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CliffsQuickReview Calculus
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . .37 Higher Order Derivatives .1 Visit Our Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Why You Need This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Intuitive Definition . . . . .18 Infinite Limits . . . .50 Concavity and Points of Inflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Extreme Value Theorem . . . . . . . .51 Maximum/Minimum Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Absolute Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Limits at Infinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Chapter 3: The Derivative . . . . . . .2 Chapter 1: Review Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Limits Involving Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . .1 How to Use This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Critical Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Interval Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 First Derivative Test for Local Extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Implicit Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Tangent and Normal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Chapter 2: Limits .58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Differentiation of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions . . . .Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Trigonometric Function Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Evaluating Limits . . . . . .4 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Increasing/Decreasing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Related Rates of Change . . . . . . . . .45 Mean Value Theorem . .23 Continuity . . . . . . . .29 Differentation Rules . . . . . . . .16 Onesided Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Distance.
. .64 Substitution and change of variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Arc Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Trigonometric integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Appendix: Using Graphing Calculators in Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Integrals . . .64 Basic formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Distance.104 CQR Resource Center . . . . . . . . . . .88 Volumes of Solids with Known Cross Sections . . .66 Integration by parts . . . . . . . . . . . .101 CQR Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Definite integral evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral . . . . . . and Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Antiderivatives/Indefinite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Properties of definite integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Definition of definite integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Washer method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Glossary . . . . . . . .119 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv CliffsQuickReview Calculus Chapter 5 : Integration . . . . . . . . . .96 Disk method . .63 Integration Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Volumes of Solids of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Definite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Cylindrical shell method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Here are just a few ways you can use this book: s Read the book as a standalone textbook to learn all the major con cepts of calculus. then CliffsQuickReview Calculus is for you! How to Use This Book You can use this book in any way that fits your personal style for study and review—you decide what works best with your needs. You can either read the book from cover to cover or just look for the information you want and put it back on the shelf for later. biology. and is explored in Chapters 3 and 4 of this book. as well as some essentials of geometry. or CliffsQuickReview Trigonometry may be valuable starting points for you. Integral calculus handles total changes or areas. then you probably have sufficient background to begin learning calculus.Introduction is of change. chemistry. this mathematical notion of change is essential to many areas of knowledge. comprehensive reference for calculus? If so. particularly disciplines like physics. Differential calculus rates of change slopes. and is addressed in Chapters 5 and 6. If some of those are unfamiliar. and economics. then CliffsQuickReview Geometry. Although it is not always immediately obvious. The prerequisites for learning calculus include much of high school algebra and trigonometry. . If the formulas on the front side of the Pocket Guide (the cardstock page right inside the front cover) and topics covered in Chapter 1 are familiar to you. or just rusty for you. Why You Need This Book Can you answer yes to any of these questions? s Do you need to review the fundamentals of calculus fast? s Do you need a course supplement to calculus? s Do you need a concise. CliffsQuickReview Algebra. Any situation that quantities change over time can be the tools Calculusthatthe mathematicsdeals withunderstood withorinvolvesof calculus.
The site also features timely articles and tips. plus downloadable versions of many CliffsNotes books. Here are a few ways you can search for topics in this book: s Look for areas of interest in the book’s Table of Contents. s Flip through the book looking for subject areas at the top of each page. This book defines new terms and concepts where they first appear in the chapter. and more to enhance your learning. s Get a glimpse of what you’ll gain from a chapter by reading through the “Chapter CheckIn” at the beginning of each chapter. don’t hesitate to share your thoughts about this book or any Hungry Minds product. www. Visit Our Web Site A great resource. s Or browse through the book until you find what you’re looking for—we organized this book to gradually build on key concepts. you can find a more complete definition in the book’s glossary. s Test your knowledge more completely in the CQR Review and look for additional sources of information in the CQR Resource Center. s Brush up on key points as preparation for more advanced mathe matics.2 CliffsQuickReview Calculus s Use the Pocket Guide to find oftenused formulas. We welcome your feedback! . or use the index to find specific topics. quizzes. geometry and trigonometry. If a word is boldfaced. s Refer to a single topic in this book for a concise and understandable explanation of an important idea. Just click the Talk to Us button. Being a valuable reference source also means it’s easy to find the information you need.cliffsnotes. s Use the glossary to find key terms fast. s Use the Chapter Checkout at the end of each chapter to gauge your grasp of the important information you need to know.com features review materials. valuable Internet links. from calculus and other relevant formulas from algebra. s Review the most important concepts of an area of calculus for an exam. When you stop by our site.
b @ = " x ! R: a # x # b . b. Interval Notation The set of real numbers (R) is the one that you will be most generally concerned with as you study calculus.) = " x ! R: a # x < b . + 3h = " x ! R: x > a . geometry.Chapter 1 REVIEW TOPICS Chapter CheckIn ❑ ❑ ❑ Reviewing functions Using equations of lines Reviewing trigonometric functions topics in algebra. This set is defined as the union of the set of rational numbers with the set of irrational numbers. andoftrigonombriefly reviewed in the following sections. ^ . .3. b h = " x ! R: a < x < b . (a. + 3) = " x ! R: x $ a . b h = " x ! R: x < b . etry study calculus. Interval notation provides a convenient abbreviated notation for expressing intervals of real numbers without using inequality symbols or setbuilder notation. b] = " x ! R: a < x # b . The following lists some common intervals of real numbers and their equivalent expressions. [a. Some them are Certainare essential in preparing to analytical geometry. [a. ^ a. using setbuilder notation: ^ a. 6 a.
Functions A function is defined as a set of ordered pairs (x. x $ 0. This definition establishes the fact that the absolute value of a number must always be nonnegative—that is. x > 0 ] x = [ 0.x. b] = " x ! R: x # b . Each of these definitions also implies that the absolute value of a number must be a nonnegative. the absolute value of a number is the distance. as follows: Z ] x. written x may be defined in a variety of ways. On a real number line. disregarding direction. there corresponds one and only one second element y. + 3h = " x ! R .3. x = 0 ] ] .3 represents a real number value. The notation f (x) is often used in place of y to indicate the value of the function f for a specific replacement for x and is read “f of x” or “f at x. Note that an infinite end point ^ !3h is never expressed with a bracket in interval notation because neither + 3 nor . and the range variable is referred to as the dependent variable. A common algebraic definition of absolute value is often stated in three parts.y).4 CliffsQuickReview Calculus (.3. such that for each first element x. The set of first elements is called the domain of the function.” . x < 0 \ Another definition that is sometimes applied to calculus problems is x = x2 or the principal square root of x2. Absolute Value The concept of absolute value has many applications in the study of calculus. The domain variable is referred to as the independent variable. The absolute value of a number x. that the number is from zero. while the set of second elements is called the range of the function. ^ .
5 If x =. it can be manipulated algebraically to this form. then y = 2 or y =.5 (d) y = f (x) =. then y = 5 or y =. (a) x = y 2 If x = 4. at most.3. The slope of a line indicates whether the line slants up or down to the right or is horizontal or vertical. Many of the key concepts and theorems of calculus are directly related to functions. where a and b are not both zero. then y =+ 3 or y =.4. then y = 4 or y =. The slope is usually denoted by the letter m and is defined in a number of ways: . (e) y = ! x + 4 If x = 5. Although a linear equation may not be expressed in this form initially. If a vertical line were to intersect the graph at two or more points.y) represents a function if any vertical line intersects the graph in. Example 11: The following are some examples of equations that are functions.5. (f ) x 2 .3 x +4 (f ) y = f (x) = 3 2x + 9 (g) y = f (x) = 6 x (h) y = tan x (i) y = cos 2x Example 12: The following are some equations that are not functions.3 (e) y = f (x) = x2.Chapter 1: Review Topics 5 Geometrically. then y = –5 or y = –1 (c) x =. (d) x 2 + y 2 = 25 If x = 0. Linear Equations A linear equation is any equation that can be expressed in the form ax + by = c . then y can be any real number.5. each has an example to illustrate why it is not a function. (a) y = f (x) = 3x + 1 (b) y = f (x) = x 2 (c) y = f (x) = x .2 (b) x = y + 3 If x = 2.5. one point. the graph of a set or ordered pairs (x.y 2 = 9 If x =. which clearly contradicts the definition of a function. the set would have one x value corresponding to two or more y values.
