the Invading German Tribes Aquae Sextiae (Aix en Provence) 102 B.C.
On the day of my birth, a great battle took place, a battle whose outcome would determine Rome’s fate for generations. Rome would fight for her life on this day, and the veterans of this great battle would determine Rome’s course in ways no one could have predicted. The subsequent events would bring a state of affairs no less threatening to the future and existence of the Roman Republic than the German hordes were on this day. As the sun rose over the province of Gaul, its heat drove the morning mist from the low lands, heralding a new day for two great opposing armies. Amid the trumpets calling the men to muster, was the sound of almost two hundred thousand grumbling ranker soldiers, screaming centurions and cavalry calls, as the men of the two great armies readied themselves for the new day. Cavalry units swarmed about the margins of the two camps, like flocks of birds, occasionally coming into contact with each other disrupting their order and grace and replacing it, instead, with the sounds of steel and death. The enormity of the threat to Rome was laid out in its menacing martial splendor on the plain bellow the camp. The invading Germans fielded over one hundred twenty thousand warriors in a phalanx offering battle on a mile wide front. This was only part of
34 a much larger force belonging to vast migration of Germanic peoples, south to the more productive lands of Italy, from their former home in the north. Resplendent in their polished armor and tall feathered helmets the tribal armies from beyond the Rhine River presented a daunting enemy for forty thousand fit and trained Roman legionaries and allied auxiliary troops. The sun was up for some time before the German line had begun to resemble more than an unruly crowd while the Romans had completed their formation and were given the order to taunt the enemy as much as possible. Previously the Germans had annihilated every Roman army sent against them. Every Roman’s blood ran cold at the thought of their destruction at the hands of these barbarian giants from beyond the Rhine River. The great masses that covered the battlefield were now in motion to the sounds of trumpets on both sides calling the men forward to glory and promises of booty to be taken from the vanquished. The Romans staying disciplined swallowed hard before the enormous mass of raving maniacal giants, some naked, some in polished armor and beast like helmets. Upon closing some distance a centurion calls out; “who are we?” And the Legions begin to chant in one great voice “MARIUS’ MULES! MARIUS’ MULES! MARIUS’ MULES! To such a great effect it gave the German’s pause from their own primal shouting, at which time the front ranks of the Romans let loose their pila in a hail at the enemy lines taking down many of the enemy and sticking into many of the shields of the front ranks. The naked berserkers bounded about like raving animals and howled like wolves. They raged uncontrollably as they easily dodged the heavy pila and swarmed over the legionaries’ wall of shields, eyes bulging with mad fury. The much-feared berserkers were cut to pieces and thrown aside as the Romans advanced.
Destiny’s Day When the prayer was done I uncovered my head and there she was. Like a garden nymph, delicate and beautiful with shimmering golden auburn hair that had waves like the rapids of a river glistening in the sun and she had a stunning smile. I was captivated. Marius shoved me to get my attention. “Lucius Cornelius Cinna, this is Aureilia’s son Gaius Julius Caesar the younger.”
35 “So you are Aurelia’s son. Well, that makes sense considering I see you at the Forum quite often,” Cinna remarked. “Yes, I’ve seen you speak in the courts many times. Greetings, Lucius Cornelius Cinna,” I said. “This is my daughter Cornelia or as we call her Cinnilla.” Cinnilla. Even her name was beautiful. “Would you please show Cornelia around the estate while we discuss business?” Marius said to me. “Yes, of course.” Cinnilla and I made our way outside to the garden, then the orchard, and on and on talking about everything and nothing at all. I picked wildflowers for her and she made crowns of flowers for us to wear. I brought her to a spot where raspberries were growing wild and the bushes were laden with berries red, ripe and sweet. We walked to the pasture where this year’s foals and brood mares munched the green grass contently. Cinnilla had a big smile that lit up her eyes. “They’re so beautiful can we pet them?” she asked. “If we’re careful,” I said. With that we walked out to the heard and quickly attracted the attention of the smallest filly that made her way over to us. Then a curious colt made his way over to us and somewhat aggressively sniffed and snorted at Cinnilla. I could see she was a little scared so I walked over and shooed the colt away as the trusted filly walked behind me and kicked me straight in the ass. The pain was immediate but being familiar with horses, I knew one must always be calm. So I grimaced and moved out of range of the filly’s kicks. Cinnilla couldn’t decide if she wanted to laugh or show concern. “By the gods, Caesar, are you alright?” she asked with the cutest laugh. Once the pain subsided I answered her. “I’m fine. Its good thing they don’t have shoes on,” I said, rubbing my backside to Cinnilla’s giggles. As the sun began to sink low in the sky over the pasture, she said to me with a concerned look. “It’s getting late we have to get back to the villa.” I remember thinking that the last thing I wanted was for our walk to end. “Father will be worried,” she explained as she took my hand and led me back. Before we entered the gate to the villa she stopped me. “Do you like me, Gaius Julius?” “Yes, very much,” I said.
36 “Do you think I’m pretty?” she asked, looking down and side-to-side, then into my eyes. I looked into her brown eyes and told her, “I think you’re beautiful, Cinnilla.”
Appendix from Imperator
Aedile: Elected magistrate whose term of office was one year. Not part of the cursus honorum. Four aediles, two curule, two plebeian, were in charge of the maintenance of public buildings, sponsored games and feasts and the nona or grain dole.
Arpinum: Modern day Arpino, Arpinum is a town approximately 50 miles east of Rome in the foothills of the Apennines. In Caesar’s time its people had Roman citizenship. Gaius Marius was born within its territory in a village named Cereatae and Cicero was born in a villa 1 mile north of the town.
Assemblies: There were four popular assemblies or comitia and all male citizens were eligible to vote in them with the exception of the Plebeian Assembly in which patricians were excluded. They met outdoors at the Forum or at the Saepta on Mar’s field. After 136bc voting was by secret ballot. Citizens voted in groups (curiae, centuries or tribes) where votes were only counted till a simple majority was achieved. Hence the groups that voted at the end rarely had their ballots cast. Assemblies met to vote on resolutions put before them by magistrates, tribunes or the Senate or to elect magistrates.
Auger: Priests of the state religion. They were second in rank to the Pontifices and were responsible for divining signs form the gods based originally on the motions of flying birds and later encompassed more forms of divination. In the time of Caesar there were 15 and 16 when Caesar became Pontifex Maximus.
Bellona: Rome’s goddess of war. Her main temple was on the Campus Martius near the altar of Mars. It was used for meetings of the Senate when meeting the purpose of; war, meetings with foreign sovereigns or meeting with a general petitioning for a Triumph.
Berserker: A Norse form of light infantry where the warrior took on the character of a wild animal such as a wolf or tiger and fought in a wild rage.
Book Bucket: A leather bucket shaped container with a lid for the storage of scrolls.
