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page PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION NOTICE MEDICINAL PLANTS Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai Aconitum koreanum R. Raymond Acorus calamus var. angustatus Besser Acorus gramineus Sol. Adenophora triphylla var.japonica Hara Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey.) Kuntze Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Ailanthus altissima Swingle Akebia quinata Decne. Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge Angelica dahurka (Fisch.) Benth. et Hook.f. Angelica gigas Nakai Aralia cordata Thunb. Arisaema amurense Maxim. Aristolochia contorta Bunge Artemisia annua L. Artemisia gmelini Weber ex Stechm. Asarum sieboldii Miq. Asparagus cochinchinensis ( Lour .) Merr. Aster tataricus L.f. Astragalus membranaceus Bunge 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 v vii viii ix

Atractylodes.iaponica Koidz. ex Kitam. Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Betula platyphylla var. japonica Hara Bistorta manshuriensis Kom. Bupleurum falcatum L. Caragana sinica (Buc'hoz) Rehder Carthamus tinctorius L. Cassia tora L. Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi Chloranthus japonicus Siebold Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura Citrus unshiu Markovich Clematis mandschurica Rupr. Cnidium officinale Makino Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Cornus officinalis Siebold et Zucc. Corydalis ternata Nakai Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge Cynanchum ascyrifolium Matsumura Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. Cyperus rotundus L. Dianthus chinensis L. Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Dioscorea batatas Decne. Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai Echinops setifer Iljin Eclipta prostrata L. Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr. et Maxim.) S.Y.Hu

47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105

Magnolia denudata Desr.Don) Bennet Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Hylander Elsholtzia splendens Nakai et F. koraiensis (Nakai) Nakai Glehnia littoralis F.) Rohrb. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Inula japonica Regel Ipomoea nil (L. Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. Gleditsia japonica var. Plantago asiatica L. Polygonatum odoratum var. Forsythia viridissima Bunge Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance Gastrodia elata Blume Gentiana scabra L. Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. Maek.Mey. Malva verticillata L. Hibiscus syriacus L. japonica Makino Mentha arvensis var.Schmidt Glycine max Merr. piperascens Malinv. Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 207 209 211 213 215 217 219 . Epimedium koreanum Nakai Equisetum hyemale L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner Orostachys japonicus A. Hemerocallis fulva L. Polygonum tinctorium Lour. Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang Lonicera japonica Thunb. Eriobotryalaponica (Thunb. 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 133 135 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 157 159 161 Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Melandrium firmum (Siebold et Zucc.) Siebold Euryale ferox Salisb.) Lindley Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Euodia officinalis Dode Euonymus alatus (Thunb. Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte Picrasma quassioides (D.) DC. Morus alba L.) Nakai Kochia scoparia Schrad. pluriflorum Ohwi Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.Berger Paeonia lactiflora var. Melia azedarach var. Leonurus sibiricus L.) Roth Juglans sinensis Dode Juncus effusus var. Lycopus lucidus Turcz. hortensis Makino Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews Panax ginseng C. Lycium chinense Mill.) Breitenb. Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. Ginkgo biloba L. Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.A. Inula helenium L. decipiens Buchenau Kalopanax pictus (Thunb.ii iii Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb. Phellodendron amurense Rupr.

Prunus persica (L.iv iva Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) Batsch Pueraria lobata (Willd. ansu Maxim. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Sophora flavescens Ait.) Libosch. Sophora japonica L. Rosa rugosa Thunb. Zizyphus jujuba Mill. nakaii (Lev.) Farw. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Prunus japonica var. Veratrum maackii var. Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. Rhus chinensis Mill.) DC.Shimizu Veronicastrum sibiricum (L. Torilis japonica (Houtt.) Ohwi Vitex rotundifolia L. Typha orientalis J. Koch Thuja orientalis L. Schisandra chinensis Baill. Rosa multiflora Thunb.) Ohwi Pulsatilla koreana Nakai Punica granatum L. Rehmania glutinosa (Gaertn. jujuba Zyzyphus jujuba var.f. Potentilla chinensis Ser. Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.Presl Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Valeriana fauriei Briq. japonicum T. inermis Rehder Indexes 279 281 283 285 287 289 291 293 295 297 299 301 303 Back to Publications Back to Main Page . lilacina Nakai Prunus armeniaca var. ) Rehder Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc. Prunella vulgaris var. Tetrapanax papyrifer K. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. coloratum (Kom. Scopolia japonica Maxim. 221 223 225 227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 265 267 269 271 273 275 277 Torreya nucifera Siebold et Zucc.) Pennell Viscum album var. Rubia akane Nakai Rubus coreanus Miq. var. Xanthium strumarium L. Rheum undulatum L. Portulaca oleracea L.

vi Preface For thousands of years. the Koreans have developed unique ways to combat numerous ailments. offer an alternative to the timehonoured traditional system of medicine. small booklets entitled Hwang Yak (local or countryside medicines) were prepared to introduce locally available and commonly used medicinal plants. . mankind has survived without the knowledge of modern medicine. The Regional Office for the Western Pacific has therefore published a series of three books on medicinal plants. chemical composition and usage of medicinal plants. These are the Medicinal Plants in China. Knowledge of medicinal plants is a part of the Korean national heritage. medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea have recently attracted international interest. which can be mass-produced. The World Health Organization recognizes that medicinal plants have an important role to play in our technologically advanced world. Many people in the Republic of Korea regard medicinal plants as a more effective means of prevention and treatment for selected diseases than modern medicine. Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam and Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific. and will continue to do so for many years to come. One example is Korean ginseng which has become a well-known medicinal plant worldwide. herbal medicine will not just disappear. Plants were also widely used to protect against disease and to promote health. This can be partly attributed to the simple yet highly effective forms of traditional medicine. Like many people. These traditions are now being challenged. To facilitate the use of medicinal plants in ancient Korea. plants with therapeutic properties were used by the Korean people as the only available medicine. However. Before the arrival of modern medicine. distribution. Increasingly effective modern medicines. The purpose of publishing these books is to provide a documented reference on the identification. Moreover. Medicinal plants still play a very important role in Korean society.

It includes colour pictures of selected plants to provide a visual reference to supplement the written This fourth book in the series focuses on medicinal plants used in the Republic of Korea. Han. S. Ph. MD. T. It covers 150 plants employed for medicinal purposes. I hope that this new publication will raise international awareness of the value of medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea and hence makes a contribution towards promoting the proper use of medicinal plants and their conservation. Regional Director Back to Table of Contents .

Photographs were taken in various areas of Korea by Dr Youngbae Suh. Republic of Korea. United States of America and Viet Nam for their helpful suggestions. and HyungJoon Chi at the Natural Products Research Institute. Seoul.vii Acknowledgements This work was compiled by Drs Byung Hoon Han. Japan. Sangtae Kim and Taejin Kim of Natural Products Research Institute. University of Illinois at Chicago. We also would like to thank reviewers from China. Seoul National University. Sweden. Republic of Korea. Back to Table of Contents . Youngbae Suh. Seoul National University. United States of America. Dr Geoffrey A. Cordell. carefully reviewed the manuscript. the Philippines.

Seoul. The species were identified by the authors of this work. The theories governing the prescription of medicinal plants are taken from traditional Korean pharmacology. distribution. Finally indexes are provided for the scientific names. biological activities and chemical components with bibliographical references. using the botanical descriptions and illustrations of plants. The medicinal plants included in this book are listed in alphabetical order of their scientific names.000 species of medicinal plants that have been important as a means of treating and preventing disease traditionally in the Republic of Korea. Republic of Korea. Koreans have made a substantial effort to develop their own pharmacological system. and each species is explained in the following order: scientific name. which probably originated from old traditional Chinese pharmacology based on many centuries of clinical observation and practice. Its purpose is to help readers to recognize the species of medicinal plants and crude drugs in Korea. Korean plant name. Back to Table of Contents . botanical description. Pictures were taken under natural conditions during the flowering or fruiting seasons. Traditional Oriental medicine is still practised throughout the country. traditional uses. parts used. English common name. and the specimens are kept in the herbarium of the Natural Products Research Institute (NPRI). habitat. However.viii Introduction There are over 1. and the Korean plant names. the English common names. so that the plants could be correctly identified. Seoul National University. and their effectiveness has not been established by modern scientific means. The photographs were taken from the spring of 1994 to the autumn of 1996 in various regions in the Republic of Korea. This volume includes 150 species of the medicinal plants most commonly used in the Republic of Korea. Readers should be advised that the information regarding the traditional uses is taken solely from the traditional medicinal literature.

Self-treatment would never be recommended and could be dangerous. The advice of qualified health care practitioners is always advisable. It is presented here only for reference and educational purposes. Back to Table of Contents .ix Notice The information on traditional uses of the medicinal plants compiled in this book has been taken from traditional medicinal texts.

persistant in fruit. Bio-Activities. saponin (8). Habitat. 791. World Sci. et al. oblong or elliptic. nodes dilated. the segments linear-lanceolate. style 1. 24. Woody areas in lowlands and hills. bracts membranous. Nat. bracteoles 3. Pub. slightly pubescent. et al. Oedema. 179. erect. petiolate. stamens 5. emmenagogue. (3) Han.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 3 Achyranthes japonica (Miq. Analgesic. 23.H. T. (1968) Yakugaku Zasshi 88. Chemical components. 363.. (1972) Kor. H. uterine stimulating. Korea. . References. branched. 48. (1989) Phytochemistry 28.S. deflexed in fruit. abortifacient. Pharmacog. B. (1985) Yakugaku Zasshi 105.) Nakai . contraceptive. 4-10 cm wide. Stems slightly pubescent. acuminate. antioxidant (protocatechuic acid) (2). Leaves opposite. Aug. 4. the inner ones slightly shorter. (1) Kosuge. (1990) Plant Med. diuretic. Description. rheumatism. with thickened roots. Co. Prod.. 1073.) Nakai Korean Name: Soe-moo-reup English Name: Japanese chaff flower Amaranthaceae Parts used. with a green long-protruded midrib. inokosterone (5. B. 1996. 4-5 mm long. A. elongate. et al. Distribution. 1293. 205. 1 mm across. Flowers horizontal. slender. et al. antispasmodic. T.6. et al. (1985) J. T. (5) Takemoto. p. et al. anti-inflammatory (3). et al. carpel 1. Perennial herb. perianth 5-parted. and Folk Med. Root: triterpenoid.7). Phytother. quadrangular. Traditional uses. (8) Kimura.. J. (6) Takemoto. Singapore. Part I. subulate. Collation of Trad. antiallergic (1). 10-20 cm long. (4) Yun-Choi. et al. (7) Bandara. NE-Asia. Inflorescence spikes in axils and at terminals. ovate-deltoid. 50-100 cm tall. united at base. T. Japan. hypotensive. Seed: insect moulting hormones like rubrosterone.M. 1-seeded.Sep. platelet aggregation inhibition (4). Fruit utricles oblong. Root. 916. (1971) Yakugaku Zasshi 91. ecdysterone. Intern. (2) Boucheny. Achyranthes japonica (Miq. about 2 mm long.

pale yellow. T. 792. the lower 2 narrower than the others. (3) Kosuge. 176. 19-epiisoatisine (9). to 1 m tall. (1) Okamoto.2). higenamine. petioles of upper leaves shorter. Distribution. Grassy areas in mountain valleys or on slopes. Pharm. . E. W. (1961) Kagakuto Kogyo (Japan) 14. petal-like. Fruit of 3 follicles. Rhizome. atisine. et al. T. long-petioled. articular pain. (1976) Chem. (9) Reinecke. Bull. et al. almost sessile. zygomorphic. J. stamens many. the upper one clearly hooded.G. palmately 3-5 cleft.Raymond Korean Name: Bag-boo-ja English Name: Korean monk’s hood Ranunculaceae Parts used. C. (8) Tai. cardiotonic (hygenamine. pedicels short. (6) Hikino.7. 10.S. petals 2.Aug.4). 24. sharply acuminate. et al. I. (2) Ochiai. et al.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 5 Aconitum koreanum R. Description. Org. (1979) Planta Med. 35. glabrous. (1968) Jap. (4) Konno. (1979) Kor. ovary 3-celled. Bio-Activities. coryneine (3. Y. Chem. and Lee. E. Korea. Aconitum koreanum R. densely pubescent. 1254. Pharmacog. aconitine (1. Erect. (5) Woo. E. 51. causing arrhythmia and hypotension if not processed to degrade ester-type alkaloids like aconitine (6. coryneine) (3. Jul. mesaconitine. Habitat. Chemical components. Alkaloids: hypaconitines A. small.B. sharp at tip. Side effects. J. 359. 831. (1992) Lancet 340.2). perennial herb with thickened roots. et al. Chills in legs and arms. hidden under the hood.Raymond . sepals 5. glabrous. cardiotoxic. Analgesic (aconitine alkaloids) (1. T. (1956) Yakugaku Zasshi 97. 27. H. Flowers racemose at terminal. isoatisine. et al. References. T. (1987) J. M. the others flat. Y. 150. Traditional uses. (7) Tai. Oriental Med. B. 52. 5051. uterine stimulant (5).8). 19. leaflets deeply divided again to lanceolate. D. Leaves alternate. sometimes purplish tint. (1992) PACE 15.4).

Soc. with a prominent midrib. H. acoramone (3). red. 466. (2) Baxter. A. and Mitra. 29. flagroot Araceae Parts used. borneol. (7) Minato. (1980) Bull. (1994) Yakugaku Zasshi 114. epishyobunone. ellipsoid. (1971) Chem. J. 2759. and Srivastava. Peduncle and spathe a continuous leaflike unit bearing a green spadix above the middle. R. et al. tympanitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 7 Acorus calamus var. hypocholesterolaemic (3). sedative (2). east Asia. (1981) J. (1) Chopra. (1957) Indian J. Spadix sessile.C.S. M. the segments lanceolate. . Chemother. isoshyobunone. Essential oils (6): cineol. Chemical components. spathe 20-40 cm long. Antibacterial (1). Chem. Distribution. ensiform. calacone. I. Sesquiterpenes (7): shyobunone. A. shallow water along streams. References. neuralgia. Ponds. angustatus Besser Korean Name: Chang-po English Name: Sweet flag. H. 7. gastric disease. 378. Flowers bisexual. (3) Patra. Rhizomes horizontal. 3 mm long. 70 cm long. Japan 53. (4) Saxena. myrtle flag. et al. fibrous roots at nodes. (1973) Tetrahedron Lett. Nat. antiulcer (5). camphor. epoxyisoacoragermacrone (9). C. Korea. spasmolytic (3). frequently nodose. 183. et al. Perennial herb of marshy places. carpels 1. Fruit berry.K. Y. 19. et al. (1972) Indian J. Pharm. stamens 6. Description. (6) Chaudhury. acolamones. perianth 6 parted. et al. asarone (3). (1960) Nature 185. 5-8 mm wide. 668. acoragermacrone (8). Biol.B. and Katayama. Prod. S. Traditional uses. Habitat. equitant. caramol. with thickened rhizomes. densely flowered. terete. Rhizome. 19. 638. insecticide (4). 1263. Jun. angustatus Besser . Exp.M. (5) Muto.P. acuminate. 5 cm long. 391. Acorus calamus var. (9) Ueda. et al. 980. Siberia. Leaves tufted. (8) Iguchi. 1-2 cm wide. Stomachic. 10. 44. (1957) Antibiot.Jul. calamus. Pharm. Bull. B. Bio-Activities. North America.

Y. carpels 1. slender. J. J. (1992) Phytother. 668. Chemical components. antiulcer (2). perianth 6-parted. 53. chromosome aberration (asarones) (3. cylindrical. (3) Goggelman. continuous with peduncle. triangular. Description. Res. 30-50 cm long. (1984) Planta Med. Lignans (7).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 9 Acorus gramineus Sol. 5-10 cm long. 121. India. . overlapping in two ranks. (1981) J. Distribution. Habitat. 980. sedative. thick. (1987) Planta Med.-Jul.T. et al. et al. A. (7) Yuan. Stomach ache. 2-ranked.4. F. (2) Muto. W. 2 mm wide. (1982) Zhongcaoyao 13.4). (1) Patra. 3-5 mm wide. anti-platelet aggregation (isoeugenol) (5). sheathing and surrounding the neck of the rhizome at base. Prod. 222. Traditional uses. 44. Rhizome. hypocholesterolaemic and cholelytiasic (essential oil and asarones) (1). Acorus gramineus Sol. (1994) Yakugaku Zasshi 114. branching rhizomes. Flowers bisexual. 2-8 mm wide. 191. 251. 3-4 mm in diameter. linear-ensiform.H. (5) Totte. Nat. small. asarones. spathe leaf-like. (1983) Mutation Res. densely yellowflowered. (4) Abel. 387. References. 7 -15 cm long. stamens 6. Essential oils.L. 10-30 cm long. China. Korean Name: Seok -chang-po English Name: Grassy-leaved sweet flag Araceae Parts used. 50. G. Spasmolytic. et al. 1-allyl-2. without a midrib. Common along streams and around ponds. Japan.and Cheng. 108. Y. hysteria. smooth. Leaves tufted. antihyperglycaemic (6). neurasthenia. et al. Spadix ascending to nearly -5 erect. Peduncle leaf-like. (6) Hsu. Perennial herb of marshy places with horizontal. Jun. erect.5 trimethoxybenzene (1). Korea. Bio-Activities. 6. et al.

Bio-Activities. (1) Hsu. to 10 cm long. Saponins (1). Antifungal. Sputum. Chemical components. oblong or oblong-elliptic or linear. (1981) Planta Med. about 1322 mm long. or alternate. serrate. more paniculate above. Description. Long Beach.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 11 Adenophora triphylla var. thickened. Japan. C. p. almost round. japonica Hara . Stems glabrous or white-pilose. Basal leaves long-petiolate. style long-exerted. 578. CA. bronchial catarrh. expectorant. 268. Habitat. Korea. Med.. (2) Konno. References. H. cough. Roots white. stem leaves usually in whorls of 4. to 1 m tall. et al. Flowers lower in whorls on very slender pedicels. Jul. slightly constricted above. narrowly urceolate-campanulate. (1986) Oriental Mat. Grassy areas in lowlands and mountains. cardiotonic (1).Nov. short-petiolate or sessile. japonica Hara Korean Name: Jan-dae English Name: Three-leaf ladybell Campanulaceae Parts used.. Root. China. 42. Traditional uses. Distribution.-Y. Adenophora triphylla var. Erect perennial herb. Oriental Healing Art Inst. corolla pale bluishviolet. Triterpenes (2). .

et al. World Sci. Chemical components. patchoulic alcohol.S.-K. erect. et Mey. stamens 4. Acute gastritis.. Distribution. Description. (1996) Kor. bilabiate. Grassy areas in mountains (near streams) and valleys.. Coarse. and Folk Med. 50. antispirochetic (1). References.. Collation of Trad. Triterpenes: erythrodiol-3-O-acetate. bilobate. Pharmacog. Pub. methylchavicol. teeth triangular. (1994) Kor. 1996. the upper lip erect. et Mey. 319.5-7 cm wide.5 m tall. (3) Han. whitish pubescent beneath. serrate. Agastanol (4). 18. D. 3 -O-acetyl oleanolic aldehyde (3). vomiting. Aug. limonene. l-caryophyllene.R. other minor sesquiterpenes. Intern. cordate to rounded at base. (4) Lee. et al. long-petioled. 2. Essential oil: anethole. (1987) Kor. 27. to 1. diarrhoea. anisaldehyde. tall.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 13 Agastache rugosa (Fisch. . Bio-Activities. T. Pharmacog. fragrant. Agastache rugosa (Fisch. corolla tube 8-10 mm long. rosmarinic acid. Habitat.5 cm long. Traditional uses. Flavonoids: agastachosides. nearly glabrous above. Japan. Herb. Singapore. 5-10 cm long. 5toothed. white-puberulent. rosmarinic acid methyl ester (2). Flowers purple. 2 cm in diameter. spikes 5-15 cm long. H.Part I. northern China.Oct. robust. Stems square in cross section. J. J. Co. Leaves opposite. J. S. et al. east Siberia. Antifungal. 142. Pharmacog. 25. ovate-cordate.) Kuntze . 20. acacetin and tilianin (1). calyx 0. (2) Oh. Fruit smooth nutlet.) Kuntze Korean Name: Bae-cho-hyang English Name: Wrinkled giant hyssop Labiatae Parts used. Korea. (1) Kimura. Phenylpropanoids: estragole. perennial herb. style bifid. anticomplementary (in vitro) (2). acuminate at tip. Inflorescence a dense spike at terminal. branched at the top. the lower lip expanded. 3-lobed. NE-Asia. p.

5 cm wide. 5-toothed. calyx persistent. (2) Peter.M. bacteriostatic. Roadsides. Chemical components. grassy areas in lowlands and mountains. triterpenes (1)..5-3. Antitumour. Co. Traditional uses. Inflorescence elongated raceme at terminal. flavonoids. coarsely dendate. China. T. Flowers small. and Folk Med. H. gradually smaller in the lower ones. Taenia. coumarins. p. eczema.. tannins. alternate with much smaller ones. Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Herb. Siberia. odd-pinnate. elliptic or obovate. antidysentery action (1). 1996. small bracts leaflike. immunostimulating. to 5 mm in diameter. Habitat. Intern. 3 -6cm long. the large leaflets obong. 10-20 cm long. 5-7 foliolate. Hirsute perennial herb with erect stem. 632. pubescent beneath on veins only. phenylpropanoids. carpels 2. (1) Kimura. Aug.. Leaves alternate. Pub. rounded at tip. Agrimonolides. Distribution. antiyeast (2). 30-100 cm tall. hairy on both sides. (1969) Pharmazie 24. Korean Name: Jip-shin-na-mul English Name: Hairy agrimony Rosaceae Parts used. Part-I. calyx tube. et al. eastern Europe. bristles incurved. boils. Collation of Trad. pale yellow. narrowly obovate. Description. Japan. leaflets cuneate at base. Singapore. World Sci. Fruit a bristly burr. connivent apically. stamens 5 -10 (12). Jun. petals 5. deeply grooved. with spines around edge. References. NE-Asia. Korea. 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 15 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. short-pedicellate. 49. . Bio-Activities.

stigmas 5-6. stamens 10-12. 5-6 merous. triterpene. glabrous beneath. ailanthone. rapidly growing tree. 1. D. China. 7-8 mm in diameter. Distribution. plumose. mastitis. haemorrhoids. Hyg. style 1. Bark. Habitat. to 20 m or more. 3. ill-scented when bruised.2). Fruit a 2-winged samara.5-5 cm long. leaflets 13-25. oblong to lanceolate or ovate. (2) Bray. 8-10 cm long. 531. saponins (3). 30. 51. twisted. (1992) Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin. but 5-6 in bisexual flowers. p. Res. et al. naturalized in Korea. (1) Trager. female flowers with deeply 2-5 parted ovary. canthin-6-one and its derivatives. Granulating eruptions. Ailanthus altissima Swingle . in terminal panicles. Jun. Widespread urban weed. (1981) Am. tannins. Springer Verlag. Med. entire except for 1-3 pairs of large gland-bearing or callus teeth at the base. Deciduous. Trop. Flowers small. W. divided unequally by the midrib. greenish. petals woolly tomentose inside. odd-pinnate.H. Traditional uses. 22. Description. (3) Tang. sometimes cultivated. Antimalarial. J. copal tree. polygamodioecious. Bio-Activities. W. et al. Leaves alternate. (1987) Phytother.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 17 Ailanthus altissima Swingle Simaroubaceae Korean Name: Ka-joog-na-moo English Name: Tree-of-heaven. amoebicidal (1. mostly 60-80 cm long. varnish tree Parts used. reddish-orange at maturity. Referenc es. Quercetin-3-glucoside. Chemical components. many other quassinoids.

1-2 cm wide. T. cuniate at the base.7). male flowers towards apex of the raceme. 15-20 mm long. 2143. Amer. . 35. (6) Higuchi. seeds many. J. 1021. oblong. NE-Asia. Japan. 2. 24. et al. leaflets 5. Monoecious. sepals broadly elliptic. fruit. the pedicels slender. stamens 6. Stem. 20. antiulcer (2). dysuria. Co. Korea. R. fragrant. et al. (3) Kim. Thickets in hills and mountains. S. Pharm. Pharm. Apr. (2) Yamahara. 12-16 mm across. Part I. Singapore. et al. Oil Chem. emarginate at the tip. sepals 7-8 mm long. black. et al. et al. anti-inflammatory. Habitat. palmately compound. Bio-Activities. Diuretic. Fruit an ovoid-oblong. lowers serum cholesterol level (1). (1976) Chem. Pharm. Bull. woody. p. 2-3 cm across. (1975) Yakugaku Zasshi 95. and Folk Med. 1935. Soc. much larger. chocolate vine Lardizabalaceae Parts used. 71. Korean Name: Eu-reum English Name: Five-leaf akebia. Akebia quinata Decne. R. Many saponins of hederagenin and oleanolic acid glycosides (4. Bull. (4) Higuchi. (1972) Chem. 633. Chemical components. . female flowers below. 20.Jun. Description. 3-5 cm long.. World Sci.. Pub. (1972) Chem. bluish or purple berry. (7) Kumegawa. stalked. China. Bull..MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 19 Akebia quinata Decne. Collation of Trad. (1994) J. Distribution. Flavonoids. et al. R. 1179.5.6. nephritis.Y. Oedema. Flowers purplish. antioxidant (3).5-3 cm in diameter. 1996. (1) Kimura. in axillary racemes. Intern. Traditional uses. Bull. References. sepals 3. entire. long-pedicellate. Y. glabrous climber to 5 m tall. 6-10 cm long. (5) Higuchi. Pharm. Leaves half-evergreen. (1974) Chem. neuralgia. 1314. dehiscent along 1 side. et al. alternate. 2294. 22.

5). Pharm. even bipinnate. (5) Kinjo. Flowers pink. Traditional uses. echinocystic acid. mimosa tree Leguminosae Parts used. exserted. Jun. Collation of Trad. bark. (1973) Phytochemistry 12. the lower white. C. Leaves alternate. short-pubescent beneath and on margin. China. dark-green above. 5 -toothed. 5-toothed.. . sedative.B. Part I. et al. greenish. thin. heads about 20-flowered. 6-15 mm long. 191. diuretic. Bio-Activities. calyx 3 mm. Description. World Sci. H. to 15 cm long. south Asia to Iran. Flower. lignans. petioled. Habitat. Distribution. antifungal. antiarrythmic (1. 1996. pubescent. 3269. pubescent. headache. 40. monoterpenes. pale green. mimosa. Singapore. J. 5-6 seeds in the pod.K. united into a tube enclosing ovary. NE-Asia. Chemical components. (1985) Arch. the petioles with a cup-shaped gland on the upper side. et al. with spreading crown. branches nearly glabrous. antiyeast. spinasterol (4.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 21 Albizia julibrissin Durazz... hepatoprotective. T. Woods in lowlands. . 40. often planted for ornamental purposes. acacic acid lactone. (4) Applewhite.Jul.2). alkaloids. Deciduous tree. 2 cm wide. Bull.5-4 mm wide. Pharm. whitish beneath. Co. (1992) Chem. corolla 6 mm long. Neuralgia. tubular. (1) Kimura. leaflets herbaceous. Albizia julibrissin Durazz. the axis 2-4 cm long with more than 10 spreading branches. 829. staminal tube as long as the corolla tube. Korea. et al. (3) Moon. panicles pubescent -3 when young. P. in fasicles of 2 arranged in a short terminal raceme. Saponins: glycosides of albigenic acid. Pharm. 10-30 pairs. Bark dark grey. 58. antitumour (3). the upper half pink. Oxytocic. et al. 8. Fruit legume. (2) Higuchi. Bull. glabrous. 277. and Folk Med. Japan. Pub. machaerinic acid lactone. curved-oblong. hypotensive. the rachis and rachilla puberulent on upper side. References. Flavonoids. Intern. 25-30 cm long or more including the petiole. in heads crowded towards ends of branches. 2. Stamens many. (1992) Chem. to 15 m tall. p. Korean Name: Ja-gui-na-moo English Name: Silk tree. Res.

(1963) Chem. M.2). et al. haemolytic (4). Co. sedative (3). Pub. inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase and Na/K-ATPase (3). Fever. 184. and Folk Med. antiplatelet aggregation (1). et al. Pharmacog. linear. to 1 m tall. Flowers in an elongated raceme. et al. A. often cultivated in Korea. 26. Habitat. 555. C. Singapore. cough. Hypoglycaemic (1).. Distribution. et al. Traditional uses. opening and fragrant at night. markogenin.-H. Bull. T. in 6 divisions in 2 rows. p. neogitogenin. (2) Yamazaki.Jul.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 23 Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge Korean Name: Ji -mo English Name: Anemarrhena Liliaceae Parts used. Bio-Activities. (5) Lee. (3) Nikaido. D (7). hinokiresinol (3). (1967) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 21. T. NE-Asia. World Sci. perianth separate. 2 cm wide. dire thirst. Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 wings. (1988) Yakugaku Zasshi 108. Part I. (1981) Planta Med. erect. Chemical components. M. Open areas on mountain slopes. ovary 3-celled. B. T. 18. Xanthone glycosides: glycosides of mangiferin. et al. stamens 3. 17. Description. 43. (7) Takahashi. Timosaponins: glycosides of sarasapogenin. Polysaccharides: anemaran A. Intern. to 60 cm long. perennial herb. 1996. long-tapering. References.. with thickened. Leaves basal. dull rose-purple. et al. 60-90 cm tall. J. 11. 18. Jun. isomangiferin (6). 43.5 cm long. Rhizome. 12 mm long. et al. Collation of Trad. S. (1985) Planta Med. anti-pyretic (1. inhibits stress ulcer (1). (1) Kimura. antitumour (5). bracts ovate. about 0. Rhizomatous. acuminate with elongated tip. Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge . anthers versatile. (1995) Kor. diabetes. Scape simple. 100. 47. (6) Kawasaki. (4) Niwa. China. (8) Nikaido. horizontal rhizomes. . Lignans (8). (1981) Planta Med. et al. 1121. Korea.. Pharm. grasslike. T.

4-6 c m long. broadly lanceolate. demethylsuberosin. Root. and pedicels papillate-puberulent.f. northern China.M.f.2). pain. 19. et al. Korea. rays. Part I. 117. dorsal ribs slender. Traditional uses. bracts 1-2. (5) Shin.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 25 Angelica dahurica (Fisch. glabrous. Furocoumarins: bergapten. phellopterin. flat. imperatorin. References. few. (1995) Kor. Jun. World Sci. short puberulent on upper part. Wet places near mountain streams. Japan. segments long-elliptic or narrow ovate. NE-Asia. Modulation of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities (4).) Benth. Distribution. (2) Komura. 7-8 cm across at base. . Res. branched above. angelicin.Singapore.. Fruit elliptic. T. Habitat. et al. 2-3 times ternately pinnate. oxypeucedanin. often scabrous on veins above. acuminate. isoimperatorin. et al. Inflorescence a large compound umbel. Coumarins: scopoletin. J. 6-methoxy-7-isopentenyloxy-coumarin. Angelica dahurica (Fisch. (1988) Kor. Stems stout. Co. peduncles. et al. marmesin.. (1994) Arch. Pub. sharply serrate. (3) Kim. 8-9 mm long. Pharmacog. 5-10 cm long. et Hook. Antithrombotic (3). xanthotoxin (1). (1) Kimura. 2-5 cm wide. 45. Intern. et Hook. Collation of Trad. . Aldose reductase inhibition (5). p. K. and Folk Med. dilated as a sheath. sheath of upper leaves obovate or long-elliptic. 26. bracteoles small. toothache. Biennial or perennial herb. 1-2 m tall. 183. pedicels 10 or more in each ray. J. rays 20-40. terminal leaflets deeply 3-lobed. et al. emarginate at base. petiole broadly dilated at the base. Pharmacog. upper leaves small. 17. Korean Name: Goo-rit-dae English Name: Dahurian angelica Umbelliferae Parts used..induced lipolysis and others inhibit insulin-induced lipogenesis (1.) Benth. 1996. Headache. 74. lateral ribs winged. 331. Some furocoumarins activate adrenalin or ACTH. puberulent on margins and veins. Y. often as long as the pedicels. K. Description. Pharm. byakangelicins. Chemical components. whitish beneath.Aug. cedrelopsin. 19. (1982) Planta Med. Basal and lower leaves long-petiolate. east Siberia. Bio-Activities.H.H. C. (4) Shin. psoralen.

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 27 Angelica gigas Nakai Korean Name: Cham-dang-gui English Name: Giant angelica Umbelliferae Parts used. Root. 1-2 m tall. (1) Chi. angelinol. umbellets consisting of 20-40 flowers. northern China. hemiplegia. bracteoles 5-7. Korea. et al. perennial herb. (5) Okuyama. enlarged like leaf sheath. Pharmacog. often cultivated in Korea. linear-lanceolate. glabrous. J. 225. Fruit elliptic. odd 2-3 pinnate. Angelica gigas Nakai . nodakenin (5). 32. Purplish. H. 25. (1990) Kor. Flowers rather large. 8 mm long. 710. rays 15-20. (4) Ryu. Anti-platelet aggregation (nodakenin) (2). terminal segment rhombic. (1986) Planta Med.S. pubescent with purplish brown hairs. et al. ovary minutely punctate. women’s diseases. Japan. Aug. et al. K. segments long-elliptic or ovate. Description.4). bracts 1-2. References. Anaemia. (1970) Kor. (2) Ko. dilated purplish sheaths. Increase duodenum motility (1). 1. 21. (1991) Phytochemistry 30. sometimes 2-3 clefted again. decursinol. (1966) Tetrahedron Lett. upper leaves reduced to elliptic. T. J. Along mountain streams. 1461. D. 1986. Habitat. H. J. K. Bio-Activities. 64. Distribution.Sep. et al. with large wings. sharply double-serrate. dark purple. Inflorescence compound umbels at terminals. Basal and lower leaves long-petiolated. (1992) Kor. Decursin (3. et al. (6) Jung. Pharmacog. S. et al. leaflets deeply 3-lobed. A. gigasol (6). with thickened rhizomes. 5 mm wide. J. Pharmacog. J. Traditional uses. 23. (3) Hata. Chemical components. .

