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NSN-DEZYNZ

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS
INTERESTING FEATURES HIGHLIGHTED
NEESAUN NAVEED BAR-FA08-039

2011

[TYPE

THE COMPANY ADDRESS]

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3 THE SEARS TOWER ........................................................................................................................................ 4 DYNAMIC TOWER ......................................................................................................................................... 8 NAKHEEL TOWER ........................................................................................................................................ 12 CHICAGO SPIRE ........................................................................................................................................... 14 MAKKAH CLOCK ROYAL TOWER ................................................................................................................. 16 TAIPEI 101 ................................................................................................................................................... 19 WORLD TRADE CENTER ONE....................................................................................................................... 21 LANDMARK TOWER .................................................................................................................................... 24 EUREKA TOWER .......................................................................................................................................... 28 TREASURY BUILDING ................................................................................................................................... 30 Appendix A .................................................................................................................................................. 31 Fin ............................................................................................................................................................. 34

ALL THE REFERENCES HAVE BEEN MENTIONED IN THE FOOT NOTES, THEREFORE THE BIBLIOGRAPHY ONLY CONSISTS OF THE IMAGE REFERENCES.

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INTRODUCTION
The new age we live in, the 21st century, is the age which calls for efficiency for we are running out of time and space. Everything needs to be within easy access and effortless approach. Everything needs to be done quickly and doe using the least amount of space and resources. This called out for the construction of HI-RISE buildings. If defined literally, a HI-RISE building is one which rises above all the rest, defining a SKYLINE of the city. The earliest HI-RISES were said to have been built by the Romans, where the buildings rose up to 10 stories at times.2 These buildings would tumble down due to the material used, and over-occupancy. However, innovations in construction technology have now made it possible for buildings to stand the current tallest building, BURJ KHALIFA at a staggering 162 stories or 828 meters height.3 This report highlights some of the famous buildings in the world, with an emphasis on their special features.

Figure 1: High rise buildings


2 3

Wiki-pedia_ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_block http://architecture.about.com/od/skyscrapers/a/Worlds-Tallest-Buildings.htm

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THE SEARS TOWER

NO. OF STORIES: 108 HEIGHT: 442 m COMPLETED IN: 1974 ARCHITECT: SOM
STRUCTURAL ENGINEER :

Fazlur Rehman Khan

Amenities:
Seven restaurants Private members-only Metropolitan Club Full-service banking and ATM facilities 160-space executive parking garage with car detailing services a fitness center Hair salon Newsstand Florist Bookstore Copy store Dentist

Figure 2 : Sears Tower

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Chiropractor U.S. Post Office FedEx DHL UPS drop boxes Building messenger

Figure 3 : Location of the tower

For 25 years after being built, it held the title of the worlds tallest building. The Property is situated on a square-shaped site bounded by South Wacker Drive to the west, Adams Street to the north, Franklin Street to the east, and Jackson Boulevard to the south. The site size is approximately 2.96 acres of land. The Property consists of three lower levels and a 110-story high-rise tower.4

TECHNOLOGY FEATURES:5
Superior Telecommunications State-of-the-Art broadcast facilities on the rooftop, which allows for 100% of digital TV requirements for the Chicago area broadcast market Access for multiple competitive local exchange carriers (CLECS) Expansive telecommunications risers Advanced Life Safety All steel is fireproof Automatic sprinklers cover each of the 4.5 million gross
4

Information taken from THE BEST TRAVEL DESTINATIONS website http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/ 5 http://www.pixgrafx.com/pxdomain/itm562/others/SearsTowerInfo.pdf

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square feet of space Self contained back-up emergency power supply Security State-of-the-art security command center Security system includes metal detectors, security card access, x-ray machines and offduty Chicago Police Officers in the lobbies. Modern Elevator Technology 104-car elevator system divided into three zones for efficient transportation High speed elevators with superior ride quality Floor Flexibility Four distinct floor plates divided into 75-foot column free squares Floors contain under floor duct system for power and communication Electrical Capacity/Backup Four 150 MVA transformers which supply a 13.2 KV distribution system with redundant capability between two separate risers servicing the building Two 2100KW diesel powered emergency generators HVAC System Economical after hours air conditioning costs Digitally controlled interior variable air volume with individually controlled parameter instruments

