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Earth Sc 2WW3 TEST 1 - VERSION 1 Fall 2010 October 7, 2010 Luc Bernier

Special Instructions: 1. For the Multiple Choice (MC) questions, fill the designated spaces on the scantron sheet provided. Make sure to indicate your name, your student ID number, and the Test version in the appropriate spaces. 2. Make sure to fill out on the scantron the test version you actually completed. The MC questions will not be re-graded if you completed a test version other than the one indicated on the scantron. Your mark will then stay as is. 3. Only the answers provided on your scantron will be considered for the grading of the MC questions. 4. If the test version or the student ID number is incomplete or improperly filled out on the scantron, it is impossible for the optical reading system to identify to whom the scantron belongs to, or to properly grade the test. A mark of zero will automatically occur in these instances, as these issues will not be investigated and fixed.

Each question is worth 1 mark, and there are 40 39 questions. Your test will be marked out 40 39 of and it is worth 20% of your final mark. This test contains eight pages. Duration: 50 minutes

This is Test Version 1


1. What is the most abundant and readily available source of fresh water? a) Groundwater b) Glaciers c) The Ocean d) Lakes and Rivers

2. In the Water Scarcity Index equation, the S is defined as: a) water use from groundwater b) amount of sludge in the water c) amount of dissolved solids in the water d) water use from desalinated water

3. 96% of the world's frozen freshwater is located: a) at the north and south poles b) concentrated in greenland c) in mountainous regions d) in alaska

4. Sewage is an example of water that is being returned in a different form to the environment. What is the name given to this water classification? a) Water extraction b) Water consumption c) Water withdrawal d) Water salinization

5. Where does the majority of water used by municipal water systems in Canada come from? a) groundwater b) lakes and rivers c) reservoirs d) glaciers

6. Water is a universal: a) solvent b) solute c) donor d) acceptor

7. The water molecule is composed of: a) two oxygen and one hydrogen atom b) Three oxygen atoms c) two hydrogen and one oxygen atom d) Three hydrogen atoms 2

8. The three main Greenhouse Gases are: a) Water vapour, Carbon Dioxide and Methane b) Helium, Water vapour and Nitrous oxide c) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen and Nitrous oxide d) Carbon Dioxide, Perflouroethane and Neon

9. The circulation of the atmosphere and oceans is driven by: a) equal heating of the Earth b) unequal heating of the Earth c) heating only in the equatorial region d)heating only in the polar regions

10. The largest source of condensation nuclei comes from a) sea salt b) water molecules c) carbon dioxide molecules d) dirt particles

11. A region that experiences less than 25cm of rain per year is defined as: a) semi-arid b) humid c) tropical d) arid

12. According to the movie The Future of Water: the New Uncertainty, the most vulnerable delta area in the world is: a) China b) Bangledesh c) The Gulf of Mexico coastline d) Tibet

13. If glaciers melt at an increasingly rapid pace, what are the national or international consequences? a) Greenland could export hydroelectricity b) Water scarcity will destabilize national and international political stability, particularly in the regions fed by the Indus, Ganges, Mekong, and Yangtze rivers c) Rivers fed by glaciers will overflow their banks for a brief period and then be reduced to a fraction of their former size d) all of the above

14. The first comprehensive drought index in the United States is called: a) The Palmer Index b) The Drought Index c) The Mackenzie Index d) The Aridity Index

15. Which of the following is NOT one of the causes of floods? a) Overwatering of crops b) Rain Storm c) Snowmelt d) River Ice Breakup

16. Non-point source pollutants are: a) Easier to deal with because their exact location of origin is well-known b) More difficult to deal with because their exact location of origin is unknown c) More difficult to deal with because they do not degrade easily in the environment d) Easier to deal with because they degrade easily in the environment

17. The area of a lake where the thermocline is located, is known as the: a) Epilimnion b) Hypolimnion c) Thermal Profile d) Metalimnion

18. According to the movie Water Under Fire: the St. Lawrence River, an emerging pathogen is one that: a) comes from a foreign country b) is created by humans c) goes through a species jump d) is becoming a problem due to decreasing water levels

