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# Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces NAME __________________ Homework 1: Interpreting Graphs

## IB Physics PER ___ DATE ___________ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS: Answer all of the questions about each linear graph. Be sure to include correct units for each of your answers. Show all work. Think carefully about what you are doing and pay attention to how you learn this material best.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1. The graph shown below illustrates the relationship between the amount of scholarship money earned and the number of applications completed. The slope and intercept are given (without their units!) in the table below the graph.

a. Write the equation for the graph. Include the correct units for all quantities.

b. What does the y-intercept illustrate about the quantities shown on this graph?

c. Use your equation to determine how many applications would be needed to earn \$8000 in scholarships.

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2. The graph shown below illustrates the relationship between student SAT scores and the number of science classes they completed.

a. What is the equation that represents this graph? Include correct units!!

b. Write a clear, English sentence describing what the slope tells you about your SAT score and the number of science classes you take.

c. According to this graph and equation, what would be the SAT score of a student who took seven science classes?

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3. The graph shown below illustrates the relationship between the total cost of the CDs purchased and the number of CDs.

a. What is the equation that represents this graph? Include correct units!!

## b. What are the units of the slope for this graph?

c. What is the average price of a compact disc at this store? What if you bought many CDs?

d. What is odd about the intercept for this graph? What does it imply about buying CDs at this store?

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces: Homework 2

1. Consider the position vs time graph at right. a. Determine the average velocity of the object.

## b. Write a mathematical model to describe the motion of the object.

2. In the space at the right, describe the motion shown on the following position vs. time graph. x

3. Sketch the position vs. time graph for an object that starts at a negative position, moves in a positive direction at a gradually decreasing speed and then remains motionless. x t

4. Johnny drives to Wisconsin (1920 miles) in 32 hours. He returns to Arizona by the same route in the same amount of time. a. Determine his average speed for the whole trip.

## c. Compare these two values and explain any differences.

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5. Shown at right is a velocity vs time graph for an object. a. Describe the motion of the object.

b. Draw the corresponding position vs time graph. Number the x-axis and t-axis (assume xi=0).

c. How far did the object travel in the interval t =1s to t =2s?

d. What is the total displacement? Explain how you got the answer.

In each of the following problems you are given the x vs. t graph, the v vs. t graph, or a written description of the motion of an object. Complete each by providing the missing items. Label all axes with appropriate scales!! 6. x(m) 10 0 -10 t(s) 0 10 0 10 t(s) v(m/s)

Written Description:

7. Page 5

v(m/s)

x(m)

t(s) 0 10 0 10

t(s)

Written Description: An object starts at position 5.0 meters and travels in the positive direction at a speed of 3.0 m/s for 5.5 seconds. Then the object stops for 2.0 seconds. And then turns around and travels 45 meters in 3.0 seconds.

8. x(m)

## v(m/s) 4 t(s) 0 10 00 -4 t(s) 10

Written Description:

9. Jim leaves home at noon and drives east on I-10 at 60. mph, Jenny leaves from the same location at 1:30 PM, but travels east at 70. mph. When and where will Jenny catch up to Jim?

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces Homework 3: Stacks of kinematics curves

Given the following position vs time graphs, sketch the corresponding velocity vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. Include a written description of the motion.

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For the following velocity vs time graphs, draw the corresponding position vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. Include a written description of the motion.

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces: Homework 4

1. While cruising along a dark stretch of highway at 30 m/s (65 mph), you see, at the fringes of your headlights, some roadkill on the highway. It takes you 0.5 s to react, then you apply the brakes and come to a stop 3.5s later. Assume the clock starts the instant you see the hazard. Also assume that you are constantly accelerating as you are braking. a. Construct a quantitatively accurate v vs t graph to describe the situation. b. On the v vs t graph at right, graphically represent the cars displacement during this incident. c. Utilizing the graphical representation, determine how far the car traveled during this incident. (Please explain your problem solving method.)

d. In order to draw the a vs t graph, you need to determine the cars acceleration once the brakes were applied. Please do this, then sketch a quantitatively accurate a vs t graph

e. Two kinds of motion occur in this case. For the first 0.5s, the car is traveling at constant velocity. For the remainder of the time, the car has an initial velocity and a uniform acceleration. Using the appropriate mathematical representation for each phase of the motion, determine how far the car traveled from the instant you noticed the hazard until you came to a stop. As always, show work and include units.