3) .1) . If the slopes of two lines L1 and L2 are m1 and m2. Note that even though these forms appear to be different from one another. hence. Any nonvertical lines are parallel if they have the same slopes. and the horizontal change would be zero. if the product of their slopes is –1. –3).5) =. the lines are perpendicular. then L1 is parallel to L2 if and only if m1 = m2.6 CliffsQuickReview Calculus rise m = sun vertical change = horizontal change y value change = x value change ∆y = ∆x y1 . then L1 is perpendicular to L2 if and only if m1 ⋅ m2 = –1. Two nonvertical. a negative slope indicating a line slanting down to the right. the x value would remain constant.(4) = (. . and conversely.7 4 The line.y 2 = x1 .y1 = x 2 . and conversely lines with equal slopes are parallel.x1 Note that for a vertical line. respectively.y1 m = x 2 . If the slopes of two lines L1 and L2 are m1 and m2. y 2 . has a slope of –7/4. respectively. then. and a slope of zero indicating a horizontal line.x1 (. they can be algebraically manipulated to show they are equivalent.(. Example 13: Find the slope of the line passing through (–5.x 2 y 2 . Some forms of expressing linear equations are given special names that identify how the equations are written. You should note that any two vertical lines are parallel and a vertical line and a horizontal line are always perpendicular. All nonvertical lines have a numerical slope with a positive slope indicating a line slanting up to the right. nonhorizontal lines are perpendicular if the product of their slopes is –1. a vertical line is said to have no slope or its slope is said to be nonexistent or undefined. 4) and (–1.
If a = 0. Example 15: Find an equation of the line through the point (3. y .x 1 ) y .3y = 15 (general form) .5) 3 3y = 4x .2 x + 6 3 3y =. the equation takes the form y = constant and represents a horizontal line.y 1 = m (x .4 =.b) and slope m. If b = 0.2x + 18 2x + 3y = 18 (general form) The slopeintercept form of a linear equation is y = mx + b when the line has yintercept (0.Chapter 1: Review Topics 7 The general or standard form of a linear equation is ax + by = c. Example 16: Find an equation of the line that has a slope 4/3 and crosses yaxis at –5.y 1 = m (x .4y = 0 (c) x =.3 (d) y = 6 The pointslope form of a linear equation is y .2 (x . the equation takes the form x = constant and represents a vertical line.15 4x .2 x + 2 3 y =. y = mx + b y = 4 x + (.4) with slope –2/3. where a and b are not both zero. Example 14: The following are some examples of linear equations expressed in general form: (a) 2x + 5y = 10 (b) x .x 1 ) when the line passes through the point (x1.4 =.y1) and has a slope m.3) 3 y .
8 CliffsQuickReview Calculus The intercept form of a linear equation is x/a + y/b = 1 when the line has xintercept (a. The trigonometric functions sine. tangent. The six basic trigonometric functions may be defined using a circle with equation x 2 + y 2 = r 2 and the angle i in standard position with its vertex at the center of the circle and its initial side along the positive portion of the xaxis (see Figure 11). y x a + b =1 y x 2 + 3 = 1 . and the given number of degrees is multiplied by r/180 to convert to radian measure.3x + 2y = 6 (general form) Trigonometric Functions In trigonometry. Example 17: Find an equation of the line that crosses the xaxis at –2 and the yaxis at 3. The relationship between these measures may be expressed as follows: 180 % = r radians. the equation 1 radian = 180 % /r is used to change radians to degrees by multiplying the given radian measure by 180/r to obtain the degree measure. To change degrees to radians. secant. angle measure is expressed in one of two units: degrees or radians.b). and cosecant are defined as follows: . the equivalent relationship 1% = r/180 radi180 ans is used. cosine. cotangent. Similarly.0) and yintercept (0.
y) r θ x y sin i = r = cos i = x = r y x2+ y2 x x2+ y2 y tan i = sin i = x cos i cot i = cos i = x sin i y sec i = 1 =r = cos i x x2+ y2 x x2+ y2 y csc i = 1 = r = sin i y It is essential that you be familiar with the values of these functions at multiples of 30°. 60°. π/3. 90°. π/2. and 180° (or in radians. π/6. 45°.) You should also be familiar with the graphs of the six trigonometric functions. y (x. π/4. Some of the more common trigonometric identities that are used in the study of calculus are as follows: .Chapter 1: Review Topics 9 Figure 11 Defining the trigonometric functions. and π (See Table 11.
i) = cos i tan(.2 i 2 cos cos 2 1 i = 1 + 2 i 2 The relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle may be expressed using the Law of Sines or the Law of Cosines (see Figure 12).cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B .i) =.sin A sin B cos(A .sin i cos(.sin 2 i = 2 cos 2 i .tan B 1 + tan A tan B sin 2i = 2 sin i cos i cos 2i = cos 2 i .B) = sin A cos B .2 sin 2 i cos sin 2 1 i = 1 . .B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B tan(A + B) = tan A + tan B 1 .10 CliffsQuickReview Calculus sin 2 i + cos 2 i = 1 tan 2 i + 1 = sec 2 i 1 + cot 2 i = csc 2 i sin(.B) = tan A .i) =.tan A tan B tan(A .tan i sin(i + 2r) = sin i cos(i + 2r) = cos i tan(i + r) = tan i sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B sin(A .1 = 1 .
2ab cos C 2 2 . B c a A b C Law of Sines: sin A = sin B = sin C a c b b or a = sin B = c sin A sin C 2 Law of Co sin es: a 2 = b + c 2 .2ac cos B or c 2 = a 2 + b .2bc cos A or b = a 2 + c 2 .Chapter 1: Review Topics 11 Figure 12 Relations between sides and angles of a triangle.
12 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Table 11 Values of Sine. Cosine. and Tangent at Common Angles Degree Measure of x 0 30 45 60 90 120 135 150 180 210 225 240 270 300 315 330 360 Radian Measure of x 0 π 6 π 4 π 3 π 2 2π 3 3π 4 5π 6 π 7π 6 5π 4 4π 3 3π 2 5π 3 7π 4 11π 6 2π sin x 0 1 2 2 cos x 1 3 tan x 0 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 0 − − − 1 2 2 Undefined − 3 −1 − 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 −1 3 0 − − − 1 2 2 0 3 − − − 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 −1 0 1 2 2 Undefined − 3 −1 − 3 − − − 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 .
If θ is an angle between π/2 and π. Which of the following equations is not a function? a.Chapter 1: Review Topics 13 Chapter Checkout Q&A 1. Find an equation in general form of the line with slope –2/5 and yintercept (0. 4. e. –4/5 . 3x – 2y = 6 y = sin 3x y = x2 x2 + y2 = 16 y= 3+x 2. d 2.–2) and (–1. Find an equation in general form of the line passing through the points (3. b. what is cos θ? Answers: 1. and sin θ = 3/5. 5. d. x + 2y = –1 5. 3x + 5y = 0 4. c. 3. 2x + 5y = 15 3. Find an equation in general form of the line passing through the origin and perpendicular to the line 5x – 3y = 6.0).3).
