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SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL TESTING Back

The AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel is a suction system powered by a two speed 1/3 horsepower fan. The test section is 7 inches wide x 10 inches high x 16 inches long. The basic subsonic wind tunnel design is by Donald D. Baals of NASA and was fabricated and redesigned by John Cipolla using theseplans. A research quality pitot tube is used to measure the difference between static pressure and dynamic pressure in the wind tunnel. An analog velocity meter is used to convert the resulting pressure differential between the static and dynamic pressure to determine test section flow velocity in feet per minute. Recently, the insertion of aluminum honeycomb material before and after the test section resulted in a significant increase in measurement accuracy for drag and lift coefficients by decreasing flow turbulence by several orders of magnitude. Small wind tunnel models that represent large designs are routinely tested in the AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel, below. More wind tunnel testing information is available on the Spool Rocket Report description web page.

| FEATURES | DRAG & LIFT MEASUREMENT | CP LOCATION | FLOW VISUALIZATION | PRICING | Basic Features Velocity: 35 to 80 ft/sec with a test item installed Reynolds Number: Laminar and turbulent flow with trip wires Test Section: 7 inches wide X 10 inches high X 16 inches long Drag (CD) and lift (CL) using 2-component force balance system Unique wind tunnel model fabrication skills

X-30 Wind Tunnel Model

Subsonic Wind Tunnel

HL-20 Wind Tunnel Model

Flow Visualization Smoke Flow Visualization Filament Probe Flow Visualization Schlieren Photography for Supersonic Flow (presently under development) Support Systems CD & CL using rear mounted sting (0 to 40 degrees AOA)

CD & CL using vertical mounted Sting (0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 degrees AOA) Low turbulence due to very fine honeycomb flow straightener before and after test section Center of pressure location measurement (XCp)

SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL TESTING (M = 0.5 to M = 3) Back A new supersonic blow-down wind tunnel is available for testing aerodynamic shapes from M = 0.5 to M = 3. The AeroRocket supersonic blow-down wind tunnel is the result of an urgent need to replace the previous shock tube wind tunnel with a more robust and cost effective system to measure projectile drag coefficient (Cd). The shock tube proved to be extremely expensive to operate while producing results that lasted only a few milliseconds making Cd measurement extremely difficult. The new AeroRocket blow-down wind tunnel achieves nearly constant Mach 3 flow for approximately 4 seconds, then quickly transitions to nearly constant Mach 1.37 flow for another 4 seconds during the blow-down process. As a result standard and inexpensive off-the-shelf data acquisition devices can be used to measure long duration drag forces for determining Cd verses Mach number. The supersonic blow-down wind tunnel has been calibrated using the supersonic Narrow Wedge relationship for Cd verses Mach number from Fluid Dynamic Drag by S.F.Hoerner. The converging-diverging nozzle featured in the new supersonic blow-down wind tunnel was designed using Nozzle 3.7 and classical analyses to use the concept of a normal shock diffuser to increase pressure ratio efficiency. The normal shock is slightly upstream of the divergent duct and completely enclosed by the exhaust nozzle. This system is operational for supersonic wind tunnel testing. AeroRocket's expertise in the fabrication of miniature wind tunnel models makes possible the measurement of transonic and supersonic Cd for designs ranging from relatively simple high power rockets to the HTV-3X. However, shape limitations apply because of the small size of the wind tunnel models required to fit in the test section.

Supersonic blow-down wind tunnel operating at Mach 2.96. TI-83 used to generate curve-fit equation for drag force verses time.

Wedge calibration wind tunnel model mounted on a sting to measure drag force and Cd.

Pitot tube used to measure Mach number. Total pressure (12 psig) and static pressure (25.38 in-Hg vacuum) indicate Mach 2.96 flow from Time = 0 to 4 seconds and Mach = 1.37 flow from Time = 4 to 8 seconds during blowdown.

Basic design of the AeroRocket supersonic blow-down wind tunnel Mars Entry Capsule Example The following case illustrates the measurement of drag coefficient (Cd) at Mach 2.94 for a shape similar to the Mars Phoenix entry capsule. The Cd determined by the AeroRocket supersonic blow-down wind tunnel test is Cd = 1.390. To account for sting base draginterference the following equation from Fluid Dynamic Drag is used to correct for sting base drag effects. Cd_base =

K*1.43/Mn^2 where K equals 0.7. Base drag is determined by this equation to be 0.116. Total Cd for the entry capsule is Cd = 1.506 as tested in the AeroRocket supersonic blow-down wind tunnel. Drag coefficient of a conical capsule of the type tested here has been tested before and may be found in NACA TN D-1085 (1963). The value for drag coefficient for the capsule tested in the NACA report is Cd = 1.49. These results may also be found in Fluid Dynamic Drag on page 18-19 in Figure 33.