STRUCTURE OF THE TOWER:


The tower has a tubular system of 9 tubes, that rise up to different levels until only two tubes reach the top. The structure was designed by Fazlur Rehman Khan, a Pakistani structural designer who worked with the SOM. The two antennas on the top are
also an important structural feature. The east antenna is

Figure 4 : Site plan

253 tall and the west antenna is 283 tall, both being 12 diameter at base. On top of each antenna there is a TLD (Tuned Liquid Dampener). Its purpose is to counteract the sway of the antenna from the wind.
Figure 5 : Floor plate designs

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HOW THE TOWER SAVES ENERGY?

Figure 6 : A detailed description of how the tower saves energy

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DYNAMIC TOWER
NO. OF STORIES: 80 HEIGHT: 420 m CONSTRUCTION COST : $700 million ARCHITECT: David Fisher

AMENITIES :
Hotel Residential flats Offices

TECHNOLOGY FEATURES:6
The world's first prefabricated skyscraper. o 90% of the tower is going to be prefab
Figure 7 : the dynamic tower...a preview.

panels.

o Estimated completion time Is 22 months o 40 factory-built modules for each floor o total construction time will be over 30% less than a normal skyscraper of the same size The entire tower will be powered from wind turbines and solar

o They will be place between floors o 79 in number o Enough surplus electricity should be produced to power five other similar sized buildings in the vicinity.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_Tower http://gizmodo.com/5019323/dynamic-tower-skyscraper-every-floor-self+rotates-powered-by-wind-and-sun

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o The solar panels will be located on the roof and the top of
Figure 8 : proposed construction of the tower

each floor

The core will contain enough elevators and shafts to transport people and cars up to their desired floors. o Apartments will range in size from 124 square meters, to Villas of 1,200 SM complete with a parking space inside the apartment. Each floor will rotate at a rate of 6 m/min, completing 360 rotation from anywhere between 3 hrs to 12 hrs.

Figure 10 : Solar panel systems

- The shape of the building will never be the same. It will keep changing with every minute, as each floor will rotate separately.

Figure 9 : wind turbines between the floors

OTHER FACTS AND THINGS:


The building is going to be self efficient Space is up for sale at $3000/sft Each apartment will have a view that keeps changing Two towers, one in Dubai and the other in Moscow are scheduled to be built Construction still hasnt started because of global financial crisis7

Figure 11 : the buildings shape will always be different

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_Tower

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Figure 12 : Released plans and details of the tower

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Figure 13 : the general zoning of the tower

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NAKHEEL TOWER8
NO. OF STORIES: 228 HEIGHT: 1400m ARCHITECT: Woods Bagot COMPLETION: Cancelled

AMENITIES :
250,000 m2 of hotels and hospitality space 100,000 m2 of retail space huge expanses of green spaces including canal walks, parks and landscaping
Figure 14 : Site location of the tower

The master plan can be found on: http://www.nakheelharbour.com/#/project/project_masterplan

DESIGN OVERVIEW
Nakheel Tower is made up of four individual cores, which was inspired by Islamic geometric patterns that are symmetrical and balanced. These cores are connected at every 25 stories with sky bridges. It will be serviced by a complete transportation hub with efficient water and land options, providing the most convenient connections of choice to the rest of Dubai. The master plan pays close attention to the nuances and needs of Dubai's climate. o Everything from street widths to building heights will be designed to maximize east and west flanks which offer the most shading. o An efficient network of multi-modal transit options will reduce car dependency while increasing accessibility and connectivity with the site and neighboring developments.

http://www.nakheelharbour.com/#/home http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakheel_Tower