Bona Dea: Also known as the Great Goddess had a feminine cult in Rome whose rites were secret and prohibited for men to know of. It is believed the Bona Dea was associated with re-birth with respect to the annual growing cycle. The cult of the Bona Dea was an important part of Rome’s religion. The annual rites of the Bona Dea were hosted by prominent matrons in Roman society and were held, on a grand scale, completely secret from men.
Campus Martius: Mars’ Field in English. was a large tract of undeveloped land north of the city proper. It was used for military purposes such as, recruiting, training and Armies waiting to Triumph camped there. There was voting at the Saepta and the space was also used for sports, festivals and other public uses.
Capitoline Hill: Sacred hill within the Pomerium. It was home to the Great Temple of Jupiter and a large building that housed public records called the Tabularium. The Capitoline hill was fortified for use as a Citadel, to preserve the cities sacred texts and holy utensils and to resist invaders, should the city have been sacked by a foreign power as it was in 395 BC, by the Gauls.
Carcer: Located near the Curia Hostilia on the Capitoline Hill, was what could be called Rome’s only prison although it was rarely used to hold prisoners as the Romans did not use “incarceration” as punishment, instead those convicted of crimes were normally subject to fines, public beatings, exile and execution. It was the headquarters of the Lictors and the lower level is known as the Tullianum, a dungeon like chamber carved from the native rock that was used as Rome’s execution chamber in-which the condemned were strangled to death.
39 Carthage: A city in modern Tunis in North Africa. It was home to the largest and most powerful empire in the western Mediterranean in the third century BC. They engaged in a series of three Wars with Rome called the Punic for the Latin word for Carthage, Punis. The Punic wars ended with Rome’s complete destruction of Carthage in the second century BC.
Censor: Term of office was eighteen months. Office was filled every five years by two censors. Not part of the cursus honorum. Only those who had held the office of consul were eligible to hold the censorship. The censors let contracts for the collection of taxes in the provinces, public works projects, counted the population and put citizens in to the appropriate class based on wealth (There were five classes of citizens, from senatorial to headcount.) and kept the Senate’s rolls with the power to expel unqualified senators.
Centurion: Analogous to modern USA Sergeant. There was one centurion commanding a century. Therefore there were 60 centurions per legion. The centurions were promoted from the ranks of the infantry and were the professional commanders of the legion bellow the Legati or Legates, senators assigned to command the army and the tribunes, young nobleman fulfilling their required military service.
Century: Centuriate Assembly one of 373 voting units.
Century: Roman army a unit of 80 men
Clivus: Street on an incline.
Cohort: One of ten heavy infantry units in a legion. At full strength there are 480 heavy infantrymen in a cohort except for the 1st cohort of a legion which is double strength.
Collegia: Collegia were primarily trade guilds or other popular organizations including religious groups and burial clubs.
40 Comitia Centuriata: The Comitia Centuriata aka Centuriate assembly was convened by a Magistrate with Imperium and met on the Campus Martius as it was originally an assembly of the army. They voted in “Centuries”, groups based on wealth, at the Saepta, a large portico. During Rome’s early regal period through the late republic the army was made up of private citizens who were responsible for equipping themselves. The wealthy who could afford the horses and the equipment required to serve in the cavalry were called equestrians or knights. The less wealthy men were in the heavy infantry and those with less money fought as light infantry then non combatant support if one was poor. These army units based on wealth became the basis of the “Centuries”, 373 in total with the first 18 being reserved for wealthy “Knights” aka “Equestrians”. The Centuriate Assembly was a court of law deciding on criminal and capital cases and was also a legislative body that voted on laws promulgated by Magistrates.
Comitia Curiata: The oldest of the assemblies had no legislative powers and by the late Republic was largely ceremonial. It was divided into curiae or wards. There were ten curiae in each of the three original tribes (Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres). The last official function was conferring Imperium on consuls and praetors before embarking for their province.
Comitia Tributa: The Comitia Tributa aka the Tribal Assembly met at the Forum could be convened by a consul, praetor or tribune. There were thirty five tribes based on location of residence. It could, vote on bills put before it by a magistrate, elect non curule magistrates and was a court of appeals in non capital crimes.
Comitium: or well of the Comitium was a meeting place on the Forum Romanum next to the Senate House. The people were addressed from the Rostra during debates, political rallies and meetings of the Tribal and Plebeian Assemblies.
Concilium Plebis: The Concilium Plebis aka Plebeian Assembly was made up of only Plebeians who voted in their thirty five tribes and elected tribunes and plebeian aediles. It was a legislative assembly and its laws aka plebiscites, were binding on all citizens.
Consul: An elected magistrate whose term of office was one year. The consulship was the top rung of the cursus honorum or traditional ascent of power in the Senate. The
41 minimum age was 42. Two consuls were curule magistrates meaning they sat on a curule chair a symbol of their office and they could also hold Imperium. They were the chief magistrates of the Roman Senate, elected by the comitia centuriata or centuriate assembly. Consuls convened and presided over the senate and assemblies excluding the plebeian assembly. There was a senior consul based on the popular vote. The consul could promulgate legislation, and command Rome’s armies.
Contubernium: In the Roman army a unit of 8 men.
Contio: A Contio was a public meeting, usually held in the Forum Romanum, at which advocates of legislation or candidates for office would address the people from the Rostra.
Cuirass: Solid plate armor worn, by officers in the Roman military, over the torso.
Curia Hostilia: Senate House located at the Forum Romanum named for its builder king Tullus Hostilius in the mid 7th Century BC.
Cursus Honorum: Literally, the course of honor, it was the political career path of a Roman of the Senatorial class.
Dictator: Literally master of the infantry, the office of Dictator was not part of the normal functioning of government, rather was only instituted in time of great danger to the state, such as foreign invasion or internal strife. The dictator was appointed by the senior consul at the request of the senate and the term was for six months. The dictator could not be prosecuted for any actions taken by him during his term. The office had fallen out of use by the first century BC.
Divas: God, Divine.
42 Equestrians: Or Knights were Rome’s middle class. In Caesar’s time the struggle between the Senatorial Class and the Equestrians contributed to the fall of the Republic.
Falernian wine: Wine with a very high alcohol content made from grapes grown in the area of Pompeii.
Fasces: The Fasces was a bundle of wood rods that was bound by ribbons. They represent Roman civil power and are carried by Lictors aka ceremonial body guards when escorting the consul or dictator. An axe was inserted when outside the Pomerium.
Flamen: Priest of a particular deity or cult.
Fortuna: The Roman goddess Fortuna has many aspects in Roman religion, but is mainly associated with good luck.
Forum Romanum: Upon Rome’s incorporation in 753 BC the council members from the different communities that made up the city, met at a specially designated area that is located at the base of the Palatine Hill and the sacred Capitoline Hill. This meeting place came to be known as the Forum Romanum or Roman Forum or simply the Forum. A special drain was installed to dry out the normally marshy field for the purpose of these meetings. In the Late Republic (1st century BC) the Forum Romanum remained an open space in the heart of the City where the people could gather and was the center of Rome’s political and economic activities.