(2) Okuyama. 37. Anti-inflammatory activities (continentalic acid. 1683. and Takagaki. (7) Kawai. K. 7. Pharm. (1983) Arch. migraine. (4) Kataoka. Y. et al. 405. Inflorescence loosely branched raceme.6). styles 2-5. Essential oils (5). 3 mm across. (1989) Chem. Thickets and woody areas. Flowers small. (6) Mihashi. (1969) Tetrahedron Lett. E (7). Traditional uses. Various diterpene acids of pimarane and kaurane series (1. M. Description. B. Leaves alternate. Korean Name: Dok-whal English Name: Japanese spikenard Araliaceae Parts used. Aug. (1995) Nat. H. Med. to 2 m tall. Chemical components. K.-Oct.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 29 Aralia cordata Thunb. 17. (1973) Phytochemistry 12. et al. 530 cm long. D. Sesquiterpenes. China. Root. ovate. 468. (1) Han. more or less imbricate. (5) Yoshihara. deltoid in outline. Analgesic (2). longpetiolate. loosely short-pilose throughout except the flowers. (1993) Phytother. Pharm. et al. pale green. terminal or axillary on upper part of stems. Korea. 2318. Aralia cordata Thunb. Sometimes cultivated in Korea. et al. Spineless perennial herb. Young branched shoots are eaten in Korea and Japan. Fruit matured in Sep. Res. Antianaphylactic (4). . Fruit a drupe. 185. Bio-Activities. (3) Yasukawa. kaurenoic acid) (1). Antioedema (3). unequally serrate. ovary 2-5 celled. petals 5. sessile or short-petiolate. Common cold. C. 3-20 cm wide. et al. Pharm. especially along streams. 6. B. E. 2-3 pinnate. separate. Japan. Bull. Methylesters of udosaponins A. arranged in large panicles. Habitat. (1991) Chem. References. 39. H. 49. 346. stamens 5. Bull. Distribution. acuminate at tip. Res. S. pyrenes 2-5. leaflets of each pinna 5-7.

(2) Yun-Choi. lateral ones oblong-lanceolate. References. J. Tuber. (1986) Kor. et al. Headache. . Distribution. bearing 2 small tubers. diacylglycerylgalactosides (4). fibrous -3 roots spreading from the top of tuber.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 31 Arisaema amurense Maxim. H. Stemless.S. Chemical components.. Japan. Korea. 191. WA. margined with purple. Aralia cordata Thunb. 1986. 10-20 cm long. Description. Peduncle stout. Wet and shady areas in mountains. 4 cm long. middle one obovate. p. Herb. northern China. 2-4 cm in diameter. 5-6 cm long. J. and Li. 447. sputum remedy. segments 5. 19. C. (1984) Zhongcaoyao 15. inflammation of the lymphatic gland in the groin. Med. et al. A. (Materia Medica). expectorant. P. 254. Leaves pedate. D. (1996) Phytochemistry 42. 17. greenish and sometimes purple-striped. May-Jul. blade erect. perennial herb. and Gamble.H. Korean Name: Doong-geun-nip-chun-nam-sung English Name: Jack-in-the-pulpit Araceae Parts used. Platelet aggregation inhibition (2). (3) Lu. Habitat. Chin. shorter than petioles. or violet. Traditional uses. Pharmacog. Tuber depressed globose. Seattle. Anticonvulsant (1). tube pale green. spathe 10 cm long. Bio-Activities. petioles 15-30 cm long. Saponins (3). dry pleurisy. Spadix with terminal appendage cylindrical. Eastland Press. (4) Jung. with well developed tuber. (1) Bensky.

M. fascicled. narrowly deltoid. (1957) Yakugaku Zasshi 77. the calyx tubular. (1990) Kor. long-acuminate to a filiform point. Peduncles axillary. J. 3 cm in diameter. Traditional uses. 1996. Stem slender. World Sci. Cough. 812. acute or obtuse at tip. et al. with prominent bracts at base. immunostimulating. Co. Oxoaporphines: 4. Bio-Activities.. obliquely truncate. Pharmacog. entire. 1-4 cm long. Part I. 3. Jul.5-8 cm wide. (2) Lee. (3) Lee. Aristolactam derivatives and their N-glycosides: 8-desmethoxyaristolactam. cordate at base. carcinogen (aristolochic acid and derivatives) (1). J. sputum. et al. Chemical components. lysicamine (3). Fruit a capsule. Singapore. ovary inferior. et al. Japan. (1993) Kor. 42. cordate or broadly ovate-cordate.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 33 Aristolochia contorta Bunge Korean Name: Jui-bang-wool-deong-gool English Name: Birthwort Aristolochiaceae Parts used. 32. Aristolochia contorta Bunge . p. H. loosely pilose inside. the limb dilated. C. petioles 1-7 cm long. glabrous. H. (1) Kimura.S.5). Pub. Antimicrobial. stamens 6. T.. References. Distribution. Edges of mountain woods. NE-Asia.5-dioxodehydroasimilobine. Collation of Trad. Description. inflated and globose at base. 4-10 cm long. 42. the pedicels 1-4 cm long. Habitat. Pharmacog. et al. (5) Chang. Leaves alternate. Flowers few in axils. root. (1964) Yaoxue Xuebao 11. et al. antitumour.. Fruit. 6-hydroxy-8-desmethoxyaristolactam N-b-d-glucopyranoside (2). and Folk Med. 6 valved. northern China.S. Korea. 21. Intern.-Aug. (4) Tomita. Hypotensive (magnoflorine) (4. Climbing perennial shrub. 52. hallucinogen.C. 24. globose. with stout elongated rhizomes.

Artemisinin (1). 0. glabrous. 1515. in a loose panicle. powderly-puberulent above. Annual herb. the outer ones narrowly oblong. glabrous. acute. margin hyaline. Chim. World Sci. 441. Description. et al. 976. Prod. Distribution. median cauline leaves long-petiolate. immunoregulatory. Acta 67.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 35 Artemisia annua L. Roadsides. Japan. Habitat. stomachic. coumarins (2). sweetly aromatic. X. (1) Blanko. 1273. much branched. and Folk Med. 196. often nodding. bi.8 mm long. (3) Jeremic. NE-Asia. Artemisia annua L. to 10 cm long. p. G. fields. the ultimate segments linear or lanceolate. 1996. . (5) Luo. flavonoids.Aug. Nat. Korea. green. ovate in outline. Bio-Activities. Siberia.. dihydroartemistinin (5). antischistosomal. faintly nerved. corolla 1 mm long. 52. 51. phyllaries 2-3 seriate.S. Collation of Trad. the pinnae oblong. (1984) Helv. Herb. Jun. glabrous. (1988) J. short-toothed.. radical leaves withering early.7 mm long. 164. Traditional uses.or tri-pinnatifid. Leaves radical and cauline. about 2 mm across. disc flowers bisexual. Heads globose. et al. glandular-dotted. Achenes ellipsoid. upper leaves gradually smaller. et al. References. Antimalarial (artemisinin) (1). (4) El-Peraly. 0. Part I. Nat. the inner elliptic or obovare. Flowers yellow. T. Pub. involucres globose. arteannuin B. wasteland. Prod. tube 0. antibacterial (2). Fever. (2) Kimura. Co. China.5 mm long. ray flowers female. Stems furrowed. corolla 0. Intern. (1986) J.. Korean Name: Gae-tong-sook English Name: Sweet wormwood Compositae Parts used.3 mm wide. to eastern Europe. antirheumatic. D. Singapore. et al. C (3). artemisinic acid (4). (1981) Tetrahedron 30. to 1 m tall. Chemical components. D. . Essential oil.

sesquiterpenes (2). None recorded. Flavonoids. branched. Stems tufted. infected cholecystitis. Japan.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 37 Artemisia gmelini Weber ex Stechm. median leaves bi-pinnate. Distribution. in panicles. obtuse. southern Russia to Siberia.I. oblong. (1986) Phytochemistry 25. (1) Chemesova. et al. densely glandular dotted. 1. Perennial herb from woody rhizomes to 50-100 cm tall. tube 0. Leaf.5 mm across. Traditional uses. lower surface glandular dotted. Artemisia gmelini Weber ex Stechm. Comp. 1. phenylpropanoids. ovate. petioles 2-3 cm long. segments 6-10 pairs. 891. (2) Greger. Chemical components.-Oct. involucre globose.5 mm high. scopoletin (1). Korea.3 mm long.5-4. . hyperlipaemia. 364. acute. (1987) Chem. H. Rocky slopes from coast to mountains.8 mm long. upper leaves gradually smaller. Nat.8 mm long. nearly glabrous. Bio-Activities. Hepatitis. Korean Name: Deo-we-je-gee English Name: Russian wormwood Compositae Parts used. Habitat. China. the ultimate segment pinnately lobed. disc flowers bisexual. slightly woody at base. corolla narrowly tubular. 3-3. et al. Monoterpenes. Ray flowers female. References. phyllaries in 3 series. base truncate. I. stem. corolla 1. 19. Heads 3-3. Sep.5 mm wide. upper surface short pubescent.5 mm long. Description. Leaves cauline. Achenes 1.

(1) Qu. (5) Hashimoto. purplish. . borne singly near surface of ground. M.Apr. analgesic. et al. Description. Asarum sieboldii Miq. Bio-Activities. recurved on margin.. K. Flowers solitary on short pedicels. Fruit a fleshy. 60. limonene. campanulate. (1994) Planta Med. et al. Singapore. Shaded areas in mountain woods. perianth corolla. Chemical components. tranquilizing. Intern. sishinone. (2) Kimura.. Perennial. S. Phenylpropanoids (5). Mar. NE-Asia. Co. and Folk Med. stamens 12. References. Leaves in pairs. Antipyretic (1. Rhizomes with short internodes. headache. (1982) Yaoxue Xuebao 17. p. World Sci. the perianth tube depressed globose. corolla vestigial or none. 12. 36. . antitussive (2). Habitat. 43. Flavonoids. Traditional uses. borneol (4). Fever. styles 6. antibacterial. et al. Distribution. Pub. S. l-pinene. deltoid-ovate. Japan. rhizomatous stemless herb. Korean Name: Jok-do-ri English Name: Wild ginger Aristolochiaceae Parts used. to 8 cm wide. (3) Villegus. Y. Essential oil (2): methyleugenol. cough.. l-asarinin (3).like. 1996. Part I. (4) Yamaguchi. et al. the lobes 3-parted. Collation of Trad. kakuol. cordate or reniform-cordate. Root.2). (1988) Planta Med. 89. eucarvone. sesamine. 124. et al. globose capsule. 54.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 39 Asarum sieboldii Miq. safrole. abruptly acute. (1977) Tetrahedron Lett. Korea. T. petioles to 10 cm long.

1985. (3) Liang. separate. smooth. et al. (1984) Chem. Korea. Cladodes 1-3 in a fasicle. lustrous.Z. Flowers bisexual. 27. et al. Bull. References. filaments arising from base of perianth segments. True leaves scalelike. Z. 1-3. May . ripening to red. 295.) Merr. et al. anthelmintic.2 mm wide. aciculate at apex. shiny asparagus Liliaceae Parts used. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour. (1988) Planta Med. stamens 6. (2) Konishi. Furostanol oligoside (2). cough. 6 mm in diameter. Chemical components. Pharm. Distribution. 1-2 m tall. nodding in axils of cladodes.Jun. with short rhizomes and fusiform advantitious roots. . pseudoprotodioscin (3). Japan. p. Laos. antitumour (1). China. Nourishing. green leaflike branchlets. T.) Merr. 6-7 mm long. Korean Name: Cheon-moon-dong English Name: Cochinchinese asparagus. much branched..MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 41 Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour. 54. (1979) Chem. 1-2 cm long. Habitat. Fruit globose berry. 3850. pedicels 7-8 mm long. Tuber. Description. anthers versatile. jointed in the middle or above. Bull. 1-1. 32. methylprotogracilin (4). Traditional uses. Tech. Y. (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. 344. Japanese Transl. Pharm. slightly falcate. Near seashores. Antibacterial. Stems slender. linear. perianth segments 6. Subscandent perennial herb. whitish. yellowish. (4) Hirai. subtending narrow. flat. Viet Nam. 3086. Bio-Activities. Shanghai Sci. expectorant.

7 mm long. (1989) Chem. hairy. withering early. Ray flowers blue-purple.3 cm across. to 60 cm long including the long winged petiole. Aster tataricus L. 3-3. China. (4) Nagao. acuminate. Marshy areas in mountains. Triterpene saponins: aster saponins A. Basal leaves spatulate-oblong. lanceolate. dense shortpilose. (1) Nakaoki. Achenes 3 mm long. gradually smaller. (1990) Chem. (6) Tanaka. (1959) Yakugaku Zasshi 79. or ovate-lanceolate. T. R. stem leaves long-petiolate. Japan. Hd.5 m tall. Habitat. et al. Hc. 6-10 cm wide. linear. Chemical components. B. Triterpenes (1.f. Monoterpenes: shinoside A. Antitussive. . Bull. 1153. elliptic. T. 36. epifriedelinol. pedicels 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 43 Aster tataricus L. 1977. 1169. Bull. References. Bull. Ha. anticancer (epifriedelanol). F (5). Root.5 mm wide.f. C. 37. margin hyaline. 783. D (4). antimicrobial. E. lanceolate. (5) Nagao. (1990) Chem. Korean Name: Gae-me-chui English Name: Tartarian aster Compositae Parts used. 1281. disc flowers bisexual. Rhizomatous perennial herb.3. Antitussive. pappus 6 mm. et al. 38. (1988) Chem. to 30 cm long including petiole. Jul. (2) Takahashi. 16-17mm long. Bio-Activities. uppermost leaves nearly sessile. et al. et al. T. 571.2): shinone.Oct. Traditional uses. Bull. involucre hemispherical.5-5 cm long. yellow.5. Distribution. asthma. friedelin. to 1. Pharm. short-pilose. Siberia. Heads 2. loosely situlose. B (3). . Korea. et al. foetidissimoside (6). Pharm. Description. T. Hb. in large corymbs. (3) Nagao. Pharm. 38. phyllaries imbricate in three rows. Pharm. T. (1929) Yakugaku Zasshi 49. 13-15 mm across.

5-toothed. 31. odd. 15-18 mm long. Med. Bull. Fruit a 1-2 celled legume. platelet aggregation (7). Astragalus membranaceus Bunge . (2) Lau. (8) Yu. Res. et al. 9 united and 1 separate. calyx tubulose. (3) Zhao. W. 550.11 pairs. Root. 980. Antihypertensive (1). E. (9) Kitagawa. (1976) Planta Med. Tonic. (4) Muto. References. obtuse. -Amino butyric acid (1). energy-giving and haematic. J.S. macrophage stimulation (2). 15-20 mm long. 10. Isoflavonoids (8): astraisoflavan. (1990) Immunopharmacology 20. Lipids. stamens 10. antiulcer (4).S. Pharmacog. (1983) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37. pedicels 3 mm long. Flowers pea-like. J. 35. Jul. Korea. et al. Distribution. (1) Hikino. (5) Woo. -8 glabrous above.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 45 Astragalus membranaceus Bunge Korean Name: Whang-gi English Name: Milk vetch Leguminosae Parts used. et al. often cultivated in Korea.B. 5 mm wide. 94. Y. (1989) Phytother. Mountain thickets. leaflets 6. petiolate. et al. 3. 2-3 cm long. Traditional uses. 225. (1994) Yakugaku Zasshi 114. et al. 709. (1986) Zhongyao Tongbao 11. to 1 m tall. the teeth 1 mm long. Stems tufted. diuretic. inflated. woody at the base. stipules broadly lanceolate to linear. with scattered. (1979) Kor. (6) Hou. yellowish white. B.pinnate. Y. K. (1981) Chin. astrapterocarpan. Inflorescence racemes in axils. J. Pharm. H. Chemical components. Bio-Activities. Description. immunostimulation (3). ovate-ellipitic. (7) Itokawa. 5-10 mm long. pubescent beneath. Leaves alternate. 5 mm long. pendulous. (1983) Chem. northern China. 27. H. Short-pubescent perennial herb. 716. 689.H. et al. 223. interferon induction (6). entire.S.Aug. 698. 30. uterine stimulant (5). 148. Saponins (9): astragaloside I-IV. et al. minute hairs. 4 mm across. et al. and Lee. 297. Habitat. . sparsely branched. I. night sweats.

Habitat. Nat. 30-100 cm tall. with dense hairs. (1987) Planta Med. terminal ones larger. Japan. Rhizome. (9) Nishikawa. hypoglycaemic. ex Kitam. radical leaves withering before flowering. 651. ex Kitam. (1991) Yakugaku Zasshi 111.S. (2) Chen. Prod. 442. bipinnate. S. tonic activity (3). References. 10-12 mm long. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. H. Bio-Activities. Y. Description. Chemical components. pinnately 3 segmented. 53. Achenes cylindric. prominent veins beneath. 8-9 mm long. segments bristle-like. as long as head. et al.Oct. Oriental Healing Art Institute. et al. (5) Kiso. Korea. glutamate-pyruvate transaminase inhibition (5). carotenoid. 493. northern China.2). 15-20 mm across. petioles 3-8 cm. sesquiterpenes. 138. L. 132. 20. acetoxy-atractylon. 8-11 cm long. (1994) Phytomedicine 1. corolla white. long-petioled. (1989) Kor. D. 48. Z. Nat. the upper leaves small and simple. . 363. Leaves radical and cauline. liver-protective activity against CCl4induced hepatotoxicity (4). K. obtuse or rounded at tip. Gastrointestinal disorder. (6) Yun-Choi. 17 mm high. 390. phyllaries in 7-8 rows. Woods in hills and mountains. -5 short-spinulose on margin. Polyacetylene: 1. (1983) Yakugaku Zasshi 103. 9-11 mm long. Pharmacog. Distribution. et al. cauline leaves obovate. oedema. Essential oil: hinesol. (4) Chang.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 47 Atractylodes japonica Koidz. . H. Long Beach. (1988) Kor. 19. corolla white. (1976) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 30. segments elliptic or obovate-oblong. 1. ATP-ase inhibition (7). Korean Name: Sab-joo English Name: Japanese atractylodes Compositae Parts used. I. 10-14 mm across. (8) Yu.10diyne (10). (1) Kubo. tranquilizing.5-2 mm wide. 96. 55. elemol. p. et al. (10) Yim. involucre campanulate. 228. Y. et al. glabrous and lustrous above. Heads terminal.-Y.S. M. subsessile. Perennial herb. (1983) J. et al. bisexual flowers tubular. Atractylodes japonica Koidz. diaphoretic. J. -M. (3) Hsu. CA.12-diene-8. 3-hydroxyatractylon (9). Female flowers narrowly tubular. atractylodin. pappus brownish. Pharmacog. platelet aggregation inhibition (6). with knotty rhizomes. bracteal leaves 2-seriate. Stomachic (1. (7) Satoh. Traditional uses. et al.4-diacetoxytetradeca-6. 46. J. (1985) J. Sep. beta-eudesmol. Prod. tumour promotion inhibition (8). diuretic. et al. mastitis.

5-lipoxygenase inhibition (3). tonsilitis. antibacterial (1). starlike. about equal. Description. iristectorigenin A and B (6). Japan. 20. 30-50 cm long 2-4 cm wide. equitant. glaucose. China. 1 cm long. Pharm. S. irisflorentin. 29. laterally flattened. antiallergy. Fruit a capsule. Stems erect. Isoflavonoids: dimethyltectorigenin. 22. leafy towards the base. (1991) Chem. (2) Hu. valves reflexing and exposing column covered with glossy black seeds resembling a blackberry. (6) Eu.O. twisting spirally as they fade. Jul. narrowly ovate. Leaves mostly basal and lower cauline. Traditional uses.Aug. (1989) Kor. M. antiviral (4). northern India. Belamcanda chinensis (L. Rhizome. to 5 cm across. Mountain woods. 1877. Habitat. Korea. (1982) Chung Yao Tung Pao 7. Hardy perennial herb with stout rhizome. J. muningin. (1984) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 38. 219. et al. (5) Namba. 6. plaque formation suppressant (5). 13. (1991) Kor. (1) Lee. the -5 pedicels 4-5 cm long. Pharmacog. et al. 253. 39. Inflorescence loosly corymose at terminals. L. Bull. anti-inflammatory (2). et al. Pharmacog. flattened and emarginate at apex. ensiform. J. Korean Name: Bum-boo-chae English Name: Blackberry lily. (1993) Antiviral Res. Distribution. perianth segments acute.H. style branches 3. tectoridin (1). not united. 22. Flavonoids: iridin. Bio-Activities. the bracts 4 at the apex. et al. filaments reddish-purple. Flowers deep orange with red dots. T. . Chemical components. Y. Antifungal. Sore throat. pharyngitis. (3) Fukuyama. G.) DC . often cultivated for ornamental purposes.) DC. X. 175. 50100 cm tall. 1-2 branched. et al. leopard flower Iridaceae Parts used.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 49 Belamcanda chinensis (L. (4) Kurokawa. References.

oleanolic acid. hyperoside (4). with brownish axillary hairs. Leaves alternate. (1) Yokota. glabrous or sparsely short-pilose beneath. Japan.5-2 cm long. Description. betulafolienetriol. haematic. et al. betulafolienetetraol (2). Triterpenoids. Tonic. petioles 1. Soc. 199. betuloside. betulafolianediol. grandular. borne in catkins. Bark. internal disease. unequally serrate. 1607. J. 4-6 cm wide. H. Deciduous. paeonol. (2) Chi. Flavonoids. Korea 19. Betula platyphylla var. wings 1. myricitrin. and Han. female catkins becoming conelike. monoecious tree to 20 m tall. hemiphloin. japonica Hara . (1978) Yakugaku Zasshi 98. References. H. Branchlets dark purple-brown. (1975) J. male catkins forming in autumn. Chemical components.2 mm long. lupeol. and opening in spring. (1977) Phytochemistry 16. Pharmacog. Traditional uses. M. Pharm. . remaining naked during the winter. Antifungal activity (1). (3) Han. Distribution.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 51 Betula platyphylla var. northern China. mostly broadly cuneate at base. High mountain elevations. J. Apr. ripening in Sep.2-2. platyphyllin. acuminate. B. Flowers unisexual. puberulous. 25. (1994) Kor. inflammation. Bio-Activities. betulin. platypyllonol. ovate to triangular-ovate. B. 1075.5-2 times wider than the nuts. Korea. (4) Lee. with white bark. betulafolienepentaol (3). W. and Song. with 3-lobed scales. M.May. betuligenol. H. B.J. myricetin. 159. 1. Nuts narrowly obovate to ovate. Habitat. japonica Hara Korean Name: Ja-jag-na-moo English Name: Japanese white birch Betulaceae Parts used. 5-7 cm long.

lanceolate. Shanghai Sci. 1985. Erect perennial herb with short thick rather large rhizome. densely flowered. 3-8 cm long. calyx 3 mm long. References. Rhizome. acuminate. 1331. broadly ovate. Spike solitary. (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. stamens 8. Distribution. northern China. whitish beneath. Tannins. Basal leaves long-petiolate. Fruit achene. Chemical components. enclosed in persistent perianth. Traditional uses. cordate at base. Jun. p. Sunny areas in mountain valleys and lowlands. Flowers pale pink or white.. cylindrical. Bistorta manshuriensis Kom. officinalis. Japanese Transl. Description. 3 mm long. terminal on peduncle 30-80 cm long. Korean Name: Bum-ko-ri English Name: Asian bistort Polygonaceae Parts used. 5-lobed. B. shows haemostatic activity (1). 3-7 cm wide. Flavonoids.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 53 Bistorta manshuriensis Kom. . Korea. Bio-Activities. styles 3. Diarrhoea. upper ones almost sessile. lower stem leaves similar as basal leaves. Tech. 5-10 cm long. Jul. Habitat. Related species.

Korea.spatulate. et al. et al. 38. Stems erect. antiinflammatory (2). 37. 43. compressed. A. 121. et al. (1990) Chem. Intern. D. M. 274. Traditional uses. et al. 1543. 28. M. in compound umbels. 2-7 rays. Description. narrowed at base. 2367. (5) Koda. 1996. A. 16. Fruit 5 mm long. T. Co. et al. 4 -10 cm long. (8) Kobayashi.7). S. 1231. anaesthetic (3). hepatotonic (1). P (8). (1) Kimura. Glabrous perennial herb. Sep. to 20 cm long. T. 5-15 mm wide. to Europe. K. Japan. bractlets 2. H. apoplexy. antiallergenic (5). Chemical components. Bull. (9) Morita. 18. (7) Yamazaki.5-4 mm long. Aug. Fever. Grassy areas on hills and mountain slopes. saikodiynes A. acuminate. et al. 641. . branched above. B. NE-Asia. involucels with broadly linear to oblong bractlets.. Pharm. hepatitis. and Folk Med. Collation of Trad. (1977) Tetrahedron Lett. stem leaves rather thick and firm. Bull. Root. Part I. Pub. slender. Bio-Activities. Bull. (1982) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 80. (4) Nikaido. umbels numerous. (1968) Chem. the base narrowed to petiole-like. References. (2) Ishii. et al. (6) Shibata. (1981) Planta Med. (1991) Phytochemistry 30. Pharm. 31. with linear-lanceolate bracts shorter than rays. Pharm.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 55 Bupleurum falcatum L. 3169. Antipyretic. C (9). Flowers yellow. (3) Sugaya. Saiko-saponins (2. 40-70 cm tall. broadly linear to lanceolate. Distribution. (1979) Planta Med. umbellets 5-10 flowered. analgesic. entire. et al.. Siberia. Singapore. Radical leaves simple. saikogenins A. (1987) Chem. Bupleurum falcatum L. cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibition (4). linear to oblong. p.. with prominent parallel nerves. World Sci. Habitat.6. C. et al. sedative. E. G. Korean Name: See-ho English Name: Hare’s-ear Umbelliferae Parts used. China. involucre 0-15 mm long.

Fruit ripened in Sep. northern China. Flowers reddish-yellow. 62. Distribution.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 57 Caragana sinica (Buc’hoz) Rehder Korean Name: Gol-dam-cho English Name: Chinese pea shrub Leguminosae Parts used. 38. 9 united and 1 separate. S. 41. bone weakness. Leaves alternate. small. 1-3 cm long. Res. 2. entire.2). dark green. Caragana sinica (Buc’hoz) Rehder . et al. Traditional uses. Y. leaflets in 2 pairs. 432. (1992) Arch. 15. P. cylindrical legume. ring-like node in the middle. and Kim. Korea.H. even-pinnate.H. Habitat. 5. (1990) Chem. obovate or elliptic. remote from one another. I. (1974) Kor. Hardy shrub. J. 179. et al. neuralgia. (2) Kitanaka. pedicels 1 cm long. long-clawed. Bio-Activities. (3) Kulanthaivel. stipules 4-8 mm long spines. B. References. Saponins: caraganosides (4). Root. slightly retuse or rounded at tip. Pharmacog. glossy.5-3 cm long. Pharm. (1995) Planta Med. Fruit linear. Bull. Pharm. solitary at axils. straight. Open slopes on mountains. May. stamens 10. protein kinase C inhibition (3). rachis turned into bristle at tip. Chemical components. 61. to 2 m tall. glabrous. (1) Kwak. diarrhoea. (4) Lee. Stilbenes (3). J. Anti-inflammatory (1. Description. Arthritis. papilionaceous.

H. Safflor yellow (6). Japanese Transl. (3) Kosuge. abdominal pain. 363. receptacle scaly. platelet aggregation inhibition (5). safflower Compositae Parts used. 320. constricted above a papery base. Amenorrhoea. corolla 5-lobed. Stems branching above. . et al. 45. flavonoids. Nat. cytotoxic (3). (2) Hsu. Chemical components. (5) Yun-Choi. Inflorescence broad corymb. Uterine stimulating. much cultivated in the Old World. (1985) J. Jul. sessile. 442. tacheloside (8). H. et al. stiff biennial. (9) Saito. Prod. (8) Nishibe. H. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 59 Carthamus tinctorius L. 1985.S. 49. N-feruloyl tryptamine. Y. (1982) Tetrahedron Lett. CA. Flowers all tubular.2). et al. 2629A. lochioschesis. 2969. 791. . 48. 2 cm long. (1985) Agr. 6 mm long. Pigment: carthamin. hypotensive (1. spreading. Commonly cultivated. 4-ribbed. et al. et al. Biol. Mediterranean region to central Asia. N-feruloylserotonin (9). antigenic (4). linear. contraceptive. bastard saffron. (1985) Yakugaku Zasshi 105.M. S. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. to 1 m tall. orange-yellow. References. T. 3-5 head borne on leafy peduncles. Habitat. (1983) Vox Sang. Steroids. 2.-Y. polyacetylenes.. Description. involucral bracts green. et al.Aug. Tech. gla1brous. (6) Takahashi. 1360.5-4 cm across. (7) Kitagawa. (1972) Phytochemistry 11. (4) Wang. Bio-Activities. Traditional uses. p. Oriental Healing Art Institute. Heads terminal. Flower. coronary dilating. Achenes white. Korean Name: Ik -kot English Name: False saffron. Carthamus tinctorius L. 1635. (1984) Phytochemistry 23. et al. Long Beach. minutely spinytoothed. Glabrous. X. Chem. Leaves alternate. Arctigenin (7). (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. leafy. p. Distribution. 23. pappus lacking. broadly oblanceolate to ovate. Shanghai Sci. 5163.

Habitat. S. 521. obtusin.S. Traditional uses. emodin. with 7 fertile and 3 abortive anthers. Philippines. Seed. Naphthopyrones (1). et al. 8-12 cm long. Pharm. Antibacterial (1. glaucoma. (1984) Chem. Bull. Toralactone. Anthraquinones (3). Leaves alternate. liver protection. Description. (4) Wong. (1990) J. et al. oblong-ovate to obovate. 4-angled. H. (2) Kitanaka. Korea. (1989) Planta Med. (3) Yun-Choi. Chemical components. rubrofusarin.K. stipules linear lanceolate. .5). oedema. nor-rubrofusarin. antiyeast (7). S. (1988) Phytochemistry 28. even-pinnate. stamens 10. Distribution. 36. Bio-Activities.Bull. yellow. Japan. with thick margins. 55. 10. Fruit linear pod. North America. attenuate at base. 32. S. leaflets in 2 pairs. cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitory activities (6). nyctalopia. S. and their glycosides. anti-platelet aggregation (3).M. Nat. (7) Mukherjee. chryso-obtusin. Flowers grouped 1-2 in leaf axils. et al. (6) Nikaido. (1996) Phytother. nearly regular. et al. rubrofusaringentiobioside. hepatoprotective (4. P. et al. to 1 m. Res. (1) Kitanaka. T. Indonesia. Korean Name: Gin-gang-nam-cha English Name: Sicklepod Leguminosae Parts used. aurantio-obtusin. Viet Nam. China. India. References. to 20 cm long. Oct. Pharm. chrysophanol. Erect annual. (5) Wong. 276. torachrysone. 3 cm long. Constipation. obtusifolin. et al. 5-merous. Widely cultivated. antifungal.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 61 Cassia tora L.M.2). Prod. 302. 630. falling early. (1988) Chem. 3980. Cassia tora L. 3075. showy. -4 -4 obtuse. (1986) Yakugaku Zasshi 106. 211. 53.

Fruit ripening in Sep. Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne . sepals 5. Mostly planted for fruit. Flavonoids: quercetin. glabrous outside. (1970) Chem. and Takagaki. ascorbic acid. hydrocyanic acid. et al. (1954) Zhongyao Tiyao 24. 18. et al. Fruit fragrant subglobose pome. Bull. petals 5. short pilose at base. woolly above. (1992) Kor. elliptic ovate or lanceolate. (3) Kataoka. common cold. stipules linear. glandularserrate. calyx with whitish hairs inside. M. but becoming glabrous in the second year. tuberculosis. Y. yellow. Asthma. et al. liver protection. Mutagenic.H. Habitat. Pharm. 130. Leaves alternate. gland-toothed. (1987) Chem. harsh throat. 23. (6) Hikino. 752. Fruit. (1995) Nat. 2. 13.5-3 cm across. Bio-Activities. (1) Jung. 49. (4) Yu. styles 5. Chemical components. anti-HIV activity (quercetin) (1). obovate. Med. Organic acids (4): malic acid. with glandular hairs at margins. Description. antianaphylactic activity (3). Branchlets pubescent. 8-15 cm long. J. rutin. References. 7 -10 cm long. (5) Kuroyanogi. to 10 m tall. Traditional uses. widely planted in Korea. carpels fused along the inner side only. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. China. M.Y. aldose reductase inhibition (2). 280.W. pink. Pharm. 172. Isozedoarondiol (5).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 63 Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne Korean Name: Mo-gua-na-moo English Name: Chinese quince Rosaceae Parts used. K. (2) Shin. Thornless. May. Distribution. in 1 row. Flowers solitary. isofuranogermacrene (6). entire. et al. stamens 20 or more. H. Pharmacog. mastitis. D. 35. K. 346. deciduous tree. pubescent beneath and becoming glabrous later. Bull.

chelerythrine. (1994) J. stomach cancer. et al. few-flowered. et al. (1969) J. Stems. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi Korean Name: Ae-gi-tong-pool English Name: Celandine Papaveraceae Parts used. 2 cm wide. Chelidonium majus var. 7-15 cm long. yellow-green. 123. petals 4. 58. pedicelled. 543.Aug. to 2 cm across. coptisine. chelidonine. chelidamine. (2) Seel. naturalized widely in other places. (1) Kim. 633. 372. 5-10 cm wide. branched. antioxidant (3).Y. Herb. Habitat. Sunny open places. et al. 71. stylopine. berberine. often hairy outside. pistils 1. Anal. with orange-coloured sap secreted when stems cut. becoming glabrate later. (1939) Hippocrates 10. Inflorescence axillary umbels.F. Soc. 65. (1991) J. pedunculate. H. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi . Distribution. May . et al. Cytotoxicity (1). 30-80 cm tall. antitussive. 3-4 cm long. Anodyne. (1991) Phytochem. Leaves deeply 1-2 pinnatifid. Chemical components. Pharm.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 65 Chelidonium majus var. with multicellular curled hairs early. Oil Chem. (3) Kim. protopine. H. analgesic. Traditional uses. S. stamens many. 2. 1281. obtusely toothed and incised. (5) Bugatti. falling early. Bio-Activities. References. Flowers yellow. analgesic (2). Fruit a cylindrical capsule. Amer. Chromatogr. C.K. Sci. detoxicant. Alkaloids (4. Biennial herb. 6-8 mm long. sepals 2. obtuse. 10-12 mm long. Description. (4) Han. et al. L. glaucous beneath. Asia.5): sanguinarine. Europe. erect.

Apr. (1) Uchida. northern China. creeping rhizomes.3). et al. 48. membranaceous and scalelike toward the base. Biol. (1995) Phytochemistry 39. -3 -5 Flowers white. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi . References. filaments white and conspicuous.2. spreading 4-5 mm long. Chemical components. obtuse. 28. Mountain woods. Bull. the uppermost consisting of 2 ordinary pairs simulating a whorl of 4 leaves. J. shortly connate below and adnate to the ovary. to 20-30 cm tall. 4-12 cm long. erect. Spikes usually simple. Traditional uses. et al. 2-6 cm wide. None reported. Chelidonium majus var. 92. ovate or elliptic. Chem. simple. M. et al. solitary. sessile. sharply serrate. Korea. Japan. (1980) Chem. (3) Kawabata. Pharm. 713.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 67 Chloranthus japonicus Siebold Korean Name: Hol-ah-bee-kot-dae English Name: Chloranthus Chloranthaceae Parts used. (2) Kawabata. Bio-Activities. Rhizome. petioles 10-15 mm long. Description. Glabrous perennial herb from short. 2 cm long. Coumarins (2). J. Leaves small. Distribution. Habitat. Sesquiterpenes (1. Stems erect. (1984) Agr. Dermatopathia. enteric fever. peduncle 2 cm long. abruptly acute. 121. linear.