Next Generation 1" Diameter Supersonic Wind Tunnel A new supersonic blow-down wind tunnel is available for testing aerodynamic shapes.The new 1" insidediameter supersonic blow-down wind tunnel, having a test section blockage factor less than 3%, now joins the successful 1/2" supersonic wind tunnel. Tests conducted using the next generation wind tunnel indicate drag coefficient (Cd) for the HTV-3X is 0.1016 at Mach 2.64.

Next generation 1" diameter supersonic blow-down wind tunnel with air supply.

HTV-3X mounted in the 1" diameter supersonic blow down wind tunnel. Determining Mach Number in the 1/2" and 1" Supersonic Blow-Down Wind Tunnels

Total Pressure (0 to 30 psig) and Static Pressure (0 to 30 in-Hg) gages used to determine Mach Number in the Supersonic Wind Tunnel. 1/2" Diameter Wind Tunnel: Mach number verses time is measured during the blow down process using a pitot-static pressure probe for measuring total pressure (Po) and static pressure (Ps) of a compressible fluid (air). Click here to view a QuickTime movie of a 6.0 second segment of a wind tunnel test using the 1/2 inch diameter AeroRocket supersonic blow down wind tunnel. The image below displays Mach number verses time using total and static pressure results from pressure testing. In this test nearly constant Mach 2.0 flow is maintained for approximately 6.0 seconds.

Click image to view 1/2: diameter wind tunnel movie Requires QuickTime from Apple Computer

1" Diameter Wind Tunnel: Mach number verses time is measured during the blow down process using a pitotstatic pressure probe for measuring total pressure (Po) and static pressure (Ps) of a compressible fluid (air). Click here to view a QuickTime movie of a 2.5 second segment of a wind tunnel test using the one inch diameter AeroRocket supersonic blow down wind tunnel. The image below displays Mach number verses time using total and static pressure results from pressure testing. In this test nearly constant Mach 1.6 flow is maintained for approximately 2.5 seconds.

Click image to view 1" diameter wind tunnel movie

Requires QuickTime from Apple Computer

Contact AeroRocket Please contact AeroRocket for a FREE quote. Please see Ordering Instructions. Wind Tunnel Testing Services Customer Comment (10/06/2004) Using the AeroRocket wind tunnel, I requested that John measure the subsonic lift and drag coefficients of an unusually shaped airship (V-Ship) in his wind tunnel. He made a model to our specifications, and measured the key coefficients (CD and CL) as a function of angle of attack, providing exactly what I wanted. In addition, he calculated the lift and drag from first principles so he could compare theory to experiment, provided a full report replete with photographs of the model under test, and sent the model mounted on a stand along with the report, all at very reasonable cost. I recommend his services without reservation. Michael Monsler, Ph.D. Schafer Corporation, Livermore CA

VALIDITY OF USING SMALL MODELS TO REPRESENT FULL SCALE VEHICLES The full-scale V-Ship was 60 meters long while the V-Ship model tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel, second model from the left above, is only 3.5 inches long. Therefore, representations of very large objects may be successfully tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel at relatively low Reynolds number as long as the flow is assured to be either laminar or turbulent depending on the actual characteristics of the full-scale flow. Small models that represent large designs are routinely tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel because aerodynamic shapes including plates, spheres and cylinders exhibit relatively constant drag coefficient (CD) over a wide range of Reynolds number as long as the flow is turbulent or made turbulent using a trip wire. In the illustration below, please notice that a 2-D plate normal to the flow has a relatively constant CD for Reynolds number ranging from approximately 1,000 to nearly seven million. Similarly, cylinders have relatively constant CD for Reynolds number ranging from approximately 1,000 to nearly one million. The phenomena of constant CD over a wide range of Reynolds number is also valid for 3-D flow and is caused by the transition to "forebody" turbulent flow at Reynolds number 1,000 and NOT any effect the base-region turbulent boundary layer has above the critical Reynolds number for reducing base drag. This principal can be extended to many other complex designs where shape and Reynolds number must be maintained for valid wind tunnel results based on flow similarity. Please read Fluid Dynamic Drag by S.F. Hoerner, pages 3-7 to 3-15 for more explanation.

Drag (CD) verses Reynolds number (Re) for 2-D flow over common aerodynamic shapes.