Chapter 2 LIMITS Chapter CheckIn ❑ ❑ ❑ Understanding what limits are Computing limits Determining when a function is continuous function is essential to calculus. Intuitive Definition The limit of a function f (x) describes the behavior of the function close to a particular x value. the x " c function f (x) “approaches” the real number L (see Figure 21). Figure 21 The limit of f(x) as x approaches c. It used defining the most concepts in The conceptisof theinlimit of asome offunction.L) y=f(x) x c . importantthe study of calculus—continuity. It does not necessarily give the value of the function at x. the derivative of a and the definite integral of a function. which means that as x “approaches” c. y L (c. You write lim f (x) = L.
Note that this does not imply that f (c) = L.Chapter 2: Limits 15 In other words. If the function does not approach a real number L as x approaches c. the function value f (x) gets closer to L.f(c)) y=f(x) x Figure 23 f(c) and lim f (x) are not equal. in fact. x " c y (c. Figure 22 f(c) does not exist. you write lim f (x) DNE (Does Not Exist). the limit does not exist. the function may not even exist at c (Figure 22) or may equal some value different than L at c (Figure 23). therefore. as the independent variable x gets closer and closer to c.f(c)) . x " c y y=f(x) x (c. x " c Many different situations could occur in determining that the limit of a function does not exist as x approaches some value. but lim f (x) does.
x "3 x Substituting –3 for x yields 0/0. 3 . hence. x " 2 When x is replaced by 2. 6 . the fraction values will get closer and closer to 1. Some of these techniques are illustrated in the following examples.–6) removed from the graph (see Figure 24). simple substitution. which is meaningless. .16 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Evaluating Limits Limits of functions are evaluated using many different techniques such as recognizing a pattern. you find that x "3 2 (x + 3)( x . x " 2 9 Example 23: Evaluate lim x + 3 .3) 9 lim x + 3 = lim x x+3 x "3 = lim (x .3) x "3 2 =.1) = 5. Factoring first and simplifying.1). 7 2 3 4 Because the value of each fraction gets slightly larger for each term.6 The graph of (x2 – 9)/(x + 3) would be the same as the graph of the linear function y = x – 3 with the single point (–3. . the limit of the sequence is 1. . Example 22: Evaluate lim (3x . . 5 . 2 . hence. 4 5 Example 21: Find the limit of the sequence: 1 . and 3x – 1 approaches 5. lim (3x . or using algebraic simplifications. 6 . 3x approaches 6. while the numerator is always one less than the denominator.
lim x/( x + 5) = 0.6 = lim x " 3 5 (x + 2)( x .3 5 $ x3 5 (x + 2) x " 3 5x . x " 0 . x " 3 Substituting 3 for x yields 0/0.−3) y= x 2− 9 x+3 x 4 6 (−3.5 Example 24: Evaluate lim x . you find that x " 3 lim x 3 x 3 5 (x + 2) x+2 . which is meaningless.0) −6 −4 −2 −2 (0.3 . x " 0 Substituting 0 for x yields 0/5 = 0.3) 2x .3) = lim x " 3 5 (x + 2)( x .3) 2 = lim x " 3 5 (x + 2) 2 = 25 x Example 25: Evaluate lim x + 5.5 x+2 = lim x .3 (x + 2) = lim x " 3 5 (x + 2)( x . hence.−6) −6 x 3 x+2 .3) 2 (x .Chapter 2: Limits 17 Figure 24 The graph of y = (x2 – 9)/(x + 3). y 6 4 2 (3. Simplifying the compound fraction.
18 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 26: Evaluate lim x + 5. hence. x x " 0 Substituting 0 for x yields 5/0. the next example illustrates why this technique is not always appropriate. x " 0+ x " 0x " 0x " 0 Example 29: Evaluate x2 (a) lim x . note that lim x DNE because lim x = 0 ! lim x .2 x " 2 . it is always positive. In this situation. x " c Example 27: Evaluate lim x .2 x " 2 + x2 (c) lim x . it is always negative.2 x " 2  x2 (b) lim x .) Onesided Limits For some functions. (Remember. you write x " c lim f (x) x " c+ x " c It follows. so lim x = 0. you write x " c+ lim f (x) or if x approaches c from the left only. x " 0 Because x is approaching 0 from the left. + Example 28: Evaluate lim x . x " 0+ Because x is approaching 0 from the right. it is appropriate to look at their behavior from one side only. Although substituting 0 for x " 0 x would yield the same answer. and x does not exist. lim (x + 5)/ x x " 0 DNE. that lim f (x) = L if and only if lim f (x) = lim f (x) = L. Also. lim x DNE. If x approaches c from the right only. x is getting closer and closer to zero. which is meaningless. infinity is not a real number. then.
x " 0 x As x approaches 0.2 (x . The function has a vertical asymptote at x = 0 x " 0 (see Figure 25).2 = x .2 ! lim . hence.(x .2 =. you write lim f (x) =+ 3 or lim f (x) =.2 . the function is said to have an infinite limit. .2. x – 2 is positive. a fractional function will have an infinite limit if the limit of the denominator is zero and the limit of the numerator is not zero. hence.2).2) lim x .2 = x .2 DNE x " 2 x " 2 x " 2 + x2 x2 Infinite Limits Some functions “take off ” in the positive or negative direction (increase or decrease without bound) near certain values for the independent variable. x . lim x .(x . hence. Example 210: Evaluate lim 12 .2 = 1 x " 2  (c) Because lim x .1 x " 2 (b) As x approaches 2 from the right.2 = x . and x .2) lim x . When this occurs. Note also that the function has a x " c x " c vertical asymptote at x = c if either of the above limits hold true. x – 2 is negative.Chapter 2: Limits 19 (a) As x approaches 2 from the left. hence. the function increases without bound and lim 1/x 2 =+ 3. In general. and x .2 =. the numerator is always positive and the denominator approaches 0 and is always positive.3. The sign of the infinite limit is determined by the sign of the quotient of the numerator and the denominator at values close to the number that the independent variable is approaching. x .
3.lim 13 = (+ 3) . x " 0+ lim d 12 . The function has a vertical asymptote at x = 2. Using this example.13 n.20 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Figure 25 The graph of y = 1/x2. x " 2  Example 212: Evaluate lim d 12 . The function has a x " 0 vertical asymptote at x = 0.2) =. hence.12 n ! lim 12 . and the denominator approaches 0 through positive values as x approaches 0 from the right. x " 0+ x x Rewriting 1/x2 – 1/ x3 as an equivalent fractional expression (x – 1)/x3. x " 2 As x approaches 2 from the left. the function decreases without bound and lim (x + 3)/( x . y y= 1 x2 x x+3 Example 211: Evaluate lim x . and the denominator approaches 0 through negative values. the numerator approaches –1. the function decreases without bound and lim `1/x 2 .1/x 3 j =. the numerator approaches 5. A word of caution: Do not evaluate the limits individually and subtract because !3 are not real numbers. . hence.(+ 3) x x x " 0 x x " 0 x + + which is meaningless.3.2 .