(1995) Planta Med. 832. glabrous. 71. rattletop Ranunculaceae Parts used. sepals 4-5. Fever. (2) Hirabayashi. Mountain woods. Bull.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 69 Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. Fruit of follicles. headache. Soc. long-petiolate.Sep. white. stamens many. Flowers small. . (3) Li. in long compound racemes. et al. References. pistils 1-8. Aug. (1) Kim. Amer. clawed. S. et al. (1993) Chem. J. many-ovuled. ternately 1-2 clefted. Traditional uses. Cycloartenol triterpenes (3). dark-purple root. Antioxidant (1). et al. petals 3-4. Chemical components. Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. Pharm. China. . Distribution. 633. small. leaflets petiolulate. T. Description. Rhizome. 221. ovate. Habitat.Y. Bio-Activities. Korea. many. 41. falling early. 61. Interleukin-8 induction inhibition (2). sessile. perennial herb with thickened. petaloid. Leaves large.K. irregulary toothed. Upright. acuminate. slightly cordate at base. Oil Chem. (1994) J. to 1 m tall. Korean Name: Seung-ma English Name: Bugbane.

(1) Son.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 71 Cirsium japonicum var. Serotonin secretion inhibition (1). 261. to 30 cm long. Flavonoids (2). involucre campanulate. to 50-100 cm tall. headache. pinnately lobed. solitary or in clusters of 2-3 on the ends of branches. Chemical components. Open sunny places. purplish or rose. stem leaves alternate. (1995) Phytochemistry 39. References. margins spiny. J. Habitat. Heads to 4 cm across. ussuriense Kitamura Korean Name: Ung-gung-qui English Name: Japanese thistle Compositae Parts used. clasping. Herb. et al. Traditional uses. receptacle densely bristly. pubescent on nerves beneath. lassitude. involucral bracts imbricate in several rows. Bio-Activities. (1994) Korean J. Perennial herb. Cough. Flowers all tubular.H. Distribution. Cirsium japonicum var. swelling. glabrous. spine-tipped. (2) Park. Description. anti-inflammatory.Aug. Jun. oblong. sparsely pubescent above. K. pinnately cut. Achenes 4 angled. pappus of plumose bristles united basally in a ring and falling as a unit. spiny toothed. pneumonia. ussuriense Kitamura . Basal leaves obovateoblong. Japan. . 167. ovoid. 25. et al. Korea.C. Pharmacog. anthers tailed.

(10) Nogata. et al. (1994) Biol. (5) Matsuda. Flowers white. Chemical components. K. (1940) Osaka Igakkai Zasshi 39. B (11). Monoterpenes. united in bundles. (1988) Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 62. Traditional uses. et al.2) and movement (3). et al. Chromatogr. T. T. (11) Umehara. flavonoids (10). (7) Ichikawa. 37. 5-7 cm long. lanceolate or broad-lanceolate. synephrine (4). M. glandular-dotted. smooth muscle relaxant activity (7). Phenylpropanoids (8). stamens about 20. citroside A. 59. Evergreen. Jun. without spines. 345. Origin unknown. (4) Kinoshita. Fruit an aromatic. carpel. 649. 17. et al. et al. Bull. 52. Leaves alternate. 3-4 cm in diameter. Description. (1981) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 35. to 5 m tall. 146. (1942) Osaka Igakkai Zasshi 41. common cold. Distribution. petioles narrowly winged or wingless. Pericarp. H. Dyspepsia. M. (1989) Chem. tyrosinase inhibition (5). Pharm. sesquiterpenes (9). Stimulation of gastric secretion (1. K. leathery-skinned berry (a hesperidium). A 667. with 8-15 cells or internal segments with juicy pulp. (1994) J. Bull. Pharm. antibacterial (6). glandular-dotted. 5004. 295. phlegm. (8) Sawabe. Citrus unshiu Markovich . (1941) Osaka Igakkai Zasshi 40. 1417. petals 5. S. (2) Ikuda. (6) Namba. et al. liver disease. obtuse at base. Pharm. 36. (3) Suga. (1985) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 39. Cultivated in the southernmost part of Korea.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 73 Citrus unshiu Markovich Korean Name: Geul English Name: Japanese sweet orange Rutaceae Parts used. (1) Ikuda. (1988) Chem. 1. Bio-Activities. (9) Namba. et al. Y. A. T. entire or serrulate. calyx 5-lobed. 711. small tree. Habitat. (1979) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 33. et al. fragrant. cough. Bull. but possibly Japan. serotonin antagonism (4). bisexual. 2072. 1067. References.

p. white. obovate-elliptic. Ranunculaceae Korean Name: Eu-ah-ri English Name: Virgin’s bower. 1-2 cm long. 1703. Fruit an ovoid achene.K. (1965) Tetrahedron Lett. fragrant. (1) Hsu. Flowers in axillary panicles. Pharmacog. (4) Stamos. Jun. antidiuretic (1). C (3). hederagenin. A’. antifungal. 17. Chem. N. Long Beach. . Org. (1986) Korean J. glabrous. Habitat. sepals petaloid. Korea. Description.K. base. entire. sputum remedy. . H. acuminate at apex. I. (3) Kochetkov. Leucorrhoea. stamens many. menostasis. 328. anemonin (4). Herbaceous climbing vine.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 75 Clematis mandschurica Rupr. Clematosides A. opening flat.S. to 2m tall. (1977) J. Clematis mandschurica Rupr. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. emmenagogue. H. Oriental Healing Art Institute. glabrous. northern China. (2) Yun-Choi. vase vine Parts used. CA. References. pinnately compound. et al. B. et al. 4-5. Root. petals none. 42. rounded at -7. Antibacterial. 19. leather flower. neuralgia. Bio-Activities. et al. leaflets 5 ovate. Traditional uses. Low elevations in mountains.Aug. hypotensive. with a long feathery style of 2 cm. Distribution. platelet aggregation inhibition (2). 2201. analgesic. Chemical components. Leaves opposite.-Y. dysentery.

(9) Ohnishi. anti-inflammatory. T. antispasmodic (4). ferulic acid (10). (1987) Chem. B. antifebrile. 87. 12. Leaves petiolate. Traditional uses. (7) Kim. S. unwinged. (1) Matsumoto. Bull. inotropic effect (6). (5) Kim. neocnidilide. Res. 51. Senkyunolides B. carpels subterete in cross section. weakness. anaemia. Chem. 71. T. Erect perennial herb with thickened root. antibacterial (5). Vasodilating (1). Chemical components. et al. (3) Ohmoto. Amer. Women’s diseases. linear. 28. (8) Naito. Pharm. Oil Chem. References. butylphthalide.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 77 Cnidium officinale Makino Korean Name: Cheon-gung English Name: Cnidium Umbelliferae Parts used. butylidenephthalide. 639. sedative (2).Y. Umbels compound. cultivated in Korea. 14. (4) Ka. (1975) Hokkaido Eisei Kenkyusho 25. with many rays. K. 662. petals 5. et al. Soc. et al. pregnenolone. (1978) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 74. involucre and involucel bracts 5-6 respectively. Aug.J. et al. (2) Kanashima. (1991) Arch. ribs thick. Fruit ovoid-globose. coniferyl ferulate. long-sheathed at base. sharply serrate. S. China. rather large. (1994) J. et al. antioxidant activity (7). 1427. vanillin. Distribution.9): cnidilide. Mostly cultivated. 35. 30-60 cm tall. (1992) Phytochemistry 31. C. M. calyx-teeth obsolete. analgesic. Phthalides (8. 1449. obtuse. stylopodium elongated-conical. et al. senkyunolide. (1989) Yakugaku Zasshi 109. (1987) Agr. (10) Kobayashi.M. leaflets ovate or lanceolate. intestinal blood flow increasing (3). Rhizome. et al. H. (1958) Gifu Ikadaigaku Kiyo 6. Bio-Activities. 554. (1985) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 39. Description. Cnidium officinale Makino . ligustilide. (6) Nakazawa. et al. obovate with an incurved apex. 633. incised. A. et al. Biol. 171. Habitat. Pharm. 2-pinnately compound. Flowers white. pain.



Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Korean Name: Man-sam English Name: Bonnet bellflower


Parts used. Root. Traditional uses. Fatigue, diarrhoea, vomiting, nourishing. Description. Twining perennial herb, to 2 m tall, with tuberous root 30 cm long, herbage strong-smelling when crushed. Leaves alternate, opposite on short stem, simple, ovate, 1 cm long, 1 -5 -3.5 cm wide, obtuse at base, pilose. Flowers solitary on elongate, naked peduncles; calyx 5- lobed, the lobes leaflike; corolla rotate to campanulate, 5 -lobed, pale greenish, flushed purple apically, 2.5 cm long, 1.5 cm across; stamens 5. Fruit capsule, 2.5 cm across. Aug. Habitat. Mountain woods. Distribution. Korea, northern China. Bio-Activities. Haematopoietic effect (1). Chemical components. Saponins (1). Steroids, triterpenes (2). Furfural derivatives (3). References. (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. 1985, p. 3916, Shanghai Sci. Tech., Jap. Transl. (2) Wong, M.P. et al. (1983) Planta Med. 49, 60. (3) Lee, I.R. (1978) Yakhak Hoeji 22, 1.

Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.



Cornus officinalis Siebold et Zucc. Korean Name: San-soo-yoo English Name: Japanese cornelian cherry


Parts used. Pseudocarp. Traditional uses. Spermatorrhoea, impotence, enuresis, liver protection. Description. Deciduous shrub to 7 m tall. Branches glabrous, terete. Leaves simple, entire, opposite, ovate, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 4-12 cm long, 2.5-6 cm wide, acuminate with obtuse tip, rounded at base, with tufts of brown hairs in axils of veins beneath; petioles 5-15 mm long, pubescent. Inflorescence umbels to 2 cm across, 20-30 flowered, short-pedunculate; involucral bracts 4, falling early, 6-8 mm long, elliptic, acute. Flowers yellow, appearing before leaves, bisexual, 4-merous, small, 4-5 mm across; pedicels about 1 cm long, loosely appressed-pilose. Fruit a 2-celled, 2-seeded drupe, oblong, 1.5-2 cm long, red. Mar. - Apr. Fruit ripening in Aug. Habitat. Mainly cultivated for ornamental purposes and for fruit. Distribution. Korea, China. Bio-Activities. Improvement of experimental diabetes (1), antihistaminic, CNS -depressing (2), antibacterial (3), DNA polymerase inhibition, RNA reverse transcriptase inhibition (4). Chemical components. Iridoids (5): morroniside, loganin, sweroside. Tannins (6), lectins (7). References. (1) Yamahara, J. (1981) Yakugaku Zasshi 101, 86. (2) Ito, T. (1961) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 57, 15. (3) Choe, T.Y. (1986) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 17, 302. (4) Ono, K. et al. (1989) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37, 1810. (5) Endo, T. et al. (1973) Yakugaku Zasshi 93, 30. (6) Okuda, T. et al. (1984) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32, 4662. (7) Chung, S. R. (1993) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 24, 177.

Cornus officinalis Siebold et Zucc.



Corydalis ternata Nakai Korean Name: Deul-hyun-ho-sag English Name: Three-leaf corydalis


Parts used. Tuber. Traditional uses. Pain, menorrhalgia, headache, abdominal pain. Description. Glabrous, perennial herb with globose tuber. Rhizomes spreading horizontally underground to form small tubers. Stems branched at base, 15 cm tall. Leaves alternate, ternately divided; petioles long, but becoming shorter for upper leaves; leaflets elliptic, ovate or obovate, 8 -20 mm long, 3-16 mm wide, incisely serrate, green above, bluish-grey beneath. Inflorescence terminal racemose, bracteate; bracts oblanceolate, 1 cm long, 3 mm wide, leaflike, but entire, becoming smaller as going up. Flowers pedicelled, 15-18 mm long, rose-purple. Apr. Habitat. Fields and low mountain slopes. Distribution. Korea. Bio-Activities. Antioxytocic, spasmolytic (1), platelet aggregation inhibition (2). Chemical components. No phytochemistry conducted. References. (1) Lee, E.B. and Lee, Y.S. (1991) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 22, 246. (2) Yun-Choi, H.S. et al. (1986) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 17, 19.

Corydalis ternata Nakai

Habitat. antibacterial. et al.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 85 Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge Korean Name: San-sa English Name: Hawthorn. east Siberia. (1978) Chem. platelet aggregation inhibition (2). light red. triangular-ovate. (1984) Yakugaku Zasshi 104. (5) Nakajima. Fruit a small pome with 5 or fewer 1 -seeded nutlets. to 2 cm long. 157. induce menstruation. Thorny. Distribution. 87.Oct. Pharm.S. Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge . Branchlets glabrous. Leaves alternate. (3) Ohmoto. References. quercetin.-Y. H. M. sexangularetin (5). Bull. white. 26. Pharm. anthers red. ripening in Sep. 363. stipules -6 serrate. 48. 5-10 cm long. et al. ursolic acid. Fruit. May. with stout spines. Bio-Activities. sepals and petals 5. Amygdalin. slightly toothed on upper margin. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Chemical components. . small tree. -9 dark green above. tartaric acid. Prod. 36. Abdominal distension. thorn. citric acid (4). Korea. pinnately 5 lobed. the lobes obtuse. lustrous on both sides. Long Beach. cholesterol level lowering activities (1). p. et al. to 6 m tall. stamens 20. crataegalic acid. petiole 2 cm long. (1985) J. 1437. Mountain woods. Traditional uses. diarrhoea. CA. et al. Flowers few. pain. northern China. Nat. Digestive. chlorogenic acid (3). (1988) Chem. 5-8 cm across. (2) Yun-Choi. deciduous. hypotensive. vasodilating. T. Description. H. thorn apple Rosaceae Parts used. Bull. H. in corymbs. finely dotted. cultivated in Japan. (1) Hsu. (4) Nishizawa. 727 Oriental Healing Art Institute.

B. 1507. et al. the lobes narrowly ovate. E.X. (1985) Chem. (2) Zhang. Inflorescence -2 terminal and in upper axils. Pharm. acuminate to short-acuminate. Cynanchum ascyrifolium Matsumura . petioles 1 cm long. corolla white. 757. Calyx segments broadly lanceolate. Japan. green above.4). pedunculate. pedicels 1 cm -3 long. et al. cynatratosides A. 15 mm across. 4-8 cm wide. Pharm. C (2. X. C. et al. Erect.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 87 Cynanchum ascyrifolium Matsumura Korean Name: Min-baek-mee-kot English Name: Cruel plant. References. Chemical components. 4-6 cm long. (1983) Chem. cynajapogenin A (1). 33. Leaves opposite.Jul. T. Thickets in hills and mountains. or ovate. (4) Nakagawa. northern China. Follicles broadly lanceolate. glabrous on both surfaces. paler beneath. 870. 23. slightly shorter than the gynostegium. May . Traditional uses. 8 mm wide. Mosquito plant Asclepiadaceae Parts used. few-branched. Bull. B. D. (1982) Tetrahedron Lett. Description. C. (3) Nakagawa. C. 8 -10 mm long. glabrous. D (1). Related plant. B. T. (1988) Phytochemistry 27. 2935. Habitat. Distribution. 8-15 cm long. diuretic. crisped-hairy herb. coronalobes ovate-deltoid. 21. et al. Bull. atratosides A. 30-60 cm tall. Root. Z. Antipyretic. Bio-Activities. oblong. (1) Zhang. Korea. glaucogenin A. Z. elliptic.3. No activities reported. atratum Bunge contains: Atratogenin A.

139. Bull. H. Sarcostine-. 2294. Follicles lanceolate. broadly lanceolate. (1972) Chem. H. deacylmetaplexigenin-cymarosides. cold knee. calyx lobes 5. 927. et al. (6) Tsukamoto. Distribution. 41. (5) Tsukamoto. wilforibose.-K. 25. wilforine. et al. 1-3 m tall. 81. H. kidjoranin. (3) Mitsuhashi. (1985) Chem. 2065. S. (2) Mitsuhashi. Root. Description. 5-10 cm long. wilfosides (5. (1985) Kor. Leaves opposite. 14. S. Pharm. incurved. 16. deacylcynanchogenin-. perennial herb.Aug. scrofula. cynamoyl-tigloylsarcostine. entire. M. (1966) Chem. 1 cm wide. et al.) Hemsl. petiolate. acuminate. deeply cordate. (1) Shin. 4-8 cm wide. (7) Tsukamoto. penupogenin (2. Pharm. et al. Pharmacog. et al. 3595. Hepatoprotective activity (1). pedicels 58 mm long. References. puberulent inside. corolla 5-lobed. (1975) Chem. 712. (1985) Tetrahedron Lett. Bio-Activities. Flowers pale yellow-green. Bull. 8 cm long. Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim. Pharm.4).6. Open grassy slopes on mountains and hills. peduncles 1-4 cm long. Chemical components. Habitat. Korea. Jul. Japan.7). scandent. (4) Mitsuhashi. caudatin. Korean Name: Keun-jo-rong English Name: Wilford’s cynanchum Asclepiadaceae Parts used. . . Pharm. Glabrous. Bull. 3 mm long. et al. deltoid. 23. Traditional uses. J.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 89 Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. (1984) Tetrahedron Lett. Tonic. Inflorescence axillary umbels. Bull.3. S. northern China. 20.

bracts 2 as -3. slender. References. Tuber. 1. Traditional uses. the base enlarged and covered with brown fibres. Sunny places near streams and seashores. et al. 66. sandy soil. Description. Habitat. Bull. 20-40 flowered. (4) Gupta. Hypochondriac pain and distension. (1976) Phytochemistry 15. T. Chemical components. sugetriol. et al. leucocyanidin glucoside (3). 17. (1) Kivchi. spikelets spreading. (1971) Ind.Aug. Korean Name: Hyang-boo-ja English Name: Round cyperus. J. (5) Thebtaranonth.B. 3-3. 3391. leafy only at base. 20-40 cm long. (1975) Zasso Kenkyu 20. 125. (1986) Kor. F. et al.5 mm long. ascending.Y. cyperol. dysmenorrhoea. long as inflorescence. sheathing at base. Almost cosmopolitan. 59. et al. Med.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 91 Cyperus rotundus L.5-2 mm wide.5-3 cm long. et al. K.H. sugeonol. H. . (1995) Phytochemistry 40. (2) Choe. K. 1265. isokobusone. purple nut sedge Cyperaceae Parts used. Tannins. various sesquiterpenes as cyperene. (3) Shin. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis (1). Res. scales narrowly ovate. Distribution. (6) Hikino. 31. antibacterial (2). 1. isocyperol. Pharm. patchoulenone (2). Pharmacog. Achenes oblong. cyperotundone. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. (1983) Chem. liver protection. emmenagogue. dark brown. 302. with 1-7 rays. M. Cyperus rotundus L. Essential oil. Jul. J. (7) Komai. Culms erect. aldose reductase inhibition (3). kobusone. antimalarial (5). C. linear. 130. Leaves 2-6 mm wide. Perennial herb with rhizomes long and slender. Bio-Activities. leucocyanidin. Inflorescence simple or compound corymbs. anti-inflammatory (4). . et al. 76.

Distribution. Diuretic. menostasis. 56.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 93 Dianthus chinensis L. (6) Li.5 cm long. Bio-Activities. (3) Kim.5 cm wide. (2) Kosuge. petals 5. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. B (5). (1985) Yakugaku Zasshi 105. Inflorescence few-15 flowered. Soc. (5) Li. 2 cm across. oblong-ovoid. Leaves opposite. Prod. References. often united at the base and forming a sheath about the stem. H. erect. Eugenol. styles 2.Y. Fruit a 4 valved capsule. Flowers solitary at terminals. stamens 10. calyx tubular. et al. S. Short-lived perennial herb. loosely clustered. H. seeds many. Stems 30 cm tall. fimbriate with dark spot close to the tip. cough. et al. antioxidant activity (3). 751. 1065. gonorrhoea. internodes shorter than leaves. ciliate. CA. anthelmintic. antitumour (2). Traditional uses. . sheath 0. 633. many-nerved. (1994) Phytochemistry 35. stem leaves 3-8 cm long. et al. Oil Chem. T. phenylethylalcohol (1). subtended by an epicalyx. emmenagogue. (1) Hsu. C. China. cultivated in Japan. 5 -toothed. 71. abruptly contracted into a long point. dianchinenosides A. Nat. ovary 1 -celled. hypotensive. increasing peristalsis of intestine (1). Description. basal leaves withering early.-Y. 791. melosides A and L (4). rarely to 0. 1053. Open grassy places. . not fragrant. D (6). (1994) J. Y. Amer. Dianthus chinensis L. et al. limb abruptly attenuated into an elongated claw. the nodes usually swollen. Long Beach. Korean Name: Pae-raeng-ee-kot English Name: Rainbow pink Caryophyllaceae Parts used. Korea. Herb. Y. Chemical components. many-toothed. Oriental Healing Art Institute. Jun. cylindrical. Habitat. B. (4) Monities. rosy-lilac with purplish eye. H. 283. epicalyx scales 4. p. (1976) Phytochemistry 15. et al. (1993) J.Aug. Diuretic.

. 253. irregular. Habitat. Bio-Activities. References. Leaves alternate. Bull. 221. M.5-2 cm. May . Root bark. burning bush Rutaceae Parts used. Fraxinellone. Pharmacol. 349. pedicel 0. (1984) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 38. Chemical components. Alkaloids: dictamnines. Traditional uses. (1) Mizuta. gas plant. Pharm. dictamnolides. pinnate. H. Korea. vasorelaxant (2). Strong-smelling. (2) Yu. haplopine (4). Mountain slopes. et al. p. preskimmianine. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. 2. skimmianines. light red. 41. curved upward. Fruit a deeply 5-lobed capsule. fraxinella. (3) Namba. to 90 cm tall.M. in terminal racemes. Distribution. obacunone.Jun. (1992) Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. 144. 186.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 95 Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. to 7 cm long. isomaculosidine. (5) Takeuchi. ovate. 345. Sesquiterpene: dictamnol (5). (4) Hsu. hardy perennial herb with thick root. N. 923. Long Beach. glandular-dotted. leaflets 9-11. rashes. Carbuncle. sepals and petals 5.5 cm across. Korean Name: Bag-sun English Name: Dittany. S. glandular hairs. T. robustine. Oriental Healing Art Institute. stamens 10. (1985) Mutatation Res. China. serrulate. Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Description.-Y. Mutagenic (1). obaculactone. (1993) Chem. Flowers about 2 cm long. et al. et al. CA. et al. plaque formation suppressant effects (3).

Japan. 168. 17. Tuberous roots to 1 m long. 21. (4) Choe. deltoid-ovate. cylindrical or flabellate. 52. (1) Hikino. Rhizome. Korea. 526. Dioscorea batatas Decne. diarrhoea. acuminate. slightly angled. J.2). 8. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. mannan (5). bulbils in axils. nutritive (3). dioecious herb. (1986) Kor. choline. (6) Han. unisexual. H. deep in ground. starch. the pistillate pendulous. sterols. seeds encircled by 3 wings. p. (1981) Chem. Long Beach.Jul. CA. Chemical components. (5) Tomoda. (3) Hsu. 29. Distribution. climbing. . broadened into 2 lobes at base. 1-3 in leaf axils. antibacterial (4). few-flowered. the staminate erect. 53. purplish on petioles and nerves. M. et al. Leaves opposite.-Y. many-flowered. Habitat. saponins. sessile. cinnamon vine Dioscoreaceae Parts used. twining clockwise. (7) Park. M. Bio-Activities. Pharmacog. Inflorescence in spikes. Bull. allantoin. Fruit capsules broad than long. (1986) Planta Med. Blood sugar lowering (1. Scandent. (2) Tomoda. 3256.S. Flowers small. Oriental Healing Art Institute. Pharm. Traditional uses. . dyspepsia. 274. Steroids (7). Jun. 575. et al. stamens 6. Description.N. Exp. et al. Stems long.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 97 Dioscorea batatas Decne. Korean Name: Ma English Name: Chinese yam. bearing small axillary tubers late in season. Glycoproteins. J. 24.Y. Pharmacog. (1994) Clin. H. long-petiolate. T. References. furuncle. perennial. Aller. (1990) Kor. mucilages (6). H. et al. China. Y. arginine. Woody areas on mountain slopes. Weakness. et al. (1987) Planta Med. 302.

(2) Penttila. (1978) Planta Med. Bull. Sori dorsal on veins. albaspidine. et al. 3297. Oriental Healing Art Institute.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 99 Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai Korean Name: Gwan-joong English Name: Crown wood-fern Polypodiaceae Parts used.-Y. References. et al. Japan. dryocrassin (5). Description. (1994) Chem. Korea. filmalone. (3) Lounasmaa. in 2 raws on lower half of pinnules. Parasiticide (tapeworm and hookworm). 1. pinnae many. (5) Nora. norhopane derivatives (8). Pharm. 15-25 cm wide. northern China. herbaceous. Distribution. Y. Flavaspidic acid (2.7). et al. (1990) Phytochemistry 29. 2. (1) Hsu. crenate.2 mm across. Shaded and damp places in forests. 1079. Perennial fern. (1973) Phytochemistry 12. (8) Shiojima. (4) Widen. aspidin. filicin. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. K. attached by the inner end of the sinus. with rhizomes short and stout. 743. 213. round. 188. 377. 173. p. M. et al. A. dryocrassin ABBP (4). Chromatogr. Bio-Activities. et al. Traditional uses. indusia orbicular-reniform. (6) Ageta. (7) Shiojima. (1964) Acta Chem. 40-100 cm long. Rhizome. CA.3). 344. Long Beach. 1491. Habitat. Fronds deciduous. 18. Aspidinol. diplopterol (6. Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai . blades oblanceolate to broadly oblanceolate. linearlanceolate. (1980) J. C. filicinic acid. K. filicic acid (1). pinnules narrowly oblong. Chemical components. 42. 15-30 mm wide. 33. Scand. bipinnate.5-5 mm wide. et al. H. acuminate. Anthelmintic action (1). acuminate. et al. H. sessile. dryocrassol. (1975) Tetrahedron Lett. obtuse.

angled. H. Leaves alternate. pappus of many inconspicuous scales. et al. (1970) Lloydia 335. Distribution. deeply pinnately dissected. menostasis.S. common. Achenes 4. (1) Woo. Heads of 1 flower within its own involucre. et al. bluish purple. (1979) Arch. Flowers all tubular. stem leaves sessile. Echinops setifer Iljin . Perennial herb. W. Chemical components.Aug. to 1 m tall. 2. pinnately dissected 5-6 times. Traditional uses. emmenagogue. the whole plant covered with whitish hair. .MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 101 Echinops setifer Iljin Korean Name: Jeol-good-dae English Name: Globe thistle Compositae Parts used. Korea. radical leaves long-petiolate. the inner bracts linear. the outer involucral bracts bristlelike. branched above. long elliptic. (2) Li. the individual heads aggregated into a dense globose compound head subtended by a small. 15-25 cm long. Open grassy areas. Jul. Root. reflexed involucre. Habitat. Bio-Activities. Antidote. 1. Pharm. Weak antitumour (1). References. margins prickly. 127. Echinopsine (2). Res. hairy. Description.L.

W. (1970) Ind. 0. China. 10. 5-25 mm wide. Wet places in fields or lowlands. Antidote for snake venom (1). (1986) Planta Med.K. leucorrhoea. Bio-Activities.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 103 Eclipta prostrata L. 1 cm across. 5. (3) Bhargava. et al. 3-10 cm long. sessile or short-petiolate. Ray flowers white. Eruption. Chem. lanceolate. 5 mm long.5-3 mm long. white. 810. (1) Mars. J. Eclipta prostrata L. et al.4). fertile. 3-angled in ray flowers. (2) Wagner. Erect strigose-pilose annual herb. 664. Distribution. 374. Chem. 2. et al.4 mm wide. H. . Korean Name: Han-ryun-cho English Name: Eclipta Compositae Parts used. 4-lobed. Description. Leaves opposite. Herb. thiophenederivatives (5). K.8 mm long. 4227. with pedicel 2-4. Achenes 2. Japan. Ecliptine. green oblong. serrulate. (1966) Tetrahedron Lett.K. compressed and 4-angled in disc florets. (4) Bhargava. densely strigose-pilose on both sides. Heads terminal on stems and branches or axillary. Aug. J. Korea. N. Chemical components. 6-7 mm across. dysentery. acuminate. 10-60 cm tall. anthers very shortly bifid at base. antihepatotoxic (2). wedelactones (3. fertile. 370. (1972) Ind. . antiinflammatory (2). Traditional uses. Disc flowers bisexual.5 cm long. 8. phyllaries 5-6. References. 1131. et al. involucre campanulate.Sep. enterohaemorrhage. Habitat. (1992) Toxicon 30.R. K. (5) Krishnaswamy.

acidic polysaccharides (4). slightly bifid at apex. et al. obovate. K. 91. Seed.K. C.Hu Korean Name: O-gal-pee English Name: Acanthopanax Araliaceae Parts used. et el. Pub. World Sci. (1) Cherkasin. Chemical components. Aug. 10-14 mm long. (3) Chung. Traditional uses. T. p. Inflorescence terminal on the new shoots with headlike umbels. palmately compound. Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus .) S.antimutagenic effects (3). analgesic.. 1996. et Maxim. styles connate the full length. Deciduous shrub. 18. Collation of Trad. adaptogenic. cardiac glycosides. pubescent beneath on veins only. Anti-inflammatory and antioedemic (1). Co. Distribution. Bio-Activities. Flowers purplish. (5) Kim. (1966) Stimulatory Tsentl. Syst. antipyretic. petioles 3-6 cm long. hypotensive. 217. to 3-4 m tall. Y. oedema. neuralgia. several arising from the base. acutely double-toothed. Root: acanthosides A. Singapore. acute bases. Part I. 3-4 mm in diameter. saponins. J. (5). (1987) Kor. globose.. hardly armed.V. Fruit ellipsoidal. black.W. . sterols. etc. et al. lipid lowering (2). B. (1988) Yakhak Hoeji 32. Intern. 14 (4) Kimura. S. Leaves alternate. and Kim. dark-green above.C. Pharmacog. References. stigmasterol. and Folk Med. Nerv. D (lignan-glycosides). 110. to 15 cm long. fatty acids. (2) Yang. central one largest. arthritis.Sep. Stems with gray-brown branchlets. myristic acid. G. northern China. Korea. Habitat. 184. Mountain woods. Bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 105 Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr. Description. acuminate apices.Y.. palmitic acid. Lumbago. NE-Asia. sessile. (1987) Huhan Yixueyuan Xuebo 12. leaflets 3-5.

Fever. Oriental Healing Art Institute. Flowers 5 mm long. J. Korea. pale rose. calyx 5lobed. (1992) Nippon Kagaku Kasshi 4. Leaves opposite. Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb. the upper lip erect. 23. CA. diarrhoea. 7-8 mm across. exserted. spike-like. Y. the lower pair longer. Distribution. T and Noda. petioles 0. pubescent on both sides. Diuretic and antipyretic (1). (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Bio-Activities. slightly flattened. References. Long Beach.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 107 Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb. 51. 1 mm long. Nutlets ovate to oblong. Herb. Grassy areas in mountains. purplish. naturalized in Europe. et al. H. Habitat. retuse. Inflorescences terminal on branches. Traditional uses..2). Description. 5-10 cm long. flavonoids. membranaceous. tube as long as calyx. Aug. 1-6 cm wide. floral bracts persistent. ovate. steroids. (3) Isobe. ovate. Pharmacog. (2) Chi.5-2 cm long. H. Erect annual herb with stems 4-angled and slightly pubescent. China. to 30-60 cm. 3-10 cm long. stamens 4. cylindrical. headache. Japan. Chemical components. limb 4-lobed. toothed.-Y.Sep. (1992) Kor. (1) Hsu. cuneate at base.J. 423. subbilabiate. acuminate with obtuse tip.) Hylander . dense. the lower lip spreading. triterpenes (3). elscholzia ketone (1. 77.) Hylander Korean Name: Hyang-yoo English Name: Elsholtzia Labiatae Parts used. p. oedema. corolla small. Essential oil.

Chemical components. Stems branched. Fever. the lower lip spreading. G.Maek. stamens 4. exserted. 363.2). (Weinheim. 328. Pharm. (3) Mazza. Flowers 6 mm long. the upper lip erect. (1987) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 41. et al. T. base cuneate. (1992) Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 27. -5 floral bracts persistent. Description. Soc. 1-7 cm long.6). -trans-bergamotene (4). (1985) J. Spikes terminal and axillary. (5) Zhu. S.lobed. -phellandrene (2). especially dense on nerves. tube as long as calyx. Sep. 99. oedema.E. Erect annual herb to 60 cm. Grassy areas in mountains.Maek. monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (5. (1983) Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 18. (2) Okugawa. membranaceous. Habitat. calyx 5lobed.D. ovate. (4) Larsen. K. Nutlets ovate to oblong. and Zhou. Oct. et al. ovate. 0. Leaves opposite. 2 cm long. pale rose. (1) Schulte. 108.P. attenuate into petiole. acute serrate. purplish. Korean Name: Kot-hyang-yoo English Name: Shiny elsholtzia Lamiaceae Parts used. dense.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 109 Elsholtzia splendens Nakai et F.) 296. Distribution. Bio-Activities. Chem.W. northern China. Ger. retuse.8-4 cm wide. Herb. 353. Unknown. corolla small. -bisabolene (3). lower surface glandular dotted. limb 4. Elsholtzia splendens Nakai et F. diarrheoa. subbilabiate. the lower pair longer. . 4-angled and slightly pubescent. Traditional uses. Am. headache. Thymol (1. G. Chromatogr. 179. (1963) Arch. References. 287. pubescent on both sides. H. Korea. et al.H. 8015. Z. (6) Li. (1977) J. apex acute.

petals 4. 1. Habitat. rhizomatous perennial herb. S. Icariin. W. p. Apr. (1991) J. Herb. Traditional uses.H. extended into spurs. leaflets ovate. ternately divided twice. Leaves alternate. 2"-O-rhamnosyl ikarisoside A. 20. (4) Kang. CA. Low. Flowers small. Prod. K. 2" -O-rhamnosyl icarisid II (5). ovary with several ovules. forgetfulness. et al. Base of stems surrounded with scale-like leaves.-Y. with margin setose. 564. Follicles 10-13 mm long.S.S. cordate. 5-13. (1988) Kor. Chemical components.K. et al. M. 29. to 30 cm tall.5 cm long. (3) Hsu. Phytosterols: campesterol. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. 5-6 mm across. Pharmacog. J. Pharmacog. Pharmacog. soon falling. Bio-Activities. covered with many filiform roots. Rhizome creeping. 56. epimedokoreanin D (6). long-petiolate. (1993) Fitoterapia 64.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 111 Epimedium koreanum Nakai Korean Name: Sam-ji-goo-yeop-cho English Name: Korean epimedium Berberidaceae Parts used. (1) Shin. Nat. et al. 93. Impotence. Description. (7) Kang. 32. (6) Li. stamens 4.J. 21. Aldose reductase inhibition (1). (1984) Kor. Distribution. reflexed at flowering time. (2) Park. 19. nerve fibre induction (2). campesterol 3 -O. et al. et al. pale yellowish. et al.-rhamnoside (4). the inner 4 petaloid. References. H. acuminate. icaritin-rhamnosideglucoside and icariresinol (3). Korea. (1990) Kor. Epimedium koreanum Nakai . (5) Kang. the outer 4 unequal. S.S. sepals 8. J. in 2 pairs. Flavonoids: anhydroicarin-3-O. 130. J.5-7 cm wide. Wet areas in forests and mountain valleys. 54.-Dglucopyranoside (7). Long Beach. spermatorrhoea. Oriental Healing Art Institute. O-methyl-icariin. (1996) Yao Huseh Huseh Pao 31. 542. S.