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o Wind will be analyzed and the existing configuration conceived in order to best channel sea breezes. It has 2 million m2 of tower and podium combined space Houses more than 950,000 m2 of commercial, retail, cultural and exhibition space. Each of the structures can be built taller, and provide maximum space at the top because of; o Incorporating gaps between the four core structures allowing the design for strong wind forces to pass through. o The design will also incorporate slots in the building to reduce the building resistance or sail area.
Figure 15 : A comparison of the tower

"Without Islamic influences governing its design, Nakheel Harbour & Tower would never be able to reach more than one kilometer. This inspired approach has enabled us to achieve a number of amazing feats of engineering, aimed towards creating Nakheel Harbour & Tower, a community like no other" __Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem, Executive Chairman, Nakheel

The four towers and core system will also provide residents and visitors multiple evacuation routes and back-up services in the event of an emergency. The towers will be joined by four-level, full diameter sky bridges at approximately every twenty-five floors. o The sky bridges will act to tie the buildings together structurally o Will provide each part of the building with its own village centre in the sky o Will feature a wide variety of shops and exciting entertainment options

HOWEVER, IT WAS NEVER BUILT The project was first put on hold due to financial problems of Nakheel group, and then abandoned completely.

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CHICAGO SPIRE9
NO. OF STORIES: 150 HEIGHT: 609 m ARCHITECT: Santiago Calatrava COMPLETION: Never Built

AMENITIES :
Residential flats

DESIGN OVERVIEW
-

Will be the tallest building in the United States as and the Western Hemisphere when built. It will have the highest elevator run in the world.
Figure 16 : The Chicago spire

Figure 17 : The abandoned foundation

Inspired by natural forms, each floor of the tower projects seven arms from the central vertical axis - each having a concave edge - As the tower rises, each floor rotates approximately 2 degrees in plan while the length of the radial arms also diminish, forming a tapered tower which twists 270 from the base to the roof. - Located at the edge of Lake Michigan, residents and guests will have incomparable views of the city and the lake front.

http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=39392

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CONTROVERSY AND CANCELLATION


During huge financial crises due mortgages at North-America in 2008, the construction is decreased substancially, culminating on-hold situation for some time, leaving only a round hole basement on floor site. In October 2010 Shelbourne Development Ltd. was sued by Anglo Irish Bank Corp which gave Shelbourne the money to develop the project. As a result the project has gone into foreclosure effectively cancelling the project.

Figure 18 : Proposed views

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MAKKAH CLOCK ROYAL TOWER10

Figure 19 : A view of the clock tower

NO. OF STORIES: 76 HEIGHT: 601 m


TYPE :

Hotel

ARCHITECT: Dar Al-Handasah Architects CONTRACTORS: Saudi BinLaden Group

10

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraj_Al_Bait_Towers http://leanman.hubpages.com/hub/Makkah-Clock-Royal-Tower

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Figure 20 : While under construction it still towered over the city of Mecca

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Figure 21 : Tower details

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TAIPEI 10111
NO. OF STORIES: 101 HEIGHT: 439.2 m
TYPE :

Mixed use

ARCHITECT: C.Y. Lee & partners STRUCTURAL ENGINEER : Thornton Tomasetti

Amenities: Communication Conference fitness center library observation office restaurant retail

Figure 22 : Taipei tower

DESIGN OVERVIEW 12
The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high performance steel construction. Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000-psi concrete. Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.

11

http://taipei-101.info/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taipei_101 http://www.taipei-101.com.tw/index_en.htm 12 Lecture by Ar Faisal Arshad

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These features combine with the solidity of its foundation to make Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed. The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80m (262 ft) into the ground. Each pile is 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter and can bear a load of 1,000 metric tons 1,320 metric tons A steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper is suspended from the 92nd to the 88th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the buildincaused by strong gusts.