1 x "+3 1.5 .0 0 x "+3 lim 2x 2 + 3 = 2 x .12 n x x 2 + 32 x = lim 5. which yields .5x .1 2 x "+3 Factor the largest power of x in the numerator from each term and the largest power of x in the denominator from each term.1 2 The function has a horizontal asymptote at y = 2.Chapter 2: Limits 21 Limits at Infinity Limits at infinity are used to describe the behavior of functions as the independent variable increases or decreases without bound. write x "+3 lim f (x) = L or lim f (x) = L x "3 and f (x) is said to have a horizontal asymptote at y = L. If a function approaches a numerical value L in either of these situations.+.1 x " + 3 x 2 d 2 + 32 n x x 2 d1 .5x . A function may have different horizontal asymptotes in each direction. Evaluate 213: Evaluate lim 2x 2 + 3 . Example 214: Evaluate lim x3.5x .3x 3 + 2x 4 x "+3 Factor x3 from each term in the numerator and x4 from each term in the denominator. have a horizontal asymptote in one direction only. 5x .2 . You find that 2x 2 + 3 = lim lim 2 x " + 3 x . x .x x2 2 0 = 1 . or have no horizontal asymptotes.
Example 216: Evaluate lim ` x 3 . x Example 215: Evaluate lim x9+ 2 . x "3 Factor x3 from each term of the expression.3 5x . which yields .23 n x x3.0 + 0 m = ^ 0h The function has a horizontal asymptote at y = 0.3x j. x "+3 Factor x2 from each term in the numerator and x from each term in the denominator. lim (x)E .x + x3 O L P 10 = ^ 0h c 5 .23 O 1 K x = lim c x m K 3 2 O x "3 K5 . the function has no horizontal asymptote as x increases without bound.x 2 .3x + 2x x " . 1 + 0 E x "+3 2 = .2 lim = lim 4 3 x " . lim (x)E 6 9 @ x "+3 x "+3 x lim x9+ 2 =+ 3 2 Because this limit does not approach a real number value. which yields x2 lim x9+ 2 = lim x "+3 x "+3 x 2 (9) x c1 + 2 m x J N K 9 O = lim x K x "+3 K1 + 2 O O xP L 9 = .3 x 4 d 5 .3 + 23 n x x J N 1 .22 CliffsQuickReview Calculus x 3 d1 .
Chapter 2: Limits
23
x "3
lim (x 3  x 2  3x) = lim (x 3 ) d1  1  32 n x x x "3 = lim (x 3 ) $ lim d1  1  32 n x x x "3 x "3 = lim (x 3 ) $ [1  0  0]
x "3
= ; lim (x 3 )E $ [1]
x "3 x "3
lim (x  x  3x) = 3
3
2
As in the previous example, this function has no horizontal asymptote as x decreases without bound.
Limits Involving Trigonometric Functions
The trigonometric functions sine and cosine have four important limit properties:
x " c x " c
lim sin x = sin c
lim cos x = cosc lim sin x = 1 x cos lim 1  x x = 0
x " 0
x " 0
You can use these properties to evaluate many limit problems involving the six basic trigonometric functions.
cos x Example 217: Evaluate lim sin x  3 . x " 0 Substituting 0 for x, you find that cos x approaches 1 and sin x – 3 approaches –3; hence,
x " 0
cos x lim sin x  3 = 1 3
Example 218: Evaluate lim cot x.
x " 0+
Because cot x = cos x/sin x, you find lim cos x/ sin x. The numerator
x " 0+
approaches 1 and the denominator approaches 0 through positive values because we are approaching 0 in the first quadrant; hence, the function
24
CliffsQuickReview Calculus
increases without bound and lim cot x =+ 3, and the function has a verx " 0 tical asymptote at x = 0.
+
Example 219: Evaluate lim sin 4x . x
x " 0
Multiplying the numerator and the denominator by 4 produces
x " 0
lim sin 4x = lim 4 sin 4x x 4x x " 0 = c lim 4 m $ lim sin 4x 4x x " 0 x " 0 =4$1
lim sin 4x = 4 x Example 220: Evaluate lim sec x  1. x x " 0
x " 0
Because sec x = 1/cos x, you find that
1 sec x  1 = lim cos x  1 lim x x x " 0 x " 0  cos = lim 1 x cos xx
x " 0
1 cos = lim c cos x m $ c 1  x x m
x " 0
1 cos = ; lim cos x E $ ; lim 1  x x E x " 0 x " 0 =1$0
x " 0
lim sec x  1 = 0 x
Continuity
A function f (x) is said to be continuous at a point (c,f (c)) if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) f (c) exists (c is in the domain of f ), (2) lim f (x) exists, and
x " c x " c
(3) lim f (x) = f (c). Geometrically, this means that there is no gap, split, or missing point for f (x) at c and that a pencil could be moved along the graph of f (x) through (c,f (c)) without lifting it off the graph. A function is said to be continuous
Chapter 2: Limits
25
at (c,f (c)) from the right if lim f (x) = f (c) and continuous at (c,f (c))
x " c+
from the left if lim f (x) = f (c). Many of our familiar functions such as x " c linear, quadratic and other polynomial functions, rational functions, and the trigonometric functions are continuous at each point in their domain. A special function that is often used to illustrate onesided limits is the greatest integer function. The greatest integer function, [x] , is defined to be the largest integer less than or equal to x (see Figure 26).

Some values of [x] for specific x values are
62@ = 2 6 5.8 @ = 5
1 ;  3 3 E = 4
6 .46 @ = 0
Figure 26
The graph of the greatest integer function y = [x].
y
2
y=[x]
−4
−2 −2
x
2 4
The greatest integer function is continuous at any integer n from the right only because
f (n) = 6 n @ = n
x " n+
and lim f (x) = n but lim f (x) = n  1
x " n
hence, lim f (x) ! f (n) and f (x) is not continuous at n from the left. Note x " n that the greatest integer function is continuous from the right and from the left at any noninteger value of x.

When the definition of continuity is applied to f (x) at x = –4. Example 224: Discuss the continuity of f (x) = x at x = 0. . x = 2 When the definition of continuity is applied to f (x) at x = 2. you find that f (2) does not exist. you find that (1) f (0) = 0 (2) lim f (x) = lim x DNE because lim x " 0 x " 0 x " 0+ x = 0. you find that (1) f (. f is continuous at x = 0 from the right only.2 at x=2. you find that (1) f (2) = 4 2 4 (2) lim f (x) = lim x . x 2 .4) hence. f is not continuous (discontinuous) at x = 2.5 x "4 x "4 x "4 (3) lim f (x) = f (. hence. x ! 2 Example 223: Discuss the continuity of f (x) = * x . x When the definition of continuity is applied to f (x) at x = 2.4.5 (2) lim f (x) = lim (2x + 3) =.2)( x + 2) = lim x2 x " 2 = lim (x + 2) x " 2 x " 2 lim f (x) = 4 x " 2 (3) lim f (x) = f (2) hence.2 x " 2 x " 2 x (x . f is continous at x = –4. f is continous at x = 2.4) =. but lim x " 0+ x " 0 x DNE (3) lim f (x) = f (0) hence.4. When the definition of continuity is applied to f (x) at x = 0.2 4.26 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 221: Discuss the continuity of f (x) = 2x + 3 at x =. 2 4 Example 222: Discuss the continuity of f (x) = x .
Chapter 2: Limits
27
Example 225: Discuss the continuity of f (x) = *
5  2x, x <  3 x 2 + 2, x $  3
at x = –3.