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2. Use the v vs. t graph shown below to complete the table and construct x vs. t and a vs. t graphs. Put your graphs on separate graph paper. v (m/s) xi = 10 m 4 2 0 -2 -4

t (s)

t (s)

x (m)

v (m/s)

a (m/s2)

3. The position of two objects at successive 1.0 second time intervals are represented by the dots in the figure below. The blocks are moving to the right. Use the picture below to construct x vs. t, v vs. t and a vs. t graphs on separate graph paper. 25 m x(m)

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For problems 4-7 first sketch v vs. t and x vs. t graphs for the motion described in the problem, then solve the problem. The Problem Graphs Solution 4. A bus moving at 20 m/s (t = 0) slows at a rate of 4 m/s each second. a) How long does it take the bus to stop?

## b) How far does it travel while braking?

5. A dog runs down his driveway with an initial speed of 5 m/s for 8 s, then uniformly increases his speed to 10 m/s in 5 s. a) What was his acceleration during the 2nd part of the motion?

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces: Homework #5

1. A student measures a distance several times. The readings lie between 49.8 cm and 50.2 cm. This measurement is best recorded as A. 49.8 s 0.2 cm. B. 49.8 s 0.4 cm. C. 50.0 s 0.2 cm. D. 50.0 s 0.4 cm. 2. The radius of a loop is measured to be (10.0 0.5) cm. Which of the following is the best estimate of the uncertainty in the calculated area of the loop? A. 0.25 % B. 5% C. 10 % D. 25 % 3. The diagram below shows the position of the meniscus of the mercury in a mercury-in-glass thermometer.

T / C

10

Which of the following best expresses the indicated temperature with its uncertainty? A. (6.0 0.5)C B. (6.1 0.1)C C. (6.2 0.2)C D. (6.2 0.5)C 4. The volume V of a cylinder of height h and radius r is given by the expression 2 V = r h. In a particular experiment, r is to be determined from measurements of V and h. The uncertainties in V and in h are as shown below. V s7% h s3% The approximate uncertainty in r is A. 10 %. B. 5 %. C. 4 %. D. 2 %. 5. A student measures two lengths as follows: T = 10.0 s 0.1 cm S = 20.0 s 0.1 cm. The student calculates: FT, the fractional uncertainty in T FS, the fractional uncertainty in S FT S, the fractional uncertainty in (T S) FT+S, the fractional uncertainty in (T + S). Which of these uncertainties has the largest magnitude? A. FT B. FS C. FT S D. FT+S Chapter 2 #50, 61, 66, 67, 96, 98, 100, 104

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Chapter 3 #1-10

## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces: Homework #7

In each of the following situations, represent the object with a particle. Sketch all the forces acting upon the object, making the length of each vector represent the magnitude of the force.
1. Object lies motionless. 2. Object slides at constant speed without friction

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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9.

Chapter 3 #46-51

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces: Homework #9

The "Elevator Problem" is a classic problem in physics. The situation is this: "You are standing on a bathroom scale in an elevator. You are holding an apple. (Yes, people are staring at you...) You weigh 500 Newtons, so your mass is about 50 kg. Part A: Elevator Is At Rest. You have just boarded the elevator, so it (with you inside) is at rest... 1. What is your acceleration? 2. What is the net force acting on you? 3. What is the force of gravity? is the force of the scale? 5. What does the scale read? Part B: The Elevator Accelerates Upward. The elevator, (with you inside) begins to accelerate upward from rest at 2 m/s2. 7. Complete the force diagram. 8. What is the net force acting on you? 9. What is the force of the scale? 10. What does the scale read? 8. What is your acceleration? 6. If you let go of the apple, what does it do? 4. What

11. If you let go of the apple, what does it do? To the occupants of the upwardly accelerating elevator, it appears that gravity is stronger, since they seem to weigh more (why?) and objects fall faster than "normal". Part C: The Elevator Moves Up With Constant Velocity. The elevator (and you) accelerated for 5 seconds, so it is moving upward with a velocity of 10 m/s. It now moves with this constant upward velocity of 10 m/s. 12. Complete the force diagram. 13. What is your acceleration?