Gallic Heavy Horse: The premier mounted fighting unit in Europe in the second and first centuries BC. Their origin was the region of Europe known as Gaul and Galatia in modern day France, Belgium and Eastern Europe excluding Switzerland and Germany. It is reasonable to assume that the Gallic Cavalry units were mounted on horses bred in Cappadocia, in modern-day Turkey. In the first century BC, Rome did not field cavalry in any significant numbers and were used primarily as scouts. The Romans utilized the services Mercenary units of Gallic Heavy Horse with Roman officers in command.
43 Gladius: The Spanish short sword. The principle weapon of the Roman army, it was a double edged stabbing sword with a very sharp point, meant for piercing armor. It was used with the Scutum or shield in a line formation.
Hannibal: General who led Carthage against Rome in the second Punic War.
Head Count: The lowest of the 5 classes of Roman citizens based on wealth as determined by the Censors.
Imperium: Imperium was the power invested in Consuls and Praetors, to command armies and govern provinces. Imperium was represented by a red ribbon tied around the Imperium holder’s cuirass (Solid plate armor worn over the torso). Imperium exists only outside the Pomerium or sacred border of the city. Imperium was conferred by the Comitia Curiata, the oldest of the four Popular Assemblies.
Jugurtha King of Numidia: Jugurtha assassinated his half brother, while he was in Rome, in order to usurp sole control of the North African country of Numidia, in modernday Libya. As a result Rome fought a long war, against Jugurtha, after the murder of his co-ruler, as confirmed by the Senate and people of Rome. As a young man Jugurtha commanded a Numidian cavalry unit in the Roman army at the siege of Numantia in Spain at the same time Gaius Marius served.
Jupiter Optimus Maximus: The supreme god of Rome’s pantheon. Jupiter was the god of the Roman social order. Julius Caesar held the post of Flamen Dialis or Priest of Jupiter.
Kush: An ancient empire in, Nubia, modern day Ethiopia and Sudan.
Lares: Rome’s old gods. They were forces rather than personifications.
44 Legate: A senator appointed by the senate to serve as a senior officer in the Roman army. Legates commanded legions and entire armies on behalf of their commanding general.
Legion: The basic building block of a Roman army. In the time of Caesar the legion consisted of approximately 5,000 heavy infantrymen divided up into 10 cohorts.
Lictors: Lictors were ceremonial body guards and constables that attended magistrates in public and private. Different numbers of Lictors attended the different magistrates. They also carried the Fasces on their left shoulder. They preceded the magistrate when walking in public and stood at his side when the magistrate addressed the people. They were dressed in crimson tunics with wide black belts and their headquarters was on the Arx of the Capitol near the Carcer.
Marching Camp: When on the move the Roman army always took the time to build a fortified camp consisting of a ditch and palisade walls in which to spend the night.
Mars: Rome’s god of war.
Mars Field: Campus Martius in Latin was a large tract of undeveloped land north of the city proper. It was used for military purposes such as, recruiting, training and armies waiting to Triumph camped there. There was voting at the Saepta and the space was also used for sports, festivals and other public uses.
Mars: Rome’s god of war.
Master of the Horse: Literally the master of the cavalry, the office of the Master of the Horse was the deputy to the Dictator and thus only created with the Dictatorship.
45 Mithredates: In Caesar’s time Mithredates VI Eupator the Great was the king of Pontus, an independent kingdom north of the Roman’s Asia Minor Province in Modern day Turkey.
Numa Pompilius: Second king of Rome was from the people known as Sabines who were close neighbors of the Romans and were incorporated into Rome in the time of the kings. He is credited with melding the rites and ceremonies of the founding Tribes, that incorporated to form the City of Rome, into one unified if complex state religion. It is believed that he founded the priestly colleges and erected temples and public buildings dedicated to the state religion.
Numidia: A client kingdom of Rome located in modern day Libya.
Ostia: Rome’s port city.
Palatine Hill: The First of Rome’s Settlements and home to Romulus whose house was preserved in Caesar’s time and it was the home of the wealthiest of Romans.
Patricians: In Caesar’s time they were descendants of Rome’s original ruling class. The original Senators, their families and descendants formed an exclusive group within Roman society known as Patricians. The name is derived from the word pater or father. These Patricians were entitled to hold public office and priesthoods from which the common folk, known as the Plebeians or Plebs were excluded no matter how much wealth they might accumulate.
Pilum: Roman javelin used on masse by the legions before actual contact with the enemy line. It had a heavy wood shaft approximately 5 feet long connected to a long steel shaft to a steel point. The pilum was designed to stick into the enemy shield making it useless for defense. Gaius Marius modified the pilum by exchanging of the two steel pins that connected the wood with the steel shaft with a wood pin that would break upon contact with the enemy of the ground if the legionary missed. This made it impossible for the enemy to throw it back
46 Plebeians (Plebs): Rome’s common folk. In the early Republic the Plebs were excluded from holding public office, priesthoods of to intermarry with Patricians. By Caesar’s time all of these restrictions were lifted and so called “Noble Plebeian” families were on an equal footing with the Patricians.
Plebiscite: A law passed by resolution of the Concilium Plebis or People’s Assembly.
Pontus: A country on the Southern Shore of the Black Sea in modern day Turkey. At the time of the Late Republic it was ruled as an independent Hellenistic monarchy.
Praetor: Term of office was one year. Part of the cursus honorum. The eight praetors, curule magistrates, were responsible for the administration of the city of Rome. They acted as judges in law courts and dealt with issues between Romans and foreigners.
Pomerium: Sacred boundary of the city. The first boundary stones marking the Pomerium were set down by Romulus. It changed many times over the centuries and was at least partly fortified with a defensive wall.
Pontifex: Rome’s highest ranking priests, responsible for the state religion. In Caesar’s time the number of Pontifices was 15 and when Caesar became Pontifex Maximus the number was changed to 16.
Pontifex Maximus: Rome’s Chief Priest. In Caesar’s time it was an elected office. This priesthood was held for life. Caesar was elected to the office. He was said to have told his mother upon leaving his home in the morning on election-day; Mother, I will return Pontifex Maximus or I will not return at all.
Pteruges: A skirt of thick leather straps used as a part of the Roman soldiers’ armor worn below the cuirass.
47 Quaestor: Term of office was one year. Part of the cursus honorum. Minimum age was 30 years. Twenty quaestors maintain public records, administered the treasury and served in the provinces assisting the provincial governor. The office entitled the holder to membership in the Senate.
Regia: Public building located at the Forum Romanum along the Sacred Way or Sacra Via. It was the home of the priestly colleges, the residence of the Pontifex Maximus. The many state religious records were stored at the Regia including the last will and testament of all Citizens of Rome who cared to lodge one. The second king of Rome Numa Pompilius is credited with building the Regia.