(2) Phillipson. Description. 205. Bot. ferulic acid. J. nicotine (6). CA. spikelike strobilus composed of peltate sporangia-bearing structure. (1979) Kor. aconitic acid. p. 637. Equisetaceae Korean Name: Sok-sae English Name: Common horsetail. 76. Pharm. diuretic.D. Oriental Healing Art Institute. antihypertensive (2). Chemical components. and Canada 116. Equisetum hyemale L. Primitive.-Y. . jointed.H. causing redness. 506. et al. spore-bearing. 251. anti-inflammatory (4). Long Beach. rhizomatous herb. caffeic acid. Affecting the eyes. Pharmacog. and Lee. Anticancer. Pharmacol. furrowed with 14-40 ridges.S. marginally united into a sheath around each node. 4. common scouring rush Parts used. (1972) Kor. 10. palustrine (alkaloid) (2). toxic effect (3). R. 23. branches whorled. impregnated with silica. (1) Hsu. apetite stimulation (1). to 1 m tall. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. (1972) J. (1962) Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen 1. Bio-Activities. Pharmacog. Habitat. Shaded and wet sandy places in ravines and valleys. (1960) J. Sporophylls in a terminal. (3) Kingsbury (1964) Plants of the U. J. et al. W. vascular perennial.B. B. (5) Woo. Distribution. silicon compound (7). Dimethylsulfone.S. Stems slender.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 113 Equisetum hyemale L. rough. (6) Hegnauer. R. Exp. antispasmodic (5). Leaves scalelike. 27. hollow. E. (7) Hartley. Herb. H. pain.D. Traditional uses. kaempferol-diglucoside. (4) Han. References. J. Nearly cosmopolitan distribution except in Australia and New Zealand.

49. M and Takagaki. A.9). anticough. gibberellins A9. Pharm. A20. Oct. K. Biol. 3-4 cm across. covered with pale-brown hairs. (1984) Fitoterapia 55. J. 15-24 cm long. hyperoside (7). Med. Habitat. broadly oblanceolate to narrowly obovate. 34. yellow. Y. (1986) Phytochemistry 25. 3-5 cm wide. sessile to the petioles about 1 cm long.S. J. Planted in warm southern areas for the edible fruit. 1 cm across. et al. (6) Agrawal. S. Distribution. Woolly-pubescent coarsely branching tree with stout branches. A15. Chem. A61 (8. I. 38. (7) Jung. Description. (5) Singh. (2) Shimizu. (1962) Pak. (1986) Chem. Japanese medlar. 729. China. Diuretic. (4) Khan. 318. triterpenes. hypoglycaemic (4). Japanese plum Rosaceae Parts used. Leaf. Flowers white. Fruit globose to pyriform.2). A29. 650. (1995) Nat. sesquiterpenes. A. et al. 2614. 23. (1992) Kor. loquatoside (6). the stipules lanceolate-deltoid. (8) Kirkwood. Japan. to 10 m tall. (9) Koshioka. 22. K. Chem. H. Pharmacog. and Burney. 689. maslinic acid methyl ester (1. K. M. A35. 2. cultivated in southern parts of Korea. gradually narrowed at base. Traditional uses. (1980) Planta Med. (1) Kojima. 1353. seeds 1 dark -5. and Pathak. Chemical components. Bull. .2). Bio-Activities. (1974) Chem. A19. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. et al. plant antifungal (5). inhibition of histamine induced ileum contraction (1.K. Res.) Lindley Korean Name: Bee-pa-na-moo English Name: Loquat.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 115 Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Anti-inflammatory. 52.) Lindley .V. Inflorescence erect terminal spikes. densely flowered. 280. et al. acute. M. References. Bull. Soc.H. ripening in June of the next year. Leaves alternate. A44. loosely toothed. P. et al. (1982) J. 277.Nov. Pharm. brown. antianaphylactic (3). et al. deciduous woolly-pubescent above. euscaphic acid (10). A50. 346. (1988) Agr. Perkin Trans.Y. 100. et al. Maslinic acid. sepals and petals 5. deep green. R. Med. (10) Takahashi. (3) Kataoka.

winged. elmlike. (1987) Kor. (1976) J. pain. et al.D. serrate. 2-7 cm wide. C.D. (1986) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 40. 247. (4) Ohshima. et al. without perianth. (1988) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 42. pedicellate. Pharm. et al. (7) Bianco. simple. ellipitic to oblong-ovate. pubescent. (1) Sih. Am. (1974) Tetrahedron 30. M. dioecious tree with lamellate pith. immunostimulant (5). Bull. to 20 m tall. Male flowers loose in bracteate clusters. flattened. flattened. References. et al. et al. petiolate. syringaresinol-glucoside. abortifacient. linear. 17. ulmoside (6. (3) Hong. but short-pilose on veins. J. endothelin-I receptor binding (4).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 117 Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Korean Name: Doo-choong English Name: Eucommia Eucommiaceae Parts used. Apr. Pharmacog. 102. 5-16 cm long. eucominol. almost glabrous on both sides. 108. 2174. Habitat. on very short filaments.B. Chim. Flowers appearing before or with leaves. stigma bifid. Deciduous. (1988) Kor. Bio-Activities. N. E. Lignan-glycosides (1): pinoresinol-diglucoside. spermatorrhoea. T. et al. monoterpenes (8). 98. Hypertension. 5412. Pharmacog. (2) Hong. oblong. Leaves alternate. unisexual. liriodendrin. 325. N. 112. (5) Kinoshita. Fruit 1-seeded. diuretic.J. Bark. Eucommia ulmoides Oliver . et al. anti-inflammatory. analgesic. 42. Antihypertensive (1). A. petioles 1 cm long. diuretic. Ital. J. (8) Gewali. Korea. anthers 4-10. in lateral clusters. (6) Bianco.7). Female flowers solitary in axils of bracts or bract-like leaves. Chem. 19. 18. et al. Traditional uses. A. (1978) Gazz. ovary 1 -celled. antidiabetic (2). Mostly planted in Korea. China. vasodilative. 4117. Soc. Description. (1994) Chem. antifatigue (3). Chemical components. Distribution.

Fruit.W. S. J. 577. Mostly cultivated in Korea. (1980) J. (1990) Eur.M. References. unisexual. and Kim. et al. J. Gastrointestinal disorder. Habitat. T. (9) Kano. Y. (1992) Seoul Univ. Pharm. C. (4) Shoji. (5) Yang. 26. higenamine. rutaecarpine. sepals. 612. Nat. 344. (1979) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 33. 1. Analgesic (1). 43. serotonin antagonism (2). (2) Kinoshita. Pharmacog. Flowers small. Sci. J.W. cardiotonic (4).9): evodiamine. (8) King. (1988) Yakugaku Zasshi 108. cytotoxicity (7). et al. 537. feeling of chill. Fruit splitting 5. Sci. odd-pinnately compound. Y.Y. Prod. (3) Sumida. Alkaloids (8. 450. Pharm. (1957) Gifu Ikadaigaku Kiyo 5. antihypertensive (5). 182. (1986) J. Traditional uses. leaflets 7 -15. S. granulardotted. 269. 75. Pharmacol. (1991) Yakugaku Zasshi 111. et al. 7-8 cm long. 32. in terminal or axillary corymbose. Distribution. Young branches pubescent. (1995) Kor. Chemical components. Description.C. 2-valved. Deciduous tree. Leaves opposite. short -petiolulate. et al. (1) Yamada. pubescent beneath. M. pain. acuminate. N. MDR-modulating activity (6). dehydroevodiamine. 146. Bio-Activities. T. China. 1-2 seeded sections. et al. (7) Park. brain dopamine receptor inhibition (3). (6) Lee.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 119 Euodia officinalis Dode Korean Name: O-soo-yoo English Name: Euodia Rutaceae Parts used. 6-11 cm across. petals and stamens 5. Y. L. et al. 17. ovate to oblong-obvate or long elliptic. Korea. pubescent. to 5 m tall. Euodia officinalis Dode .

127. much-branched shrub. Y.) Siebold . sepals. (3) Ishikura. 4. to 3 m tall. short-petiolate. May. 741. seed enclosed in an orange aril. Bio-Activities. bark. Chemical components. euonymine. Traditional uses. emmenagogue. Twig. Hypoglycaemic (1). 1-4 cm wide. glabrous. euolatin (4). Mountain woods.) Siebold Korean Name: Wha-sal-na-moo English Name: Winged spindle tree Celastraceae Parts used. 1. 1 to few flowered on peduncles about 2 cm long. (1975) Chemistry Lett. (1) Yoshikawa. in axillary cymes. 10. alatamine. petals. et al. (1976) Phytochemistry 15. steroids and triterpenes. 471. Euonymus alatus (Thunb. Ussuri. Japan. with 2-4 corky wings. et al. (1973) Tetrahedron Lett. acuminate. et al. purplish. Med. Habitat. Branches glabrous. Taenia. Korea. (2) Shizuri. Sesquiterpene-alkaloids (2): evonine. elliptic to obovate. Exp. Fruit ripening in Oct. wilfordine. (4) Sugiura. China. abortifacient. horizontally spreading. cancer. Deciduous. simple. sharply and finely serrate. N. 1183. Leaves opposite.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 121 Euonymus alatus (Thunb. (1968) Tohoku J. Distribution. Fruit a capsule. 5. small. Kaempferol-rhamnosyl-xyloside (3). K. about 6 mm across. the pedicels short. Description. References. K. Flowers greenish. and stamens. 96.5-7 cm long.

DNA polymerase inhibition (2). Jul. reddish inside. K. Pharm. Korean Name: Ga-si-yeon-kot English Name: Fox nut Nymphaeceae Parts used. very prickly outside. Fruit elliptic or globose. Chem. (3) Zhao. 1810. H. tocopherols (5). (1993) Donghai Xuebao 34. Anal. (1989) Chem. . ovules 8. Weakness. spermatorrhoea. Seed. 38. dayblooming. J. Very prickly. spiny on nerves at both sides. Traditional uses. 3. dark green and reticulaterugose above. Bio-Activities. 50. lakes. Antioxidant (1). Steryl glycosides (3. 8-celled. solitary on long. China. (5) Yeh. 1633. Distribution. India.R. 37. (1992) Phytochem. Description. References. Flowers much smaller. (1981) Agr. filaments short.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 123 Euryale ferox Salisb. aquatic. Chemical components. et al. with many petals and stamens. 30. et al.Aug. et al. Biol. ovary inferior. 4.S. Habitat.4). circular. spiny pedicel.P. (1) Su. et al. sepals green. 5-7 cm in diameter. annual herb with short rhizome.R. calyx left at the top. Japan. H. Bull. J. Leaves 30-120 cm across. spiny. (4) Zhao. leucorrhoea. (2) Ono. Korea. petals shorter and purple. . marginally flat. Ponds. purple and ribbed beneath. (1989) J. Euryale ferox Salisb. murine retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibition. 4 cm across. 1115. 199. Lipid Res. et al.



Forsythia viridissima Bunge Korean Name: Oe-sung-gae-na-ri English Name: Golden-bells


Parts used. Fruit. Traditional uses. Carbuncles, lymphadenitis, mastitis, inflammation, suppuration, emmenagogue. Description. Deciduous, diffuse, glabrous shrub. Branches 4-angled, erect, with lamellate pith. Leaves opposite, oblong to lanceolate, 6-10 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, toothed at the upper half, deep-green above, pale-green beneath; petioles 7-10 mm long. Flowers showy, yellow, appearing before the leaves; calyx tube short, 4-lobed; corolla deeply 4-lobed, with a short tube, 2-2.5cm across; lobes longer than tube, oblong; stamens 2, inserted at base of corolla; filament short. Fruit a woody capsule, broadly ovoid, 1.5 cm long, nearly rounded at base, 2-valved; seeds winged. Apr. Habitat. Mostly cultivated in Korea. Distribution. Korea, China. Bio-Activities. Choleretic (1), antibacterial, 5 -lipoxygenase inhibition (2), cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibition (3), antispasmodic (4), antifungal (5). Chemical components. Arctiin, matairesinoside, oleanolic acid (6), monoterpenes (7), flavonoids. References. (1) Miura, M. et al. (1987) Yakugaku Zasshi 107, 992. (2) Kimura, Y. et al. (1987) Planta Med. 53, 148. (3) Nikaido, T. et al. (1981) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29, 3586. (4) Woo, W.S. and Lee, E.B. (1979) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 10, 27. (5) Rho, Y.S. (1975) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 6, 143. (6) Hsu, H.-Y. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica, p. 193, Oriental Healing Art Institute, Long Beach, CA. (7) Damtoft, S. et al. (1994) Phytochemistry 37, 173.

Forsythia viridissima Bunge



Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance Korean Name: Mool-poo-rae-na-moo English Name: Chinese ash


Parts used. Bark. Traditional uses. Eye diseases, apoplexy, liver diseases. Description. Deciduous tree, to 10 m tall, but usually much smaller. Leaves opposite, odd-pinnate; leaflet 5-7, wide ovate or wide lanceolate, 615 cm long, green, glabrous above, pubescent on mid-vein beneath, crenate or smooth. Flowers small, in axillary panicles, with or after leaves, unisexual; calyx small, 4-lobed; petals none in male flowers, 2-4 in female flowers. Fruit a 1-seeded, winged samara, to 5 cm long. May. Habitat. Mountain woods. Distribution. Korea, China. Bio-Activities. Related species, F. japonicum, shows platelet antiaggregatory, antibacterial (1), and lipoxygenase inhibition (2), HMG-Co A reductase inhibition activities (3). Chemical components. Related species, F. japonicum contains: Lignans. Coumarins: scopoletin, isofraxidin, esculetin, fraxetin, esculin, fraxin (4,5), fraxidin, fraxinol (6). References. (1) Mei, P. F. et al. (1962) Acta Chim. Sin. 28, 25. (2) Sekiya, K. et al. (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 713, 68. (3) Han, G.Q. et al. (1991) Int. J. Chinese Med. 16, 1. (4) Tsukamoto, H. et al. (1984) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32, 4482. (5) Tsukamoto, H. et al. (1985) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33, 4069. (6) Miyachi, H. et al. (1987) Yakugaku Zasshi 107, 435.

Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance



Gastrodia elata Blume Korean Name: Cheon-ma English Name: Tall gastrodia


Parts used. Tuber. Traditional uses. Headache, infantile convulsion, neurasthenia, haematuria. Description. Saprophytic, leafless, perennial herb with thickened rhizome, 60-100 cm tall. Rhizomes oblong, fleshy, 10-18 cm long, 3.5 cm in diameter. Stems yellowish brown, simple, erect, loosely scaly. Inflorescence loose racemes, erect, bracteate, 10-30 cm long, many-flowered; bracts lanceolate to linear-oblong, 7-12 mm long, 2 mm wide. Flowers yellowish brown; sepals and petals connate; perianth tube broadly ovoid, oblique at mouth, 7-8 mm long, inflated at base. Jun. - Jul. Habitat. Mountain woods. Distribution. Korea, Japan, China. Bio-Activities. Sedative, anticonvulsive, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, hypnotic, analgesic (1), antithrombotic, anti-platelet aggregation (2), antioxytocic (3). Chemical components. Phenolic compounds; vanillin, gastrodin (4), phydroxybenzyl alcohol, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, 4,4'-dihydroxy dibenzylether (5). References. (1) Kimura, T. et al., Intern. Collation of Trad. and Folk Med., NE-Asia, Part I, 1996, p. 207, World Sci. Pub. Co., Singapore. (2) Paik, Y.-S. et al. (1995) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 26, 385. (3) Lee, E.B. and Lee, Y.S. (1991) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 22, 246. (4) Fang, X.Z. et al. (1979) Huaxue Xuebao 37, 175. (5) Zhou, J. et al. (1979) Huaxue Xuebao 37, 183.

Gastrodia elata Blume

margins and midrib rough. inflammation.Oct. Flowers several in terminal clusters. to 1. Description. 992. sessile. (3) Miura. campanulate. winged. Perennial herb. (1987) Yakugaku Zasshi 107. T. Distribution. with 3 veins. (1961) Yakugaku Zasshi 81. Grassy places and wet meadows in low mountain elevations. broad-lanceolate. T. Gentiopicroside. . pale-green beneath. et al. (1936) Tohoku J. 1-3cm wide. Chemical components. Exp.5 cm long. swertiamarin.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 131 Gentiana scabra L. Fruit capsule with withered corolla and calyx. Aug. Med. corolla dark-blue. with short rhizome. 63. (2) Haginiwa. (1960) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 56. 4-striate. Y. gentisic acid (5). (5) Hayashi. 1387. northern China. style 1. calyx tubular. Leaves opposite. Root. stamens 5. (4) Ito. Stimulation of gastric secretion and motility (1. liver diseases. 4-8 cm long. 20-60 cm tall. 356. seeds many. (1) Sone. anorexia. to 3 cm long. Gentiana scabra L. Korea. Japan. 366. (1976) Yakugaku Zasshi 96. Bio-Activities. Traditional uses. M.2). choleretic activity (3). Korean Name: Yong-dam English Name: Gentian Gentianaceae Parts used. 29. green above. T. stimulation of bowel movement (4). 679. united to corollar tube. lanceolate. gentisin. 321. Stems more or less erect. et al. Habitat. dyspepsia. Stomatics. leafy. References. .

. (1987) Chem. Seed. (1979) Z. 34C. leucorrhoea. rarely more. hydroginkgolic acid (4). many other activities (3). Chem. and El Sohly. outer coat fleshy. fan-shaped. sputum and cough. 89. Korean Name: Eun-hang-na-moo English Name: Maidenhair tree Ginkgoaceae Parts used. 23. Branches stiff. leaf. on a long peduncle. Ginkgo biloba L. Bull. (6) Geiger.S. Fruit ripening in Oct. Springer-Verlag. 14. Naturforsch. P. China. Traditional uses. S. (5) Nakanishi. Bio-Activities. (1967) Pure Appl. 558. Widely planted in Korea. PAF-receptor binding antagonistic (2). The female reproductive structures consisting of 2 ovules. (4) Itokawa. Chemical components. ginkgetin. et al. inner coat stony. H. Phenolic acids. et al. cut in middle dichotomously veined. May. Berlin. W. ginkgolides (5). Seeds plum-like in appearance. resinous. (7) Kang. A. Asthma. References. sciadopitysin. K. Flavonoids (6). 129. (3) Tang. M. 560. Description.D. Distribution. H. (1) Adawadkar. to 60 m or more tall. J.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 133 Ginkgo biloba L. Antibacterial and antifungal (1). Pharmacog. Pharm. (1992) Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin. drupelike. ginkgolic acid. Deciduous. p. long peduncled. bilobetin (7). P. (1985) Ketsueki to Myakkan 16. (1981) Fitoterapia 52. 3016. G. 26. Habitat. usually only 1 maturing.5 cm long. Biflavonoids. Leaves alternately clustered. et al. (2) Braquet. yellowish. 35. (1995) Kor. with both elongated and spur shoots.G. long-petioled. dioecious tree. 878. to 2. and Eisenbrand.

Distribution. crenulate. Gleditsia saponins (3). 4-5 mm long. Traditional uses. fruit. 1179. 30. Flowers small. Fruit a large flat legume. in spikelike racemes. 58.or 2-pinnate. abortifacient. 1. Near streams in low mountain elevations. Cough. Pharmacog. 3010. (2) Konoshima. 1372. Gleditsia japonica var. 23 cm long. Pharm. oddpinnate. et al. 3-5. (1) Yamahara. greenish. Young branches green. Description. Y.J. Chemical components. (1995) J. T. Korea. (1994) Kor. (1975) Yakugaku Zasshi 95. sepals and petals 5. to 20 m tall. expectorant. koraiensis (Nakai) Nakai . Deciduous tree. Spine. koraiensis (Nakai) Nakai Korean Name: Joo-yeob-na-moo English Name: Korean honey locust Leguminosae Parts used. (1982) Chem. armed with stout spines. T. filaments hairly. stamens 9-10. obtuse or emarginate. et al.5 cm long. (4) Hwang. References.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 135 Gleditsia japonica var. Flavonoids and phenylpropanoids (4). Anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities (1). 12-22 cm long. Leaves alternate. 25. Nat. Jun. 6 mm across. green. anti-HIV activity (2). ripening in Oct. 3 cm wide. twisted. Bio-Activities. unisexual or bisexual. et al. with many lenticels on the surface. J. Prod. J. constipation. Habitat. liver disease. et al. 11. Bull. leaflets 11-17. (3) Konoshima.

deltoid. C. X. . winglike prominent ribs. convex. (1991) Arch. (2) Fang. K. Japan. leaflets elliptic. (6) Wang. the vittae numerous. 931. marmesin. migraine headache. Root. J.6). References. involucels 10. Habitat. (1994) Yakugaku Zasshi 114. dentate. osthenol-7-O-gentiobioside (5.Jul. long-petioled. bract of involucels few.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 137 Glehnia littoralis F. immunosuppressive (2).Schmidt . H. (3) Kim. Pacific coast of North America Bio-Activities. Pharm. umbellets 20-40 flowered. obovate. bergapten. without an involucre. (1) Taki. Pubescent perennial herb with thick. emarginate with tip incurved. et al. 471. calyx teeth evident. acute. Antipyretic. 10-20 cm long. (1986) Yaoxue Xuebao 21. Sandy beaches. Glehnia littoralis F. Distribution. 28. 2-5 cm long. elongated rhizomes. petals white. Fruit ellipsoidal. Korea. densely pubescent. (4) Muto. linear. stylopodium disc-shaped. 14. densely pubescent. Coumarins: psoralen. Chemical components. antiulcer (4). et al. (1987) Zhongyao Tongbao 12. China. (5) Sasaki. lateral ribs broader than dorsal ones. (1980) Chem. Bull. 980. 464. Res. Antipyretic. 742. analgesic. antibacterial (3). 87. 4-6 cm long. Leaves twice ternately pinnate. Description. irregularly dentate. Y.D. Umbels 1-3 compound. (1960) Gifu Daigaku Igakubu Kiyo 8. Pharm. to 5-23 cm tall. linear-deltoid. et al.M. pericap corky. style elongate. et al. analgesic (1). 1-3 cm wide. Traditional uses.Schmidt Korean Name: Get-bang-pung English Name: Glehnia Umbelliferae Parts used. 1847. carpels with thick. terminal and axillary at upper part. Jun.

Korea. 66. et al. Habitat. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. References. pendant. with brown hairs. 1075.5 cm long. brown and hairy. calyx campanulate. (8) Kossel. Reduced ovulation rate (coumestrol) (2. Agric. and Fenwick. Description. China. wound healing (allantoin) (4). amino acids. expectorant. 3132.L. et al. 64. (1986) Tetrahedron Lett. Chem. Soybean sprout shows estrogen-like activity and antispasmodic activity (1). (3) Farnsworth. valves spiral after dehiscence. p. vitamin B. 5-toothed. R. Traditional uses. papilionaceous. 249. long petiolate. Bull. (1976) Chem.6). 257. Chemical components. 35. et al. (5) Kitagawa. ovate or elliptic. .R. Widely cultivated. (1984) J. Bio-Activities. (9) Nakatsuka. N.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 139 Glycine max Merr. pink or white. Hairy erect annual. fatty acids. CA. leaflets 3. (1977) J. stipules linear. 3399. Sci. to 60 cm tall. Leaves alternate.3). flazin (9). Food. insecticidal (soyasaponins) (5). et al. Glycine max Merr. K. A. Fruit a linear legume. G. K. cough. H. lumbar vertebral pain. 42. (1) Hsu. Sci. I. Large amount of protein. glyceollin IV (7). soya bean Leguminosae Parts used.R. in axillary racemes. soyasaponins (5. flavones (1). 24. carotenoids. Chem. (1993) Phytochemistry 33. sojagol (3). acuminate or rounded. (1910) Hoppe Seyler’s Z. emmenagogue. Physiol. B. S. Aug. (6) Price. 717. et al. Flowers small. Pharm. agmatine (8). 27. constricted between seeds. Org. Oriental Healing Art Institute. haemolytic. Long Beach. Jul. Distribution. (1978) Tetrahedron Lett. soja bean. Fruit. (2) Hiroyuki. carbohydrate. 887.R. to 7. (1975) J. (7) Lyne. (4) Coxon. Furuncle. Pharm. 121. Japan.-Y. 3127. with upper 2 lobes partly united. Korean Name: Kong English Name: Soybean.

Tech. Open areas of mountains and hills. Chemical components. perianth funnelform. jaundice. 153. Hemerocallis fulva L. Perennial herb. 8 cm across when fully opened. pneumonia. Fruit a 3-valved loculicidal capsule. Crude Drug Res. forming clump by spreading rhizomes. orange-red.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 141 Hemerocallis fulva L. Oppilation. p. antifilariasis (1). Aug. 28. in clusters on long scapes. 700. anthers versatile. usually with darker zone and stripes. segments 6.M. anthraquinones (2). linear. Liliaceae Korean Name: Won-choo-ri English Name: Orange day lily. keeled. filament inserted in throat of perianth. Leaves basal. (2) Sarg. Japanese Transl. colchicine (1). antimicrobial (2). (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. References. Shanghai Sci. et al. Tuberculostatic.. perianth tube 2 cm long. constipation. Europe to Siberia. joined below into a tube. (1990) Int. 1985. 15 cm long. often rather grasslike. stamens 6. seeds few. Main roots fleshy. Habitat. Flowers ephemeral. 60 cm long. T. Rhizome. . Distribution. chrysophanol. Bio-Activities. fulvous day lily Parts used. tawny day lily. 4 cm wide. J. Traditional uses. -Hydroxyglutamic acid. rhein. Description.

(5) Shimizu. anthelmintic (1). corolla single. Habitat. p. (8) Kim. Pharm. 1503. M. each cell with 3 or more seeds. Bull. sesquiterpenes. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. althaea. Bull. calyx slightly longer than bracts. included. aromatics. et al. Description. et al. nearly glabrous shrub or small tree. (1989) Carbohydr. (2) Yokota.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 143 Hibiscus syriacus L. Antipyretic. (1987) Chem. leucorrhoea. References. et al. longer than calyx. Traditional uses. Long Beach. anthocyanidins (8). antifungal (2). less -8. 323. 190. triangular to rhombic ovate in outline. Bio-Activities. 34. (6) Tomoda.-Y.H. 980. (1989) Phytochemistry 28. (1) Hsu. introduced to Korea long ago. J. petals 5. 2360. omalgia. M. (1972) J. carotenoids (7). Y. Commonly planted in gardens and roadsides. involucral bracts 6 mostly lanceolate. Pharm. . Oriental Healing Art Institute. Erect. et al. 3-8 cm long. coarsely toothed. hypoglycaemic (3). et al. (1986) Chem. (7) Hanny. style 5-branched at the apex. B. 2-3 m tall. et al. Fruit a 5-celled capsule. 35. Bark. 20. Agr.Sept. anticomplementary. Aug. than 2 cm long and 0. Distribution. CA. alkanes.6). 4133. Mucilages (5. et al. shrub althaea Malvaceae Parts used. N. stamens united in a tubular column. Res. in upper leaf axils. (1978) Yakugaku Zasshi 98. 503. Flowers on short pedicels. 914. (4) Muto. antiulcer (4) Chemical components. abdominal pain. M. H. Korean Name: Moo-goong-wha English Name: Rose-of-sharon. whitish purple. Hibiscus syriacus L. China. (3) Tomoda. Food Chem.5 cm wide. Leaves mostly less than 8 cm long.. mostly deeply and narrowly 3 -lobed. 1508. (1994) Yakugaku Zasshi 114. with crimsom base. Dysentery.

Flowers small. (7) Choi. deep green above. (8) Nakamura. (9) Tutupalli. 5-nerved from base. cylindric. laurylaldehyde. China. and Chaubal. isoquercitrin (8). Wet places in lowlands. stink grass Saururaceae Parts used. Description. 36. Anti-inflammatory (1). (1988) Chem. 1902. 21. et al. cordate. stamens 3. (1953) Yakagaku Zasshi 73. Y. Pharmacog. antifungal. Glabrous perennial herb with creeping rhizome.and trans-N-(4-hydroxystyryl)-benzamide (5). stigma 3. Benzamide: cis. 3-8 cm long. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (9). (1984) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 38. J. 153. Korea. Suppuration. united to petioles. Traditional uses. obtuse. 28. (6) Namba. 403. H.G. A.V. paler beneath. Inflorescence dense lateral spike subtended by 4 involucral bracts. 3-6 cm wide. S. vitamin P-like (2). et al. et al. 347. 435. Distribution. T. (1) Suzuki. (1990) Kor. 92. methyl nonylketone (3. 20-50 cm tall.4). Pharm. T. Bull. Forsch. densely many-flowered. (1952) Yakagaku Zasshi 72. (3) Kosuge. et al. 1227. (1936) Yakagaku Zasshi 56. united at base to 1-celled ovary. (1985) Oyo Yakuri 30. Korean Name: Yag-mo-mil English Name: Houttuynia. plaque formation suppressant (6).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 145 Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Chemical components. L. et al. . T. (1978) Arzneim.4). 253. References. Fatty aldehydes: decanoylacetaldehyde. M. Himalayas. H. Bio-Activities. (5) Nishiya. hypoglycaemic activities (7). stipules oblong. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. perianth none. (1975) Lloydia 38. ovate. platelet coagulation depressing (5). (4) Kosuge. peduncles 2-3 cm long. Flavonoids: quercitrin. 441. Fruit dry opening at top. J. Herb. Japan. antiviral. bracted. Habitat. (2) Wacker. Jun. gland-dotted. poisoning. spikes 1-3 cm long. Leaves alternate. antimicrobial (3.

277. et al. Cultivated in Korea.L. anthers sagittate-tailed. costunolide (7). 408. alantol. 279. pappus of 1 row of many capillary bristles. anthelmintic. Robust perennial herb. (3) Boatto. et al. Bronchitis. whooping cough. (1976) Food Cosmet. J. Leaves alternate. with spreading hairs.K. nearly glabrous above. the inner usually narrow and scarious. stem leaves ovate-cordate. 35. Probably native to central Asia.Aug. tomentosin. Heads to 5 -10 cm across. smooth muscle relaxant (4). D. Disk flowers tubular. involucre hemisphere. 1165. Chemical components. (1986) Kor. F. sessile. (1978) Phytochemistry 17. . allergenic (6). basal leaves elliptic. to 40 cm long on petioles. 13. W. 19. Jul. Ray flowers female. et al. et al.J. (1) Rhee.5 m tall. 307. dihydroisoalantolactone. hypotensive. alantopicrin. (6) Opdyke. (5) Yun-Choi. Pharmacog. bisexual. and Brandt. 17. Distribution.K. Stems furrowed. G. platelet aggregation inhibition (5). (7) Bohlmann. Chin. 9. receptacle flat. Med. Habitat. J.2). naked. Sesquiterpenes: alantolactone. Chin. J. clasping. phyllaries imbricate in several raws. Med. isoalantolactone. J.S. diarrhoea. (2) Rhee. et al. increase peristalsis of large intestine. Inula helenium L. (1981) Am. J. solitary or 2-3 in a cluster. Achenes nearly cylindrical to 4-5 ribbed. 119. Bio-Activities. (1985) Am. yellow. Korean Name: Mok-hyang English Name: Elecampane Compositae Parts used. Traditional uses. the outer herbaceous. . Clonorchicidal (1. Description. to 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 147 Inula helenium L. yellow. alantic acid.-Forsch. helenine. irregularly toothed. (4) Reiter. 14. dammaradienyl acetate. (1985) Arzneim. inunolide. velvety-tomentose beneath. References. succesively reduced upward. M. Root. antibacterial (3). (1994) Fitoterapia 65. H. Toxicol.

partially grasping stems. Basal and lower leaves smaller than middle ones. Bio-Activities. middle leaves lanceolate to long-elliptic. et al. Inusterol A. Description. 1-3 cm wide. 15-17 mm across.F. 3 cm across. 7-8 mm long. et al. nearly equal. B. 1647. Japan. . China. Toksikol. copious sputum. (1) Belova.5-2 mm wide. 1. phyllaries 5-seriate. Influorescence. F. slightly acute. C. Habitat. (1993) Phytochemistry 34. (Moscow) 44. Achenes 10-ribbed. Antibacterial. Inula helenium L. (1981) Farmakol. 463. Traditional uses. the outer lanceolate. 5-10 cm long. Distribution. pappus 5 mm long. bristles minutely scabrous.Sep. isoquercetin. sessile. secoeudesmanolides (2). (2) Jeske. -4 involucre hemisphere. Perennial herb. Inulicin (1). quercetin.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 149 Inula japonica Regel Korean Name: Keum-bool-cho English Name: Japanese inula Compositae Parts used. Ray flowers 16-19 mm long. yellow. both ciliolate. . Korea. Wet areas in lowlands. the inner narrow. Wheezing. appressed-pilose on both sides. Chemical components. pilose. vomiting. increases intestinal motility. Jul. L. References. Heads solitary or few. 20-60 cm tall.

(1986) Oriental Materia Medica. diuretic (1). antifungal (3). (1) Ito. H. 10-20 cm across. Twining or trailing annual. Bio-Activities. (7) Hsu. et al. Pharm. contraceptive. 312. et al. Chemical components. Description.B.-Y. H. pubescent. (1964) Mie Med. Purgative. (2) Aswal. N. Traditional uses. (6) Okabe. 99. (1971) Chem. 407. References. (1984) Fitoterapia 55. (1994) Phytochemistry 35. 107. 2394. . 47. 300. et al. H. nilic acid.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 151 Ipomoea nil (L. style solitary. to 3 m tall. (1984) Indian J. seeds 2 in each cell. Oriental Healing Art Institute. K. Probably circumtropical in Asia. Fruit 3-valved capsule. usually 3lobed. et al. Biol. stamens 5. E. antispasmodic (4). Ipomoea nil (L. Pharbitin (resin glycosides) (5). 3123. (1982) Kor. Flowers showy. Distribution.) Roth Korean Name: Na-pal-kot English Name: Imperial Japanese morning-glories Convolvulaceae Parts used. included. tiglic acid. 1 in a cluster. (3) Singh. Stems with retrorse hairs. Bull. Pharmacog.V. d-methyl-ethyl-acetic acid (7). red or white. J. corolla funnelform or campanulate. 19. 13. Habitat.) Roth . ipurolic acid. to 5 cm long. CA. violet. calyx deeply -3 segmented by 5. anticholinergic. (5) Okabe. to 15 cm across.S. with 5 strips. 5lobed. Long Beach. purple. axillary. 22. pharbitic acids (6). broadly cordate-ovate.Aug. (8) Saito. p. antitumour (2). H. (1970) Tetrahedron Lett. Leaves alternate. B. Jul. Seed. stigma entire. long-pilose outside. Commonly cultivated in Korea. (4) Lee. Exp. Constipation. Flavonoids (8). J. 14.

