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In this exercise, a gas-condensate pipeline through hilly terrain will be simulated. The fluid property file is The pipeline elevation profile has been tabulated as x-y coordinates in the file geo.xy. For this part of the exercise, the built-in Grid Generator will be applied to generate the geometry input for the OLGA input file. 1 Task 4.1 Using the Grid Generator Start OLGA-2000, load the prepared input file ex4.inp and start the Grid Generator. When the file is loaded you start your work by pressing the XY button in the Grid Generator main window. Generate a new pipeline geometry based on the measured xydata contained in the file geo.xy. How? Follow the course instructor step by step. The information you will need in the Grid Generator session is as follows: Geometry designation SIMPLIFIED Pipe I.D. 19 inches Pipe roughness 0.0018 inches Wall label WALL_1 Maximum length of pipes 2000 m Maximum section length 1000 m Min. number of sections per pipe 2 The following steps will guide you through the fastest way to generate a new pipeline profile. 1 1. Select the XY option in the Grid generator. 2 2. Read the xy data file geo.xy. Click Next to proceed to the next step in the process. You can zoom in on parts of the profile by selecting shift-left-click once, dragging the mouse across a part of the profile to define the zoom area and repeat the shift-left-click operation. One shift-right-click will bring you one zoom level back. 3 3. Insert 4 fixpoints so that the xy profile is divided into 5 segments. Proceed with the Next button. 14. Simplify Profile Segment 1. You are now starting the process of setting up a simplified pipe profile for the first profile segment. - Click on "Insert Default Values" - Enter 2000 in "Use Pipe Length" (which is not the default) - Click on "Run" and check the angle distribution - Select "Full Calculation" and click on "Run" again 1 - When the pipe simplification is completed, you can remove the algorithm-input window by pressing "Close". 1 5. Repeat step 4 for profile segment 2, 3, 4 and 5

6. Select Next twice and create an OLGA Geometry with the input data as listed above 3 7. Select Create you have created a simplified geometry 4 8. Select Finish 5 9. Select File Exit 6 10. Wait in the GUI for the message "Grid gen finished" Task 4.2 Gas condensate base case rates A geometry file has been generated for the geo.xy data, and an OLGA input file has been created based on this geometry. The file is named ex4.inp and the geometry is named SIMPLIFIED. The pipeline outlet pressure is 1015 PSIA. The fluid inlet temperature is 120 _F. The wall thickness of the pipeline is 0.5 inches, the pipeline is buried and the ambient temperature is 3 _C. The burial is modeled by adding two 1 ft thick layers of soil to the wall. Open ex4.inp and perform simulations with inlet flowrates of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/s. Tabulate the inlet pressure and total liquid inventory of the line at each rate. The parametric study option is very useful for this task. Make a graph of the inlet pressure and the liquid inventory as function of flowrate (Excel). Try to explain the form of the inlet pressure curve. Task 4.3 Pigging simulations Starting from the restart file for Task 4.2 at 20 kg/s, run a simulation of pigging the pipeline at 20 kg/s. Run the simulation for 100,000 seconds. Use the PLUG keyword to enter information about the pig. Input information required for the pig is shown below. Pig Data: TYPE = SHORT DIAMETER = 19 inches MASS = 275 KG STATICFORCE = 19000 N LINEARFRIC = 0. QUADRATICFRIC = 4750 WALL FRICTION = 9500 LEAKAGEFRACTOR = 0 INSERTTIME = 100 s Hints: The pig launch and trap positions are defined trough the POSITION keyword. Define a launch position in the second section of the first pipe and a trap position in the second section of the last pipe. Add the plotting variables UPIG and ZZPIG to the TREND plot file. Questions: 1 1) Determine the volume of slug pushed by the pig, and determine if the speed of the pig is acceptable. 22) What pigging frequency should be used if a 7000 BBL finger-type slug catcher is available?