When the definition of continuity is applied to f (x) at x = –3, you find that
(1) f ( 3) = ( 3) 2 + 2 = 11 (2) lim f (x) = lim (5  2x) = 11
x "  3x "  3x "  3+
lim f (x) = lim (x 2 + 2) = 11
x "  3+ x " 3 x "  3x "  3+
hence, lim f (x) = 11 because lim f (x) = lim f (x) (3)
x "3
lim f (x) = f ( 3)
hence, f is continuous at x = –3. Many theorems in calculus require that functions be continuous on intervals of real numbers. A function f (x) is said to be continuous on an open interval (a,b) if f is continuous at each point c ∈ (a,b). A function f (x) is said to be continuous on a closed interval [a,b] if f is continuous at each point c ∈ (a,b) and if f is continuous at a from the right and continuous at b from the left. Example 226: (a) f (x) = 2x + 3 is continuous on (– ∞,+∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (– ∞,+∞). (b) f (x) = (x – 3)/(x + 4) is continuous on (–∞,–4) and (–4,+∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (–∞,–4) and c ∈ (–4,+∞) (c) f (x) = (x – 3)/(x + 4) is not continuous on (–∞,–4] or [–4,+∞) because f is not continuous on –4 from the left or from the right. (d) f (x) = x is continuous on [0, +∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (0,+∞) and is continuous at 0 from the right. (e) f (x) = cos x is continuous on (–∞,+∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (–∞,+∞). (f ) f (x) = tan x is continuous on (0,π/2) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (0,π/2). (g) f (x) = tan x is not continuous on [0,π/2] because f is not continuous at π/2 from the left.
28
CliffsQuickReview Calculus
(h) f (x) = tan x is continuous on [0,π/2) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (0,π/2) and is continuous at 0 from the right. (i) f (x) = 2x/(x2 + 5) is continuous on (–∞,+∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (–∞,+∞). (j ) f (x) = x  2 /( x  2) is continuous on (–∞,2) and (2,+∞) because f is continuous at every point c ∈ (–∞,2) and c ∈ (2,+∞). (k) f (x) = x  2 /( x  2) is not continuous on (–∞,2] or [2,+∞) because f is not continuous at 2 from the left or from the right.
Chapter Checkout Q&A
1. Evaluate the following
(a) (b) (c)
x2 9 lim x  3 x " 3
+
x2 9 lim x  3 x " 3

x2 9 lim x " 3 x  3
x " 2
2. Evaluate lim+ 3. Evaluate lim
x+2 x2 4 x2 x 1
3
x "+3
4. Evaluate lim 3x x " 0
sin 5x
5. Discuss the continuity of the function
2  1 =f ^ x h = * x + 2 , x Y 1 at x = –1. x 2, x = 1
Answers: 1. (a) 6 (b) –6 (c) DNE 2. + ∞ 3. 0 4. 5/3 5. f is not continuous at x = –1.
Chapter 3 THE DERIVATIVE
Chapter CheckIn
❑ ❑ ❑
Understanding derivatives Computing basic derivatives Finding derivatives of more complicated functions
ne of the most important applications of limits concept of the derivative of a used Owide variety aoffunction. In calculus, the derivativeisofthefunction isapplyin a problems, and understanding it is essential to ing it to such problems.
Definition
The derivative of a function y = f (x) at a point (x,f (x)) is defined as
Dx " 0
lim
f (x + ∆x)  f (x) ∆x
if this limit exists. The derivative is denoted by f'(x), read “f prime of x” or “f prime at x,” and f is said to be differentiable at x if this limit exists (see Figure 31).
Figure 31 The derivative of a function as the limit of rise over run.
y
f(x + ∆x) (x, f(x)) f(x) y= f(x) x ∆x
(x + ∆x, f(x + ∆x)) f(x + ∆x) − f(x)
x + ∆x
x
5 . (x.x + 5 ∆x 2 = 2x∆x + ∆x ∆x ∆x (2x + ∆x) = ∆x f (x + ∆x) .–1) is 4. but the derivative at that point may not exist. y = s(t). the function f (x) = x1/3 is continuous over its entire domain or real numbers. One interpretation of the derivative of a function at a point is the slope of the tangent line at this point. which is also continuous over its entire domain of real numbers but is not differentiable at x = –2. As an example. it is defined to be the instantaneous velocity at time t for the function. The relationship between continuity and differentiability can be summarized as follows: Differentiability implies continuity.f (x)) on the graph of y = f (x). where y = s(t). If this limit exists.x 2 + 5 = ∆x ∆x 2 2 2 = x + 2x∆x + ∆x .30 CliffsQuickReview Calculus If a function is differentiable at x. That is. f (x + ∆x) . but its derivative does not exist at x = 0. Example 31: Find the derivative of f (x) = x2 – 5 at the point (2. The derivative may be thought of as a limit of the average velocities between a fixed time and other times that get closer and closer to the fixed time. it is defined to be the slope of the tangent line at the fixed point. Another interpretation of the derivative is the instantaneous velocity of a function representing the position of a particle along a line at time t.–1). The derivative may be thought of as the limit of the slopes of the secant lines passing through a fixed point on a curve and other points on the curve that get closer and closer to the fixed point. Another example is the function f (x) = x + 2 . then it must be continuous at x. the derivative of f (x) = x2 – 5 at the point (2. but the converse is not necessarily true. but continuity does not imply differentiability.5 . If this limit exists. a function may be continuous at a point.f (x) (x + ∆x) 2 . .f (x) = 2x + ∆x ∆x f l^ x h = lim (2x + ∆x) = 2x f l^ 2 h = 2 $ 2 = 4 ∆x " 0 hence.
s (t) t + ∆t + 2 . If this limit exists.t + 2 = ∆t ∆t 1 1 (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) = t + ∆t + 2 t + 2 $ ∆t (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) (t + 2) . 1 Example 32: Find the instantaneous velocity of s (t) = t + 2 at the time t = 3. and you should be able to use any of these in selected problems.s (t) 1 = ∆t (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) 1 s l ^t h = lim ∆t " 0 (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) = 1 2 (t + 2) 1 s l(3) = .1 25 (3 + 2) 5 hence. df/dx.(t + ∆t + 2) = ∆t (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) . the instantaneous velocity of s(t) = 1/(t + 2) at time t = 3 is –1/25.f (x)) on the graph of y = f (x). 1 1 s (t + ∆t) . The negative velocity indicates that the particle is moving in the negative direction.1 2 = . df (x)/dx. . Some others are y'.Chapter 3: The Derivative 31 A third interpretation of the derivative is the instantaneous rate of change of a function at a point.∆t = ∆t (t + 2)( t + ∆t + 2) s (t + ∆t) . A number of different notations are used to represent the derivative of a function y = f (x) with f'(x) being most common. and Dxf (x). dy/dx. it is defined to be the instantaneous rate of change at the fixed point (x. Dxf. The derivative may be thought of as the limit of the average rates of change between a fixed point and other points on the curve that get closer and closer to the fixed point.2 = .
(2) If f (x) = c ⋅ g(x). then f'(x) = g'(x) + h'(x).3)( 3x + 4) = 6x 2 .1 .2x + 3 . To eliminate the need of using the formal definition for every application of the derivative. g (x) and h (x) ! 0.3x + 5). (5) Product Rule: If f (x) = g(x) ⋅ h(x). where c is a constant. then h (x) (6) Quotient Rule: If g l(x) $ h (x) .9x + 15 + 12x 2 + 7x . then f'(x)=g'(x) ⋅ h(x)+h'(x) ⋅ g(x). some of the more useful formulas are listed here.3x + 5) + (4x .32 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Differentation Rules Many differentiation rules can be proven using the limit definition of the derivative and are also useful in finding the derivatives of applicable functions.h l(x) $ g (x) f l(x) = [h (x)]2 f (x) = (7) Power Rule: If f (x) = x n . (4) Difference Rule: If f (x) = g(x) – h(x). Example 33: Find f l(x) if f (x) = 6x 3 + 5x 2 + 9. then f'(x) = g'(x) – h'(x).12 = 18x 2 . then f l(x) = nx n . (3) Sum Rule: If f (x) = g(x) + h(x). f l(x) = 6 $ 3x 2 + 5 $ 2x 1 + 0 = 18x 2 + 10x Example 34: Find y l if y = (3x + 4)( 2x 2 . the f'(x) = 0. y l= (3)( 2x 2 . (1) If f (x) = c. then f'(x) = c ⋅ g'(x).