G. J. Leaves large. Juglans sinensis Dode . Biochem. 429. Seed. to 15 cm long. Spermatorrhoea.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 153 Juglans sinensis Dode Juglandaceae Korean Name: Ho-doo-na-moo English Name: English walnut. References. young tree. Female flowers on wood of current year. entire except in -9. madeira walnut Parts used. Apr. Produces a valuable cabinet wood. with silvery-gray bark. 25. to 30 m tall. dermatitis. Bio-Activities. (1) Kim. Description.May. monoecious tree. (1992) Kor. Mostly cultivated in Korea. and Jhon. leaflets usually 7 obtuse. Traditional uses. indehiscent husk. H. China. Persian walnut. frequent urination. naturalized in Korea and Japan. Fruit a drupelike furrowed nut enclosed within a thick. Gangliosides (1). Distribution.J. Habitat.S. . Pith in the twigs with minute cross-partitions. Deciduous. aromatic. odd-pinnate. None reported. Male flowers in drooping catkins borne on the previous year’s wood. Chemical components.

S. Juncus effusus var. Description. diuretic. Bio-Activities. et al. Traditional uses. toothache. (1968) Acta Chem. scalelike. Ussuri. M. in dense tussocks.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 155 Juncus effusus var. (3) Shima. (2) Oyaizu. antioxidant. striated and ridged. -tocopherol (2). perianth segments 2-3 mm long. Inflorescence pseudolateral. ionoes. 0. Chemical components. Antitumour. open. 3149.Oct. Herb. decipiens Buchenau . Wet areas in lowlands and mountains. (4) Stabursvik. (1978) Nippon Nogai Kagaku Kaishi 52. fracture. alkanes. Korea. arching. decipiens Buchenau Korean Name: Gol-pool English Name: Soft rush. lanceolate. H. (1) Della Greca. micrandol B (1. 2-2. Undecan-2-one. luteolin and its glycoside (3). Glabrous. 323. -coumaroyl glyceride (4). Stems 30-90 cm tall. Fruit a capsule. phenylpropanoids (5). juncunone. cytotoxic (1). Urethritis. (1991) Yakagaku 40. Flowers yellowish-green to pale brown. Leaves reduced to basal sheaths. A.5 mm long. bisabolene. et al. dehydroeffusol. and Goto. lumbago. . many-flowered. perennial herb. (5) Kameoka. Scand. seeds many. 2371.3). stiffish. China. (1991) Phytochemistry 30. stamens 3. juncanol. K. antimicrobial (2). Japanese-mat rush Juncaceae Parts used. ascending. Habitat. Aug. appearing like the continuation of stem. Distribution. the lowest bract growing to 10-20 cm. 22. sepals and petals 3. the branches many. References. M. 3425. (1993) Tetrahedron 16.5 mm long. 511. et al. tridecanone. Japan. effusol. ovary 3-celled.

Antifungal. 1087. valvate. et al. Bull. Phenols (4): coniferin. with few umbels at the apex. (1) Lee. D. Mountain woods. Kalopanax pictus (Thunb. (1989) Chem. (1990) Chem. . chlorogenic acid. Description. to 30 cm across.J. K. Traditional uses. stamens 5. to 30 m tall. Kalopanaxins A. bracts 1-2 cm long.) Nakai . Chemical components. Distribution. Pharmacog. ovary inferior. Korea. 23. B. protocatechuic acid. palmately compound. Pharm. 2celled. et al. main branch short. spreading. 280. K. RNA reverse transcriptase inhibition (2). Lignans (4): syringin. Bark. neuralgia. Saponins (3): hederagenin glycosides. (3) Shao. 1810. terminal panicles. dark green above. beri-beri. 122. Flavonol glycosides: hyperin. etc. C. the branches to more than 10. Bull. Fatty acids: arachidic acid. (5) Jung. et al. white. References. 39. 865. 37. Pharm. (1). Habitat. petioles 10-30 cm long. 5-7 lobed. (1992) Kor. Bull. China Bio-Activities. Jul. 8 -15 cm long. Flowers in umbels forming large. antihepatotoxic (1). et al. Prickly. et al. J. glucosyringic acid. (2) Ono. style bifid. Leaves alternate. 38. lobes toothed. lumbago. (4) Shao. (1991) Chem. Japan.Y. Contusion. obsolete. Pharm. K. light green beneath. (1995) Kor. petals 5. quercitrin (5). DNA polymerase a inhibition. usually glabrous but somewhat pubescent when young. E. C. 26.) Nakai Korean Name: Eum-na-moo English Name: Tree aralia Araliaceae Parts used. liriodendrin (1). pedicels 7-10 mm long. pleurisy. deciduous tree. J.Aug.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 157 Kalopanax pictus (Thunb. Fruit globose drupe. Pharmacog.

Flowers inconspicuous. to 8 cm long. Naturalized in fields and mountains. ovary 1-celled. usually much-branched. (2) Wen. of columnar or pyramidal to globular habit. isobetanin (5). (6) Drost-Karbowska. to 1 m tall.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 159 Kochia scoparia Schrad. K. (4) Forni. more or less hairy. scabies. Bio-Activities. I-283. leaves at the terminal reduced to bracts resembling spike superficially.Aug. Description. Y. which develops transverse wing in age. (1995) Planta Med. Kochia scoparia Schrad. et al.L. Cytotoxic. lanceolate to narrow-linear. 289. E. Chemical components. Korea. stigmas mostly 2. stamens 5. (1978) Lloydia 41. calyx 5-lobed. exerted. Annual herb. Fruit a utricle enveloped by the calyx. 658. adverse GI and CNS effects in humans (harmine) (1). 69. ciliate. belvedere Chenopodiaceae Parts used. . widely naturalized in Eurasia. isophyllocactin. Leaves alternate. (1964) Phytochemistry 3. axillary. harman. (1984) Food Chem. References. Korean Name: Dab-ssa-ri English Name: Summer cypress. Chromatogr. intercalating agent (harman). Traditional uses. Distribution. harmine (6). (5) Piattelli et al. (1) Li. . entire. Fruit. 13. betanin (4). H. bisexual or female. Phytoecdysterols (3). Triterpenoid saponins (2). Uretic. 149. 61. et al. (3) Dinan. (1994) J. 450. corolla none. Japan to east Europe. (1970) Lloydia 33S. 547. eczema. Habitat. Jul. L. phyllocactin. et al.



Leonurus sibiricus L. Korean Name: Ik -mo-cho English Name: Motherwort


Parts used. Herb. Traditional uses. Amenorrhoea, menstrual irregularities, malaria. Description. Biannual herb, to 1-1.5 m tall, gray-green, white-pubescent. Stems square in cross section. Basal leaves ovate-cordate, toothed and incised, long-petiolate, withering before flowers appear; stem leaves 5-10 cm long, pinnately dissected, long-petioled; uppermost leaves often entire, linear-lanceolate. Flowers in many-flowered verticillasters, 2 cm long; bractlets shorter than calyx; calyx campanulate, 5 -nerved, 5-toothed, teeth spiny; corollar tube shorter than calyx, rose-pink, limb 2-lipped; upper lip erect, entire; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed; stamens 4, in 2 pairs; anther cells opposite, opening by a common slit. Fruit of 4 glabrous, 3-angled, nutlets. Jul. - Aug. Habitat. Grassy areas in lowlands. Distribution. Korea, Japan, China, northeast Asia. Bio-Activities. Uterotonic (1), hypotensive, anticancer, antibacterial, platelet activating factor antagonistic (2), anticoagulant activities (3). Chemical components. Alkaloids: leonurinine, leonuridine, stachydrine, leuronurine. Prehispanolone (4), cycloleonurinine (5), leoheterin, preleoheterin. References. (1) Teng, J.M. et al. (1992) Acta Univ. Med. Tongji 21, 103. (2) Lee, C.M. et al. (1991) Br. J. Pharmacol. 103, 1719. (3) Kosuge, T. et al. (1984) Yakugaku Zasshi 104, 1050. (4) Hon, P.M. et al. (1991) Phytochemistry 30, 354. (5) Kinoshita, K. et al. (1991) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39, 712.

Leonurus sibiricus L.



Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Korean Name: Cham-na-ri English Name: Tiger lily


Parts used. Tuber. Traditional uses. Cough, sore throat, palpitation, boils. Description. Perennial herb, with the bulb scaly. Stems unbranched, to 1-2 m, purplish, scabrous, cobwebby-hairy, with bulbils in leaf axils. Leaves alternate, many, broadly linear to lanceolate, 5-18 cm long, 5-15cm wide. Flowers 1-25 in a raceme, nodding, to 12 cm across, orangered, spotted inside with purple-black; perianth funnelform, segments 6, strongly reflexed, each with a vasal nectar-bearing gland; stamens 6, anthers versatile. Fruit a 3-valved, loculicidal capsule, the margins of valves flat; seeds many, flat, in 2 rows in each cell. Jul. - Aug. Habitat. Woods in lowlands and mountains. Distribution. Korea, China, Japan. Bio-Activities. Anti-inflammatory (1). Chemical components. Liliumla-glucomannan (2), lilioside C (3), phenylpropanoids (4). References. (1) Han, B.H. et al. (1972) Kor. J. Pharmacog. 4, 205. (2) Tomoda, Y. et al. (1976) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 24, 2744. (3) Kaneda, M. et al. (1982) Phytochemistry 21, 891. (4) Shiomura, H. et al. (1989) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43, 64.

Lilium lancifolium Thunb.



Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang Korean Name: Mac-moon-dong English Name: Lilyturf


Parts used. Tuber. Traditional uses. Tonic, sputum remedy, strengthening stamina. Description. Evergreen, perennial herb. Plants tufted with thick, fasciculate rhizomes; leaves grasslike, deep-green, clustered from the base, 30-50 cm long, 8-12 mm wide, 11-15 nerved; scape 30-50 cm long; flowers pale violet, in axillary fascicles arranged in terminal spikes, few to several in a group, pedicels 2 mm long, perianth-segments 6, separate, stamens 6, -5 ovary superior; fruit berrylike, black, seed 1 or 2, fleshy. May - Jun. Habitat. Shaded areas in mountain woods. Distribution. Korea, Japan, China. Bio-Activities. Anti-inflammatory (1), antiallergic (2). Chemical components. Saponins: ophiogonins A, B, C, D, etc. (3, 4). Monoterpenoids: borneol derivative (5). References. (1) Shibata, M. et al. (1971) Hoshi Yakkadaigaku Kiyo 13, 66. (2) Mita, A. et al. (1979) Biomedicine 31, 223. (3) Watanabe, Y. et al. (1983) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 31, 3486. (4) Watanabe, Y. et al. (1984) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32, 3994. (5) Kaneda, N. et al. (1983) Yakugaku Zasshi 103, 1133.

Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang

References. 2-lipped. rounded at base. Wax. wholly or partly evergreen shrub. 1-3 cm wide. H. Flavonoids: diosmetin 7-O-glucoside (4). analgesic (2). J. antiviral. China. Korea.H. Pharm. Bull. loganic acid derivatives (6). 1005. Pharmacog. (6) Tomassini. Japan. (1995) J. (1994) Phytochemistry 35. 229. 1 mm long. Leaves opposite. 363.H. Jun. Caprifoliaceae Korean Name: In-dong English Name: Japanese honeysuckle. antispasmodic. et al. . essential oil. 3-4 cm long. acute or obtuse. berrylike. entire. S. 25. corolla white. Prod. Woods in mountains and lowlands. (1994) Kor. glabrous. (4) Son. swelling. et al. antibacterial (1). stamens 5. (2) Lee. fragrant. G. Dysentery. Distribution. Habitat. broadly lanceolate to ovate-elliptic. Traditional uses. Lonicera japonica Thunb. naturalized in North America. triterpenoid saponins (3). (5) Kawai. Antiulcer. diuretic. pubescent beneath. (1) Song. Pharmacog. 3664. soft-pubescent outside. (3) Son. luteolin. Fruit blueblack. (1985) Zhongcaoyao 16. east Asia. the limb as long as tube. Flowers in axillary pairs subtended by 2 bracts and 4 bractlets. K. Climbing. 36. inositol. Nat. simple. K. glandular and pubescent when young. et al. showy. (1994) Kor. Branches terete. 4-5 lobed. et al. Iridoids: vogeloside (4. et al. Chemical components. 1756.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 167 Lonicera japonica Thunb. 3-7 cm long.J. pain. et al. petioles 3-8 mm long. 25.Jul. 2-3 celled. 58. the lobes ovate. Description. Bio-Activities.5). anti-inflammatory. L. . ovary inferior. calyx tube 4-5 toothed. (1988) Chem. lonicerine. 24. J. chlorogenic acid. Flower bud. gold-and-silver flower Parts used. turning to yellow with age.

1 cm long. M. generally unarmed. aurantiamide acetate. (1995) Nat. (1989) Curr. stamens 5. lyciumines A. scarlet or orange. 817. Flowers solitary or clustered in leaf axils. phytosterols. S. (1993) Chem. to 7 cm long. 30. scopoletin. Pharm. et al. et al. root bark. Pharmacog. (3) Yahara. et al. Fruit berry. J. M. Korea.exhaustive coughing. Prod. platelet aggregation inhibition (5). Description. et al. usually grayish-green. 41. atropine (6). Jun. Betaine. often clustered. (1985) J. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 169 Lycium chinense Mill. (6) Harsh. corolla funnelform. Root bark consumptive fever. 346. (7) Yahara. . (2) Kim. naturalized in Europe. 49. Habitat. Y.S. hypolipidaemic (2). Nat. (5) Yun-Choi. Bio-Activities. 58. H. S. Japan. -D (7). angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (3). zeaxanthin. (1978) Phytochemistry 17. purplish. References. 363. Korean Name: Goo-kee-ja-na-moo English Name: Chinese metrimony vine Solanaceae Parts used. (1988) Kor. 703. hypertension. pubescent at the base. Chemical components. without stipules. polysaccharides. carotene. east Asia. east United States. China. vitamins B. Distribution.L. (1) Kim. Leaves alternate. hyoscyamine. Sep. 971. Thickets in lowlands. 264. Deciduous clambering woody shrub. (1989) Tetrahedron Lett. small. not enlarged in fruit. N. hypoglycaemic. antioxidative. Fruit. 48. to 2 cm long. commonly narrow. C. Fruit . Sci. and Takagaki. (1994) Kor. antianaphylactic activity (4). (4) Kataoka. calyx campanulate. hepatoprotective.S. 25. (8) Itoh. Immunopotentiating (1). Med.J. Traditional uses. Bull. entire. Pharmacog. 3-5 toothed. ovate or ovate-lanceolate. liciumosides. et al. J. with arching or prostrate branches. T. debility. Lycium chinense Mill. triterpenes (8). 19. et al. usually 1-4 at a node. 193. to 4 m long. oedema. et al. 6041.

in -4 axillary verticillasters. et al. Bio-Activities. Description. . Stems square in cross section. Traditional uses. S. 22. 352. Distribution. linarin (4). 22. to 1 m tall. (2) Gao. oleanolic acid. Pharmacog. Stoloniferous. 29. 13nerved. Korean Name: Ship-ssa-ri English Name: Bugleweed. Wet areas in mountains and lowlands. et al. Weak diuretic (water ext. swelling.-farnesene. (3) Do. glabrous. spathurenol. Labiatae Parts used. J. gypsywort. China. 162. (1991) Kor. (1992) Kor. 2 cm wide. Flowers small. 2. et al. 5-toothed. limb 4-lobed.) (1). trans-caryophyllene. corolla tube shorter than calyx.C. water horehound. 166. blood-activating and stasisresolving activities (2). tormentc acid. divergent.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 171 Lycopus lucidus Turcz. et al. N. J. Essential oils (1). Pharmacog. erect. References. oedema. 2 -hydroxyursolic acid.Aug. Korea. trans. (1991) Kor. stamens 2. euscapic acid (3). perennial herb. 1-2 cm long. pain. (1996) Zhongcaoyao 27. anther cells parallel. Betulinic acid. Chemical components.5-dimethoxy-cymene. 23. Amenorrhoea. (4) Do. white. exerted. Pharmacog. calyx campanulate. Habitat. 3-epimaslinic acid. serrate.H. J.C. glabrous. Fruit of 4 four-sided nutlets. Leaves opposite. Japan. J. bracts leaflike. carvacrol. J. widelanceolate. bractlets small. not aromatic. (1) Shin. Lycopus lucidus Turcz . Jul. Herb.

(1983) Zhongyao Yaoli Yu Yingyong 540. Terminal buds covered with tomentum. stamens rose-purple. 7-15 cm long.Mar. Habitat. 0. et al. glabrous with age. Japan. 510 cm long. fragrant. (3) Xue. to 20 m tall. Magnolia denudata Desr. methylchavicol. dark-green. white tinged with pink or purple at the base or midrib. et al. elliptic. naturalized in some areas. Chemical components. Feb. 33. reddish brown. petiole 2. almost glabrous at maturity. obovate. Deciduous tree.L. Flower bud. Korean Name: Bag-mok -ryeon English Name: Lily tree Magnoliaceae Parts used. (2) Funayama.5 cm long. hypotensive. cuneate or obtuse at the base. Magnosalin (lignan). Korea. glabrous above. tomentose. local astringent (1).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 173 Magnolia denudata Desr. light-green. white. . Description. Distribution. cytotoxic (2). asarone. References. Costunolide. glabrous at age. petals 9 (10-12). outer seed coats red. S. sinusitis. et al. east China. vase-shaped. parthenolide. (1989) Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 14. 5-15 cm long. 38. (1) Wang. Uterus stimulating. 2-5 cm wide. Fruit aggregated to form follicetum. Z. abruptly acuminate at apex. antifungal. or broadly elliptic. Traditional uses. Twigs dark-brown. nasal obstruction.S. Bio-Activities. Essential oil: 1. Pharmacog. pubescent beneath. Commonly planted in Korea. d-reticuline. myristicin (2). Y. 5-10 cm wide. Flowers appearing before leaves. gray-brown bark. yuzirine. (1995) Int.5 cm long. pubescent at first. J. eugenol. 21. pinene (3).8-cineol. with rough. cylindrical. erect. l-N-methylcoclaurine. Alkaloids: d-coclaurine. Headache. Leaves obovate. .

(2) Tomoda. IVA (1). Bull. musk mellow Malvaceae Parts used. Bio-Activities. Malva verticillata L. Mucilage (3). palmately lobed. -IIA. 5. conspicuously transverse-ridged. to 60-90 cm tall. (1990) Planta Med. -V (5). 4981. (5) Gonda. References. et al. 56. 2790. 36. separate. anticomplementary (2). -IIG. Flowers in dense axillary clusters. 168. mericarps glabrous. G. 153. Erect annual.Oct. 35. et al. 65. (1990) Herba Pol. each 1-seeded. about 1 cm long. abortifacient. Postpartum fever. Bull. 56. (3) Racz. petals white or purplish. (1981) Farmacia (Bucharest) 29. Cultivated in Korea. (4) Shimizu. (1988) Chem. hypoglycaemic (2). Habitat. Polysaccharides: MVS-1(4). I. (6) Matlawska. Chemical components. 36. poisoned dermatitis f om contact r with varnish tree. involucral bracts 3. R. Description.or 7-lobed. Flavonoids (6). N. et al. et al. style branches filiform. Reticuloendothelial system potentiating (1). . Korean Name: A-wook English Name: Mellow. as many as the mericaps.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 175 Malva verticillata L. Pharm. or biennial. Eurasia. Leaves alternate. 73. May . and Mathe. Fruit a discoid mericarps. (1987) Chem. Pharm. Seed. (1990) Planta Med. Traditional uses. stigmatic along inner edge. Distribution. rounded. (1) Gonda. stamens united in a tubular column. H. R. I.

) Rohrb. schaftoside (3). J. Pharm. 3. E. W. Flavonoids. 16. and Woo.H. stamens 10. ovary 1-celled above but 3 celled at base. Description. et al. I. Distribution. calyx tubular. erect herb. 130. cockle Caryophyllaceae Parts used. galactagogue. Korean Name: Jang-goo-chae English Name: Catchfly.S. linarin. ovate-elliptic or ovatelanceolate. hairy at edges and on both sides. (1985) Kor. (2) Shin.H. 2-lobed. Biennial. Stems glabrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 177 Melandrium firmum (Siebold et Zucc. emmenagogue. alternate with calyx -5 teeth.) Rohrb. Gonorrhoea. contraception. saponins (5). Pharmacog. (1989) Arch. (4) Woo. Flowers white. 12. Leaves opposite. et al. (1991) Kor. 544. Japan. 3-10 cm long. green. Siberia. J. et al. 211. Pharmacog. K. Habitat. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. 1. (1) Shin. Res. Herb. et al. . dehiscent by teeth twice as many as the styles. 22. petals 5. Fruit a capsule. stipules absent.S. Open areas in lowlands and mountains. References.H. 223. Melandrium firmum (Siebold et Zucc. Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes in liver (1). to 30-80 cm tall. Korea.-D-Glucuronopyranosylmelandrigenin methyl ester (4).H. styles 3. (5) Chang. K. coronal scales present at juncture of blade and claw. 10-veined. but dark purple at nodes. Jul. (1989) Planta Med. (3) Woo. Traditional uses. China. reniform. 55. Chemical components. 5-toothed. seeds many. E. aldose reductase inhibition (2). Bio-Activities.

References. (4) Kameoka. T. 297. Anthelmintic. spreading. Fruit a berry. et al. azedarachol (3). tree. meldenin. pride-of-India. petioled. paradise Parts used. (1) Inubushi. calyx 5. May. Japan. acute. kulolactones. Chemical components. leaflets many. glabrous above. phenylpropanoids (4. (1993) Bull.P. fruit. Spreading deciduous tree. and gedunins (1). to 15 m tall. J. (1978) Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 52. 2 ovules in each cell. C. pubescent beneath. japonica Makino .lobed. Korean Chem. Bark. M. (2) Ahn. 30-90 cm long. and Hibino. persisting after leaves fall. naturalized in warm-temperate and tropical America. Description. antifungal (1). nimbolidines. Asia. nimbolines. usually mistakenly called a drupe. ovary 5-celled. Chuanliansu. (3) Nakatani. 2pinnate. 1945. oxyuriasis. stamens 10. petals 5. orchinolides. ovate or elliptical. sesquiterpenes. and Kameoka. japonica Makino Korean Name: Mul-goo-seul-na-moo English Name: Chinaberry.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 179 Melia azedarach var. Flowers pale purple. Y. Traditional uses. toothed or lobed. 12-Hydroxyammorastatone (2). 2-5 cm long. almost glabrous with age. H. (5) Wang. 99. China. Japanese bead tree Meliaceae pride-of-China. melianins. et al. 554. Thickets in lowlands and hills. (1970) Yakugaku Zasshi 90. 127. (1985) Phytochemistry 24. and Wang. Habitat. filaments united in a cylindrical tube. yellow. Korea. Leaves alternate. H. to 2 cm across. salanin. isochuanliansu (ascaricidal tetraor triterpenoids). W. Soc. 14. in axillary panicles. C. Distribution. Melia azedarach var. monoterpenes. melinanones. (1976) Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 50. Ascaris.5). Bio-Activities.P.

1. corolla white or pale rose. aromatic. piperitone. cholagogic (5). ovate to elliptical. piperascens Malinv. D. in 2 pairs. pharyngitis. (1987) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 41. et al. (4) Giachetti. 5-toothed. piperascens Malinv. perennial herb. Korean Name: Bak-ha English Name: Japanese mint Labiatae Parts used. (5) Yamahara. (8) Pichitakul. Stems mostly square in cross scetion. antispasmodic (4). J. K. headache. antibacterial (6). Erect. J. (6) Chen. et al. Res. High Resolut. 713. 389. 4-5 mm long. Fruit of 4 smooth. Japan. (1948) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 43. Description. other monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids as l-menthone. et al. (1) Yamahara. J. 2. (7) Bicchi. (3) Masaki. 12. 2-5 cm long. petioles 310 mm long. petiolate. Chromatogr.P. et al. Herb. 54. (1985) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 39. skin irritant (3). . upper lobe emarginate. Y.Oct. Analgesic (1). 316. 80. many flowered verticillasters. Thailand 9. Fields and wet areas in lowlands. (1989) J. l-limonene. Leaves opposite. . (2) Yamahara. reticulate. isomenthone. Distribution. local vasodilation (2). germacrene-D. 93. serrate. and Sthapitanonda.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 181 Mentha arvensis var.8). calyx tubular or campanulate. to 50 cm tall. et al. 10-13 nerved. Flowers in dense. Traditional uses. Essential oil containing 70-90% l-menthol. Nausea. emmenagogue. (1981) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 35. corolla tube as long as calyx. Habitat. or tubercled nutlets. hairy. pulegone (7. et al. limb 4-lobed.5 cm wide. larger. Chemical components. usually exserted. 3-4 mm long. (1977) J. 1-2. stamens 4. caryophyllene. Korea. Counc. Bio-Activities. References. (1980) Yakugaku Zasshi 100. Natl. 215. dyspepsia. (1988) Planta Med. eastern Asia. broadest below the middle. C. 103. et al. Mentha arvensis var. N.5-3 mm long. Aug. cineol. C.

1381. Flowers unisexual. F. Korean Name: Pong-na-moo English Name: White mulberry Moraceae Parts used. Pharm. dysuria. weakness. T. 1251. H.5 cm long. kuwanones A. 3. Bark . et al. 31. (1991) Int. Pharm. petioles 2-2. et al. deep cordate at base. cyclomorusin. antitumour activity (5).M. Fruit a juicy syncarp. Hypotensive. Distribution. sweet. 1394.Q. 32. monoecious tree or large shrub with almost glabrous branches. anasarca with olignia. T. Description. (1960) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 56. central and east China. glossy green above. (1986) Heterocycles 24. blackish-purple. round-ovate or elliptic-ovate.9): morusin. Chinese Med.7. to 10 cm long or more. . anti-inflammatory (3). Bull. T. glabrous or scabrous. Leaf. (1978) Chem. (1983) Chem. 75. Leaves alternate. T. (5) Chang. 16. Jun.S. Habitat. Chemical components. Pharmacol. pubescent. Mountain woods. (6) Nomura. Korea. References. (4) Han. Traditional uses. 2936. bark. antitussive. I. Morus alba L. et al. T. analgesic. Deciduous. vasodilator (1). (1980) Arch. Res. 1260. constipation. Bull. 704. 51. (1984) Chem. 819. Prenylflavones (6. G. in drooping catkins. J.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 183 Morus alba L. (7) Nomura. blood sugar lowering (2). 159. J.8.5 cm long. 1453. 26.Cough. 1807. 26. Pharm. coarsely toothed. (9) Nomura. acuminate or obtuse at tip. et al. Triterpenoids: betulinic acid (10). often 3-5 lobed. (2) Hikino. Bull. et al. 1-2. HMG Co-A reductase inhibition (4). et al. (8) Nomura. and Woo. (1) Tanemura. umbelliferone. (1976) Japan.hypertension. Pharm. et al. Bio-Activities. 461. (1985) Heterocycles 23. I. et al. 808. (10) Nomura. (1985) Planta Med. G. Y. W. pubescent on midrib beneath. 1. (3) Yamatake. Leaf .

pronuciferine. (1962) Yueh Hsueh Hsueh Pao 9. Traditional uses. lakes. methylcorypalline. aquatic herb with wide-spreading. Bull. (3) Onishi. hypotensive (liensinine. Korea. uterine smooth muscle relaxation (demethylcoclaurine) (1). or sometimes white. large. horizont al. (1988) Chem. 251. W. 30-90 cm across. Leaves glaucous. Seed. mostly overtopping leaves. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner . Distribution. usually above the water on long petioles. petals and stamens many. neferine. Alkaloids (1): lotusine. Flowers fragrant. 271.Z. 36. Bull. liriodenine. pink. norarmepavine. nornuciferine. Long Beach. et al. Large. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. leukorrhoea. flat-topped receptacle in which the many 1 -ovuled carpels are embedded. Oriental Healing Art Institute. demethylcoclaurine. Bio-Activities. Jul. antihypercholesterolaemic (3). 4585. benzylisoquinoline dimer) (2). thickened rhizomes rooted in mud.Aug.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 185 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner Korean Name: Yeon-kot English Name: Sacred lotus Nymphaeaceae Parts used. et al. (1984) Chem. attached at the base of an obconical. (2) Chen. . peltate. showy. E. nearly orbicular. 277. Diarrhoea. solitary. (4) Ishida. 32. Flowers are sacred to Buddhists. (1) Hsu. south Asia to Australia. with often sinuate margins. sepals 4-5. 646. isoliensinine. 508. Flavonoids (4): nelumboside. H. Habitat. Description. Chemical components. petioles and peduncles rough. p.-Y. Pharm. concave. Pharm. rose. CA. Ponds. et al. Vasodilation (methylcorypalline). Grown widely in the Orient for the edible rhizomes and seeds. liensinine. spematorrhoea. H.

20. et al. (3) Woo. etc. J. stigmast-4-en-3-one. Pharm. Orostachys japonicus A. J. 27. lanceolate. Herb. Fatty acid esters: friedelin. (1992) Kor. Pharmacog.Berger Korean Name: Ba-we-sol English Name: Rock pine Crassulaceae Parts used. H. Inflorescence a terminal. (4). taraxerone. Pharmacog. Habitat. References. (1991) Kor. 22. 10. 78. sepals nearly equal.R. I.J. J. pyruvate-orthophosphate dikinase (2). 132. et al. Description. 189.S. Pharmacog. 6 mm long.Berger . succulent perennial herb. subulate at tip. 25.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 187 Orostachys japonicus A. E. Flowers white. Traditional uses. et al. 14.J. Cancer. antispasmodic activities (3). H. Glabrous. northern China. nearly separate. 105. W. Chemical components. 5merous. glutinone.B. J. (6) Park. 23. 1-hexatriacontanol. and Lee. (4) Park. Flavonoids (6). glutinol. Pflanzenphysiol. H. (5) Park. green. lanceolate. Distribution. et al. coagulation. Pharmacog. metritis. leaving compact winter bud of mostly callus leaves that grow basally in spring to form callus-tipped foliage leaves. but often offsets. Cytotoxic (1).J. Stem leaves sessile. sometimes purplish or powdery white. (1991) Arch. pyramidal thyrse 6-15 cm long. petals spreading. Surface of mountain rocks. (1979) Kor. (2) Sanada. Sep. (1994) Kor. et al. (1) Lee. dense on stem. laneolate. Y. withering in autumn. Res. stamens 10. Korea. Bio-Activities. Japan. (1982) Z. Rosettes flowering and dying. ergost-4-en-3-one (5). gingivitis. 167. pale green.

leaflets elliptic to lanceolate. pink. (6) Nishizawa.Jun. sedative. Paeoniflorin. anticonvulsion. Distribution. et al. antiulcer. et al. (3) Kosuge. (1984) Yakugaku Zasshi 104. Anti-platelet aggregation (2). Bio-Activities.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 189 Paeonia lactiflora var. M. phenylpropanoids (8). 849. Anti-inflammatory. 7-10 cm across. (1986) Phytochemistry 25. 250. and Motto. hortensis Makino . Root. 501. Description. monoterpenes. China. petals 10. albiflorin. glabrous.G. oxypaeoniflorin. (7) Miyazawa. hortensis Makino Korean Name: Jak-yag English Name: Chinese peony. (1984) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 38. Aromatics (7). women’s diseases. Chemical components.S. M. Flowers 1 or few at the ends of stems. 35. et al. analgesic. Biol. 215. Traditional uses. Korea. 887. (1969) Yakugaku Zasshi 89. lower leaves 2 -ternate.or more flowered. Fruit a cluster of horizonally spreading follicles. common garden peony Ranunculaceae Parts used. M. K. Stout perennial herb with thickened and tuberous root. muscle relaxation activities by paeoniflorin. Tannins: gallo-tannins (6). pistils 4-5. vasodilation (1). (4) Namba. yellow. red. J. stamens many. (8) Kumar. hypotensive. T. paeoniflorigenone. (1984) Planta Med. Bull. et al. Stems 40-80 cm tall. Pharmacog. margins rough-scabrous. et al. References. (2) Kang. plaque formation suppressant (4). blood circulation disorders. Paeonia lactiflora var. 3-5 celled. Mostly cultivated in Korea. Leaves alternate. T. et al. or hairy in some varieties. S. 1050. Chem. N. 253. May . 893. each 2. 2847. 879. (1) Takagi. 22. paeonilactone (5). Habitat. 48. (5) Lang. anticoagulant (3). Pharm. Pain. et al. (1991) Kor. glabrous. to Siberia. sesquiterpenes. fragrant. (1984) Agr. (1987) Chem. entire or occasionally lobed.

antispasmodic (4).5 m tall. 41. long cultivated in Korea and Japan. (8) Yoshikawa. (1993) Chem. 1469. oxypaeoniflorin derivatives. leaflets deeply and incisively divided. 5. Flavonoids (9). cough. white lobe of the disc that splits as the follicles develop. 2925. M. 41. 10-15 cm across. References. antispasmodic. (3) Ishida. (1972) Yakugaku Zasshi 89. whitish beneath. (9) Egger. Phenolic compounds (6): paeonol. 35. paeonolide. lumbago. (6) Miyazawa. 154. anticoagulant (3). 4309. paeonoside. 630. with a few hairs along midrib. Diuretic (1). (2) Takechi. (1983) Agr. (1985) Planta Med. China. 1187. antiinflammatory. antiviral (2). (1987) Chem. 846. et al. Fruit a cluster of horizontally spreading follicles. M. stomachic. Mostly cultivated in Korea. K. antiulcer. Distribution. et al. et al. et al. and Keil. small shrub. Habitat. 1-1. Description. 252. M. Bio-Activities. 45. cold. 3-5 clefted. et al. et al. Chemical components. et al. et al. (1972) Tetrahedron 28. Monoterpene glycosides (7.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 191 Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews Korean Name: Mo-ran English Name: Tree peony Paeoniaceae Parts used. rose-pink to white. stamens many. Bull. Pharm. Biol. K. Pharm. (1969) Planta 88. Leaves alternate. Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews . Root bark. Bull. May. (4) Harada. Flowers large and showy. 1205. 47. (7) Kaneda. Pharm. M. (1) Kawashima. Bhutan to Tibet. M. 2-pinnate. M. at first enveloped by a thin. (1982) Planta Med. Bull. (5) Shimizu. aldose reductase inhibition (5). Headache. H. M. Coarsely branched. acute. densely brown-pubescent. (1993) Chem. Traditional uses.8): paeoniflorin. carpels 2-6. Chem.