Rex Sacrorum: Literally the “King of Sacred Things”. Following the expulsion of Rome’s kings in, 510 BC, the office of Rex Sacrorum was created to take the place of the king in religious and state ceremonies. The office was held for life by a patrician whose parents were married in the Confarreatio ceremony. His wife was also responsible for religious duties as the Regina.
Romulus: Elected first king of Rome by the Senate. Romulus was descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus and Anchises. Legend says that Romulus and his brother were heirs to the throne of Alba Long and were set adrift on the Tibur River in an effort to kill the infants by the usurper of their throne. They were sustained by a she-wolf till they were rescued by a shepherd. As king Romulus established the Pomerium or boundary of the city and he swelled the population of Rome by inviting all the displaced peoples of Italy to become Romans, to man her armies and build their city, very similar to the early United States. The Roman god Quirinus is the Deified Romulus, known as the god of the Roman people.
Rostra: Name of the Speaker’s platform located in the Forum Romanum in front of the Senate House from which the people of Rome were addressed by Magistrates, Senators and Candidates for office. The name is derived from the Latin word Rostra meaning beak or prow of a warship. Originally called a tribunal, the name was changed in the third century BC following a major naval victory against Carthage when the prows of captured warships were put on permanent display on the speaker’s platform.
48 Sagum: A hooded soldier’s cloak. Brown or beige it was made from canvass impregnated with oil to make it water and wind resistant.
Saepta: Located on the Campus Martius it was a large portico where voting was held among other functions.
Scorpion: Ancient Roman artillery piece that shot large arrow shaped “Bolts” with great force and accuracy.
Scutum: A large curved plywood shield used by the legions. It had a large metal boss that protruded from the front making the shield a formidable shoving device and obstacle for the enemy.
Senate: The Senate membership was originally 100 then 300 and in 80bc became 600. It was populated by magistrates and former magistrates who were members for life, unless expelled by the censors for misconduct or failing to maintain the prescribed property requirement. Senators could not engage in common business and could only make money from rents. The Senate was an advisory body with no legislative powers, yet senators were responsible for foreign policy, acting as judges and jurors, overseeing public works and festivals and prosecuting wars. Provincial governors were appointed from the ranks of former praetors and consuls and given the titles of propraetor and proconsul respectively. Normally the Senate met in the Curia Hostilia (Senate house) or the Temple of Bellona when war was being discussed or if they had to meet outside the Pomerium (sacred boundary of the city).
Subura: A poor slum and commercial district of Rome. It is located in the low area between the Forum Romanum, Rome’s Political Center, and the Viminal hill.
Tarpeian Rock: A precipice extending from the Capitoline Hill above the Velabrum. Citizens charged and convicted of capital crimes were compelled to jump to their death or were cast from the rock by the lictors.
49 Tribune of the Plebs: An elected magistracy whose term of office was one year. Not part of the cursus honorum. Ten Tribunes protected the interests of the people against the power of the Senate. The Tribune could veto any action within Rome. They could convene the plebeian assembly and promulgate legislation. The election to the office entitled the holder to membership in the Senate.
Tullianum: A dungeon like chamber carved from the native rock of the Capitoline Hill that was used as Rome’s execution chamber in which the condemned were strangled to death.
Vesta: The ancient Roman goddess of the hearth flame. One of Rome’s earliest deities before the founding of the city families sacrificed at home around an altar with flame dedicated to the goddess. There is a temple dedicated to vest containing an altar with Rome’s hearth flame. The flame was tended by the Vestal Virgins. The Vestals were a sisterhood of six virgins serving a term of thirty years and were paid from the public treasury. The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, is attributed with the founding of the college of Vestal Virgins and with building the temple.
Velabrum: A strip of low lying land within the Pomerium, between the Forum the Tibur River, from east to west and the Capitoline and Palatine Hills north to south. The Ruminalis Fig Tree that grew in the place where the she wolf suckled the infant Romulus, founder of the city and his brother Remus, was located there.
Roman Republican Government
Appendix from Imperator
Imperium: Imperium was the power invested in Consuls and Praetors, to command armies and govern provinces. Imperium was represented by a red ribbon tied around the Imperium holder’s cuirass. Imperium exists only outside the Pomerium or sacred border of the city. Imperium was conferred by the Comitia Curiata, the oldest of the four Popular Assemblies. Fasces: The Fasces was a bundle of wood rods that was bound by ribbons. They represent Roman civil power and were carried by Lictors, ceremonial body guards, when escorting the consul or dictator. An axe was inserted when outside the Pomerium. Lictors: Lictors were ceremonial body guards and constables that attended magistrates in public and private. Different numbers of Lictors attended the different magistrates. They also carried the Fasces on their left shoulder. They preceded the magistrate when walking in public and stood at his side when the magistrate addressed the people. They were dressed in crimson tunics with wide black belts and their headquarters was on the Arx of the Capitol near the Carcer. Cursus Honorum: Cursus Honorum was literally course of honor or the political career path of a Roman of the Senatorial class. Magistrates Dictator: Literally master of the infantry, the office of Dictator was not part of the normal functioning of government, rather was only instituted in time of great danger to the state, such as foreign invasion or internal strife. The dictator was appointed by the senior consul at the request of the senate and the term was for six months. The dictator could not be prosecuted for any actions taken by him during his term. The office had fallen out of use by the first century BC.