14. What is the net force acting on you? 15. What is the force of the scale? 16. What does the scale read?

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17. If you let go of the apple, what does it do? Part D: The Elevator Slows Down (While Going Up) The elevator, (with you inside) begins to slow down as it approaches its destination. The magnitude of its acceleration is 2 m/s2. 18. Complete the force diagram. 20. What is the net force acting on you? 21. What is the force of the scale? 22. If you let go of the apple, what does it do? To the occupants of the downwardly accelerating elevator, it appears that gravity is weaker, since they seem to weigh less (why?) and objects fall more slowly than "normal". Part E: The Elevator Speeds Up (While Going Down) The elevator, (with you inside) reaches its floor, stops for a while, and then begins to accelerate downward. Its acceleration is 2 m/s2 downward. 23. Complete the force diagram. 24. What is your acceleration? 19. What is your acceleration?

25. What is the net force acting on you? 26. What does the scale read? 27. If you let go of the apple, what does it do? To the occupants of the downwardly accelerating elevator, it appears that gravity is weaker, since they seem to weigh less (why?) and objects fall more slowly than "normal".

Part F: The Elevator Moves Down With Constant Velocity. The elevator (and you) accelerated for 5 seconds, so it is moving downward with a velocity of 10 m/s. It now moves with this constant downward velocity of 10 m/s. 28. Complete the force diagram. 29. What is your acceleration?

30. What is the net force acting on you? 31. What does the scale read? 32. If you let go of the apple, what does it do?

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Part G: Oh, No! The elevator cable snaps, and the elevator (with you inside!) begins to fall! Perhaps you have time for one last Physics observation! 33. Complete the force diagram. 34. What is your acceleration?

35. What is the net force acting on you? 36. What is the force of gravity? 37. What is the force of the scale? 38. What does the scale read? 39. If you let go of the apple, what does it do?

"Weightlessness" Weightlessness is a phenomenon that we most often associate with astronauts in space, but it is not necessary to be floating in space to be "weightless". Describe how using a spring scale an object can be weightless

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces:

Homework #10

For each of the problems below, you must begin your solution with a force diagram. Some require more than one diagram. 1. A 4600 kg helicopter accelerates upward at 2.0 m/s2. What lift force is exerted by the air on the propellors?

2. The maximum force that a grocery bag can withstand without ripping is 250 N. Suppose that the bag is filled with 20. kg of groceries and lifted with an acceleration of 5.0 m/s2. Do the groceries stay in the bag?

3.

A 65 kg person dives into the water from the 10 m platform. a) What is her speed as she enters the water? b) She comes to a stop 2.0 m below the surface of the water. What net force did the water exert on the swimmer?

4.

## A 20 kg mass is allowed to accelerate down a frictionless 15 ramp.

a. b. c. d.

Draw a force diagram for the block. Determine the value of the net force on the block? What is the acceleration of the block down the ramp? How long will it take for the block to slide 30.0m?

5. A 70.0 kg box is pulled by a 400. N force at an angle of 30. to the horizontal. The force of kinetic friction is 75.0 N. Draw the force diagram for the box. Page 18

What is the acceleration of the box? 6. A 20 kg block (A) rests on a frictionless table; a cord attached to the block extends horizontally to a pulley at the edge of the table. A 10 kg mass (B) hangs at the end of the cord. a) Clearly draw and label the force vectors acting on each object. b) Calculate the acceleration of the block and mass. c) Calculate the tension in the cord.

7. Below is a picture of an Atwood's Machine: two masses attached to a frictionless, massless pulley (pretty neat how physicists dream up equipment like this, huh?). The mass of block A is 5.0 kg, and the mass of B is 2.0 kg. a) b) What is the acceleration of the system when the blocks are released? How long will it take for block A to fall 2.0 m?

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## Unit 1 Kinematics and Forces

Homework #11
1.The graph to the right is a speed vs. time graph for an object that is falling. a) Explain what is happening to the speed, acceleration and position of the object.

## c) Draw force diagrams for the object at t = 5s, t = 15 s and t = 90 s

2. A raindrop falling through air reaches a terminal velocity before hitting the ground. At terminal velocity, the frictional force on the raindrop is A. zero. B. less than the weight of the raindrop. C. greater than the weight of the raindrop. D. equal to the weight of the raindrop.
3. A car with a velocity of 22 m/s is accelerated uniformly at the rate of 1.6 m/s2 for 6.8 s. What is its final velocity?