10. Umbel solitary in the middle of leaf whorls. (6) Dabrowski. References. Q.H. Panax ginseng C. et al. (3) Joo. (8) Konno. J. 2464. (1980) Phytochemistry 19. Sesquiterpenes. Antioxidant. Ethnopharmacol. C. Leaves borne in whorls. Korea. antifatigue (1). (1985) Chem. malonyl-ginsenosides. Korean Name: In-sam English Name: Ginseng Araliaceae Parts used. stimulation of ADH (3). diabetes. 71. maltol. (1977) Kor. Y. S. Biochem. et al. alcoholism. 33. Chemical components. (5) Kitagawa. 869. (4) Yokozawa. (1984) Agents Actions 15. B. ginsenosides Ro. long-petioluled. extremely rare in wild. 12. Traditional uses. immunostimulating (2). Saponins (5). C.A.N. Pharm. palmately compound. styles 2. Z. (1989) Kor. abruptly acuminate to caudate. Perennial herb with thick roots and simple stems. (2) Jie. (1) Han. L. et al. ovary 2 celled. 3353. Habitat. -Rh. et al. Flowers small. Bio-Activities. to 50 cm tall. Root. Bull. T. about 5 -3 mm in diameter. stamens 5. 386. Root fusiform. 14. 20. (7) Kim. salicylic acid (1). Peptide glycans (8). Fruit a drupe. bisexual. 69. 33. globose. increasing HDL cholesterol. hypoglycaemic (4). (1985) J. yellowish green. Bull. Polyacetylenes (6). 7 -20 cm long. Pharmacog. (1979) Kor. et al. eremophilene etc. red. et al. endometritis. Apr. Pharm. obovate. imbricate. U. J. et al. panaxans A. petals 5. in single terminal umbels.Mey . Description. Distribution.A. (1983) Chem. serrate. Biochem. leaflets 5. panaxydol.Mey. Mostly cultivated. et al. panaxyne (7). 3-4.-I. Ra. Weakness. Phenols.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 193 Panax ginseng C. 31.H. J. northern China. panaxynol. 109. I.

211. Jul. stamens 4. (6) Taguchi. et al. J. Rhizomatous perennial herb. Bio-Activities. J. J. Soedin 6. (1983) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37. wingless. Description. V. Pharm. somewhat hairy to nearly glabrous. (1) Shin. lyrate. to 60-150 cm tall. 16. and Woo. 1045. 17. T. 3-celled. (8) Choi. 223. et al. neuralgia. (1984) Arch. pinnatifid.Y. V. 302. Leaves opposite. .paniculate cymes. 62. hederagenin (5. (4) Bukharov. Prir. H. perityphlitis. Initial stages of appendicitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 195 Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. to 15 cm long. 1. Chemical components. terminal segment lanceolate. et al. Traditional uses.S. (1987) Planta Med. 372. W. Habitat. (1985) Kor. esculetin (8). Pharmacog. 7. (7) Woo. Pharm. China.S. Open grassy areas. basal leaves ovate-oblong. in corymbose. (1983) Phytochemistry 22.S. antibacterial (3).S. J. Distribution. calyx 5-toothed. Korean Name: Ma-ta-ri English Name: Patrinia Valerianaceae Parts used.7). 121. longer than the others. oleanolic acid. (3) Choe. Root. antispasmodic (2). Res. patrinoside (6). (1986) Kor.5). (2) Itokawa. . ovary inferior. T.Aug. References. eastern Siberia.G. and Woo. coarsely toothed. with 1 fertile and 2 sterile cells. H. emmenagogue. corolla 5-lobbed.V. W.S. Fruit an achene. and Endo. 1935. Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes in liver (1). Korea. Triterpenic glycosides (4. 22. K. and Karlin. Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. Flowers yellow. W. 53. scopoletin. (1974) Chem. (5) Choi. Japan. Pharmacog. (1970) Khim. Bull.H.

common cold. Japan. long-petioled. peduncles 10-20. short-pubescent in upper part. Jun. et al. upper leaves reduced. K. puberulent.2. Fruit elliptic. Korea.Y. Umbels many. J. involucre abscent. (2) Ikeshiro. et al. I. irregularly deeply dentate.Aug.3. pedicels 20-30. Habitat. 20. Pharmacog. 4 mm long. References. (1992) Phytochemistry 31. et al. Leaves alternate. often 3-lobed. et al. densely pubescent. Traditional uses. (1992) Kor. Migraine headache. Korean Name: Get-kee-reum-na-mool English Name: Japanese peucedanum Umbelliferae Parts used. (1992) Phytochemistry 31. 3-6 cm long. Y. Bio-Activities. . leaflets obovate-cuneate. (4) Duh.5 cm long. 2-3. deltoid or lanceolate.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 197 Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. glabrous in lower part. on short peduncles. C. the dorsal ribs slender and -5 filiform. Distribution. Sandy places near seashores. to 60-100 cm tall. 2-3 pinnately compound. cytotoxicity (2). rheumatoid arthritis. Coumarins and dihydrocoumarins (1. Platelet aggregation inhibition (1). Root. uninflated sheath. China. 1829. Chemical components. with a membraneous. . the lateral narrowly winged.S. involucels 5-10. Philippines. 23. (1996) Phytochemistry 41. Description. (3) Shin. Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. 4303.H. 525.4). Glaucous perennial herb. (1) Chen.

Physiol. Flowers greenish. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. Chromatogr. Phytosterols. Chemical components. unisexual. S.H. (3) Sabir. J. (8) Kondo. 9. and Sheu. 1379. Y. (5) Tomita. (1978) Ind. serum cholesterol and blood sugar level lowering activities by berberine (1. berrylike. 880. cortex orange-yellow. Description. and stamens 5 -6. Leaves opposite. Amur. Pharmacol. 1300. Antibacterial. Butenolides (8). D. (2) Shanbhag. 329.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 199 Phellodendron amurense Rupr. 885. Distribution. Agents Chemother. aldose reductase inhibition (4). antianaemic. (4) Shin. et al. to 15 m tall. Traditional uses. (7) Kubota. obakulactone. gastrointestinal disorders. magnoflorine. Flavonoids (leaves): amurensin. (6) Liu. Bitter principles (7): obakunone. et al. Jun. 742. T. 325.C. Alkaloids (5. M. 5-7 cm across. M.2. (1993) J. menisperine. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. candicine. inhibition of cholinesterase. phellamurin.3). palmatine. long-acuminate. et al. ulcer. Japan. . glandular-dotted. pubescent. dark green and glossy above. Inflorescence terminal panicles. ovate to ovate-lanceolate. References. antipyretic. Diarrhoea. phellodendrine. deciduous tree.M. odd-pinnate. glabrous and glaucous beneath. Dioecious.J. et al. et al. Bark. Korean Name: Whang-byeuk-na-moo English Name: Cork tree Rutaceae Parts used. 32. swelling. Pharmacol. petals. antimalarial. 130. Bio-Activities. 5-seeded. 22. antihypertensive. Habitat. (1970) Japan J. et al. 6 mm long. 1238. 482. to 10 cm long. jatrorrhizine. sepals. (1961) Tetrahedron Lett. S. (1985) Yakugaku Zasshi 105. K.6): berberine. 634. Korea. northern China. Woody areas in mountains. et al. (1988) Antimictob. Fruit black. (1) Sun. oxytocic. ciliate. 20. Y. with corky bark. leaflets 5-13.M. choleretic. (1960) Yakugaku Zasshi 80.

Traditional uses. Korean Name: Sok-dan English Name: Phlomis Labiatae Parts used. suborbiculate to cordate. and Park. 380. (2) Chung. (4) Chung. D. tineapedis. B. References.S.S. lower 3-lobed. (1984) Zhongcaoyao 15. long-petiolate. 2-lipped. spreading. (1) Kim. 25. Korea. Pharmacog. Antihepatotoxic (1). 8 mm long.H. succinic acid.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 201 Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. 388. 13 cm long. Description. (1994) Kor. et al. B. Habitat. Leaves opposite. the upper leaves smaller. margins crenate. Distribution. 10 cm wide. Pharmacog. (3) Zhu. Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. 5. Root. Some roots thickened to spindle shape. calyx tubular. bentonicine (3). corolla purple. Pubescent perennial herb to 1 m tall. Shanzhiside methyl ester (2). Chemical components. Y. Jul. et al. pubescent beneath. (1981) Kor. Bio-Activities. J. J. . K. et al. 5-toothed. Pharmacog. Mountains and hills.-S. (1983) Kor. northern China. upper lip hooded. umbroside (4). 14. 82. J. Haemostatic. Flowers in axillary verticillasters. 12.

(1984) Chin.S. May .H. References.Jun. Anti-inflammatory (1). lumbago. W. style 1. 55. tineapedis. and Yi. Habitat. Y.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 203 Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte Korean Name: Ja-ri-gong English Name: Pokeweed. rheumatism. erect or oblique. 57. (1) Yi. many oleanane-derived phytolaccosides. Oedema. Nat. (1971) Yakhak Hoeji 15. 3-acetylmyricadiol (6). petioles 1. broad-elliptic or lanceolate. (1991) Planta Med. 5-12 cm wide. Perennial herb. (5) Yi. curved outwards. Drugs 15. Z. pokeberry Phytolaccaceae Parts used. purgative. Bio-Activities.H. F. (6) Woo. Description. beri-beri.4. Abandoned or open fields near residences. Inflorescence racemes. toxic (convulsive) activities. Traditional uses. (2) Funayama. Root. opposite against leaves. 99. (1984) Yaoxue Xuebao 19. (3) Woo.S.L. (1979) J. 825. carpels 8. Y. S. stamens 8. Distribution. Prod. Fruit a depressed-globose berry. Y.5). to 1 m tall. S. naturalized in Korea.S. Leaves alternate. Herb. bisexual. hypotensive (2). anther pale pink.5-2. 10-12 cm long. 162. 10-20 cm long. white. Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte . and Kang. slightly woody at base. China. diuretic. each carpel 1-seeded. (1985) Phytochemistry 24. Flowers small. Saponins (3. pedicels 10-12 mm long. and Dai. margins entire. 42. 672. petals none. Chemical components. (4) Wang. ovate. Trad. abortifacient. obtuse. 1116. sepals 5.5 cm long. W.

Japan 58. China. H. but usually much smaller to shrublike. 35. (1984) Chem. insecticidal.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 205 Picrasma quassioides (D. et al. Description. Young branches red-brown. T. cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibition. Bull. ovate. Korea. (1973) Tetrahedron 29. T. (1985) Bull. 2. Bull. 1515. acuminate with obtuse tip. anthelmintic by quassinoids (1. Pharm. 298.6. (9) Ohmoto. 321. Cymes axillary. (1985) Chem. 4588. 3-4 mm long. (5) Murae. 33. Lowland woods. to 20 m tall. T.Don) Bennet . Japan. et al. Chemical components.10). 32. Flowers yellowish green. petioles 2 cm long. 1793. Bio-Activities. Jun. References. 3579. globose-obovoid. Habitat. obovate. Traditional uses. Soc. 6-7 mm long. M.Don) Bennet Korean Name: So-tae-na-moo English Name: Picrasma Simaroubaceae Parts used. 4901. K. sepals 4 -5. chronic dyspepsia. (1975) Phytochemistry 14. (1) Park. 2473. Bitter stomatic. Nigakilactones A-N (5). antiamoebal. Pharm. Pharm. et al. Y. 4 mm -7 across. Chem. (6) Hikino. canthinones (8). cuneate at base. M. Gastric secretion. Wood. Med. (1936) Tohoku J.-I. 32. Pharm. et al. blood flow increase in GI-tract by alkaloids (3. (10) Ohmoto. et al. Distribution. slender tree. antiviral.2). Exp. Y. 8-15 cm across. 3082.4). antihypertensive. (1984) Chem. Bull. obtusely toothed. (8) Kohda. India. -carboline alkaloids (9. (4) Ohmoto. peduncles 4 -10 cm long. et al. Picrasma quassioides (D. 29. narrowly ovate. nearly glabrous. Pharm. (1988) Chem. leaflets 7 sessile. petals 4 -5. with yellow spots.5-3 cm wide. Fruit 1-5 drupelets. picrasinosides (7). Leaves alternate. (2) Sone. et al. Bull. odd-pinnate. 1872. et al. 36. (1990) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44.H. 1.dimethoxybenzophenone. picrasins (6). (3) Sung. (7) Okano. T. et al. Bull. 4 -10 cm long. ovate or -4 -9. Deciduous. (1987) Chem.

expectorant activities by boiled extract. petiole 10-20 cm long. Distribution. Description. 3-12 cm long. rounded at apex. et al. et al. Pinellia ternata (Thunb. pinellin (low molecular weight crystalline protein). Food Chem. Aldose reductase inhibition (3). sedative. antitussive. ovate-elliptical to oblong. References. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. Forsch. . damp and phlegm. with bulbils borne on the petiole. (2) Park. entire. polysaccharides (1. 20-40 cm long. Chemical components. (1981) Kor. 53. erect. K. 137. T. the tubular part 1. Mitogenic. J. et al.B. Amino acids. (4) Maki. 19. spadix with appendage filiform.S. Agr.4). 6 cm long. 3. Korea. Korean Name: Ban-ha English Name: Three-leaf pinellia Araceae Parts used. -7 the blade lanceolate. small. K. May . (1969) Arzneim.4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-diglucoside (5). puberulent inside.) Breitenb. 14. Bio-Activities. Scape olitary. 6-10 cm long. T. (1) Maki. Anti-emetic (1). 1024. 1307. spathe green. (1987) Planta Med.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 207 Pinellia ternata (Thunb. haemagglutinating activities by pinellin (2). phytosterols. Vomiting. homogentisic acid. green. 410. Japan.H. Biochem. Perennial herb with corm.) Breitenb. 33. sessile.Jun. 130. China. Habitat. Common in cultivated fields and roadsides. (3) Shin. Corm. emetic action by unprocessed extract. M. leaflets 3. ephedrine. (1985) J. and Lee. directly from the corm. Fruit berry. (5) Suzuki. Corm 1 cm in diameter. Traditional uses. 1-5 cm wide. glabrous. ternate.5-2 cm long. K. Leaves 1-2.

essential oil. 13. with a terminal projection. (1) Chi. hypolipidaemic (piceid) (1. et al. without wing. 361.6).A. et al. (5) Hang. monoecious tree. Comp. sesquiterpene and diterpene derivatives (1. Branchlets yellow-brown-tomentose.5. Tall. (1980) Chem. Mountain woods at high elevation. J. Habitat. persistent. (3) Jiang. (1988) Chung Yao Tung Pao 13. Pharmacog. various monoterpene. Traditional uses. anti-inflammatory (3). . coniferous. Tonic earache. (2) Kimura. 51. seeds 2 to each scale. linoleic acid ester. Male cones catkinlike. Distribution. (1986) Kor. (1988) Phytochemistry 27. (4) Sakagami.J. H. et al. to 10 cm long. Seed. to 30 m tall or more. evergreen. Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. Japan.2.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 209 Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. (6) San Feliciano. clustered. Oleic acid ester. galactagogue. in fascicles of 5. Nat. the needle-shaped ones long. Leaves of two kinds. May. et al. Bio-Activities. 17.L. V. 73. Inhibition of TXB2 formation (piceid). dark green. Female cones conic-oblong. Description. Chemical components. analgesic. 16. thickened at the end. et al. (1992) In Vivo 6. maturing 2-3 years. scales woody. 2241. (1983) Planta Med. the scalelike ones soon deciduous. Korean Name: Jat-na-moo English Name: Korean pine Pinaceae Parts used. Y.2). 49. X. H. to 15 cm long. References. A. et al. antibacterial (4). 39. northern China. epistaxis. Korea.

T. (7) Miyase. Pharm. (1984) Chem. Flavonoids: plantagoside (5). et al. stamens 4. 2182. fallow fields. (3) Yamada. corolla 4 -lobed. et al. inhibiton of complement activation by plantago-mucilage A (2. et al. 53. 5 -15 cm long. scarious. eastern Siberia. (5) Endo. aucubin. glabrous. (1986) Carbohydr. . Roadsides. 156. Chemical components. H. M. 3 cm wide. not showy.Aug. 32. References. et al. small. Res. 992. (6) Kameoka. Perennial herb with radical leaves. Scapes 10-50 cm long. Fruit a capsule enclosed by calyx. diarrhoea.3). 137. Habitat. 2015. China. et al. Bull. Korean Name: Jil-kyung-ee English Name: Asian plantain Plantaginaceae Parts used. blood sugar lowering. calyx 4 -parted. (2) Tomoda. plantago-mucilage A (4). Seed. Flowers bisexual. H. (1991) Phytochemistry 30. dilated at base. . phenylpropanoids (7). M. petioles as long as leaves. 95. Bull. inflammation of eyes. Plantago asiatica L. Polysaccharides: plantasan. homoplantaginin. exerted. Japan. densely many-flowered. Monoterpenes (6). 1000. cauline. Cough. ovate. et al. (4) Tomoda. with several parallel -8 nerves. plantaginin. Korea. ovary superior. (1987) Yakugaku Zasshi 107. 29.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 211 Plantago asiatica L. Choleretic (1). 8. Traditional uses. M. et al. (1979) Yakugaku Zasshi 99. Pharm. (1987) Planta Med. T. (1) Miura. obtuse. Leaves all basal. Bio-Activities. Distribution. Description. Malaysia. (1981) Chem. Jun. Spike solitary.

K. Japan. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate. Traditional uses. Y. Distribution. (6) Ishii. D2 (6). Root. 1464. glaucous-pale blue beneath. (1973) Japan J. solitary. dermatomycoses. analgesic. H. Bio-Activities. antifebrile activities. stigmas 5. et al. terminal on branches. et al. Korean Name: Do-ra-ji English Name: Balloon flower Campanulaceae Parts used. References. Showy perennial herb. Chem. . Anti-gastric ulcer (1). 971. Y. or white. Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. 33. Jul. deep to pale blue. Bull.) DC. (1979) Chem. polygalacins D. (1983) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37. K. (8) Ahn. (4) Kato. Pharm. hypertension. Pharm. 4-7 cm long. H. D.C. (1984) J. corolla broadly bell-shaped to nearly rotate. Bull. Habitat. J. Polyacetylenes (8). lilac. anthers separate. 1. (1972) Yakugaku Zasshi 92. 969. 23. histamine release inhibition (5). C.) DC. (1972) Chem. 3503. Flowers erect. to 40-100 cm tall. Soc. et al.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 213 Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. inhibition of congestive oedema. expectorant (3). Chemical components. 709.54 cm wide. sharply dentate. 951. Stems glabrous. et al. Sugars: inulin (7). Cough. 27. 69.. 20. . (1996) Phytochemistry 42. diuretic (2). northern China. (7) Mino. et al. Bull. Korea. Saponins: platycodins A. expectorant. (3) Takagi. CNS depressing sedative. Pharmacol. vasodilation (4). Perkin Trans. branched above. et al. 4-5 cm across. Description. D2. 374. Pharm. 661. 755. filaments dilated at the base. et al. antiallergic. erect. Open grassy areas in hills and mountains. J. (1) Kawashima. (5) Hirai. (1985) Chem. (2) Yamahara. diabetes. et al. I. antitussive.Aug.

sessile. (3) Morita. vitexin. cosmosiin.I. polygonatiin. febrile diseases. China. pluriflorum Ohwi Korean Name: Doong-geul-lae English Name: Solomon’s seal. Cardiotonic (1). on 2flowered peduncles. angled. King-Solomon’s-seal Liliaceae Parts used. (1955) Nature 176. elliptic-oblong to ovate.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 215 Polygonatum odoratum var. saponarin. Japan. 1180. vitexin-2"-glucoside. perianth cylindrical. weakness. Stems to 30-50 cm or more. (4) Ono. Bio-Activities. M. (1976) Yakugaku Zasshi 96. (2) Tomoda. Traditional uses. Pharm. P. Chemical components. glabrous. References. arching. stamens 6. (1988) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 42. filaments glabrous. Korea. Apr. odoratan. Flowers greenish-white. much-jointed. Flavonoids (3). to 2 cm long. A. 984. May. et al. Fruit a blue-black berry with several seeds. Habitat. Bull. Rhizome. 21. 135. et al. (1973) Chem. with many scars. Polygonatum odoratum var. Convalescence. Leaves alternate. M. perennial herb. and Lindo. pluriflorum Ohwi . Saponins (4). Polysaccharide (2). fragrant. Meadows and sparse woods in lowlands and foothills. 6 -lobed. Rhizomatous. to 10 cm long. 1806. (1) Virtane. on perianth tube. Distribution. N. axillary. Description. Rhizome horizontal. et al.

Constipation. M. Distribution. Scandent perennial herb. Stems muchelongate. Habitat. Description. 16. senility-resistent effect (3). 3 angular. rhein. et al. ovate-cordate.N. Oil Chem.5-4. J. M. .B. 115. simple. Korean Name: Ha-soo-o English Name: Fleece flower Polygonaceae Parts used. paniculate. sheaths rather short. 2 mm long. and Lin.D-glucoside. S. et al. et al. 57. small in slender panicles. short-acuminate. Hepatoprotective (1. Flowers greenish white. et al. J. (2) Kimura. K. (6) Kim. 1682. (8) Yoshizaki. (5) Grech. (1993) Chung Ts’ao Yao 24. 1 m tall. 273. (1985) Kor. (1994) J. Aug. 51. Soc.C. Bio-Activities. Phenolic glycosides: polygoacetophenoside (8). Y.Y. J. (7) Li. Prod. Nat. Ca2+ -ATPase inhibition (5). 7-8 mm long.3. 28. 1810. Fruit an achene. Pharm. M. 71. antioxidant (6). 2. (1994) J. Spikes branched. 633. et al. glabrous. (4) Ono. (3) Yao. 49. et al. 37. Stilbenes (5): 2.5 cm wide. abortifacient. Leaves alternate. branched. Anthraquinones (7): emodin. China.5. antibacterial. Tuber. naturalized in Korea. M. Amer. 81. with thick rhizomes. Pharmacog. (1) Shin.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 217 Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. terminal. 3-2 4. chrysophanol. DNA polymerase a inhibition. with 3 wings. (1987) Planta Med. Bull. petioles 1-5 cm. Traditional uses. 53.4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O. Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. RNA reverse transcriptase inhibition (4). liver protection.Sep. Chemical components. . weakness of the body. (1983) Planta Med. (1989) Chem.-K. References. Mountain thickets.2).5 cm long. et al. (1984) Yaoxue Tongbao 19. entirely enclosed by sepals.

. 366.Sep. 8 cm long. cultivated as a source of dye. Flowers small. . Habitat. simple. entire. liver protection. antifungal (2). 2. Korean Name: Chog English Name: Polygonum Polygonaceae Parts used. et al. Leaves used for dark-blue dye. Glucosides: indican (1). et al. (1984) Chung Ts’ao Yao 15. Stems appearing to be jointed. stipules tinged red. Fruit a small achene. Polygonum tinctorium Lour. sepals 5. E. stipular sheaths well developed. 2 mm long. Leaf. Description. Traditional uses. Chemical components. (2) Honda. anti-inflammatory. 534. Tryptanthrin (2). China.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 219 Polygonum tinctorium Lour. to 50-60 cm tall. wholly enclosed by sepals. References. Distribution. (1980) Planta Med. 3-angular. burn. D. stamens 6-8. p. Annual herb. ovate. 38. Leaves alternate. Open wet grassy areas. (3) Chen. 275. Augmented leukocyte phagocytosis. fruit. Antidote for fish toxin. in terminal or axillary compact spikes. antipyretic activities (1). (1) Nanjing College of Pharmacy (1976) Zhongcaoyao Xue Vol. whitish pink. naturalized in Korea. Bio-Activities. N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine (3). Aug.

3-5 cm in diameter. R. green branches and stout green spines 3-5 cm long. Alkaloids: 5-hydroxy-noracronycine (7). terminal or axillary. trifoliate. leaflets 3-6 cm long.3). Leaves alternate. Gastritis. Distribution. sepals and petals 5. (1986) J. 1159. angiotonic (2. S. T. (1993) Phytochemistry 32. 1559. 572. References. (5) Guiotto. (1975) Xenobiotica 5. (4) Kanes. (3) Kodama. Flowers solitary. Fruit globose. Deciduous shrub. (2) Ariyoshi. with tangled. 1257. Bio-Activities. Description. fragrant when ripe. commonly planted as a fence. et al. Apoth. et al. (1976) Life Sci. et al. et al. Flavonoids (4). N.-Ztg. Woods in mountains and hills. (1973) Deut. et al. May. 967. et al. (6) Kekelidze. sinusitis. (7) Wu. Korea. bitter orange Rutaceae Parts used. sputum remedy. A. inedible. Fruit. Nat. cuneate at base. Comp. Habitat. Traditional uses. 1-2. China. crenate. . 1154. to 3 m tall. stamens many. 3 cm across. Monoterpenes (6). 19. Sedative (1). (1977) Phytochemistry 16. 49. Prod. rigid. petioles slightly winged. hernia.A. et al. scented. 33. (1) Wagner. Chemical components. K. H. Poncirus trifoliata Raf. 113. T. obovate or elliptic. Coumarins (5). white. Nat. Fruit ripening in Sep.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 221 Poncirus trifoliata Raf. 20. (1984) Chem. Korean Name: Tang-ja-na-moo English Name: Trifoliate orange. 25 mm long.

F. snake-bite. betacyanin (5). et al. Chronic wound. trailing. spatulate to obovate. Pharm. II. (4) Okwaasaba. Traditional uses. Pharm. 5 -15 mm wide. M. antihyperglycaemic (3). to 1 cm across. opening by the top falling as a lid. Fruit a capsule. Habitat. Korean Name: Shoi-bee-reum English Name: Purslane. . Soc. (1995) Egypt J.W.F. terminal on stems. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. and Honda. (7) Feng. reddish brown. 1108. the upper forming a leafy involucre subtending flowers. H. common in waste ground and cultivated fields. et al. 361. 36. References. sepals 2-cleft. Cosmopolitan. and Jun. 2091. Fleshy. F. p. Oleracin I. 13. short-petioled. J. (1987) J. but probably originated in India. skeletal muscle relaxant (4). glabrous. Oriental Healing Art Institute. CA. (6) Tashbekov. (1944) J. Leaves alternate. (2) Hsu. tocopherol (6). . (1977) Rastit. 4 mm long. Long Beach. 55. Distribution. (1961) Nature 191. psoriasis.-Y.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 223 Portulaca oleracea L. Flowers bright yellow. Stems thick and soft. (3) Eskander. 21. Diuretic (1). Herb. Weedy. pussley Portulacaeae Parts used. 223. 331. terete. (5) Imperats. Japan 64. (1) Yasuye.C. Bio-Activities. 15-25 mm long. Description. urticaria. H.Sep. E. swelling. stamens 7-12. petals 5. Chemical components. Y. Portulaca oleracea L. nicotinic acid. Resur. much branched. fasciculate. obovate. Jun. I. (1975) Phytochemistry 14. annual herb. Sci. decumbent or ascending. antibacterial (2). Ethnopharmacol. norepinephrine (7). to 30 cm tall.

C. Open sunny places in lowlands. Korea. Jun. 36. (2) Haag-Berrurier. M. Achenes broadly ovoid. the lower smaller. to 30-60 cm tall. the upper oblanceolate to narrowly oblong. Kaz 8. . Bio-Activities. obovate to linearlanceolate. Phytother. and Mathis. Gallic. -2 calyx segments ovate. . Leaves pinnately compound. acute. Habitat. Antipyretic. 7. 2-5 cm long. densely white-woolly tomentose beneath.3 mm long. M. 297. bracts lanceolate. Herb. Chemical components. Pubescent perennial herb with stout rhizome. 1. Flowers many. Distribution. glabrous above. longitudinally rugose. 1 cm across. receptacle hairy. 8-15 mm wide. leaflets 15-29. Japan. Description. Korean Name: Tag-ji-kot English Name: Chinese cinquefoil Rosaceae Parts used. Antitumour (1). (1) Amirova. haemostatic.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 225 Potentilla chinensis Ser. women’s tonic.N. Potentilla chinensis Ser. alternate. (1973) Plant Med. (1974) Adravookhr. Traditional uses. References. catecholic tannins (2). yellow. China.Jul.

Triterpenoids (3. (4) Kojima H. 2-lipped. crenulate. Prunella vulgaris var. Chemical components. H. ovate to rhombic-ovate. to 20-30 cm tall. Oedema. (1986) Phytochemistry 25. (5) Okuda. phenylpropanoids (5). (2) Lee. simple. Pubescent perennial herb with stems mostly square in cross section. (1987) Phytochemistry 26. cylindrical spikes. upper leaves almost sessile. Description. T. lower lip 2 -toothed. Flowers in 6 -flowered verticilasters arranged in dense. Habitat. 6. References. (1986) Yakugaku Zasshi 106. upper lip 3-thoot hed. and Ogura. stamens 4. May Jul. et al. anther cells diverging. goitre. Distribution. widely naturalized. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 227 Prunella vulgaris var. 54. 2-5 cm long. lilacina Nakai Korean Name: Cool-pool English Name: Self-heal. terminal. short-pubescent outside.4). scrofula. calyx tubularcampanulate. Asia. 1107. Leaves opposite. et al. Open sunny places in mountains and lowlands. Bio-Activities. Europe. heal-all Labiatae Parts used. et al. obconical. K. 7-10 mm long. T. (3) Kojima. Flower. Diuretic (1). glabrous nutlets. 729. nephritis. (1963) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 17. Traditional uses. (1988) Planta Med. (1) Haginiwa. petioles 2-3 cm long. lilacina Nakai . 308. upper lip hooded. spikes subtended by leaves. in 2 pairs. 1108. Fruit of 4 oblong.H. anticancer (2). 3-8 cm long. et al. corolla tube longer than calyx. cuneate. limb 2-lobed.

pubescent beneath on veins. antipyretic (1).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 229 Prunus armeniaca var. Amygdalin (cyanhydrine-glucoside) (3). et al. with reddish bark and glabrous twigs. ansu Maxim. expectorant (1. Apr. Distribution. (2) Miyagoshi.2). often flushed with red. M. with a fleshy outer layer surrounding a hard stone containing the seed. 275. (1984) Planta Med. ansu Maxim. 5-8 cm long. Traditional uses. (1) Goto. with 2 ovules. Antitussive. pistil 1. emulsin. sometimes subcordate. Cough. stipules small. China. pinkish. common cold. 42. closely simply serrate. References. Y. 81. (4) Nagamoto. inserted with the petals on the calyx tube. falling early. et al. yellow. Fruit a drupe. bisexual. (1976) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 30. stamens many. anti-inflammatory protein (4). abruptly short-pointed. 52. 126. Bio-Activities. the stone flattened. Small round-crowned tree. N. (3) Nagoshi. Prunus armeniaca var. pubescent when young. smooth at maturity. Apricot seed oil lubricates intestine and produces laxative action. (1984) Wakan Iyaku Gakkaishi 1. Seed. Korean Name: Sal-goo English Name: Apricot Rosaceae Parts used. Habitat. phlegm. Korea. (1988) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 42. ovate. . Description. sepals and petals 5.5 cm across. Leaves alternate. et al. ridged along suture. et al. Mostly cultivated in Korea. Flowers before the leaves. Chemical components. 2.

pale pink. nakaii (Lév. long-pointed. Fruit globose.) Rehder Korean Name: E-seu-ra-ji English Name: Japanese bush berry. 2-4. ovate to ovate-oblong. in umbels. diuretic (1). Deciduous small shrub. the stone globose. Fruit ripening Jul. p. Reference. Habitat.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 231 Prunus japonica var. (1) Hsu.7-2. Branches fine. Aug. 12 mm long. elongate.2 mm long. Long Beach. prunuside (1). pedicels 1. widely cultivated in Japan as an ornamental plant and for the edible fruit. Woods in mountains and hills. 2-7 cm long. Saponins. Traditional uses. Japanese plum Rosaceae Parts used. Purgative. Flowers before or with leaves. pointed at the ends. Distribution. Flavonoids. glabrous. red. with hairs or glabrous. sharply serrate. to 2 cm in diameter. H. acute gastritis. petiolate. Korea. 98. CA. Prunus japonica var. Seed. often puberulent while young. Amygdalins. nakaii (Lév. Bio-Activities. Oriental Healing Art Institute. to 1 m tall. Constipation. pubescent beneath on the veins.-Y. Chemical components. glabrous above. China. glabrous. May. Leaves alternate. laryngitis. Description.) Rehder . (1986) Oriental Materia Medica.

(1) Hsu. Various organic esters.. Amygdalin (4). p.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 233 Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc. Oil Chem. . Fruit. S. Round-crowned tree. antioxidant (3). 66. Soc. (3) Kim. Long Beach. pubescent beneath. with 2 ovules. slightly pubescent. alcohols and acids. sepals and petals 5. 633. Bio-Activities. long-pointed. Apr. Fruit round. Korean Name: Mae-sil-na-moo English Name: Japanese apricot. green. References. Tech. mountain woods. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Tokyo. Traditional uses. antiallergy (1.2). Amer. Twigs thin. Leaves alternate. Bronchitis. 3 cm in diameter. Mostly cultivated and naturalized. to 10 m tall. the stone furrowed. Description. pistil 1. (1982) The Pharmacology of Medicinal Herbs in East Asia.Y. (2) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. stamens many. Japan.-Y. at least on veins. cough. antifungal. 1985. et al. white to dark red. 3-10 cm long. Korea. Nanzando. 615. Oriental Healing Art Institute. et al. H. Japanese Transl. Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc. (4) Tagaki. Broad spectrum antibacterial activity. K. China. sour and bitter. inserted with the petals on the calyx tube. Flowers 1-2. p. Chemical components. ovate to elliptic. Distribution. CA. to 3 cm across. Shanghai Sci. sharply serrulate. yellow to greenish. Japanese flowering apricot Rosaceae Parts used. 71. Habitat. (1994) J.

References. et al. antitumour (4). Fruit more or less spherical. sepals pubescent on exterior. Flavonoids. . Korea. stipules small. 5 cm in diameter. laryngitis. (6) Nakamoto. (7) Mori. (4) Han. H. inserted with the petals on the calyx tube. et al. Seed. mainly cultivated for its fruit. with a fleshy outer layer surrounding a hard stone or pit containing the seed. peach. glabrous tree.) Batsch . 129.Sep. (1990) Yakugaku Zasshi 110. Pharmacog. Anti-inflammatory. (1986) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 40. Description. Chemical components. et al. Apr. with glands. (3) Watanabe. China. 81. Prunus persica (L. D. Prod. 46. platelet aggregation inhibitory (2). petioles 1-1. (1980) Kor. Carotenoids. Flowers before leaves. the stone deeply sculptured. 8-15 cm long. 7. simple. bisexual.S. Habitat. 3 cm in diameter. 15-35 mm wide. to 6 m.) Batsch Korean Name: Bok-sa-na-moo English Name: Peach Rosaceae Parts used. Widely cultivated for fruit and flowers in Korea. with 2 ovules. Constipation. dermatopathy. drupe. 363. analgesic (1). Traditional uses. sepals and petals 5. pistil 1. (1987) Wakan Iyaku Gakkaishi 4. 1-2. cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibition (5). stamens many. et al. et al. K. (1) Arichi. Nat. serrulate. (1985) J. T. contusion. (1983) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37. long-lanceolate. (5) Nikaido. Steroids (7). H. 504.5 cm. falling early. small. Deciduous. J. 48.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 235 Prunus persica (L. et al. vasodilatory (3). Leaves alternate. menostasis. Amygdalin (6). N.S. (1988) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 42. Distribution. 274. 11. Fruit matured Aug. pink. Enzyme: emulsinase (6). (2) Yun-Choi. tomentulose. Bio-Activities. et al. S. May.