51 Master of the Horse: Literally the master of the cavalry, the office of the Master of the Horse was the deputy to the Dictator and thus only created with the Dictatorship. Censor: Term of office was eighteen months. Office was filled every five years by two censors. Not part of the cursus honorum. Only those who had held the office of consul were eligible to hold the censorship. The censors let contracts for the collection of taxes in the provinces, public works projects, counted the population and put citizens in to the appropriate class based on wealth (There were five classes of citizens, from senatorial to headcount.) and kept the Senate’s rolls with the power to expel unqualified senators. Consul: Term of office was one year. The consulship was the top rung of the cursus honorum or traditional ascent of power in the Senate. The minimum age was 42. Two consuls were curule magistrates meaning they sat on a curule chair, a symbol of their office and they could also hold Imperium. They were the chief magistrates of the Roman Senate, elected by the comitia centuriata or centuriate assembly. Consuls convened and presided over the senate and assemblies excluding the plebeian assembly. There was a senior consul based on the popular vote. The consul could promulgate legislation, and command Rome’s armies. Praetor: Term of office was one year. Part of the cursus honorum. The eight praetors, curule magistrates, were responsible for the administration of the city of Rome. They acted as judges in law courts and dealt with issues between Romans and foreigners. Aedile: Term of office was one year. Not part of the cursus honorum. Four aediles, two curule, two plebeian, were in charge of the maintenance of public buildings, sponsored games and feasts and the nona or grain dole. Quaestor: Term of office was one year. Part of the cursus honorum. Minimum age was 30 years. Twenty quaestors maintain public records, administered the treasury and served in the provinces assisting the provincial governor. The office entitled the holder to membership in the Senate. Tribune of the Plebeians:
52 Term of office was one year. Not part of the cursus honorum. Ten Tribunes protected the interests of the people against the power of the Senate. The Tribune could veto any action within Rome. They could convene the plebeian assembly and promulgate legislation. The election to office entitled the holder to membership in the Senate. Rome’s Governing Bodies The Senate: The Senate was Rome’s governing council. Its membership was 100 then 300 and in 80bc was 600. It was populated by magistrates and former magistrates who were members for life, unless expelled by the censors for misconduct. Senators could not engage in common business and could only make money from rents. The Senate was an advisory body with no legislative powers, yet senators were responsible for foreign policy, acting as judges and jurors, overseeing public works and festivals and prosecuting wars. Provincial governors were appointed from the ranks of former praetors and consuls and given the titles of propraetor and proconsul respectively. Normally the Senate met in the Curia Hostilia (Senate house) or the temple of Bellona when war was being discussed or if they had to meet outside the Pomerium (sacred boundary of the city). Assemblies: There were four popular assemblies or comitia and all male citizens were eligible to vote in them with the exception of the Plebeian Assembly in which patricians were excluded. They met outdoors at the Forum or at the Saepta on Mar’s field. After 136bc voting was by secret ballot. Citizens voted in groups (curiae, centuries or tribes) where votes were only counted till a simple majority was achieved. Hence the groups that voted at the end rarely had their ballots cast. Assemblies met to vote on resolutions put before them by magistrates, tribunes or the Senate or to elect magistrates. Comitia Curiata The oldest of the assemblies had no legislative powers and by the late Republic was largely ceremonial. It was divided into curiae or wards. There were ten curiae in each of the three original tribes (Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres). The last official function was conferring Imperium on consuls and praetors before embarking for their province. Comitia Centuriata The Comitia Centuriata aka Centuriate assembly was originally an assembly of the army. During Rome’s early regal period through the late republic the army was made up of private citizens who were responsible for equipping themselves. The wealthy who could afford the horses and the equipment required to serve in the cavalry and were
53 called equestrians or knights. The less wealthy men were in the heavy infantry or those with less money were light infantry. The voting in the Centuriate Assembly took place at the Saepta on Mar’s Field and was divided into three hundred seventy three centuries. The first eighteen centuries to vote were equestrians followed by those of descending wealth. The centuriate assembly elected the Curule Magistrates and was a court of appeals for crimes involving the death sentence. Comitia Tributa The Comitia Tributa aka the Tribal Assembly met at the Forum could be convened by a consul, praetor or tribune. There were thirty five tribes based on location of residence. It could, vote on bills put before it by a magistrate, elect non curule magistrates and was a court of appeals in non capital crimes. Concilium Plebis The Concilium Plebis aka Plebeian Assembly was made up of only Plebeians who voted in their thirty five tribes and elected tribunes and plebeian aediles. It was a legislative assembly and its laws aka plebiscites, were binding on all citizens.
Source Materials - Hardcopy
Appendix from Imperator
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56 Meier, Christian. Caesar. A Biography. Trans. David McLintock. New York: Basic Books, 1982. Mommsen, Theodor. The Provinces of the Roman Empire. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1996. Morey, William C. Outlines of Roman History to the Revival of the Empire by Charlemagne. New York: American Book Company, 1901. Plato. The Republic. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1999. Plutarch. Fall of the Roman Republic. Six Lives By Plutarch. Trans. Rex Warner. London: Penguin Classics, 1978. Plutarch. Plutarch’s Lives, Volume 1. Trans.: John Dryden. New York: The Modern Library, 2001. Plutarch. The Life of Alexander The Great. Trans.: John Dryden. New York: The Modern Library, 2004. Polybius. The Rise of the Roman Empire. Trans.: Ian Scott-Kilvert. London: Penguin Books, 1979.
Source Material- Electronic Library
Appendix from Imperator
Boatwright, Mary., Daniel J. Gargola, and Richard J. A. Talbert. The Romans: From Village to Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Boissier, Gaston. Cicero and His Friends: A Study of Roman Society in the Times of Caesar. Trans. Adnah David Jones. London: A.D. Innes, 1897. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Campbell, Brian, ed. Greek and Roman Military Writers: Selected Readings. London: Routledge, 2004. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Cicero. Selected Works. Trans. Michael Grant, Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1960. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Clough, Arthur Hugh, and Plutarch. Plutarch: The Lives of Noble Grecians and Romans. Trans. John Dryden. New York: Modern Library, 1932. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. “H.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Dando-Collins, Stephen. Caesar’s Legion. The Epic Saga of Julius Caesar’s Tenth Legion and the Armies of Rome. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Davis, William Stearns. A Day in Old Rome: A Picture of Roman Life. Chesire, Ct.: Biblo-Moser, 1961. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Dodge, Theodre Ayrault. Caesar, a History in the Art of War Among the Romans Down to the End of the Roman Empire, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of Caius. Julius Caesar. Vol. 1. New York: Biblio and Tannen Publishers, 1963. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Evans, Michael, and Alan Ryan, eds. The Human Face of Warfare: Killing, Fear, and Chaos in Battle. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen and Unwin, 2000. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Gabriel, Richard A. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010.
58 Gargola, Daniel J. Lands, Laws, and Gods: Magistrates & Ceremony in the Reglation of Public Lands in Republican Rome. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Gotoff, Harold C. Cicero’s Caesarian Speeches: A Stylistic Commentary. Chapel Hill, NC University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Hayes, John H., and Sara R. Mandell. The Jewish People in Classical Antiquity: From Alexander to BarKochba. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Hazel, John. Who’s Who in the Roman World. London: Routledge, 2001. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Heichelheim, Fritz M., and Cedric A. Yeo. A History of the Roman People. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice- Hall, 1962. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Hill, H. The Roman Middle Class in the Republican Period. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1952. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Holliday, Peter J. “Roman Triumphal Painting: It’s Functional, Develoment, and Reception.” The Art Bulletin 79.1(1997): 130+. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Hope, ValerieM., and Eireann Marshall, eds. Death and Disease in the Ancient City. London: Routledge, 2000. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Humez, Alexander and Nicholas Humez. AB C et Cetera: The Life and Times of the Roman Alphabet. Boston, MA: David R. Godine, 1987. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010 Hutchinson, G.O. Cicero’s Corresondence: A Literary Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Jimenez, Ramon L. Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War. Westport, CT: raeger Publishers, 2000. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Lanciani, Rodolfo. Pagan and Christian Rome. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1893. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Louis, Paul. Ancient Rome at Work: An Economic History of Rome from the Origins to the Empire. London: Keegan Paul, Trench Trubner, 1927. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. May, James M. Brill’s companion to Cicero: Oratory and Rhetoric. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2002. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. McCall, Jeremiah B. The Cavalry of the Roman Republic: Cavalry Combat and Elite Reputations in the Middle and Late Republic. New York: Routledge, 2002. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010.