Figure 23 : fireworks lighting up the building

Figure 24 : The site location of the tower

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WORLD TRADE CENTER ONE


NO. OF STORIES: 105 HEIGHT: 417 m
TYPE :

Offices

ARCHITECT: SOM STRUCTURAL ENGINEER : WSP Cantor Seinuk

Amenities: 13
The public lobby will be topped by a series of mechanical floors, comprising the base level of 1WTC. Then will be the sixty-nine office floors, including; o two television broadcast floors o mechanical floors o two restaurants. Then there will be an observation deck and a glassmetal parapet. The crown of the buildingis a communications platform and a 408-foot, cable-stayed antenna, designed in collaboration with artist Kenneth Snelson.
Figure 25 : The world trade center one

Design Overview: 14
-

Its structure is designed around a strong, redundant steel moment frame o Consisting of beams and columns connected by welding and bolting. o Its then paired with a concrete-core shear wall which grants the moment frame rigidity and redundancy to the overall building structure column-free interior spans for maximum flexibility highly advanced state-of-the-art life-safety systems that exceed the requirements of the New York City Building Code

13 14

http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/one-wtc.html

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the latest methods have been implied to o maximize efficiency o minimize waste and pollution o conserve water o improve air quality o reduce the impacts of the development
The elevators installed here, are also state of the art o The express cars serving the restaurant and observatory will be capable of

traveling at up to 2,000 feet a minute, meaning passengers can get to the top of the citys tallest building in less than a minute. Climate-controlled corridors will connect the tower to; o the World Trade Center Transportation Hub o the new PATH terminal o 11 NYC Transit subway lines o the Fulton Street Transit Center o the World Financial Center and ferry terminal o underground parking o world-class shopping and dining

Figure 26 : Plan showing the base lobby, and the location of the elevators

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Figure 27 : Site Plan

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LANDMARK TOWER
NO. OF STORIES: 70 HEIGHT: 296 m
TYPE :

Mixed use

ARCHITECT: Stubbins Associates

Amenities: 15
complex of restaurants a huge shopping mall offices medical clinics a hotel an observation deck

Design Overview: 16
The most advanced techniques are required to build such a tall structure on the ground of Japan, for it is shaken by as many as 1,000 serious earthquakes a year.
To prevent damage from earthquakes, following measures have been taken; o a flexible structure

Figure 28 : Landmark Tower

to absorb the force of earthquakes o same concept as that of Japanese temples five-storied pagodas
15 16

http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/travel/yokohama_landmark_tower.htm http://web-japan.org/atlas/architecture/arc10.html

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Figure 29 : you can see as far as Hakone, the Tanzawa Mountains and sometimes, the Mount Fuji

Figure 30 : Looking towards north-east, the 3 tall buildings in the foreground are the Queens Tower A, B and C

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Figure 31 : To the right is the Cosmo World Amusement Park, with the Cosmo World Ferris Wheel

Figure 31 : the tower in the middle is the NTT radio relay station, 103 meters tall

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Figure 32

Figure 33 : Floor plan of the tower.

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EUREKA TOWER
NO. OF STORIES: 91 HEIGHT: 298 m
TYPE :

Residential

ARCHITECT: Fender Katsalidis

Amenities:
-

hotel apartments restaurants sky deck


shopping

Structural and design review: 17


A new and innovative 2-floor Lubeca jumpform system was used to: halve work time halve the concrete placing Figure 34 : The Eureka tower required halve the steel fixing required halve the joints required in the core reduce the manual labor required, due to the use of hydraulic rams

Its most beautiful feature is the sky deck 88 perfectly positioned for 360 degree, floor-to-ceiling views encompassing Melbourne's CBD, sports precinct, Port Phillip Bay, Docklands and everything in between

17

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_Tower http://www.eurekaskydeck.com.au/visitor-information/skydeck-experience.html

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Sky deck 88 is the only observation deck in the world that can thrill you with 'The Edge' a glass cube which projects 3 meters out from the building - with you in it - suspended almost 300 meters above the ground Pinpoint key landmarks with our 30 view finders placed around the Sky deck floor.