(1990) Yakugaku Zasshi 110. S. increase of blood flow in coronary artery and brain. 22. -R. leaflets wide-ovate or rhomboidal. Sesquiterpenes. Root. Allantoin. China. 250. Y. spasmolytic (3). nearly sessile or shortpedunculate.-Y. (1991) Kor. et al. daidzein. (1967) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 21. 54. entire or with shallow lobes. Thickets and sparse woods.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 237 Pueraria lobata (Willd. anticonvulsive (2). genistein. puerarin. 246. d-mannitol. et al. Korea. X. standard usually eared at base. puerarin-7-xyloside. Leaves of 3 leaflets. References. to 10 cm long. (1974) Zhonghua Yixue Zazhi 54. Aug. alcohol poisoning. (1) Noguchi. et al. flat. kudzu vine Leguminosae Parts used. Flowers fragrant. diterpenes. miroestrol. myalgia. (1980) Yaoxue Xuebao 15. (4) Niho. (7) Ohshima. Antipyretic (1). Stems elongate. (2) Lu.7): daidzin. et al. (1959) Yakugaku Zasshi 79. 17. G. E. twining or prostrate. 757. (5) Zeng. Y. hairy. M. starch. (3) Lee. J. reddish-purple. densely pubescent beneath. to 20 cm long. papilionaceous. Fever. antihypertensive (5). Distribution. kakkonein and puerarol. (1988) Planta Med. Habitat. Flavonoids (6. Bio-Activities.S. puberulent with coarse brown hispid hairs. and Lee. (6) Shibata. pain. densely many-flowered. 265. Twining perennial herb with woody base. abortifacient. 218. to 20 m long. et al.) Ohwi Korean Name: Chik English Name: Japanese arrowroot.B. dehiscent legume. Traditional uses. Pueraria lobata (Willd. Pharmacog.) Ohwi . Japan. to 15 cm long. formononetin. Chemical components. Y. antihepatotoxic (4). Fruit a linear. triterpene saponins. 604. Description. axillary. Inflorescence racemes.

Hairy. (2) Kang. References. leaflets 5. Japanese Transl. segments 6. scrofula. white-wooly pubescent beneath. hederagenin bisdesmoside (2). 3-4 cm long. anemonin. May.. 12 mm across. redpurple. pinnately compound. exterior silky. Shanghai Sci. Chemical components. Antiamoebal. Traditional uses. Korea. Open wastelands and grassy places. Leaves long-stalked in a basal rosette. dysentery. hederagenin monodesmoside. Anemonin is a cardiotoxin and cardiotonic. terminal on peduncle 30-40 cm long. antiparasitic. anti-inflammatory. perennial herb. pendent. tufted.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 239 Pulsatilla koreana Nakai Korean Name: Hal-me-kot English Name: Korean pasque flower Ranunculaceae Parts used. (1989) Arch. Pulsatilla koreana Nakai . Description. 12. Leucorrhoea. Root. S. (1) Dictionary of Chinese Herbal Drugs. perianth campanulate.S. Tech. petal-like. Flowers solitary. 1985. antibacterial (1). 2-3 lobed. Habitat. Fruit heads with long feather styles. Res. Bio-Activities. saponins (1). antitrichomonas. stamens in a central boss surrounded by a ring of staminoids. Pharm. 2087. Protoanemonin. contraceptive. Distribution. 47. scapose. 35 mm long. p.

Bull. Anthelmintic (1). Chemical components. (5) Tanaka. entire. style and stigma 1. sometimes spiny. Fertil. 31. Flowers bisexual. (1963) Planta Med.O. calyx purplish. (1979) Rev. Leaves opposite. edible. Betulinic acid. pseudo-pelletierine.B. A. cells 3 in 2-series. (4) Mayer. delphinidin-3-glucoside. persistent. ursolic acid.5-diglucoside. (1985) Acta Eur. 29. et al. 439.A. fruit skin. glabrous. with thick skin and persistent calyx. cholelithiasis. M. amoebicidic. Bio-Activities. petals 6. May . Mostly planted in southern parts of Korea.K. Punica granatum L. punicacorteins A. phlegm. (3) Prakash. petals crinkled. to 6 m tall. References. A.Jun. C. (6) Batta. Cubana Med. et al. et al. seeds many. Chem. et al. estrogenic. Distribution. Southern Europe to Himalayas. -D. antibacterial (2). oblong to lanceolate. each surrounded by juicy. solitary or clustered at ends of branchlets. 656. (1977) Justus Liebigs Ann. Description. . (2) Jimenez Misas. tube campanulate. 11. Fruit matured in Sep.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 241 Punica granatum L. (1) Fayez. T. Fruit. Deciduous small tree.E. Habitat. to 4 cm across. 6-8 cm in diameter. asiatric acid (6).Oct. tineapedis. punigluconin. 34. Trop. many stamens inserted on flower tube. (1973) Phytochemistry 12. Fruit a leathery-skinned berry. Traditional uses. W. Alkaloids (1): pelletierine. Ant helmintic. to 7 cm long. et al. anti-implantation (3). et al. (1986) Chem. Flavonoids: cyanidin-3. ovary inferior. punicalin (4). calyx lobes 6. cauariin (5). glossy. Tannins: punicalagin. laryngitis. Korean Name: Seog-ryu English Name: Pomegranate Punicaceae Parts used. 441. . 1976. 214. 16. red-purple pulp. Pharm. orange-red.

Bull. Habitat.J. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica.5). Chem.S. 41. H. Pharm. Stipes 5-25 cm long. Indochina. the sterile ones 10-25 cm long. 941. et al. (1981) Phytochemistry 20. Rocks and old tree trunks in mountains. Korea. et al. Rhizomes wide-creeping. bloody urine. (2) Takagi.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 243 Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb. Diuretic. Sori covering lower surface of leaves. indusia lacking. 449. References.) Farw. Antibacterial. M. (8) Fujita. the veins and veinlets concealed. et al. lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. Bio-Activities. Description. covered with stalked scales. Traditional uses. (4) Park.9). the fertile ones 10-20 cm long. M. antiasthmatic (1). (5) Kelley. 741. haemostasis. hypolipidaemic (chlorogenic acid) (2. (1969) Terahedron Lett. Distribution. P. C. p. Diplotene. (1973) Kor. antitussive.-Y.Pharmacog 4. Scandent. S. S. epiphytic fern. (1) Hsu. . 3 mm in diameter.) Farw. simple. Aerial part. et al (1988) Chem.4.4. Japanese felt fern Polypodiaceae Parts used. straw coloured. isomangiferin (6. M. 36. covered with stellate hairs beneath. chlorogenic acid (2. 185. expectorant. Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb. 4503. J. (1967) Phytochemistry 6. 87. (9) Nett. (6) Fujita.5). CA. Chemical components. (3) Nishizawa. M.3. 2183. mangiferin (8.3.E. et al.7). Long Beach. Oriental Healing Art Institute. 1. 306. 2-7 cm wide. et al. et al.53 cm wide. China. Japan. (1977) Tetrahedron Lett. (7) Aritami. Costa raised beneath. Korean Name: Seog-we English Name: Tongue fern. (1992) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 32. (1971) J. Org. 123. densely brown stellate hairy while young. Blades leathery.

to 25 cm tall. haematemesis. corolla obliquely funnelform. China. 1455. . Korean Name: Ji -whang English Name: Rehmania Scrophulariaceae Parts used. Root. (1986) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 40. H. Habitat. Bio-Activities. 363. (5) Kitagawa. upper lobes longest. Fruit a capsule. aucubin. diuretic (3). 1399. 19. (6) Tomoda. References. obovate. Description. Jun. et al. stamens 4. (4) Yun-Choi. Hairy. H. anthers not coherent. 48. Bull.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 245 Rehmania glutinosa (Gaertn. poorly developed. Long cultivated in Korea. 34. . (1971) Chem. about 4 cm long. slightly swollen on lower side. Pharm. Distribution. ovary superior. et al. Traditional uses.) Libosch. tube with 2 ridges extending inside from sinuses of lower lip. dull purple-brown and creamy yellow. mannitol (6). borne near base of corolla. Bleeding.Jul. acetoside. the upper lobes shorter than 3 lower lobes. spitting of blood. calyx 5-lobed. perennial herb. et al. (1986) Chem. densely glanularpubescent. et al. platelet aggregation inhibition (4). rehmanosides.S. 2411. Rehmania glutinosa (Gaertn. stigma 2-lobed. Chemical components. 550. 133. disc ringlike. 1403. M. hypoglycaemic (2).) Libosch. prod. (1) Matsuda. Flowers solitary in axils of the leaves. Various sugars. 2294. Cerebroside. Leaves in a vasal rosette. (1982) Phytochemistry 21. (1964) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 60. Haemostatic (1). (3) Suzuki. Y. H. irregularly crenate but not lobed. Iridoids (5): catalpol. I. epistaxis. Pharm. alternate on the erect flowering stems. (1985) J. cardiotonic. 2-lipped. Bull. 182. et al. Nat. (2) Oshio.

gastrointestinal disorders. in panicled clusters on tall hollow stems. M. China. 2759. (7) Takido. 3. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Bio-Activities. cinnamic acid (1.2). 35. -glycosidase inhibitory activity (rhaponticin) (3). cordate. CA. leaves on flowering stems without petiole. Habitat. calyx 6-parted. Stout. (1958) Chem. Anthraquinones.-Y. (1) Hsu. Torachrysone-8-glucoside. M. (8) Yamaki. Constipation. 6. styles 3. Wet places in grassy fields. cordate. (4) Wagner. et al. -F (9). Dianthraquinones. H. K. piceid. bile and pancreatic secretory. stamens 9. with hollow stem. (2) Takagi K. Rhizome. Long Beach. Oriental Healing Art Institute. M. 397. et al. Tokyo. Distribution. perennial herb. margin undulate. Korean Name: Dae-whang English Name: Rhubarb Polygonaceae Parts used. et al (1991) Phytochemistry 30. (6) Sydiskis. (9) Kashiwada. to 1 m tall. Agents Chemother. et al. Traditional uses. Asia. anticarcinogenic. deoxyrhaponticin. 5013. (3) Hara. R. Pharm.2). 4 -( hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone glucoside. (5) Coskun. 211. (1972) Tetrahedron Lett. References. Nanzando. acute.J. (1991) Antimicrob. (1988) Chem. wrapping stems. 2463.Aug. rhaponticin (3). glucogallin. Bull. with long petiole of purple tint. Y. gallic acid. emodin (4. . Purgative. (1982) The Pharmacology of Medicinal Herbs in East Asia.5). Description. 36. astringent.4'. 2018.8). (1975) Yakugaku Zasshi 95. (1990) Phytochemistry 29. Stilbenes.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 247 Rheum undulatum L. Bull. physcion (7. 1545. ovate. citreorosin and their glucosides. 92. chrysophanol. Chemical components. greenish. et al. Fruit a achene with wings. . aloe-emodin (6). p.5-Trihydroxystilbene-glucoside. Rheum undulatum L. antibacterial. catechol. Jul. stomachic (1. Flowers small. Pharm. sennoside A. arranged in 2 rows. rhein. Korea. Leaves in basal clumps. H.

K.5-6 cm wide. Habitat. Y. Korea. and Ishidana. Rhus chinensis Mill. antibacterial.2). (4) Nishizawa. 8. Chem. Chin. 203. 413. Japan 29. ovary 1 -celled. 1-seeded. cough. dioecious shrub or small tree. Chem. commonly toothed. Soc. Description.4). (1986) Shoyakagaku Zasshi 40. Soc. (2) Zheng. et al. drupaceous. Distribution. gallic acid. rachis and often the petioles winged.Sept. Thickets in foothills. antiviral (1. 13. 3. Bio-Activities. temperate east Asia. Fruit small. Pharm. China. (1926) J. leaflets 7-13. . Ind. 557. hairy. Chemical components. 423. Trad. antifungal (1). Diarrhoea. ovate. Korean Name: Book -na-moo English Name: Nutgall tree Anacardiaceae Parts used. References. Coll. mdigallic acid (5). and Ota. red. N. styles 3. 40 cm long. 1842. Gallotannin (3. et al. stamens 5. (5) Udea. (3) Armitage. Inst. . M. Flowers creamy-white. Japan. (1952) Bull. Aug. gallotannic acid. (1961) J. Res. Med. brownish-pubescent beneath. (1) Ito. lowlands and mountains. (1988) J. 5-12 cm long.S. 2. Leaves pinnately compound. Deciduous. haemorrhage. K. with glandular hairs. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 249 Rhus chinensis Mill. in large terminal panicles. Astringent. Traditional uses. abnormal sweating. Osaka Med. Gallnut. R. 15-30 cm long. haemostatic. to 8 m tall.

S. et al. Bio-Activities. quercitrin. odd-pinnate. Res. Prickly climbing shrub. (1980) Yakugaku Zasshi 100. petals 5. borne on the inside of the deep hypanthium. Pharm. 466. 284. (1912) Kyoto Igakkashi 9. B. styles glabrous. Stems densely prickly. Constipation. C. Fruit ripening in Sep. multinoside A. often planted for ornamental purposes. 91.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 251 Rosa multiflora Thunb. Japanese rose Rosaceae Parts used. stipules pectinate. Traditional uses. Phenols: methyl gallate. Description. B. 2 cm across. Purgative (1. Japan. Fruit.2). Distribution. References. to 3 cm long. Korea. obovate to lanceolate. et al. (1976) Yakugaku Zasshi 96. Fruit pea-size. Carotenoids: lycopin. Chemical components. 13.J. et al. (2) Ando. Habitat. Korean Name: Chil-rae-kot English Name: Baby rose. 371. (3) Kim. Rosa multiflora Thunb. (1990) Arch. articular pain. . (1) Tagaki. May. in large clusters. Leaves alternate. petals and stamens inserted on a disc at the edge of the calyx tube. S. Flavonoid glycosides (1. S. red hip. (4) Tagaki.4): multiflorin A. leaflets 5-11. many. antihyperglycaemic (3). to 2 m tall. afzelin. Steroids (4). Flowers white. pistils many. 1217. stamens many. In hills and mountains.

Korean Name: Hae-dang-wha English Name: Turkestan rose. (1976) Stud. (1982) Rastit. S. 2 cm long dark green and furrowed above. Leaves alternate. S. M. Sesquiterpenes. H. Flowers rose. linalyl formate.G. 388.S. petals and stamens inserted on a disc at the edge of the calyx tube. locopene. Biol. -5 bristly. 14. (1993) Kor. Tannins: gallic acid glucoside gallate. Cercet. (1935) Svensk Kim. to 2 m tall. pedicels -9. Japanese rose Rosaceae Parts used. Resur. 6-9 cm in diameter. red at ripening. Essential oils (6): linalool.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 253 Rosa rugosa Thunb. solitary. Vomiting. Bio-Activities. References. Stems densely prickly and bristly. Japan. anthocyanoside (4). . Chem. diabetes. Flavonol glycosides (3): quercetin. etc. borne on the inside of the deep hypanthium. tomentose. Biochim. et al. (1) Yang. (3) Kaneta. 18. petals 5. G. H. etc. Ruleixanthine. Description. M. (1979) Agr. 24. J. stipules adnate to petioles. Rosa rugosa Thunb. Flower. Antihypercholesterolaemic (1). 19. Pharmacog. 113.C. Near seashores. Traditional uses. J. 657. and Stoleriu. May Jul. (4) Tamas. Tids 47. catechol tannin (2). pistils many.C.5 cm in diameter. (5). 2-2. Habitat. citonellol. (1988) Yakhak Hoeji 32. Chemical components. Distribution. odd-pinnate. Anthocyanidin. stamens many. (5) Park. (6) Saakov. 112. leaflets 5 elliptic. and Hikichi. (2) Willstaedt. Korea. diarrhoea. 319. fruit. H. et al. Prickly shrub. 43. Fruit a fleshy hip containing the hairy achenes. apigenin 7-O-glucoside. geraniol. and Senchenko.

55. Fruit fleshy.. Repts. pale yellow.313. emmenagogue. References. Stems angled. Chemical components. Root.I. Prod. Traditional uses. K. black. -4 -2 short spines on the ribs of the back side and margins.R. Jul. 57. 1 cm wide. Rubia akane Nakai . and Takeya. Chemother. D. Description. Mecocyanin (3). K. corolla slightly campanulate. two of them stipules. (3) Hayashi. Habitat. Twining perennial herb. Bio-Activities. triterpenes (6). -IV. Haemostatic. (2) Jeong. Res.5). to 1 m tall. 2353. Cong. (1993) Kor. Inst. Antitumour (1). 58. Int. (1994) J. Bull. Thickets and edge of mountain woods. Resources 17-18. 31. Korea. et al. et al. (1983) Chem. Nat. 33. (1950) Misc. Flowers in terminal cyme. 14.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 255 Rubia akane Nakai Korean Name: Cok-doo-seo-nee English Name: Asian madder Rubiaceae Parts used. carbuncle. 13th 16. China. (5) Itokawa. small. short spines along the edges.Aug. Nat. K. 5-merous. -V. with 5 nerves from the base. 4. -VII (1. J. H. leucorrhoea. aldose reductase inhibition (2). cyclic hexapeptides RA-III. Pharmacog. (1) Itokawa. ovate to ovate-cordate. M. . (6) Chung. 24. Leaves whorled. dysmenorrhoea. seeds few. 3. (4) Hayashi. 284/110. K. (1944) Acta Phytochim. Pharm. (1983) Proc. 2 cm long. Japan. et al. pseudopurpurin (4). and Mihara.5 cm in diameter. anthraquinones. H. Distribution.

623. suavissimoside R1. leaflets 5-7. Inflorescence corymbs at the terminals of branches. Korea. Fruit. obovate. (1993) Arch.C. Description. vitamin A-like substances. sepals pubescent. Flowers pink. (1990) Phytochemistry 29. procyanidin B-4. ovate. H. 3-7 cm long. (1) Hsu. tonic. arching branches take roots at the recurving tip on the ground. to 3 m tall.H. Oriental Healing Art Institute.4. ovate or elliptic. Habitat. Pharm. J. pubescent. p. (-)-epicatechin. Y. Impotence. et al. prickly shrub. F2. Rubus coreanus Miq. Polysaccharides. petals shorter than sepals. M. 188. 18.W. (1993) Fitoterapia 64.-Y. coreanoside F1 (3. 16. back pain. and Kim. (1995) Kor. (4) Ohtani et al. Antibacterial (1). Stems purplish red. pinnately compound. (3) Kim.Jun. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. acute.5).H.A. . Res. and Kang. at least on vein. (1987) Kor.S. 109. lanceolate. May . Fruit an aggregate of small drupes. Y. References.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 257 Rubus coreanus Miq. and Lee. Triterpenoids: niga-ichigoside F1. S. spermatorrhoea. Pharmacog. K. (6) Lee. Deciduous. Thickets on mountain slopes. turned to black later. Traditional uses. sanguiin H-4 (6). Korean Name: Bok-boon-ja-tal-kee English Name: Korean bramble Rosaceae Parts used. Leaves alternate. Distribution. 130. 3275. (5) Kim. Bio-Activities. 27. petioles with prickles. Chemical components. 26. Pharmacog. CA. aldose reductase inhibition (2). E. (2) Shin. red at ripening. Y. Long Beach. J. covered with white powder. (+)-catechin. irregularly serrate.

Habitat. spikes dark-red. coarsely serrate-dentate. et al. 4478. Chem. 246. H. Leaves pinnate. et al. Polysaccharides (1). haematochezia. (8) Nonaka. cylindrical. Flowers bracted.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 259 Sanguisorba officinalis L.5 m tall. and Lee.5 cm long. 22. (6) Lee. J. 162. PKC inhibition (5). simple or branched. Y. haemoptysis. Chemical components. J. (2) Kosuge. haemostatic. Pharm. Bio-Activities. . 32. 69. T. in dense terminal spikes. 23. Eurasia. astringent. burnet bloodwort Rosaceae Parts used. tannins (7. lanceolate oblong to ovate. diarrhoea. CA. radical scavenging (4). 18. pistils 1-3. (1991) Kor. with stipels. G. References. antioxytocic (6). Korean Name: O-ee-pool English Name: Great burnet. 2. Bull. Y. Jul. Distribution. Pharmacog. saponins. Traditional uses. Description. I. obtuse. Perkin Trans.B. 1067. G. H. Pharm.. Bull. stigma simple. . leaflets of lower leaves 7-17. (1983) Phytochemistry 22. Pharm. et al. Thickets in hills and mountains. Erect perennial herb. (1995) Biol. Oriental Healing Art Institute. 2575. (7) Tanaka. 6-8 mm in diameter. Pharmacog. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. p. 512.N. (4) Masaki. (1992) Kor. (1982) J. stamens 4. (1982) Chem. (5) Lee. 30. et al.8. 1-2. (9) Nonaka. (1) Han. antibacterial (2).Sep. sepals 4. (3) Hsu.S. antihaemorrhagic (3). Anticoagulant (1).5-5 cm long. petiolules 6-30 mm long. et al. 2255. Bull. Sanguisorba officinalis L. et al. antiemetic. (1984) Chem. et al. H. Soc. Eczema.5 cm wide. T. Long Beach. Root.-Y. 1-2. 142. (1984) Yakhak Hoeji 28.9). Stems to 1. E.S. Fruit an achene.

anti-inflammatory (2). Flowers axillary. China. et al. (1988) Chem.Jul. to 1. E. Korea. 3-5 cm wide. Traditional uses. Distribution. et al. Thickets in mountains. J.5-3 cm long.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 261 Schisandra chinensis Baill. N. Pharm. J. Leaves simple. (1986) Planta Med. broad-elliptic or ovate. 46. Description. (6) Taguchi. gomisins A-T and their angeloyl. et al. 246.7). dioecious. Lignans: schizandrin (5). H. 23. . (2) Nagai. Fruit. 22. receptacle to 5 cm long in fruit. antitussive.B. Bio-Activities. et al. twining shrub. glossy above. (3) Hancke. 5-10 mm long. ovate to long-elliptic. Pharmacog.L. stamens 5. to 10 cm long. Jun . tigloyl and benzoyl ester derivatives (6. 2483. Pharm. denticulate or serrate. antioxytocic (4). Fruit berries 6-20. (1989) Planta Med. Sanguisorba officinalis L. carpels many. clustered on pedicels to 4 cm long. (1) Nagai. creamy with reddish tint. Cough. Bull. petioles 1. Deciduous. and Lee. (1990) Wakan Iyaku Gakkaishi 7. 35. Habitat. 3974. (7) Ikeya. Y. (1968) Tetrahedron Lett. References. (1975) Chem. Bull. et al. 542. 3296. congested on short shoots. Y. antiallergic. weakness. CNS depression (1). (1991) Kor. alternate. et al. H. 55. deoxyschizandrin.K. red.S. Chemical components. 13. antidepressant (3). Japan. perianth segments 6-9.5 cm long. H. (4) Lee. (5) Kochetkov. Korean Name: O-mee-ja English Name: Chinese magnolia vine Schisandraceae Parts used.

Hyoscyamine. 2 cm long. narrowly oblong. References. sparsely branched in upper part. petiolate. et al. 3-5 cm long.May. scopoletin (1. Sedative (1).2). 10-20 cm long. Scopolia japonica Maxim. Bio-Activities. (2) Hatakeyama. M. (1970) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 24. Apr. Description. Y. . 22. (1993) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 47. Pleurisy. Rhizome. limb 5 lobed. 3-7 cm wide. acute at both tips and base. Mountain woods. accrescent. Japan. Habitat. purplish yellow. corolla campanulate. pendent. 1 cm in diameter. Chemical components. stamens 5. Distribution. scopolamine. entire. . 105. Flowers solitary in axil.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 263 Scopolia japonica Maxim. enclosed in the accrescent calyx. (1) Konoshima. calyx unequally 5lobed. Fruit globose. sedative. 30-60 cm tall. Korean Name: Mee-chee-kwang-ee-pool English Name: Japanese scopolia Solanaceae Parts used. Stems erect. et al. Leaves alternate. Traditional uses. Glabrous perennial herb with fleshy rhizome. Korea.

Chemical components. ovary superior. Biol. broad-ovate. Distribution. small. . glabrous. 1-2 cm long. Rend. Perennial herb of 4 -angled stem. 123. serrate. Iridoids (3). et al. . Habitat. Soc. Description. (1963) Yakhak Hoeji 7. (3) Kitagawa. Vasodilating. (1936) Compt. et al. calyx 5 -lobed. (1967) Chem. -methoxycinnamic acid (2). Aug. (2) Woo. Erysipelas. anti-inflammatory. scrofula. goitre.-P. corolla tube 6-7 mm long. Grassy areas in lowlands. Bull. L. W. Korean Name: Hyun-sam English Name: Buerger’s figwort Scrophulariaceae Parts used. to 80-150 cm tall. Oligosaccharides. simple. antipyretic (2). stamens 4. Traditional uses. Bio-Activities. Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. 2-lipped. harpagoside. 1254. in terminal cymes arranged in panicles.S. petioles slightly winged or without wing. References. 15. 2.5-5 cm wide. 1155. hypotensive. phlegm. Pharm.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 265 Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. urceolate. Fruit a round capsule. Root. 8-(o-methylcoumaroyl)-harpagide. hypoglycaemic (1). China. acute.Sep. (1) King. I. 55. 5-10 cm long. lower one recurved backward. 2-celled. Japan. Korea. Leaves opposite. Flowers greenish-yellow.

(1992) Chem. (1992) Kor. 529. et al. (6) Yun-Choi. et al. M. Flavonoids (7. jaundice. Leaves opposite. (8) Konoshima.H. 524. (2) Aonuma. Pharmacog. antiallergic (3). 43. J. 531. anti-inflammatory. leathery. (1) Miura. lanceolate. bradykinin antagonistic (6). H. baicalein.Aug. ciliate. Traditional uses. 1303. inflammation. Description. pubescent outside. uterine relaxant. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 267 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Korean Name: Whang-geum English Name: Skullcap Labiatae Parts used. scutellarin.8): wogonin. (7) Tomimori. (5) Shin. 40. Russia. II (6). simple. leaves present in inflorescence. common cold. References. 25. (1981) Planta Med. Root. Pharmacog. 25. et al. hyperlipaemia lowering activities. Korea. Distribution. Stems square in cross section. Flowers in a 1-sided raceme at the terminals. perennial herb. calyx campanulate. et al. Pharmacol. Fever. laxative. Chemical components. 234. M. 194. petioles 2 mm long. (3) Nagai. 2-lobed. et al. Pharm. Mostly cultivated in Korea. Aldose reductase inhibition (5). Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi . S. Bull. Mongolia. Choleretic (1). (1975) Japan J. (1994) Kor. 20-60 cm tall. J. upper lip incurved. 763. et al. T. axillary. skullcapflavone I. .S. (1984) Yakugaku Zasshi 104. corollar tube bluish-purple. 41. globose. (1957) Yakugaku Zasshi 77. Fruit small tuberculate nutlets. Jul. antiarteriosclerotic (2). Habitat. baicalin (5). 992. several arising from the base. T et al. K. 23. antibacterial (4). China. (4) Kubo. 2-3 cm long. Bio-Activities. entire. Pubescent. (1987) Yakugaku Zasshi 107.

M. separate. 7-8 mm in diameter. (1) Cho. Bull. (1986) Planta Med. (2) Yagi. et al. 2407. Perennial herb. . 26. Pharm. 15-25 cm long. Flavonoids (7): trifolirhizin. 2560. anagyrine. antibacterial (4). pubescent at least beneath. 235. Pharm. antifungal (2). stamens 10. 343. antidermatophytic (5). J. 38. Bull. et al. Chromones (8). (1990) Chem. Bull. Traditional uses. antiulcer (3). A. (1975) Chem. (3) Yamahara. Japan. 5lobed. Korea. 46.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 269 Sophora flavescens Ait.H. Pharm. entire. (7) Yoshikawa. M. pain. References. 122. C. longelliptic or long-ovate. baptifoline. 23. Fruit a long. G. gastrointestinal disorders. et al. sophoranol. Distribution. pale-yellow. odd-pinnately compound. 1. 2-4 cm long. long-petioled. Habitat. to 1 m tall. et al. 52. Siberia. Diuretic. Jun. 33. Sophora flavescens Ait. 4. Pharm. et al. (1989) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43.5-2 cm long. papilionaceous. et al. cylindrical legume constricted between seeds. Korean Name: Go-sam English Name: Yellow sophora Leguminosae Parts used. (1982) Planta Med. calyx tube pubescent outside. (4) Yamaki. 7-8 cm long. A. Diarrhoea. 343. et al. 7-15 mm wide. (5) Honda. 7-8 mm long. antipyretic (1). Description. Leaves alternate. Bio-Activities. A. (1990) Phytother. (6) Ueno. oxymatrine. Flowers in terminal racemes. leaflets 15-39. Open grassy areas in lowlands. N-methylcytisine. 4267. et al.Aug. (8) Ueno. (1985) Chem. Alkaloids (6): matrine. Bull. Root. (1978) Chem. Chemical components. Res. . 1039. China. isomatrine.

I. acute. References. 597. Chemical components. Chromatogr. (1988) Fragrance J. (1986) J. Leaves alternate. 37. Y. papilionaceous. Japan. Aug. in loose terminal panicles to 30 cm long. stamens 10. M. Bull. kaikasaponins I. anhydropisatin. et al. (1975) Phytochemistry 14. et al. puerols A. M. glaucous beneath. antianaphylactic (5). (1992) J. 57. Fruit matured in Oct. Ethnopharmacol. 1. Pharm. Antihaemorrhagic (1). (1995) Nat. B (4). and Takagaki. 1616. antioxidant (3). (7) Komatsu. Med. lectins (8). (1989) Chem. . -III (6). rutin. et al. Y. deciduous tree. Flowers yellowish-white. S. 197. quinolizidine alkaloids (9). (1) Ishida. 49.C. Sophoraside A. 1637. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 271 Sophora japonica L. Fruit a cylindrical legume constricted between seeds. Habitat. Bull. Sophora japonica L. 346. et al. antifertility (2). separate. leaflets in 3-8 pairs. Leguminosae Korean Name: Hoe-wha-na-moo English Name: Japanese pagoda tree. 538. (3) Ohta. biochanin A (7). Description. inhibitory effect on 3H-ethylketocycloazocine receptors (puerol A) (4). (5) Kataoka. (9) Izaddoost. (1987) Chem. haemorrhoid. China. 15. hypertension. 35. Chinese scholar tree Parts used. Korea. 16. H. Y. Bio-Activities. (6) Kitakawa. (4) Shirataki. 1. (2) Kong. (1976) Yakugaku Zasshi 96. Distribution. to 5 cm long. (8) Ueno. to 30 m tall. Haematuria. 203. Flower. ovate to lanceolate-ovate. M. 254. Traditional uses. odd-pinnate. Commonly planted around towns. et al.5-3 cm long. irisolidone. (1988) Yakugaku Zasshi 108. Round-headed. Pharm.

S. panicles to 45 cm across. 311. 16-epi-saikogenin C (8). Bull. 30. (5) Lin. Chemical components. Oriental Healing Art Institute. Pharm.. densely tomentose beneath. woolly. 1111. (1977) J. Bull. petals 4. southern China. et al. styles 2.7). S. black. et al. Flowers in small.4).Koch Korean Name: Tong-tal-mok English Name: Rice-paper plant. Long Beach. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. H. Fruit a drupe. stamens 4. Bio-Activities. Ethnopharmacol. 1801. Southern part of Korea. separate. Diuretic. 12. I. ovary 2-celled. et al. valvate. Pharm. terminal panicles. (6) Takai.Koch . to 3 m tall. Oct. (1990) Z. R-1-a. Diuretic. Pharm. Chem. 4701. chikuetsusaponins I-B. (1976) Chem. Habitat. Bull. II (2). B. p. (1) Hsu. long-petioled. lactogenic (1).MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 273 Tetrapanax papyrifer K. Naturforsch. Medulla. (2) Kimata. D. Chinese rice-paper plant Araliaceae Parts used. oedema. 69. (4) Takabe.-Y. Tetrapanax papyrifer K. each lobe divided again. (7) Mirhom. H. M. Description. (1984) J. (3) Takabe. 45. Traditional uses. Y. Soc. IV (5). References. (8) Hikino. (1985) Chem. Chikusaikosides I. E (6. et al. tetrapanax papyriferus saponins R-3. deeply-cut into 5-7 toothed lobes. et al. Perkin Trans. pyrenes 2. Leaves clustered at terminals. (1980) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 34. 24. 25-30 cm across. 33. Mostly cultivated in warm parts of Korea. Evergreen shrub.D. 231. 253. globose umbels arranged in large. (1982) Chem. T. CA. et al. orbicular. H.W. C. Distribution. papyriogenins A. R-4b (3. 4373.

(6) Natarajon. pinusolidic acid. 3. Thujic acid (8).7): quercetin. epistaxis. (1985) Chem. (1983) Zhongao Yaoli Yu Yingyong 690. 61. (7) Pelter. hinokiflavone. totarol. Traditional uses. A. becoming woody. Distribution. Female cones larger. seed. antifungal (thujaplicins) (4). et al. weakness of the body. to 25 m tall. 1m in diameter. (1949) Acta Chem. expectorant. (1970) Phytochemistry 9. Leaves scalelike. Habitat. cultivated in Japan. with 10 scales. et al. Chemical components. Pharm. Thuja orientalis L. less than 3 mm long. haemostatic activities. Terpenoids (1): pinusolide. B. China. (1995) Planta Med. (4) Berlin. 33. strongly hooked at apex.2). amentoflavone. in a vertical plane. Leaf . et al. 37. 61.S. Leaf. Antiplatelet aggregation (1. J. Korea.H. Essential oil. Male cones at the terminals of branches of the last year. Apr. 575. the 3-9 pairs of scales fleshy when young. S. evergreen. 519. Scand. Description. Mountain thickets.acute bacillary dysentery. antibacterial (3). Coniferous. Flavonoids (6. (2) Han. antitussive. Bull. Korean Name: Cheuk-bag-na-moo English Name: Oriental arborvitae Cupressaceae Parts used. et al. (1970) Phytochemistry 9. References. erect.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 275 Thuja orientalis L. et al. 1897. et al. grooved. (3) Wang. T. but often densely branched shrub. (5) Kosuge. B. Branchlet 2-ranked. haematemesis. cedrol. et al. monoecious tree. 1520 mm long. (1995) Planta Med. topical anti-inflammatory (2). Bio-Activities.H. antiasthmatic. (1988) Phytochemistry 27.5 mm long. 5565. (1) Han. 1137. Colony formation inhibition (5). 2-2. Seed . . glandular. Y. J. (8) Grippenberg. seeds wingless. myricetin. 127.liver tonic.