59 Mourtisen, Henrik. Lebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Pangle, Thomas, L. ed. The Roots of Political Philosophy: Ten Forgotten Socratic Dialogues. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Peddie, John. The Roman War Machine. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1996. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Petersson, Torsten. Cicero: A Biography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1920. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Plato. The Republic of Plato. Trans. Francis Macdonald Cornford. London: Oxford University Press, 1945. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Robathan, Dorothy M. The Monuments of Ancient Rome. Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 1950. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Shelton, Jo-ann. As the Roman’s did: A Source Book in Roman Social History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Shuckburgh, Evelyn Shirley. A History of Rome to the Battle of Actium. New York: Macmillan, 1912. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Sihler, E G. Annals of Caesar: A Critical Biography with a Survey of the sources. New York: G.E. Stechert, 1911. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Speidel, Michael P. Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emporer’s Horse Guards. London: Batsford, 1994. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Staples, Ariadne. From Good Goddess to Vestal Virgins: Sex and Category in Roman Religion. London: Routledge, 1998. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Syme, Ronald. The Roman Revolution. London: Oxford University Press, 1960. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Walbank, Frank W., ed. Polybius, Rome, and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. Walter, Gerard. Caesar A Biograhy. Trans. Emma Craufurd. Ed. Therese Pol. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1952. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010. White, Horace. Appian’s Roman History: With an English Translation. Vol 4. London: W. Heinman, 1912. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010.
60 White, John S., ed. Plutarch’s Lives. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1966. Questia. Web. 20 Jan 2010.
“Official newspaper of the towns of Bedford and Pound Ridge”
Friends, Romans, & Countrymen By Eve Marx on Friday, April 15, 2011
So I’m sitting in the Katonah diner with Phil Katz, local carpenter and subcontractor and author of the novel, “Imperator (The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar), available now in print and Kindle. The novel, Katz’s first, is a fictional recreation of the early life of Caesar, written as a personal memoir, a telling of the inside story of Caesar’s world as seen through Caesar’s eyes. The conceit is that conceived as Caesar’s diary, the manuscript was suppressed by his successors, only to be rediscovered in modern times. “Caesar emerged from a society driven by men of enormous power and ambition to become a giant among them,” Katz said. “His intellect, energy and quest to conquer aroused jealousy and hatred among his peers.” Katz said Caesar’s war against corruption and the reigning political establishment brought him into direct conflict with Rome’s ruling class. In Katz’s story, Gaius Julius Caesar begins penning his memoirs on the heels of the Alexandrian war, spending his down time on the Nile in the company of Cleopatra. In the novel, he reflects on the halcyon days of his youth, which later gave way to smoldering hostilities between the great men of the state, inexorably followed by civil war. So how does a carpenter become a novelist, I inquired. A curious mind wants to know. “I was always fascinated with the period of Caesar,” Katz said. Although his personal life took a number of twists and turns including being involved in a wholesale beer distributorship turns, open heart surgery and raising a daughter not his own, (did I mention he has a degree in bio from Mercy College?), there was no real hint of how a 47 year old man working as a carpenter would become a published novelist. By his own admission, however, Katz has always been a self-driven scholar. “I knew that very little had been documented about Caesar’s formative years and that the extant histories were sparse,” Katz said. That left plenty of room for his own imagination to fictionally fill in the blanks.
62 A trip to Italy and specifically the Roman Forum triggered a spate of writing. Katz begins Caesar’s story in 102 B.C. “The Republic was 400 years old at this point,” he said, and the Roman Empire was at the top of its game of vassalage and world dominion. “Unrivaled communication was the undoing of the Republic itself,” Katz said. “Roughly analogous to where we’re at in our own republic.” Phil Katz said he became interested in Roman history in 1996 when he read “I Claudius.” One thing led to another. He says he was one of those nerdy Hackley students who sat around reading “Scientific American.” At Hackley, he loved writing and in his sophomore year took a class with a Mr. Russell who inveighed his students to write a classical composition every week. Mr. Katz won a prize for his. Noodling around on the internet, Katz discovered a website called scrid.com where he began posting his chapters. Incredible to me as that seemed, that’s how his publisher, Copperhill Media Corp. found him. “I was getting great feedback from other writers,” he said. “I think that’s what attracted him.” Phil Katz describes his novel as a “weekend read,” and a political thriller and adventure novel. I cracked it open at the table and immediately stumbled on a steamy scene. “It has armies and carnage and lots of civil strife,” Katz said. “I tried to set the whole flavor of the times and the location.” Calling Caesar “such a deep character,” Katz invites his readers to step back two thousand years to witness the collapse of a Republic that at one time subjugated the entire Mediterranean world, but could not govern itself. Hmmmm. Sound familiar? Katz, it should be noted, has an exciting narrative style. The words pop on the page and he keeps the story moving. As an author, he has a natural sense of plot and timing and has written snappy dialogue that stays in the vernacular of the time period. “Imperator is truly a historical novel, bursting with historically accurate details, but the story is told in such a way as to never be dry or lifeless. When he’s not busy building dream kitchens, Katz has been preparing a local publicity tour. Stay tuned for details. Meanwhile, he is accruing positive reviews on a number of literary websites. He’s also hard at work on his next novel and also a screenplay. “I’m interested in the vampire wars,” he said, warming to the subject. “My next novel will have vampires, werewolves and lots of blood. It’s harder to write than the life of Caesar because it’s completely fantasy.” He’s planning to continue posting fresh installments of this new book on scribd.com where he’s developed a steady following for his work. “Nonfiction gets the most hits on the site,” he lamented, since fiction is his forte. He kindly picked up the check for our two coffees, we shook hands, wished each other well, and as two writers, went our separate ways.
Katz writes first book
Sunday, 20 February 2011 00:00 Philip Katz, a long-time resident of South Salem, has written his first novel, Imperator — The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, a fictional memoir by Julius Caesar. It was released in hardcover by Copperhill Media Corp. in January. The novel is available online. “Caesar was by far the most dynamic figure in a turbulent time in Western history,” said Mr. Katz. “It was only natural for me to portray the collapse of the four-centuries-old Roman Republic through the eyes of Caesar. From his early childhood, he was witness in a most intimate way to the machinations of that fascinating time in Roman history, a time when the city that ruled the world could not govern itself. His life was one lived on a truly epic scale and is unparalleled to this day. Caesar’s story makes for a fascinating, fast-paced adventure.” The novel is available in the United States and abroad through Amazon.com and the Copperhill Media Web site: copperhillmedia.com.