1 .9 .6x 2 10 (2x . x Because f (x) = x 5 .Chapter 3: The Derivative 33 Example 35: Find dx if y = 3x + 5 .8 =.x + 13 . 1).2 (3x + 5) = dx (2x .3) = .1 4 y l= . 1). y l= .3) .1/2 .x 1/2 + x .19 2 (2x .1 (4) (x + 2) 2 = 4 2 (x + 2) At (2.4 2 4 = 5x .1 x .3 dy 3 (2x .34 2 x x dy Example 37: Find f l(3) if f (x) = x 2 .4 2 (2 + 2) = 4 16 =.3x . 0 (x + 2) .3) 2 = 6x .3) Example 36: Find f l(x) if f (x) = x 5 . find y lat (2.8 f l(3) = (2)( 3) .3 f l(x) = 5x 4 .8x + 3. f l(x) = 2x .2 4 Example 38: If y = x + 2 . 2x .
9). then f l(x) = sec x tan x.9).(. as illustrated in the following example. than f '(x) = sec2x. Note that rules (3) to (6) can be proven using the quotient rule along with the given function expressed in terms of the sine and cosine functions. f (x) = tan x sin = cosx x cos x $ cos x . and the tangent line has slope 6 at the point (–1. (5) If f (x) = sec x. y' = 6. Example 310: Use the definition of the tangent function and the quotient rule to prove if f (x) = tan x. Because the slope of the tangent line to a curve is the derivative.34 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 39: Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = 12 – 3x2 at the point (–1. (2) If f (x) = cos x. you find that y' = –6x.sin x. hence. at (–1. (4) If f (x) = cot x. (3) If f (x) = tan x. The rules are summarized as follows: (1) If f (x) = sin x.sin x) sin x f l(x) = cos 2 x 2 2 = cos x +2 sin x cos x 1 = cos 2 x = sec 2 x . then f l(x) = cos x. then f l(x) = sec 2 x. then f l(x) =. Trigonometric Function Differentiation The six trigonometric functions also have differentiation formulas that can be used in application problems of the derivative.9).csc 2 x.csc x cot x. then f l(x) =. then f l(x) =. (6) If f (x) = csc x.
2 4 2 2 =2 2 Example 313: Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = sin x at the point (π/2. Chain Rule The chain rule provides us a technique for finding the derivative of composite functions. y l= 3x 2 cot x + x 3 (.1) Because the slope of the tangent line to a curve is the derivative. hence. you find that y' = cos x.x 3 csc 2 x Example 312: Find f l c r m if f (x) = 5 sin x + cos x. make up the composite function f.1). g and h. Note that the geometric interpretation of this result is that the tangent line is horizontal at this point on the graph of y = sin x.1).csc 2 x) = 3x 2 cot x . if a composite function f (x) is defined as f (x) = (g % h)( x) = g [h (x)] then f l(x) = g l[h (x)] $ h l(x) Note that because two functions.sin x f l c r m = 5 cos r . If a composite function r(x) is defined as r (x) = (m % n % p)( x) = m {n [p (x)]} then r l(x) = ml{n [p (x)]} $ nl[p (x)] $ pl(x) . you have to consider the derivatives g' and h' in differentiating f (x). and the tangent line has a slope 0 at the point (π/2.sin r 4 4 4 = = 5 2 2 2 . with the number of functions that make up the composition determining how many differentiation steps are necessary. For example.Chapter 3: The Derivative 35 Example 311: Find y' if y = x3 cot x. 4 f l(x) = 5 cos x . at (π/2. y' = cos π/2 = 0.
n. and p—make up the composition function r.2) 7 Example 315: Find f'(x) if f (x) = tan (sec x).1) $ cos (3x . f l(x) = 8 (3x 2 + 5x .2) 7 $ (6x + 5) = 8 (6x + 5)( 3x 2 + 5x .1 . dy = 3 sin 2 (3x . Because f (x) = (5x 2 + 3x . Example 314: Find f'(x) if f (x) = (3x2 + 5x – 2)8. you have to consider the derivatives m'.1 10 $ 2 + 3 f l(2) = 2 5 (2) 2 + 3 $ 2 .1 = 23 2 25 23 = 10 .1) sin 2 (3x .1). f l(x) = sec 2 ( sec x) $ sec x tan x = sec x tan x sec 2 ( sec x) Example 316: Find dx if y = sin 3 (3x . hence. and p' in differentiating r(x).36 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Here.1) $ (3) dx = 9 cos (3x .1) .1/2 (10x + 3) 2 10x + 3 = 2 5x 2 + 3x . n'. A technique that is sometimes suggested for differentiating composite functions is to work from the “outside to the inside” functions to establish a sequence for each of the derivatives that must be taken. three functions—m.1)1/2 f l(x) = 1 (5x 2 + 3x .1) dy Example 317: Find f l(2) if f (x) = 5x 2 + 3x .
2) 4 =.2xy 3 dx y .160 which represents the slope of the tangent line at the point (–1.2xy 3 dy = 2 2 dx 3x y . some equations in x and y do not explicitly define y as a function x and cannot be easily manipulated to solve for y in terms of x.1)[( . at (.10)( . Example 319: Find dx if x 2 y 3 . you find that 2xy 3 + x 2 $ 3y 2 $ dy dy .x $ 1 $ =0 dx dx dy dy 3x 2 y 2 x = y .3x 2 y 2 dy .–32). you find that y l= 5 (x 2 .1. even though such a function may exist. Differentiating implicitly with respect to x.3]4 = (.2xy 3 dx dx dy (3x 2 y 2 . it is implied that there exists a function y = f (x) such that the given equation is satisfied.y dy = dx x . Implicit Differentiation In mathematics. The technique of implicit differentiation allows you to find the derivative of y with respect to x without having to solve the given equation for y.1y . Because the slope of the tangent line to a curve is the derivative.3) 4 hence.x or 2xy 3 . –32). .xy = 10.x) = y . The chain rule must be used whenever the function y is being differentiated because of our assumption that y may be expressed as a function of x. When this occurs.Chapter 3: The Derivative 37 Example 318: Find the slope of the tangent line to a curve y = (x2 – 3)5 at the point (–1.32) y l= 10 (.1) 2 .3) 4 (2x) = 10x (x 2 .