(1983) Chem. CA. 31. pedunculate. (2) Itokawa. Lett. 744. petioles becoming wide at base to wrap stems. Amnesia. Umbels few. 8. China. Pharm. Antifungal. 1 cm long. slightly uncinate prickles. 740. Open grassy places in lowlands. et al. linear. acidosis. Bio-Activities. p. 4682. Habitat. the involucral bracts 4-8. covered with dense. Torilis japonica (Houtt. Torilolide. Fruit 4 -10. 10(14)-trien-1 -ol (3). anthelmintic. appressed to the pedicels. (1986) Chem.Aug. Pharm. Chemical components. Biennial herb with short setose hairs throughout. H. antitrichomonas. Oriental Healing Art Institute. H.) DC. Long Beach. 2. 34. short. Bull. Oppositane sesquiterpenes (4). H. Description. H. Leaves ternately 2-pinnate. (-)-Germacrene-D. 1743. Fatty oils: petroselin.-Y. 5-10 cm long.5-3 mm long. Fruit. oxytorilolide (2). to 30-70 cm tall. Korean Name: Sa-sang-ja English Name: Japanese torilis Umbelliferae Parts used. pruritus. Essential oil: -cadinene. (1) Hsu. germacra-4(15). 1253. sex hormone-like activities (1). Traditional uses. sharply serrate. linolein (1). (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Distribution. torilin.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 277 Torilis japonica (Houtt. antiviral. et al. leaflets ovate to lanceolate. (1983) Chem. Bull. ovate. the involucel bractlets linear. References. (3) Itokawa. et al. Japan. Korea.) DC. Jun.trans-5. rather unequal. . (4) Itokawa. acuminate. scabies. . Eurasia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 279 Torreya nucifera Siebold et Zucc. 18-oxoferruginol (7). dark-green above. I. Apr. (3) Wagner. 130. Stamens clustered in 4-8 whorls. (5) Piovetti. CA. subtended with about 10 scales. petiole 3 mm long. Mountains.5 cm long. 2 m in diameter. (7) Harrison. tinged with purple. 3 mm wide. Torreya nucifera Siebold et Zucc. Description. midrib and 2 impressed stomatal bands beneath. K. p. (2) Shin. References. 1169. linear. subtended with 5-6 scales. et al. Long Beach. anther 4-locular. Korean Name: Bee-ja-na-moo English Name: Japanese torreya Taxaceae Parts used. (1981) Phytochemistry 20. H.H. Chem. Seed. 2772. Traditional uses. Chemical components. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. surrounded by a fleshy aril. Seed narrowly ellipsoidal. glabrous. Japan. (1973) Phytochemistry 12. hookworms.-Y. to 15 m tall. (4) Ahmad. 1103. 32. Evergreen. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. 18-hydroxyferruginol (6). Parasites (Tapeworms. (1) Hsu. ferruginol. pinworms. Oriental Healing Art Institute. 6 mm long.I. 2548. 1211. Anthelmintic activity (1). 2. (1980) Phytochemistry 19. ovule single or 2-3 in cluster. hinokiol (5). I. rigid. (6) Fukushima. Vitexin (3). Biol. et al. greenish. kayaflavone (4). et al. (1987) Phytochemistry 26. aldose reductase inhibition (2). et al. . 749. et al. 15-25 mm long. Distribution. Habitat. Leaves appearing 2-ranked. H. L. et al. Korea.J. L. dioecious tree with widespreading brownish branchlets. Bio-Activities. (1968) Agr. kayadiol (8). roundworms).

Japan. with creeping rootstocks and tall. Unknown. parallel-veined. female below. (1983) Tetrahedron 39. Traditional uses. Description.5 m tall. Monoecious perennial herb of wet places. flat. References. -Cadinene (1. 883. Chemical components. (2) Sakurai.Aug. 29. style and stigma 1. Jul. 1-celled.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 281 Typha orientalis J. China. linear. Pollen.2). River banks and ponds in lowlands. Philippines. haematemesis.5-1cm wide. superior.P.Presl . female flowers with ovary. Hypercholesteraemia. Distribution. 0. et al. male above. subtended by capillary bristles. Korea. unbranched stems. (1) Vig. O. et al. erect. H. Habitat.Presl Korean Name: Boo-deul English Name: Cat tail Typhaceae Parts used. 1-ovuled. . erect. Flowers in a dense terminal spike. (1970) Indian J. 1 -1. male flowers with 2-5 united stamens. 8. Bio-Activities. Fruit an achene. Chem. pectoris. Ussuri. Alkanes. angina. spike 3-5 cm long. Leaves long. Typha orientalis J.

(1) Hsu. asymmetrical at base. References. Oriental Healing Art Institute. 749. (3) Tsuda. (1991) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45. 3. sugars (1). et al. Description. Deciduous small tree. simple. acute. 2-9 cm wide. T. obovate. Chronic diarrhoea. p. Tannic acid. toothed.5 cm long. maturing in May. Fruit a flat.-Y. Mountain woods. Chemical components. Bio-Activities. Bark. Leaves alternate. Ulmus macrocarpa Hance . antiparasites. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. Long Beach. 270. appearing before leaves in spring in axils of leaves. 364. Habitat. Flowers inconspicous. Fatty acids (3). young branches pubescent.5-15. 2-3 cm long. petioles. (2) Kiuchi. Med. Traditional uses. Korea.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 283 Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Korean Name: Wang-neu-reub-na-moo English Name: Elm Ulmaceae Parts used. CA. Branches well corky. 1-celled. nematocidal (2). 49. 1-seeded samara with the wings surrounding the nutlet and notched at apex. Antimicrobial (1). coarse on both sides. (1995) Nat. Distribution. F. pubescent. northern China. H.

Pharmacog. K. oblonglanceolate to oblanceolate. Y. Bio-Activities. Leaves opposite. northern China. Description. May . et al. iridoid glycosides (3.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 285 Valeriana fauriei Briq. J. (1994) Phytochemistry 36. Distribution. (4) Nishiya. Korea. (1995) Chem. Valeriana fauriei Briq. and Kim. 3511. Flowers small. pinnatifid to pinnate. (2) Lee. et al. (3) Nishiya. corolla rotate. Antispasmodic. Essential oils (2).4). K. Traditional uses. Wet. Korean Name: Jui-o-zoom-pool English Name: Faurie’s valerian Valerianaceae Parts used. stamens 3. to 40-80 cm tall. 175. References. long-exerted. in clustered cymes. sesquiterpenes. 2-5 cm long. Chemical components.Jul. 43. 169.H. becoming pappuslike in fruit. 1547. J. 7-15 mm wide. Antidepressant ( -kessyl alcohol) (1). Pharm. sedative. with slender long tube. 26. ovary inferior. Perennial herb with strong-smelling taproots. et al. . calyx inrolled at first. (1) Oshima. (1995) Kor. Fruit an achene lanceolate 4 mm long. Y. pink. (1992) Phytochemistry 31. Root. crowned by persistent calyx. 3-celled at base. Japan. shaded places in woods and thickets. 5-7 mm long.C. Habitat. Bull. segments 5-7.

170. (1992) J.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 287 Veratrum maackii var.4). et al. 549. slender. Pharm. japonicum T.Shimizu . 3198.2). Chem. Japan. verussurinine. (1967) Tetrahedron 123. branched. Am. pedicels 4 mm long. 12-15 mm long. 565. verazine (5). Prod.2). nausea. japonicum T. Description. twice as long as the stamens. hypotensive (3. -7 subobtuse. Chemical components. teratogenic (1. glabrous.A. Jervine (1.Sep. 10 mm across.4). Biol. leafy. 39. Leaves alternate. (4) Zhao. Soc. W. Erect perennial herb with thick rhizomes. 15-O(2-methylbutanoyl)germine. 3-5 cm wide. Root. Flowers loosely arranged. (1947) J. gradually tapered towards the base. sepals broadly lanceolate. Habitat.S. Mucosal irritation. Capsules elliptic. Inflorescence 15-50 cm long. Distribution. germidine (4). Chem. narrowly oblong to linear-lanceolate. insecticide against cockroaches (4). Veratrum maackii var. 55.Shimizu Korean Name: Yeo-ro English Name: Japanese hellebore Liliaceae Parts used. Nat. (1952) J. Antibacterial. brownpurple. Stems stout. germerine (3. (1991) Chem. (3) Myers. References. G. et al. Jul. to 40-100 cm tall. 74. (1) Atta-ur-Rahman et al. 635. 20-35 mm long. . Korea. W. Traditional uses. et al. G. radical and lower cauline. Mountain woods. Bull. the bracts shorter than the branches. 167. (5) Adam. vomiting. (2) Jacobs. Bio-Activities. et al.

stamens 2. Stems simple or sparsely branched in upper part. white. Aug. exerted. Grassy areas in mountains and lowlands. serrate. (3) Lee. Fruit ovate-conical capsule. -8 shallowly 4 -lobed. (1987) Kor. Common cold. calyx deeply 5 lobed.Y. et al. et al. References. 19. J. J. Distribution. spikes erect. Pharmacog. Tall perennial herb. Mannitol. liver tonic. et al.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 289 Veronicastrum sibiricum (L. (4) Lin.Y. purple. H. S. Sinica 30. Description. Traditional uses. longelliptic or elliptic. sessile. Pharmacog. luteolin7-b-glucoside. Siberia Bio-Activities. W. luteolin-7-b-neohesperidoside. simple. (1985) Kor. 2-4 cm wide. 3-8.H. 6-O-veratryl catalpol ester. Leaves whorled. pubescent inside.) Pennell Korean Name: Nang-cho English Name: Blackroot Scrophulariaceae Parts used. (1988) Kor. style exerted. the lobes lanceolate. Phenylpropanoids (4). Japan.) Pennell . slightly unequal. (1995) Acta Pharm. S. Veronicastrum sibiricum (L. Pharmacog. J. glabrous. acute. et al. Antimicrobial (minecoside) (1). Jul. Habitat. 262.J. aucubin. 34. 6-deoxy-8-isoferuloyl herpagide (2. China. 20-30 cm long. Iridoids: minecoside. 16. (2) Lee. densely flowered. 6-17 cm long.3). (1) Chi. Chemical components. Inflorescence terminal. Root. corolla tube 7 mm long. 752. catalpol. 168. ovary 2 celled. 18. to 50-90 cm tall. Korea.

Description. Immunoregulatory activity.5-dihydroxy-3. (1989) Chem.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 291 Viscum album var. Antihypertension.) Ohwi . (1986) Oriental Materia Medica. yellow. 4-lobed. jointed. sessile. Flavonoids (4). Fruit a yellow. 591. rounded to obtuse. globose berry with sticky pulp. stem. terete. p. stomach cancer. parasitic. 37. hypotensive. cell proliferation inhibition (3).) Ohwi Korean Name: Gyeo-woo-sal-ee English Name: Mistletoe Loranthaceae Parts used. Long Beach. Pharmacog. (3) Yoon. Lett. Oleanolic acid. evergreen shrub. Bull. 83. China Bio-Activities. diuretic. antiviral (2). Oriental Healing Art Institute. TNF-a inducing activity (1). Habitat. Tufted. thickened at nodes. 6-12 mm wide. Chemical components.Mar. glabrous. Leaves thick.J. terminal on branchlets. 3-6 cm long. T. coloratum (Kom. Japan. Parasitic on trees such as oaks and birches. antibacterial. et al. 25. 4. References.7dimethoxyflavone (2). 592. (1995) Chem. Viscum album var. insositol. Flowers dioecious. Korea. Pharm. (1) Yoon. Distribution. et al. (1994) Kor. Feb. coloratum (Kom. 132. the perianth campanulate. T. T. oblanceolate. (4) Fukunaga. 97. the bracteoles cup-shaped. opposite. H. dichotomously branched.J. IL-1. Leaf.-Y. 1300. about 6 mm in diameter. CA. Traditional uses. (2) Hsu. . J. Branches to 1 m tall. et al. sessile.

Vitex rotundifolia L. et al. Traditional uses.5 cm long. (1995) Nat. Y. antianaphylactic (2). antioxidant (1). 1. (1993) Fitoterapia 64. Korean Name: Soon-bee-gi-na-moo English Name: Round-leaf vitex Verbenaceae Parts used. Fruit globose.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 293 Vitex rotundifolia L. (1994) J. (2) Kataoka. (1986) Chem. artemetin. Common cold. Fruit. Pharm. Habitat. Soc. Antibacterial. Inflorescence panicles at terminal. 49. style bifid. et al. thinly puberulent above. densely flowered. Sandy areas by the sea. Med. subbilabiate.Y. short-pediceled. corolla purple. southeast Asia to Australia.f. I. exerted. Diterpenes (4): rotundifuran. 2-5 cm long. (5) Kouno. Korea. et al. vanillin. densely grayish puberulent beneath. stamens 4. Oil Chem. headache.H. Flavones (4): vitexicarpin. References.Sep. Amer. previtexilactone. vitricine (alkaloid). Camphene. Stems slightly 4-angled. 71. 34. sore eyes. Bull. et al. Evergreen. eurostoside. prerotundifuran. Bio-Activities. 47 cm long. aldose reductase inhibition (3). Leaves opposite. 1. Jul. and Takagaki. 13 mm across.f. Chemical components. Japan. M. Y. rounded or abruptly acute at base. 5-7 mm in diameter. 611. (4) Kondo. -Hydroxybenzoic acid. migraine. luteolin. 346. procumbent or ascending shrub densely covered with short hairs throughout. Glycosides (5): agnuside. 4829. Description. (1) Kim. ovate to broad-elliptic. . K. Distribution. simple. 633. 130. pinene. (1988) Phytochemistry 27. vitexilactone. S.5-3 cm wide. (3) Shin. . didymous.

. with 3 prominent veins. Hypoglycaemic (1). densely puberulent. Traditional uses. 60. References. carboxyatractyloside. to 1 m tall. corolla absent. J. 206. Res. Bio-Activities. scaly. Xanthium strumarium L. 1. Phytosterols. Leaves alternate. filaments and anthers free. (1983) Zhongyao Yaoli Yu Yingyong 509. N. Ed. hooked at the end. Am. 87. L. petiolate. . Waste ground. et al. et al. oblong. S. (Sci. Short-pubescent. C. small. (5) Roussakis. Distribution. Pistillate heads fasciculate in leaf-axils. (2) Wang. (7) Malik. isoxanthanol. et al. ovate-deltoid.Y. 2 beaked utricle enclosing 2 florets.S. naturalized in North America. cytotoxic (5). Antimalarial (4). Xanthanolides (7). xanthanol. 6 -12 mm wide. Korean Name: Do-ko-ma-ri English Name: Sheepburr. (1983) Zhongcaoyao 14. often 3-lobed. Fruit. 5-toothed. along roads in lowlands. M. Aug. atractyloside. innner ovoid. (1950) J. 2 -beaked. stomachic. Korea. Headache.Sep. Utricles sessile. 473. Y. (3) Wang. receptacle cylindric. Staminate heads densely aggregated. oblong-lanceolate. Med. (6) Kuzel. (1962) Yaoxue Xuebao 9. terminal. et al. to Europe. Glycosides (2): xanthostrumarin. (1988) Ind. antibacterial (3). Chemical components. corolla tubular. sharply prickly.5-2 mm long. et al. Japan. et al. scabrous on both sides.S. involucral bracts 1 -seriate. hydroquinone (6). Description. (4) Badam.X. dermatopathy. outer involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.) 36. coarsely dentate.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 295 Xanthium strumarium L.R. elliptic. arthritis. antifungal. Habitat. the prickles 1. Pharm. annual herb. China. Heads unisexual. et al. bottomburr Compositae Parts used. Xanthatin (5). 10-18 mm long. clotburr. 379. globose. (1993) Phytochemistry 32. Ass. 678. (1994) Planta Med. (1) Shong. 202. Z. antitussive (2). 5-15 cm long.

31. Branchlets with paired spines at base of leaves. CNS toxic (xanthotoxin). nematocidal (4). (8) Abe. hesperidin. Tuberculosis. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibition (3). Chemical components. et al.Jun. carpels free. small. (1986) Kor. May . S. References. 1295. geraniol. Bull. to 15 cm long. (1) Kiuchi. China. 3391. et al. compact tree or shrub with aromatic bark. Deciduous. (1983) Chem. broad-lanceolate to ovate. . et al. leaflets 9-19. glandular-dotted. (1973) Yakugaku Zasshi 93. Inflorescence paniculate-cymose. stamens 5. et al. odd-pinnate. Anthelmintic (1). Isoquinoline alkaloids (8). Fruit. Korea. I. 17. (7) Yasuda. Traditional uses. 1-3.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 297 Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. terminal on short branchlets. antifungal (2).Y. antibacterial (5). Habitat. small. Flavonoids: quercitrin. citral. 364. 301. (5) Choe. -phellandrene. calyx 5-lobed. F. 279. to 3 m tall. et al. Description. J. 624. Leaves alternate. (1982) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 36. (1972) Planta Med. I. Distribution. F. Fruit a 2-valved follicle. Med. anthelmintic. 22. dyspepsia. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. et al. stomachic. unisexual. (3) Kiuchi. 136. (1989) Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43. Pharm. F. 302. afzelin. (6) Yasuda.5 cm long. (1995) Nat. Korean Name: Cho-pea-na-moo English Name: Japan pepper Rutaceae Parts used. Pharmacog. T. (2) Jain. imbricate. citronellal. Essential oil (6): dipentene. (1982) Phytochemistry 21. Bio-Activities. small. (4) Kiuchi. Japan. obtusely toothed. Acid amides (7): -sanshools. Thickets and woods in hills and mountains. citronellol.R. Flowers greenish yellow. 49. sanshoamide. F.

(6) Shibata. slightly pubescent on the nerves of leaves beneath and the tips of branchlets. Insomnia. antiarrhythmic (2). lustrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 299 Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (2) Xu. 1-2. Saponins (5. May . 5-6 mm across. 468. Chem. Habitat. Chemical components. Commonly cultivated. betulinic acid.6): jujubosides A. jujuba . strongly 3-nerved from the base. (4) Woo. ovate. Traditional uses. (8) Han. et al. hypnotic (1).5 cm wide. Alkaloids: sanjoinines AJ (cyclopeptides) (1). (1989) Pure Appl. Japan. (1970) Phytochemistry 9.H. References. et al. Small deciduous shrub. Res. in axillary cymes.J.5 cm in diameter. var. Flowers bisexual. dark-red or reddish brown. 18. Zizyphus jujuba Mill. 677. 1. (7) Maurya. S. et al. short-petiolate. Bio-Activities.H. Distribution. B. Leaves alternate. B1. Xl. cultivated in Korea. Spinosins (flavonoids) (4). Chinese jujube Parts used. South Asia. 443. Seed. X.Jun. 2829.S. CNS depressant (4). B. et al. tetrahydro-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (8). lustrous. (1974) Phytochemistry 13. K. (1987) Zhongcaoyao 18. (1989) Fitoterapia 60. southeast Europe.R. Triterpenes (7): betulin. et al. (1) Han. 263. small. myocardium protecting activities (3). S. 141. jujuba Rhamnaceae Korean Name: Moet-dae-choo English Name: Common jujube. (1990) Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao 11. et al. neurasthermia. Description. Sedative. irritability. S. 5 -merous. Fruit a fleshy drupe. aporphine. 153. Pharmacog. var. stipular spines. B. (1980) Kor. greenish yellow. 61. et al. Pharm. Chinese date.K. W. serrulate. jujubogenin. 2-6 cm long. and China. ellipsoidal to gobose. (5) Kawai. 12. et al. (1989) Arch.5-2. 11. (3) Chen. J.

101. Bull. pharyngitis. et al. (4) Okamura. 29. 61. 676. Pain. Antiallergic. (1987) Tetrahedron Lett. (1983) Zhongcaoyao 14. and China.Z. 39. 26. Japan. inermis Rehder Ramnaceae Korean Name: Dae-choo English Name: Common jujube. Fruit. cultivated in Korea. anorexia. bronchitis. Traditional uses. cough. jujuba. central inhibiton (2). jujuba var. et al. asimilobine. 3507.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 301 Zyzyphus jujuba var. Pharm. but stipular spines absent. inermis Rehder .5 cm long. (1985) Carbohydr. et al. (6) Han. (1981) Chem. dysosmia. Bull. sedative. southeast Europe.4). Chemical components.H. corn of foot. liver protective. 3075. 28. B. complement activity inhibition (1). fruit larger. Cyclopeptide alkaloids (5). II. (1) Yamada. Chinese date. Chem. (5) Han. References. A. anti-stress ulcer. jujuboside B (3. S. Zyzyphus jujuba var. B. et al.5-3. Chinese jujube Parts used. (2) Li. Triterpenoids (3. H. Saponins: zizyphus saponins I. daechualkaloid-A (pyrrolidine alkaloid) (6). chalelithiasis. (1989) Pure Appl.H. 1798. et al. Alkaloids: stepharine. Bio-Activities. III. (1978) Chem. 443. Similar to Z. Distribution. maslinic acid. Res. 2957. ovoid. 144. Pharm. et al. (3) Yagi. South Asia. Habitat. Commonly cultivated in Korea. 2.4): betulinic acid. Description.

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.f. et Hook. asiaticum (Hara) Ohwi Chloranthus japonicus Siebold Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. Ailanthus altissima Swingle Akebia quinata Decne. Cirsium japonicum var. angustatus Besser Acorus gramineus Sol. Corydalis ternata Nakai 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 . Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Bupleurum falcatum L. Belamcanda chinensis (L. japonica Hara Agastache rugosa (Fisch. Astragalus membranaceus Bunge Atractylodes japonica Koidz. Cassia tora L. Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne Chelidonium majus var. Asarum sieboldii Miq. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour. ussuriense Kitamura Citrus unshiu Markovich Clematis mandschurica Rupr. Adenophora triphylla var.) Benth.Raymond Acorus calamus var. Aristolochia contorta Bunge Artemisia annua L. Arisaema amurense Maxim.) Kuntze Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Artemisia gmelini Weber ex Stechm. Cornus officinalis Siebold et Zucc.) Nakai Aconitum koreanum R. Caragana sinica (Buc’hoz) Rehder Carthamus tinctorius L. ex Kitam.) Merr. Cnidium officinale Makino Codonopsis pilosula (Franch. japonica Hara Bistorta manshuriensis Kom.) DC. Betula platyphylla var.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 303 Index of scientific names Achyranthes japonica (Miq. et Mey.f. Angelica gigas Nakai Aralia cordata Thunb. Aster tataricus L.) Nannf.

103 Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr.) Hylander 107 Elsholtzia splendens Nakai et F.Hu 105 Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb. et Maxim. Dioscorea batatas Decne. 113 Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Inula helenium L. koraiensis (Nakai) Nakai Glehnia littoralis F.) Roth Juglans sinensis Dode Juncus effusus var. decipiens Buchenau 125 127 129 131 133 135 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 .304 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge Cynanchum ascyrifolium Matsumura Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim. Gleditsia japonica var. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.) Lindley 115 Eucommia ulmoides Oliver 117 Euodia officinalis Dode 119 Euonymus alatus (Thunb. Inula japonica Regel Ipomoea nil (L. Hemerocallis fulva L. Ginkgo biloba L.Y.Schmidt Glycine max Merr.) S. Hibiscus syriacus L. Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 Echinops setifer Iljin 101 Eclipta prostrata L. 109 Epimedium koreanum Nakai 111 Equisetum hyemale L. 123 Forsythia viridissima Bunge Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance Gastrodia elata Blume Gentiana scabra L.) Hemsl.) Siebold 121 Euryale ferox Salisb. Cyperus rotundus L.Maek. Dianthus chinensis L.

) Rohrb. Melandrium firmum (Siebold et Zucc.) Batsch 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 207 209 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 231 233 235 . piperascens Malinv. Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc.Mey. Phytolacca esculenta Van Houtte Picrasma quassioides (D. Poncirus trifoliata Raf. japonica Makino Mentha arvensis var. Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. Polygonatum odoratum var. ansu Maxim.Berger Paeonia lactiflora var. Lilium lancifolium Thunb. hortensis Makino Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews Panax ginseng C.) DC. Morus alba L. Peucedanum japonicum Thunb.) Rehder Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc. Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. Potentilla chinensis Ser. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. Prunus japonica var. Lycium chinense Mill. lilacina Nakai Prunus armeniaca var. Melia azedarach var. Portulaca oleracea L. Plantago asiatica L. Magnolia denudata Desr.Don) Bennet Pinellia ternata (Thunb. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner Orostachys japonicus A. Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) Nakai Kochia scoparia Schrad. Malva verticillata L. Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang Lonicera japonica Thunb. Prunus persica (L. Lycopus lucidus Turcz.) Breitenb. Prunella vulgaris var. Leonurus sibiricus L.A. nakaii (Lév. Polygonum tinctorium Lour.MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 305 Kalopanax pictus (Thunb. pluriflorum Ohwi Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

inermis Rehder 237 239 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 265 267 269 271 273 275 277 279 281 283 285 287 289 291 293 295 297 299 301 . Rubia akane Nakai Rubus coreanus Miq. Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) DC.Koch Thuja orientalis L. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC.) Ohwi Pulsatilla koreana Nakai Punica granatum L. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Sophora flavescens Ait.f. Torilis japonica (Houtt. Rosa rugosa Thunb.) Libosch. Rhus chinensis Mill. Tetrapanax papyrifer K. Sanguisorba officinalis L.) Farw. var. Xanthium strumarium L. Rheum undulatum L.306 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Pueraria lobata (Willd. Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. Scopolia japonica Maxim. Rehmania glutinosa (Gaertn. Rosa multiflora Thunb. jujuba Zyzyphus jujuba var.Shimizu Veronicastrum sibiricum (L. Torreya nucifera Siebold et Zucc.) Pennell Viscum album var. Sophora japonica L. Zizyphus jujuba Mill.Presl Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Valeriana fauriei Briq. coloratum (Kom. Typha orientalis J. japonicum T. Veratrum maackii var.) Ohwi Vitex rotundifolia L. Schisandra chinensis Baill.

301 299. 301 261 169 57 189 63 273 271 97 67 19 .MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 307 Index of English common names Acanthopanax Althaea Anemarrhena Apricot Asian bistort Asian madder Asian plantain Baby rose Balloon flower Bastard saffron Belvedere Birthwort Bitter orange Blackberry lily Blackroot Bonnet bellflower Bottomburr Buerger’s figwort Bugbane Bugleweed Burnet bloodwort Burning bush Calamus Catchfly Cat-tail Celandine Chinaberry Chinese ash Chinese cinquefoil Chinese date Chinese jujube Chinese magnolia vine Chinese metrimony vine Chinese pea shrub Chinese peony Chinese quince Chinese rice-paper plant Chinese scholar tree Chinese yam Chloranthus Chocolate vine 105 143 23 229 53 255 211 251 213 59 159 33 221 49 289 79 295 265 69 171 259 95 7 177 281 65 179 127 225 299.

308 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Cinnamon vine Clotburr Cnidium Cochinchinese asparagus Cockle Common garden peony Common horsetail Common jujube Common scouring rush Copal tree Cork tree Crown wood-fern Cruel plant Dahurian angelica Dittany Eclipta Elecampane Elm Elsholtzia English walnut Eucommia Euodia False saffron Faurie’s valerian Five-leaf akebia Flagroot Fleece flower Fox nut Fraxinella Fulvous day lily Gas plant Gentian Giant angelica Ginseng Glehnia Globe thistle Gold-and-silver flower Golden-bells Grassy-leaved sweet flag Great burnet Gypsywort 97 295 77 41 177 189 113 299. 301 113 17 199 99 87 25 95 103 147 283 107 153 117 119 59 285 19 7 217 123 95 141 95 131 27 193 137 101 167 125 9 259 171 .

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 309 Hairy agrimony Hare’s-ear Hawthorn Heal-all Houttuynia Imperial Japanese morning-glories Jack-in-the-pulpit Japan pepper Japanese apricot Japanese arrowroot Japanese atractylodes Japanese bead tree Japanese bush berry Japanese chaff flower Japanese cornelian cherry Japanese felt fern Japanese flowering apricot Japanese hellebore Japanese honeysuckle Japanese inula Japanese medlar Japanese mint Japanese pagoda tree Japanese peucedanum Japanese plum Japanese rose Japanese scopolia Japanese spikenard Japanese sweet orange Japanese thistle Japanese torilis Japanese torreya Japanese white birch Japanese-mat rush King-Solomon’s-seal Korean bramble Korean epimedium Korean honey locust Korean monk’s hood Korean pasque flower Korean pine Kudzu vine 15 55 85 227 145 151 31 297 233 237 47 179 231 3 81 243 233 287 167 149 115 181 271 197 115. 231 251. 253 263 29 73 71 277 279 51 155 215 257 111 135 5 239 209 237 .

310 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Leather flower Leopard flower Lily tree Lilyturf Loquat Madeira walnut Maidenhair tree Mellow Milk vetch Mimosa Mimosa tree Mistletoe Mosquito plant Motherwort Musk mellow Myrtle flag Nutgall tree Orange day lily Oriental arborvitae Paradise tree Patrinia Peach Persian walnut Phlomis Picrasma Pokeberry Pokeweed Polygonum Pomegranate Pride-of-China Pride-of-India Purple nut sedge Purslane Pussley Rainbow pink Rattletop Rehmania Rhubarb Rice-paper plant Rock pine 75 49 173 165 115 153 133 175 45 21 21 291 87 161 175 7 249 141 275 179 195 235 153 201 205 203 203 219 241 179 179 91 223 223 93 69 245 247 273 187 .



Rose-of-sharon Round cyperus Round-leaf vitex Russian wormwood Sacred lotus Safflower Self-heal Sheepburr Shiny asparagus Shiny elsholtzia Shrub althaea Sicklepod Silk tree Skullcap Soft rush Soja bean Solomon’s seal Soya bean Soybean Stink grass Summer cypress Sweet flag Sweet wormwood Tall gastrodia Tartarian aster Tawny day lily Thorn Thorn apple Three-leaf corydalis Three-leaf ladybell Three-leaf pinellia Tiger lily Tongue fern Tree aralia Tree peony Tree-of-heaven Trifoliate orange Turkestan rose Varnish tree Vase vine Virgin’s bower

143 91 293 37 185 59 227 295 41 109 143 61 21 267 155 139 215 139 139 145 159 7 35 129 43 141 85 85 83 11 207 163 243 157 191 17 221 253 17 75 75



Water horehound White mulberry Wild ginger Wilford’s cynanchum Winged spindle tree Wrinkled giant hyssop Yellow sophora

171 183 39 89 121 13 269



Index of Korean plant names
A-wook Ae-gi-tong-pool Ba-we-sol Bae-cho-hyang Bag-boo-ja Bag-mok-ryeon Bag-sun Bak-ha Ban-ha Bee-ja-na-moo Bee-pa-na-moo Bok-boon-ja-tal-kee Bok-sa-na-moo Boo-deul Book-na-moo Bum-boo-chae Bum-ko-ri Cham-dang-gui Cham-na-ri Chang-po Cheon-gung Cheon-ma Cheon-moon-dong Cheuk-bag-na-moo Chik Chil-rae-kot Cho-pea-na-moo Chog Cok-doo-seo-nee Cool-pool Dab-ssa-ri Dae-choo Dae-whang Deo-we-je-gee Deul-hyun-ho-sag Do-ko-ma-ri Do-ra-ji Dok-whal Doo-choong Doong-geul-lae Doong-geun-nip-chun-nam-sung 175 65 187 13 5 173 95 181 207 279 115 257 235 281 249 49 53 27 163 7 77 129 41 275 237 251 297 219 255 227 159 301 247 37 83 295 213 29 117 215 31

314 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA E-seu-ra-ji Eu-ah-ri Eu-reum Eum-na-moo Eun-hang-na-moo Ga-si-yeon-kot Gae-me-chui Gae-tong-sook Get-bang-pung Get-kee-reum-na-mool Geul Gin-gang-nam-cha Go-sam Gol-dam-cho Gol-pool Goo-kee-ja-na-moo Goo-rit-dae Gwan-joong Gyeo-woo-sal-ee Ha-soo-o Hae-dang-wha Hal-me-kot Han-ryun-cho Ho-doo-na-moo Hoe-wha-na-moo Hol-ah-bee-kot-dae Hyang-boo-ja Hyang-yoo Hyun-sam Ik-kot Ik-mo-cho In-dong In-sam Ja-gui-na-moo Ja-jag-na-moo Ja-ri-gong Jak-yag Jan-dae Jang-goo-chae Jat-na-moo Jeol-good-dae 231 75 19 157 133 123 43 35 137 197 73 61 269 57 155 169 25 99 291 217 253 239 103 153 271 67 91 107 265 59 161 167 193 21 51 203 189 11 177 209 101 .

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 315 Ji-mo Ji-whang Jil-kyung-ee Jip-shin-na-mul Jok-do-ri Joo-yeob-na-moo Jui-bang-wool-deong-gool Jui-o-zoom-pool Ka-joog-na-moo Keum-bool-cho Keun-jo-rong Kong Kot-hyang-yoo Ma Ma-ta-ri Mac-moon-dong Mae-sil-na-moo Man-sam Mee-chee-kwang-ee-pool Min-baek-mee-kot Mo-gua-na-moo Mo-ran Moet-dae-choo Mok-hyang Moo-goong-wha Mool-poo-rae-na-moo Mul-goo-seul-na-moo Na-pal-kot Nang-cho O-ee-pool O-gal-pee O-mee-ja O-soo-yoo Oe-sung-gae-na-ri Pae-raeng-ee-kot Pong-na-moo Sa-sang-ja Sab-joo Sal-goo 23 245 211 15 39 135 33 285 17 149 89 139 109 97 195 165 233 79 263 87 63 191 299 147 143 127 179 151 289 259 105 261 119 125 93 183 277 47 229 .

316 MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA Sam-ji-goo-yeop-cho San-sa San-soo-yoo See-ho Seog-ryu Seog-we Seok-chang-po Seung-ma Ship-ssa-ri Shoi-bee-reum So-tae-na-moo Soe-moo-reup Sok-dan Sok-sae Soon-bee-gi-na-moo Tag-ji-kot Tang-ja-na-moo Tong-tal-mok Ung-gung-qui Wang-neu-reub-na-moo Wha-sal-na-moo Whang-byeuk-na-moo Whang-geum Whang-gi Won-choo-ri Yag-mo-mil Yeo-ro Yeon-kot Yong-dam 111 85 81 55 241 243 9 69 171 223 205 3 201 113 293 225 221 273 71 283 121 199 267 45 141 145 287 185 131 Back to Table of Contents .

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