Wind Tunnel Testing ($25.00/hour) BACK AeroRocket can assist you in determining Drag (CD), Lift (CL), pitch-moment (CM), lift slope (CLa) and pitchmoment slope (CMa) for almost any aerodynamic shape utilizing its own subsonic wind tunnel and twocomponent force measurement system. The wind tunnel at AeroRocket's disposal was developed in-house to provide a wide range of drag, lift, velocity and pressure profile measurements. The test section is 7 inches wide x 10 inches high and is 16 inches long. Maximum test section velocity is 80 ft/sec with a test item installed. The AeroRocket wind tunnel is ideal for measuring subsonic drag and flow visualization of unusual rocket designs like the SS1 and shapes not treated by AeroDRAG or any other rocket analysis computer program until the development of AeroCFD and VisualCFD. The AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel is ideal for measuring drag and lift using the in-house built two-component force measurement instrumentation system. Basic Cost Information Subsonic Wind Tunnel: Cost for using the AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel is $25 per hour and reflects a 50% reduction from the normal AeroRocket consulting fee of $50 per hour. The AeroRocket subsonic wind tunnel testing fee includes set-up time, aerodynamicist labor required to operate the wind tunnel and data presentation. Set-up typically takes one hour and actual measurement time will vary depending upon the number of measurement points requested. For drag and lift wind tunnel testing at a single angle of attack, total wind tunnel time is approximately 3 hours for a total of $75 when utilizing a customer supplied wind tunnel model. For more complex wind tunnel measurements, a customer supplied project description and test matrix is required to accurately determine total cost for wind tunnel usage. Please contact AeroRocket to receive a cost estimate for your specific wind tunnel requirement. Supersonic Wind Tunnel: Cost for using the AeroRocket supersonic blow-down wind tunnel is $50 per hour. Presently, measurements are limited to determination of drag coefficient (CD) from Mach 1.37 to Mach 3. Please contact AeroRocket to receive a cost estimate for your specific supersonic wind tunnel requirement. Subsonic Model Requirements Customer's model must be 12 inches long or less. Customer's model over-all width must be 3.25 inches or less. Customer should supply a 1/4" diameter mounting hole at the center of gravity of the model to insert a sting for testing purposes. However, if the model is not to delicate AeroRocket will drill the sting mounting hole. AeroRocket will also supply the sting. For supersonic wind tunnel models please email for more information. Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication Subsonic Wind Tunnel: For a cost of only $50 per hour AeroRocket will fabricate your wind tunnel model. Just mail or email your model's dimensions using the requirements listed above as guidelines for model fabrication. A Typical wind tunnel model can be fabricated in about 2 to 10 hours and will cost approximately $100 to $500 depending on the level of detail required. The HTV-3X, HL-20, X-30 NASP, X-43 and Sprint ABM wind tunnel models pictured below were fabricated by AeroRocket. Subsonic wind tunnel model fabrication costs range from

$100 to $500 depending on model complexity. Supersonic Wind Tunnel: Supersonic blow-down wind tunnel models cost $50 per hour to fabricate reflecting the difficulty in making miniature supersonic wind tunnel models. A miniature supersonic wind tunnel model like the HTV-3X cost $100 to fabricate. Wind Tunnel Testing Ordering Instructions BACK Cost for testing a customer supplied subsonic wind tunnel model is $25 per hour. A typical series of subsonic wind tunnel tests as described in the TECHNICAL DETAILS section cost approximately $250. Please contact AeroRocket for a FREE quote for testing your specific model in the AeroRocket Wind Tunnel. When contacting AeroRocket for the first time concerning wind tunnel testing please provide a "test matrix" that includes model configuration (geometry), AOA, velocity, and whether the model is to be tested using the verticalsting or rear-sting mounting technique. Please review the TECHNICAL DETAILS section prior to deciding which type of mounting is appropriate. In addition, center of pressure location testing and flow visualization testing are available and illustrated below. Please contact AeroRocket bye-mail for prompt attention to all wind tunnel testing requests. Telephone requests for wind tunnel testing cannot and will not be accepted. COST SUMMARY Subsonic Wind Tunnel Testing @ $25 per hour Subsonic Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication @ $50 per hour Supersonic Wind Tunnel Testing @ $50 per hour Supersonic Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication @ $50 per hour (Please email for a FREE quote)