Reviews on Amazon for IMPERATOR
To read Reviews or Order Imperator- The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar: http://www.amazon.com/Imperator-PhilipKatz/dp/0983280002/ref=cm_rna_own_review_img
A Great Read!, October 8, 2011 Amazon Verified Purchase(What's this?) This review is from: Imperator (The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar) (Kindle Edition) This is a gem of a novel. I have read a number of historical novels based on the life of Julius Caesar and his exploits and on reading this novel by Philip Katz it brought back many fond memories of those books. What made this association so remarkable was the close agreement by all these authors on the historical facts that surround this famous character in his early years. Philip Katz has done his historical research so well that this novel could easily be used as a reference text on Julius Caesar's early life. The author has managed to capture the persona of Julius Caesar in a manner that readily brings to life this famous individual to present day readers. The framework of the novel and the writing style of the author engage the reader from the start to finish and leaves the reader with a thirst for more. I hope that this novel is a first of many more to come.
Roman history as a compelling tale of one Man's life., February 20, 2011 By littlehouse writer "the littlehouse" (Los Angeles, CA) - See all my reviews This review is from: Imperator (Hardcover)
This is the most interesting book about ancient Rome that I have ever come across. The reason is that it is so accessible. The writer has obviously devoured vast amounts of Roman history, and Caesar's story specifically. His research is our gain as the book weaves a wonderful tale that once you start you cannot put down. Caesar becomes a flesh and blood person before your eyes. His courage, his organization, his far seeing political abilities all come to life on these pages. Really just a great, involving read. Highly recommended!
Imperator-Gaius Julius Caesar brought to life, February 17, 2011 By Creative - See all my reviews This review is from: Imperator (Hardcover) Philip Katz has brought the most famous of all Romans alive again with his fictional novel Imperator..Gaius Julius Caesar travels the streets of Rome as a young man..You will feel drawn into Caesar's early life as you read the pages of this well written book.. Extensive writer research is evident and makes young Caesar's early life believable..Readers feel they are reliving actual history and can hear the chariots rumble in the streets of Rome..You are quickly brought into the realm of Rome both from a political and historical standpoint. Imperator is a very well written book and is both intriguing and captivating to the reader..From start to finish Katz keeps the reader wanting to know more and more about the thoughts and actions of this famous Roman..
Having just received my copy of "Imperator" from Copperhill Media i find myself immersed in a thrilling, informative and creative writing that keeps me from putting the book down. Can't wait to read on!!
5.0 out of 5 stars Impressive Work on Julius Caesar's Life, February 15, 2011 By Wilfried F. Voss "Wilfried F. Voss - Author &... (Greenfield, Massachusetts) - See all my reviews This review is from: Imperator (Hardcover)
Author Philip Katz set out to write "Imperator" because he felt he could bring a unique layman's point of view to the subject of Gaius Julius Caesar and the fall of the Roman Republic, free from the traditional dogmatic approach taken by the academic community. In addition, he believes the tale of the fall of the Roman Republic is a timely and relevant, cautionary tale for the 21st century America. In his own words, "It is far too simplistic to attribute Caesar's vast accomplishments to ambition and lust for absolute power alone. While Caesar was referred to commonly as tyrant and was allegedly assassinated for the same reason, Caesar never altered the Republican form of government, which he is accused of destroying. Closer examination of the facts presented in the extant sources only make sense when seen in context of an extremely complex personality capable of great compassion for individuals and what was seemingly cold disregard for the lives of millions. In the pages of Imperator a character comes into focus from the extant documents of the period taking into account just how subjective these accounts were. In fact, most of the sources for the period, with the notable exception of Caesar's own writings and those of the orator Cicero, were written many years after the time of Caesar and were written by those opposed to the factions to whom Caesar belonged. The story of Caesar must be viewed within the context of the unique time in which he lived and the unique situation into which he was born." "Imperator - The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar" is a fictional recreation of the life of the greatest of all Romans. In present days' Rome, namely at the Bibliotheca Casanatense, the senior curator, accompanied by a team of scientists and students, receives the first of ten volumes representing the personal memoir of Julius Caesar, which were suppressed by Caesar's successors. The volumes were kept and protected by Ethiopa's Jewish community, the Beta Israel, for over two thousand years until a time when a publication was deemed safe. "Imperator" by Philip Katz represents this first volume, and it covers Caesar's early years, reflecting on the golden days of his childhood that quickly gave way to hostilities between the great men of the state, followed by blaze of civil war. Reading "Imperator" made me feel and live the atmosphere of ancient Rome, and understanding the Gaius Julius Caesar as Katz envisions him. Katz has invested some substantial research and passion into the subject of the otherwise sparsely recorded history of Caesar's childhood, and it reflects in the details of his writing. "Imperator" is a mustread for everybody interested in Roman history. - Wilfried F. Voss, Author of The Bleeding Hills
Reviews from other Sources
While in the process of writing Imperator-The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, I published the first draft of each chapter on Scribd.com and Facebook.com. Bellow is comments from the readers along with any biographical information provided by them. Imperator was released in hardcover in January 2011 by Copperhill Media. Thank you to all of my readers.
Laura Novak left a comment:
1)Such research and dedication to your craft. I am in awe of this work.
2) You've done so much research for such great writing. And a great Facebook page as well. Hail Philip
Bio: Career journalist-debut novelist. Bona fides include New York Times, ABC & CBS News; Graduate School of Journalist at Columbia and Barnard C... (More) Career journalist-debut novelist. Bona fides include New York Times, ABC & CBS News; Graduate School of Journalist at Columbia and Barnard College. My novel is: FINDING CLARITY - A Mom, A Dwarf and A Posh Private School in The People's Republic of Berkeley. I am now at work on the Clari Drake mystery series
The Trashy Novel Corp left a comment Always love getting back into the FRAY! Grab your Sword because here comes the Cataphractii The Trashy Novel Corp left a comment All 23 Chapters compiled into the first Volume. All for $3.00 ~ Wow. This is our pick for this weeks SUMMER BEACH BLANKET READ! Hoot! The Trashy Novel Corp replied: I'm pretty happy that it's only Volume One! This should be at least 34 Volumes. The Trashy Novel Corp left a comment
68 Who doesn't love a great ol' Ancient Etruscan Incantation! BTW Dream Sequences are radical! The Trashy Novel Corp left a comment Certified Fast Fiction! Get it here, folks! The Trashy Novel Corp left a comment I really enjoy it. Oh to stroll and scroll along with Marcus Crassus and walk through the meat market! Great Stuff. So many chapters, you've got a full fledged novel on your hands!! The Trashy Novel Corp I love this. I feel like I'm right there on the front lines as the Romans and the Barbarians square off. It's even more fun, as I'm in Italy now
Bio: I'm a Thirty-something in Los Angeles that's avoiding the typical publishing business and starting my own e-publishing house. Website: http://thetrashynovel.com Occupation: Publisher
michael carvell left a comment terrifiic terrific detailed read thanks much michael carvell left a comment great
Bio: Michael of God Jesus the holy spirit There are three books on Scribd for sale $5.00 god bless stop by check it out thanks Age: 51 Gender: Male Website: http://firstname.lastname@example.org
69 Occupation: Ministry teacher of Jesus from God for all people Father Michael of the whole human race
caliban_z left a comment interesting read, I like military history and I like the way you wrote. Definitly written in an original way. All in all a fairly good read...
betasam left a comment Thanks for the reading list, that's really nice. Like the work, as I like the Roman republican drama. Location: Thanjavur, TN, India Bio: A geek and techie who loves books and coffee. Age: 30 Gender: Male Website: http://www.sunilbetabaskar.com Occupation: Technical Consultant - System Software, Embedded Products Interests: Roman History, Alternate History, Egyptian History, Semiconductor Technology, Linux, Open Source
livearticles replied: Thanks for sharing, i love to read it.