1) if x2 + 3xy +y2 = –1.2x y l= . you find that 1 $ y l= cos x .1) + 2 (1) 1 = 1 =1 Example 322: Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve x2 + y2 = 25 at the point (3.2x .3y . Differentiating implicitly with respect to x.1) . 1).3y y l(3x + 2y) =. y l= (. .sin y $ y l 1 $ y l+ sin y $ y l= cos x y l(1 + sin y) = cos x cos x y l= 1 + sin y Example 321: Find y' at (–1.2x .3y y l= 3x + 2y At the point (. Because the slope of the tangent line to a curve is the derivative.2)( .–4).–4).–4). which yields 2x + 2y $ y l= 0 2y $ y l=. Differentiating implicitly with respect to x. you find that 2x + 3y + 3x $ y l+ 2y $ y l= 0 3x $ y l+ 2y $ y l=.2x 2y = yx hence.1. at (3. differentiate implicitly with respect to x.2x . y' = –3/–4 = 3/4.3 (1) 3 (. and the tangent line has slope 3/4 at the point (3.38 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 320: Find y' if y = sin x + cos y.
you can take the derivative of f'(x).sin x) = 2 cos 2 x .9x 2 + 14x .Chapter 3: The Derivative 39 Higher Order Derivatives Because the derivative of a function y = f (x) is itself a function y' = f'(x). and acceleration problems. it is preferable to use the numerical notation f (n)(x) = y(n) to denote the nth derivative of f (x). Because the “prime” notation for derivatives would eventually become somewhat messy. second. fourth.1 x .18x + 14 (x) = 120x .sin x) . This differentiation process can be continued to find the third. f n(4) = 8 (4) .2 $ 2 sin x cos x =.5/2 3 1 = 8 c 32 m = 2 256 .4 sin x cos x =.1/2 2 f m(x) =. Because f (x) = x = x 1/2 f l(x) = 1 x . Chapter 4 provides some applications of the second derivative in curve sketching and in distance.2 sin 2 x y n= 2 $ 2 cos x (. which are called higher order derivatives of f (x). Example 323: Find the first. and third derivatives of y = sin2x. and third derivatives of f (x) = 5x4 – 3x3 + 7x2 – 9x + 2.3/2 4 3 x . f l(x) = 20x 3 .5/2 f n(x) = 8 3 hence.4 sin x cos x . which is generally referred to as the second derivative of f(x) and written f"(x) or f 2(x). y l= 2 sin x cos x y m= 2 cos x cos x + 2 sin x (.8 sin x cos x Example 325: Find f (3) (4) if f (x) = x . second.9 f m(x) = f f n(x) = f (2) (x) = 60x 2 . velocity. and successive derivatives of f (x).18 (3) Example 324: Find the first.
then f l(x) = x x2.1 Example 326: Find f '(x) if f (x) = cos1(5x).(5x) 2 5 f l(x) = 1 . f (x) ! 0 2 2 1 . which are summarized as follows: (1) If f (x) = sin .1 (6) If f (x) = csc . .x2 (2) If f (x) = cos .r # f (x) # r then 2 2 1 f l(x) = .1 2 .r < f (x)< r then 2 2 1 .1 x = arc cot x.40 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions Each of the six basic trigonometric functions have corresponding inverse functions when appropriate restrictions are placed on the domain of the original functions. 0 # f (x) # rthen f l(x) = . 1x (3) If f (x) = tan . .1 x = arc sec x. 1+x (5) If f (x) = sec . 0 # f (x) # r. f (x) ! r then 2 1 . .1 x = arctanx. f l(x) = 1 + x2 (4) If f (x) = cot . All the inverse trigonometric functions have derivatives. 0 < f (x)< r then f l(x) = . 1 .25x 2 f l(x) = .1 2 . 1 $5 1 . f l(x) = x x2.1 x = arc csc x.r # f (x) # r .1 x = arcsinx.1 x = arccosx.
have the following differentiation formulas: (1) If f (x) = e x . a ! 1. called logarithmic functions. Because y = arctan(x 3/2 ) y l= 1 $ 3 x 1/2 1 + (x 3/2 ) 2 2 = 1 3 $ 3 x 1/2 1+x 2 3 x 2 (1 + x 3 ) y l= Differentiation of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Exponential functions and their corresponding inverse functions. $ 2x x2 + 5 f l(x) = e x2 + 5 f l(x) = 2x $ e Example 329: Find y l if y = 5 x . a > 0. then f l(x) = ( ln a) $ a x .Chapter 3: The Derivative 41 Example 327: Find y l if y = arctana x 3 k . a > 0. (3) If f (x) = ln x. y l= ( ln 5) $ 5 $ 1 x . a ! 1. then f l(x) = 1 . ( ln a) $ x Note that the exponential function f (x) = ex has the special property that its derivative is the function itself. x 1 (4) If f (x) = log a x. then f l(x) = e x . Example 328: Find f l(x) if f (x) = e x 2 +5 . then f l(x) = . f '(x) = ex = f (x). (2) If f (x) = a x .1/2 2 1 = ( ln 5) $ 5 $ 2 x x x y l= ( ln 5) $ 5 $ 2 x x .
5).2x + 1 5–x .3 = dx ( ln 10)( 4x 2 .3x . Find f '(x) if f (x) = 5x – 7 + x sin x + e /x. Find f "(1/2) if f (x) = arcsin x.3) dx ( ln 10)( 4x 2 . 2. Find dy/dx if y = 3 2 x dy x 4 .5) Chapter Checkout Q&A 1. 1 f l(x) = sin x $ cos x x = cosx sin f l(x) = cot x Example 331: Find dx if y = log10 (4x 2 . dy 1 = $ (8x .5) dy 8x .3x . dy/dx = (2x3 – 1)/ (x4 – 2x + 1)1/2 3. 2 2 5.42 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 330: Find f'(x) if f (x) = 1n(sin x). Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve x + xy + y = 4 at the point (–2. 15x2 + 2x sin x + x2 cos x + (ex x – ex)/x2 2. 4. 1 . Find y' if y = ln(cos x) – e 5. Answers: 1. e5x – tan x 4.2). 3 2 3 3.3x .
Tangent and Normal Lines As previously noted. . imum problems. and acceleration solving related rate problems. the slope of the normal line to the graph of f (x) is –1/f'(x). It may be used and minThe derivative ofsolvingin curve sketching. the derivative of a function at a point. distance. and approximating function values.Chapter 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Chapter CheckIn ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Using the derivative to understand the graph of a function Locating maximum and minimum values of a function Finding velocity and acceleration Relating rates of change Approximating quantities by using derivatives a function has many applications to problems in calculus. Because the slopes of perpendicular lines (neither of which is vertical) are negative reciprocals of one another. solving maximumproblems. is the slope of the tangent line at this point. velocity. The normal line is defined as the line that is perpendicular to the tangent line at the point of tangency.
4 =.y 1 = m (x .x . . the equation of the normal line at the point (–1. f (x)) is called a critical point of f (x) if x is in the domain of the function and either f'(x) = 0 or f'(x) does not exist. or does not exist at that point on the curve.44 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 41: Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) = x 2 + 3 at the point (–1.1 x + 2y = 3 Example 42: Find the equation of the normal line to the graph of f (x) = x 2 + 3 at the point (–1.2 = 2x + 2 2x .2). you find that f'(–1) = –1/2 and the slope of the normal line is –1/f'(–1) = 2.x 1 ) y .1 (x + 1) 2 2y .4 Critical Points Points on the graph of a function where the derivative is zero or the derivative does not exist are important to consider in many application problems of the derivative.x 1 ) y .1/2 $ (2x) 2 x f l(x) = 2 x +3 At the point (–1. f (x) = (x 2 + 3)1/2 f l(x) = 1 (x 2 + 3) . vertical. hence. From Example 41.2 =.y 1 = m (x .2). The geometric interpretation of what is taking place at a critical point is that the tangent line is either horizontal. f'(–1) = –1/2 and the equation of the line is y . 2).2) is y . The point (x.y =.2 = 2 (x + 1) y .
