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Examples

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Part 3: Introduction to turbulence Dr. Jens-Dominik Muller School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London

j.mueller@qmul.ac.uk Room: Eng 122 ofce hours: any reasonable time c Jens-Dominik Muller, 2011

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1. Introduction

Motivating examples, description of turbulence The Reynolds number The Kolmogorov cascade

Notes

2. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

Averaging the Navier-Stokes equations Reynolds stresses, closure Modelling the Reynolds stresses

3. Using RANS

The near-wall structure of turbulent boundary layers Mesh spacing requirements, wall functions Limits of applicability

4. Alternative approaches

DNS, LES, DES

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Examples of turbulent ow Description of turbulence The Reynolds number The Kolmogorov Cascade Summary

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Examples of turbulent ow Description of turbulence The Reynolds number The Kolmogorov Cascade Summary

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On Turbulence

Benoit Mandelbrot: The techniques I developed for studying turbulence, like weather, also apply to the stock market. Werner Heisenberg: When I meet God, I am going to ask him two questions: Why relativity? And why turbulence? I really believe he will have an answer for the rst.

(Source: Great-Quotes.com, Wikipedia)

Notes

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Leonardo da Vinci

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(Source: NOAA) 7 / 37

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Reynolds experiment

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Re = 15, 000

(Source: van Dyke: Album of uid motion)

Re = 30, 000

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Turbulent combustion I

Notes

(Source: CERFACS) 11 / 37

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Turbulent combustion II

Notes

Turbulent combustor

(Source: CERFACS) 12 / 37

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(Source: CERFACS) 13 / 37

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Examples of turbulent ow Description of turbulence The Reynolds number The Kolmogorov Cascade Summary

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Characteristics of turbulence

Turbulence is inherently unsteady and 3-dimensional. Turbulence is dominated by chaotic - but not random

Notes

There is a cascade of eddies, largest eddies determined

Largest scales take their energy from mean ow. Larger eddies break up, passing their energy to smaller

scales.

Smallest scales dissipate their energy into heat. Is always dissipative, i.e. increases mixing, disorder. The Reynolds number will play a major role. Nearly all relevant industrial ows are turbulent!

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A at plate boundary layer

starts out laminar transitions from laminar

Notes

remains turbulent

downstream of transition

transition modelling is

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The laminar b.l. prole

Notes

has a lower velocity gradient u near the y wall, hence a lower wall shear stress

The turb. b.l. prole has

The turb. b.l. has more

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The momentum equ. incompr. Navier-Stokes equations in vector notation: u + u u = p + 2 u, t where u is the vector of velocities. The unit of the equation, as stated above, is force per volume: F /V = m a/V = a . Dividing the equation by this factor of this dimension, u 2 /D, which is equivalent to normalising the variables by u 1 D u = , p = p 2, , =D = U U t U t makes the equ. nondimensional: u +u t u = p + 1 Re

2

Notes

u,

Note: for Re 0 the effect of the viscous term vanishes, but the no-slip condition at the wall may remain!

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Re = = momentum of the ow inertial forces = viscous forces viscous stress u2 u2 ul ul = u = = l u y

Notes

When Re 1 the ow is very viscous (creeping ow). As Re the ow becomes less dominated by viscosity,

The Reynolds number depends on the choice of

length-scale!

Choosing an overall length-scale, e.g. aerofoil chord

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Most simply: base Reynolds number on the length of the

Notes

body L,

but a boundary-layer grows with distance ( x 0.5 for a

Instead, base Re on distance from the L.E.:

ReL = UL/

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Reynolds number:

Notes

Re =

= (du/dy) (U/)

Reynolds number based on

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med. Re

higher Re

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Re = = momentum of the ow inertial forces = viscous forces viscous stress u2 ud ud u2 = = u = d u y

Notes

When Re 1, viscous forces become equal in magnitude

There is a smallest length scale for turbulent eddies!

Rotational energy d 2 , hence smaller eddies contain less

energy.

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Eddy structure is fractal with higher Re, we nd

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smaller scales

smaller scales have

smaller diameters, hence in a ow with the same speed lead to uctuations with higher frequencies

in turbulent ow literature,

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There is a peak of overall

Notes

turbulent kinetic energy E at some wavenumber k = O(L1 ), i.e. some diameter L given by the geometry.

In isotropic turbulence

There is a smallest

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The scale of the smallest eddies, the scale at which

dissipation occurs, is independent of the scale of the largest eddies or the mean ow. At the smallest scales there is an equilibrium between

energy supplied by larger scales energy dissipated by viscosity

Theory

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Dene the dissipation rate per unit mass [m2 sec3 ], and use the kinematic viscosity [m2 sec1 ], using dimensional analysis we can then we can derive the

Notes

Kolmogorov microscales:

Kolmogorov length scale: Kolmogorov time scale:

= =

1/4

1/2

Using dimensional analysis we can approximate U 3 /L hence the ratio of typical length L to smallest eddy size is

L 3 1/4

3 3

= L/

= (UL/) 4 = Re 4

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L size of smallest scales: = Re

3 4

Notes

hence the number of meshpoints in one direction is

L h

= Re 4

mesh points in each direction, hence the overall number of 9 nodes N scales with Re as N = (L/h)3 = Re 4

Resolving all turbulent structures is only possible for low

DNS of a complete aircraft will require at least an exaop

(1018 ops) computer. The best performance currently is a around 500 tera ops (500 1012 ops)

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Simulation of the nest scales means: resolving these

Notes

scales with mesh points such that we can accurately model them in the conservation equations.

This approach is called Direct Navier-Stokes (DNS), but is

We are typically not interested in the ne scale

uctuations, in engineering we care for the long-term time-averages as they would affect the ight of an aircraft.

Hence, we could approximate the average effect of these

uctuations with an additional model that embodies our knowledge of turbulent ows.

This approach is called Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

(RANS), and is the most popular approach to CFD for turbulent ows.

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Turbulence is unsteady and three-dimensional. The chaotic motion of turbulent ow is fully described by

Notes

There is a cascade of eddies, largest scales determined by

geometry.

Turbulence increases skin friction, but also increases

mixing.

Nearly all ows of industrial interest are turbulent. They Reynolds number can describe turbulent effects, but

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Summary

There is a smallest eddy scale, the Kolmogorov scale. For

Notes

The ratio of smallest to largest scales is Re 4 . If we were to resolve the smallest scale in a numerical ow

3

simulation, a DNS, the required number of mesh points 9 would scale with Re 4 , an unsteady computation would require an exaop computer.

For lower computational cost, we need to model the

time-averaged effect of turbulent uctuations, the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes approach (RANS).

There is also an intermediate approach, the Large Eddy

Simulation (LES), where the largest scales are resolved (simulated) and the sub-grid scales are modelled.

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Notes

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