Age: 49 Gender: Male Website: http://www.livearticles.info/
70 Occupation: SEO Professional Submissions to Best Web Directories Increase Page Rank Quality Directory submis... (More) SEO Professional Submissions to Best Web Directories Increase Page Rank Quality Directory submission
Phantomimic left a comment Attention-grabbing and very promising, when are you planning to put it all together as one book? Phantomimic left a comment Added to reading list too. Bio: Scientist turned writer Gender: Male
vikingsaga replied: Good work. Historical fiction is an astonishingly diverse genre ... Website: http://www.scribd.com/MarkCoakley Occupation: www.scribd.com/MarkCoakley
want to rhyme left a comment lol, after i only have 6 and 7 to read. But i will be suggesting this to my friends.
scribd-mania left a comment 5 stars
71 Bio: Workaholic, adventurous and fun Gender: Female
norma22a left a comment 5 Stars for you. I felt I was in the story. You developed the environment well, and have the characters and their positions down pat. I really enjoyed reading this and wish you very well with the story. Best Regards, Norma J. Alvarez Location: Oro Valley, AZ Age: 50 Gender: Female Website: http://njalvarez.com Occupation: Investor, Writer
Jim left a comment I like the first person perspective you take. Not many works on Caesar from that view. The perspective gives good visuals. Was wondering,.. you shift from old world, to new world phrases, is your intent to modernize perspective?
Jane Wyatt left a comment Great book-one of the best I have read.. Gender: Female
RandiDeen Scribbled: Very descriptive, you had me in the battle.
jwr1947 Scribbled: Thank you for a great story of the imperator (who in later years had been promoted to a divine being as well). I am particularly interested in your choice for the contrasting garments for Julius Caesar and his staff, wearing the same colors (red, blue and purple) as the former deities.
Simon Fox left a comment: Very impressive! You have certainly mastered the culture/history. Name: Simon Fox Location: Lincoln, England Bio: Freelance writer & editor. I'm happily married, so no more romantic offers, thank you! Age: 49 Gender: Male Website: http://stores.lulu.com/store.php?fAcctID=1097736 Occupation: Freelance writer & editor
Marianne Pestana You have done Amazing research on this Phil ~ please let me know when it is available as I can't wait to read it!
Brian Heffron It is a great historical novel on Caesar and his era and I recommend it to all. Brian Heffron Phil Katz, has written a riveting book about Caesar. It is almost like a sequel to the book that Caesar wrote himself. If you are a publisher or agent I strongly recommend you take a look at this work. My vision is a well illustrated book, (there is lots of battle detail that dudes love to see pictures of) that would draw Men to buy this incredible and true story. Please check out and join Phil's new site: Brian Heffron Phil has written an historically accurate novel about Caesar and his time in world history and I have made it part of my mission to bring attention to this work.
73 Why? Because I still totally thrill to the AUTHENTICITY of his creation of that era. You just get it right away that from his studies, that he knows how it really was. Bio : Producer and Director KLCS-TV/DT Broadcast PBS Station
9/18/2011 1:02 PM Patricia Scharf (Brisbane, Australia) wrote: Take a Free trip to Italy.. Via Camino " Imperator " The Best selling book by Phillip Katz . Be taken for the ride of your life into the Times of Julius Caesar Be there to meet his Family Friends and Enemys...... A memorable event .. ....... Patricia Scharf ... Brisbane Australia Patricia Scharf said: September 5th, 2011 3:10 am " Imperator "Is an exciting story written by an interesting scholar in a unique style ..for a gratefull public .Thank you Dear Phill ......Patricia Scharf Brisbane Australia Patricia Scharf .. "Imperator" Took me on a trip in Time where I met many famous characters and enjoyed a rollicking adventure ... Dear Phil you are an inspired writer Patricia xx
0 of 1 people found the following review helpful: Absolutely Horrid in Every Way, February 2, 2012 By A. Crater "Eclectic Eccentric" Amazon Verified Purchase(What's this?) This review is from:
Imperator (The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar) (Kindle Edition)
The only explanation for this "book" receiving ANY positive reviews is that those reviewers must be elementary school friends with the author. The tiny bit of Caesar's life included in this "book" is so far from historical evidence as to be ridiculous. After struggling through the atrocious grammar and spelling, one suddenly finds themselves at the end of the book. This is quite a surprise, given that this is supposed to be about the LIFE of Caesar and, when the book finally suffers its slow, painful death, our hero is approximately 16 years old. I have seen more skill in high school history reports. This is absolutely horrible. Do NOT waste your money. If you know anything at all about Julius Caesar, YOU could write a far more accurate and easy to follow account than THIS. The information given for this "book" is misleading and I, for one, would like my money back.
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About the Author
Phil Katz the Author of “Imperator” and Cody
They say it's only work if you would rather be doing something else. I hope that you see from the pages of "Imperator" that I have not spent a day in my entire life "working" on my writing. I've been a professional horseman traveling the east coast on the show circuit, thoroughbred breeding farm manager, molecular genetics and organic chemistry researcher, municipal buildings and grounds maintenance mechanic, beer wholesaler and for twenty something years a self employed carpentry contractor and project manager. Now I am the author of the historical action/adventure novel IMPERATOR- The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar. So much for my work life. I live in a house I designed, built and where I raised my daughter as a single dad. She's all grown up now with kids of her own and she shares my passion for animals, music and the great outdoors. I have eagerly pursued my hobby, absorbing all that is Late Republican Rome, including the history that made the republic what it was, for about 14 years including the 3 years I spent writing "Imperator- The Life of Julius Caesar". "Imperator" is a fictional memoir of the pivotal personality in western history without whom, the names Cleopatra and Jesus Christ would not be known. Indeed you and I and everyone we know would not exist and civilization would look significantly different. Welcome to my passion, the most
76 dynamic place and consequential period in recorded history before the 20th century, Rome first century BC. Remember that the Romans never dreamed their republic would fall, even long after their beloved democracy had long been undermined, corrupted and turned into an entity that existed for the benefit of the few at the expense of the values that made the country great. I hope you find a colorful, fragrant, passionate and gritty recreation of the remote past in the pages of "Imperator". -Philip Katz