4. A supersonic jet flying at 145 m/s is accelerated uniformly at 23.1 m/s2 for 20.0 s. The speed of sound in air is 331 m/s, how many times the speed of sound is the plane's final speed? 4. A car moving at 12 m/s coasts up a hill with uniform acceleration of -1.6 m/s2. a. How far has it traveled after 6.0 s?

5. During a baseball game, a batter hits a high pop-up. If the ball remains in the air for 6.0 s before it is caught, how high does it rise?

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6. The driver of a car traveling at 90 km/hr sees the lights of a broken down truck 40.0 m ahead. It takes the driver 0.75 s to hit the brakes, and the average acceleration during braking is -10 m/s2. Does the car hit the truck?

7. The power dissipated in a resistor of resistance R carrying a current I is equal to I2R. The value of I has an uncertainty of 2% and the value of R has an uncertainty of 10%. The value of the uncertainty in the calculated power dissipation is

A. C.
8.

8%. 14%.

B. D.

12%. 20%.

When a force F of (10.0 0.2) N is applied to a mass m of (2.0 0.1) kg, the percentage uncertainty F attached to the value of the calculated acceleration is m

A. 2 %.
9.

B.

5 %.

C.

7 %.

D.

10 %.

The time period T of oscillation of a mass m suspended from a vertical spring is given by the expression where k is a constant. T=2
m k

Which one of the following plots will give rise to a straight-line graph? A. C. 10. T2 against m T against m B. D.
T against T against m
pulley

A light inextensible string has a mass attached to each end and passes over a frictionless pulley as shown. The masses are of magnitudes M and m, where m < M. The acceleration of free fall is g. The downward acceleration of the mass M is A.

M  m g . M  m
M  m g .
M

C.
Mg

M  m g . M  m
.

string

mass M mass m

B. 11.

D.

M  m

A small boat in still water is given an initial horizontal push to get it moving. The boat gradually slows down. Which of the following statements is true for the forces acting on the boat as it slows down? A. There is a forward force that diminishes with time. B. There is a backward force that diminishes with time. C. There is a forward force and a backward force both of which diminish with time. D. There is a forward force and a backward force that are always equal and opposite.

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12.

Two blocks having different masses slide down a frictionless slope. Which of the following correctly compares the accelerating force acting on each block and also the accelerations of the blocks down the slope?
Accelerating force Acceleration Equal Different Equal Different Equal Equal Different Different

A. B. C. D.

13.

A truck collides head on with a less massive car moving in the opposite direction to the truck. During the collision, the average force exerted by the truck on the car is FT and the average force exerted by the car on the truck is FC. Which one of the following statements is correct? A. FT will always be greater in magnitude than FC. B. FT will always be equal in magnitude to FC. C. FT will be greater in magnitude than FC only when the speed of the car is less than the speed of the truck. D. FT will be equal in magnitude to FC only when the speed of the truck is equal to the speed of the car. An elevator (lift) is used to either raise or lower sacks of potatoes. In the diagram, a sack of potatoes of mass 10 kg is resting on a scale that is resting on the floor of an accelerating elevator. The scale reads 12 kg. The best estimate for the acceleration of the elevator is A. 2.0 m s 2 downwards. B. 2.0 m s 2 upwards. C. 1.2 m s 2 downwards. D. 1.2 m s 2 upwards.

14.

elevator

10 kg

15.

The weight of a mass is measured on Earth using a spring balance and a lever balance, as shown below.

scale

spring balance

lever balance

What change, if any, would occur in the measurements if they were repeated on the Moons surface?
Spring balance A. B. C. same same decrease Lever balance same decrease same

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D.

decrease

decrease

16.

For an object to be in translational equilibrium A. it must be at rest. B. it must be moving with a constant acceleration. C. no external force must be acting on it. D. the net force acting on it must be zero.

17.

This question is about a wooden block sliding down a rough inclined plane (slope). The diagram below shows a wooden block sliding down a rough plane. In the position shown the block is accelerating. (a) Draw a free-body diagram representing the forces acting on the block.
Block

(4)

60

The plane makes an angle of 60 with the horizontal, the weight of the block is 5.0 N and the force of kinetic (dynamic) friction between the block and the plane is 0.75 N. (b) Determine the acceleration of the block down the plane.

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