TECHNICAL DETAILS Wind Tunnel Test Features BACK Wind tunnel measurements at a maximum wind speed of 80 ft/sec (54.5 mph). Drag (CD) and lift (CL) at 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 degrees AOA using vertical-sting or rear-sting mounted models for angles of attack ranging from 0.0 degrees to 40 degrees AOA. Center of Pressure location (XCp) measurement. Flow visualization using probe-mounted yarn filaments or smoke that define areas of reverse flow and vortical motion corresponding to lift. Experiments photographically documented. Turbulent flow measurement using trip-wire if required. Report summarizing the results. Drag (CD) and Lift (CL) Coefficients BACK Figure-1 illustrates the force balance system used to determine rocket drag (CD) and lift (CL) of a wind tunnel model mounted on a vertical-sting. Displacement in the axial (drag) and vertical (lift) directions are measured using the two load cells labeled DRAG and LIFT respectively and then converted to drag and lift forces in Newtons using the Vernier CBL-2 computerized data acquisition system. The force balance system pictured in Figure-1 is designed to separate the aerodynamic forces and the associated displacements in the axial and vertical directions when the weight on the force-balance plate causes the model to be freely suspended. Models tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel may be mounted on a vertical-sting as in Figure-2 or mounted on a rear-sting as in Figure-3. Either mounting configuration may be selected depending on the objectives of the wind tunnel test.

Figure-1, Basic System For Measuring Drag (CD) and Lift (CL)

Figure-2, Vertical-Sting Mounted Model, 0.0 to 15 Degrees AOA

Figure-3, Rear-Sting Mounted Model, 0.0 to 15 Degrees AOA Center of Pressure (XCp) Location Measurement BACK Center of pressure location measurements are performed using a special XCp-Caliper that secures the model in the wind tunnel test section using two opposing low friction points. Figure-4 illustrates a ring-fin model rocket being tested in the AeroRocket wind tunnel for the determination of center of pressure location. The ring-fin model in this configuration is stable because the support point is ahead of the actual center of pressure. The actual center of pressure location (XCp) is determined by moving the sting support location rearward until the model becomes unstable and "noses over" to one side or the other when the wind tunnel is operating. Figure-5 further illustrates how the ring-fin rocket model is secured in place during center of pressure location testing. Please notice the pitot tube used to measure the difference between static pressure and dynamic pressure for determining flow velocity in the wind tunnel. An analog velocity meter is used to convert the resulting pressure differential to test section flow velocity in feet per minute (fpm).

Figure-4, Center of Pressure (XCp) Location Measurement

Figure-5, XCp Measurement Instrumentation Filament Flow Field Visualization BACK A single-strand filament of low mass yarn on a long slender probe illustrates the flow on and around an object. Regions of reverse flow behind blunt bodies become visible. Please refer to Figure-6, Figure-7 and Figure-8 to see how the base flow of the Sprint ABM is investigated using a yarn tuft on a probe. In addition, regions where the flow rotates indicate stream wise vorticity and therefore lift and circulation. Please refer to Figure-9, Figure-10 and Figure-11 to see how the fin-tip vortical flow pattern of the X-43 at an angle of attack of 15 degrees is investigated using a yarn tuft on a probe. Please note the three photographs of the X-43 are of the yarn filament as it rotates in the clockwise direction as viewed from the front of the wind tunnel model.

FILAMENT FLOW VISUALIZATION

Figure-6, Sprint ABM Base Flow on Rear-Sting Mount

Figure-7, Sprint ABM Base Flow Circulation on Rear-Sting Mount

Figure-8, Sprint ABM Base Flow Circulation on Vertical-Sting Mount

Figure-9, X-43 Fin-Tip Vortical Circulation (1)

Figure-10, X-43 Fin-Tip Vortical Circulation (2)

Figure-11, X-43 Fin-Tip Vortical Circulation (3)

Smoke Flow Field Visualization BACK A smoke generator and blower are used to test models outside the AeroRocket wind tunnel. Larger models may be accommodated because the smoke visualization tests are conducted without the constraints of the relatively small dimensions of the AeroRocket wind tunnel's test section. Figure-12 and Figure-13 display the vortex flow pattern from the leading edge of a 60 degree triangular wing. SMOKE FLOW VISUALIZATION

Figure-12, 60 degree Wing Tip Vortex Flow

Figure-13, Filmstrip of Smoke Visualization Testing

PAST WORKS

Figure-14, AeroRocket Wind Tunnel with X-43 mounted on vertical sting

Figure-15, Wind tunnel models from past and present work

Figure-16, X-43 mounted on vertical sting

Figure-17, X-20 tested to measure lift slope, CNa

Figure-18, X-20 CL verses angle of attack, a