19. Fill in the blank: the Green Revolution in Quebec has lead directly to the increase of _______ along the St. Lawrence Seaway since the 80s/90s? a) greenhouse gas emissions b) eutrophication c) organic produce d) DDT concentrations

20. The reason for the shortage of drinking water supplied Lake Tai, in China is mainly due to: a) blue-green algae b) oil and gas residues c) E. coli contamination d) mercury 4

21. Three of the major ions found in natural waters include: a) Iron, Chromium and Nickel b) Lead, Chromium and Arsenic c) Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium d) Copper, Chlorine and Iron

22. What delineates a watershed? a) Topographic highs b) Vegetation type c) Provincial/State or National boundaries d) A and C

23. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a) Loss of humus results in a consequent increase in aeration. b) Loss of humus results in a consequent gain in water infiltration. c) Gain in humus results in a consequent gain in nutrient-holding capacity d) Gain in humus results in a consequent loss in water-infiltration.

24. Which of the following terms best fits the definition Water that is held in the soil by matrix forces? a) Hydroscopic water b) Capillary water c) Gravitational water d) Mineralized water

25. What rock type has the highest porosity and permeability? a) Gravel b) Unfractured shale c) Sandstone d) Silt

26. Which statement best describes an aquitard? a) Layer of porous rock or sediment that can hold and transmit water b) Layer of non-porous rock or sediment that can hinders the movement of water c) Layer in a soil profile where the unsaturated and saturated zones meet d) None of the above

27. River discharge is calculated as: a) Discharge = Volume x Velocity b) Discharge = Area (cross-sectional) x Velocity c) Discharge = Mass x Acceleration d) Discharge = Width x Depth

28. What soil horizon contains the largest amount of humus? a) A Horizon b) B Horizon c) C Horizon d) O Horizon

29. Cones of Depression are caused due to: a) Land subsidence b) Overdrawing ground water c) Saltwater intrusions d) None of the above

30. As seen in Water under Fire: the Prairies, how did contaminants reach Bow Glacier in Banff National Park? a) Hikers left behind garbage which contaminated the ice. b) Contaminants occur naturally. c) Precipitation deposited contaminants on the glacier. d) Solar radiation contaminated the ice.

31. According to Water under Fire: the Prairies, which sector has the largest water consumption in Alberta? a) Agriculture, for irrigation. b) Industry, for oil processing. c) Municipalities, for domestic consumption. d) Exports, for bottled water sales.

32. The Ramsar Convention is a) An international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands b) An international treaty for the conservation of the world freshwater reserve c) An international treaty for the sustainable utilization of groundwater d) None of the above

33. Which continent does NOT have a major river basin? ** CANCELLED** a) Africa b) Europe c) Australia d) Every continent has a major river basin. 6

34. What province in Canada consumes the highest amount of water for domestic use, per day, and per person? a) Ontario b) Quebec c) Alberta d) British Columbia

35. What country has 3 of the top 10 largest wetlands in the world? a) Russia b) Brazil c) Canada d) China

36. The function of oceans is to: a) Moderate the earths temperature b) Redistribute heat energy around the globe c) Provide a home to an incredibly diverse web of life d) All of the above

37. What does the acronym ITCZ stand for? a) Intra-tropical convergence zone b) International trade commission of Zimbabwe c) Inter-tropical circulation zone d) Inter-tropical convergence zone

38. Which country builds canals, allows controlled flooding, and employs ratcatchers to manage rising river levels? a) Italy b) Greenland c) Netherlands d) Bangladesh

39. The type of drought that is an atmospheric condition, consistent with much lower than normal precipitation is defined as being: a) Meteorological b) Hydrological c) Agricultural d) Socioeconomic

40. What are major problems with the tailings ponds associated with the Athabasca Oil Sands? a) Contamination of ground water b) Repeated exposure can have health effects on mammals c) The persistence of naphthenic acid in the environment. d) All of the above THE END