Figure 36 : A view from the sky deck

Figure 35 : Night view

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TREASURY BUILDING
NO. OF STORIES: 52 HEIGHT: 234 m
TYPE :

Commercial offices

ARCHITECT: The Stubbins Associates, Architects 61,

Architects Team 3

The building was renamed to Temasek Tower when the Ministry of Finance relocated to the Treasury on High Street.

Figure 37 : Location map of the tower

Figure 38 : Treasury Tower

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Appendix A
Complete Image References
IMAGE 1 http://www.noenigma.com/2010/09/tallest-buildings-in-world.html IMAGE 2 http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/ IMAGE 3 http://thebesttraveldestinations.com/willis-tower-sears-tower-chicago-usa/ IMAGE 4 http://www.e-architect.co.uk/chicago/sears_tower_modernization.htm IMAGE 5 http://www.learn.columbia.edu/dbcourses/publicportfolio.cgi?view=1959# IMAGE 6 http://www.e-architect.co.uk/chicago/sears_tower_modernization.htm IMAGE 7 http://www.likecool.com/Dynamic_Tower_Skyscraper--Building--Home.html IMAGE 8 http://ideasforhouses.com/2011/03/22/dubai-rotating-tower-modern-buildings-from-dynamic-architecture/ IMAGE 9 http://www.archi-ninja.com/most-innovative-green-designs-2010-and-beyond/ IMAGE 10 http://go-green.ae/greenstory_view.php?storyid=67 IMAGE 11 http://www.likecool.com/Dynamic_Tower_Skyscraper--Building--Home.html IMAGE 12 http://radenfelix.wordpress.com/2008/11/28/dubai-dynamic-tower/ IMAGE 13 http://www.interior357.com/12.htm

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IMAGE 14 http://www.patchay.com/2008/12/nakheel-harbour-tower.html IMAGE 15 http://www.systemshock.co.za/forums/topic/37015-1km-high-tower/ IMAGE 16 http://www.interestings.net/?p=94 IMAGE 17 http://www.tropolism.com/2009/02/chicago_spire_tower_spawns_chi.php IMAGE 18 http://sz2design.blogspot.com/2009/04/vertical-city.html IMAGE 19

http://www.hotels-world.com/tp.hotels.in/makkah/hotel.273548/mecca/makkah-clock-royal-tower-afairmont-hotel.htm
IMAGE 20

http://leanman.hubpages.com/hub/Makkah-Clock-Royal-Tower
IMAGE 21

http://my.opera.com/vikaskhan/blog/2010/08/27/makkah-clock-royal-tower-hotel-makkah
IMAGE 22

http://www.formosatravel.net/taipei-101.html
IMAGE 23

http://www.filination.com/blog/2006/01/28/ex1-taipei-101-taiwanese-and-foreigner-views/
IMAGE 24 http://www.formosatravel.net/taipei-101.html IMAGE 25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_World_Trade_Center IMAGE 26 http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/straight-to-the-top-at-2000-feet-a-minute/ IMAGE 27

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http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/wtc-site-plan.html IMAGE 28 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yokohama_Landmark_Tower_in_the_evening_twilight.jpg IMAGE 29 - 32

http://muza-chan.net/japan/index.php/blog/12-birds-eye-views-photos-of-yokohama
IMAGE 33

http://www.yokohama-landmark.jp/web/english/pdf/111004/shop_list.pdf
IMAGE 34

http://eureka89.com.au/home.html
IMAGE 35

http://www.mailintalks.com/2010/02/04/the-eureka-tower-level-88-89-bird-eye-view-of-melbourne/
IMAGE 36

http://journals.worldnomads.com/muoy/photo/21383/625869/Australia/View-from-Eureka-Tower
IMAGE 37

http://www.x-synergy.com/location.htm
IMAGE 38

http://www.skyscraperpicture.com/singapore.htm

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Fin