(0.sin x = 0 cos x = sin x x = r . its domain is all real numbers.8 (.2) 4 . 2 ) and (5r/4.16x f l(x) = 0 & 4x 3 . The domain of f (x) is restricted to the closed interval [0.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 45 Example 43: Find all critical points of f (x) = x4 – 8x2. Because f (x) is a polynomial function. It states the following: If a function f (x) is continuous on a closed interval [a. x = 2 f (.b].16x = 0 4x (x 2 . .2π].16 hence. x =.–16). the critical points of f (x) are (r/4.2 ).sin x f l(x) = 0 & cos x .2) = 0 x = 0. f l(x) = 4x 3 .4) = 0 4x (x + 2)( x . .–16). f l(x) = cos x .2 .2) = (.2 4 4 4 hence. and (2.8 (0) 2 = 0 f (2) = (2) 4 .2) 2 =. Extreme Value Theorem An important application of critical points is in determining possible maximum and minimum values of a function on certain intervals.16 f (0) = (0) 4 .2.b]. The Extreme Value Theorem guarantees both a maximum and minimum value for a function under certain conditions.2π].2 f c 5r m = sin 5r + cos 5r = 2 + 2 =. 5r 4 4 2 2 f c r m = sin r + cos r = 2 + 2 = 2 4 4 4 . the critical points of f (x) are (–2. Example 44: Find all critical points of f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0.8 (2) 2 =.0). then f (x) has both a maximum and minimum value on [a.
Example 46: Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = x4 – 3x3 – 1 on [–2. Example 45: Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0. The largest function value from the previous step is the maximum value. Note the importance of the closed interval in determining which values to consider for critical points. and from Example 44. The function is continuous on [0.2π]. f l(x) = 0 & 4x 3 . the maximum function value 39 at x = –2. The theorem is stated as follows. and the minimum function value is –9 at x = 2.2π]. and its derivative is f'(x) = 4x3 – 9x2. The function values at the end points of the interval are f (0)=1 and f (2π)=1.2]. the only critical point occurs at x = 0 which is (0.9x 2 = 0 x 2 (4x .2].46 CliffsQuickReview Calculus The procedure for applying the Extreme Value Theorem is to first establish that the function is continuous on the closed interval. The function is continuous on [–2. .9) = 0 x = 0. The function values at the endpoints of the interval are f (2) = –9 and f (–2) = 39.–1). hence.2 k. hence. the maximum function value of f (x) is 2 at x=π/4. and the minimum function value of f (x) is . 2 k and a5r/4.2 at x = 5π/4.2]. the critcal points are a r/4. Note that for this example the maximum and minimum both occur at critical points of the function. x = 9 4 Because x = 9/4 is not in the interval [–2. Mean Value Theorem The Mean Value Theorem establishes a relationship between the slope of a tangent line to a curve and the secant line through points on a curve at the endpoints of an interval. . The next step is to determine all critical points in the given interval and evaluate the function at these critical points and at the endpoints of the interval. and the smallest function value is the minimum value of the function on the given interval.
8 .b] and differentiable on an open interval (a.2 3 . the theorem guarantees at least one critical point. The function is continuous on [–2.b) exists such that f l(c) = f (b) .f (.3 f l(x) =.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 47 If a function f (x) is continuous on a closed interval [a.2) .(.f (a)) and (b. then at least one number c ∈ (a.b).f(a)) x a c b Geometrically.3 =.f(c)) y=f(x) (b. this means that the slope of the tangent line will be equal to the slope of the secant line through (a. Example 47: Verify the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for f (x) = x2 – 3x – 2 on [–2.2 . Note that for the special case where f (a) = f (b).b).3].3).f(b)) (a.f (a) ba Figure 41 The Mean Value Theorem.2) The slope of the tangent line is f l(x) = 2x . y (c.10 = 5 = 5 =.3] and differentiable on (–2. where f'(c) = 0 on the open interval (a.2 2x = 1 x= 1 2 Because 1/2 ∈ [–2.3].f (b)) for at least one point on the curve between the two endpoints. The slope of the secant line through the endpoint values is f (3) .2 & 2x . the c value referred to in the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem is c = 1/2 .
then the function is said to be increasing on I. Testing all intervals to the left and right of these values for f'(x) = 4x3 – 16x. If f'(x) > 0. 0) f l(x)< 0 on (0. As noted in Example 44. Because the derivative is zero or does not exist only at critical points of the function. f is increasing on (–2. 0. the domain of f (x) is restricted to the closed interval [0. 2) f l(x)> 0 on (2. then. and its critical points occur at x = –2.2. . In determining intervals where a function is increasing or decreasing. you find that f l(x)< 0 on (. + 3) hence. you first find domain values where all critical points will occur. Example 49: For f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0. Testing all intervals to the left and right of these values for f'(x) = cos x – sin x. it must be positive or negative at all other points where the function exists. As noted in Example 43. you find that . and 2. then f is decreasing on the interval. then the function is said to be decreasing on I. then f is increasing on the interval.–2) and (0. This and other information may be used to show a reasonably accurate sketch of the graph of the function. If f'(x) < 0 at each point in an interval I. If f'(x) > 0 at each point in an interval I.0) and (2. determine all intervals where f is increasing or decreasing.2π].2) f l(x)> 0 on (. Example 48: For f (x) = x4 – 8x2 determine all intervals where f is increasing or decreasing.2). and its critical points occur at π/4 and 5π/4.48 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Increasing/Decreasing Functions The derivative of a function may be used to determine whether the function is increasing or decreasing on any intervals in its domain. test all intervals in the domain of the function to the left and to the right of these values to determine if the derivative is positive or negative.3.2π]. and if f'(x) < 0.+ ∞) and decreasing on (– ∞. the domain of f (x) is all real numbers.
it is called the First Derivative Test for Local Extrema. Example 410: If f (x) = x4 – 8x2. however. Because f'(x) changes from negative to positive around –2 and 2. the function is said to have a local (relative) extremum at that point. . Also.–16). When this technique is used to determine local maximum or minimum function values.5π/4). the function has a local (relative) maximum at the critical point. As noted in Example 49. First Derivative Test for Local Extrema If the derivative of a function changes sign around a critical point. Note that there is no guarantee that the derivative will change signs. 2 ). f has a local minimum at (5r/4. .2π] and decreasing on (π/4. the function has a local (relative) minimum at the critical point. 5r m 4 4 f l(x)> 0 on c 5r . If the derivative changes from positive (increasing function) to negative (decreasing function). f (x) has critical points at x = –2. and therefore. 0. and hence. 0.–16) and (2. determine all local extrema for the function. 2. and hence. As noted in Example 48. Also f'(x) changes from negative to positive around 5π/4. f'(x) changes from positive to negative around 0.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 49 f l(x)> 0 on. f is increasing on [0. f has a local maximum at (r/4.2 ). 2r E 4 hence. it is essential to test each interval around a critical point. f has a local maximum at (0. Because f'(x) changes from positive to negative around π/4. π/4) and (5π/4. determine all local extrema for the function. Example 411: If f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0. f has a local minimum at (–2.0). the derivative changes from negative (decreasing function) to positive (increasing function). f (x) has critical points at x = π/4 and 5π/4. If. r m 4 f l(x)< 0 on c r .2π].
and f"(2) = 32 > 0. and 2. 2 ). you find that f"(–2) = 32 > 0.0).2π] using the Second Derivative Test. Also. revert back to the First Derivative Test to determine any local extrema. the second derivative is difficult or tedious to find.–16). As with the previous situations. f"(0) = –16 < 0. As noted in Example 43. If a function has a critical point for which f'(x) = 0 and the second derivative is positive at this point. Another drawback to the Second Derivative Test is that for some functions. the First Derivative Test would have to be used to determine any local extrema.2 and f has a local maximum at (r/4. then f has a local minimum here. This technique is called Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema. As noted in Example 4–4.2π]. then f has local maximum here. and f has a local minimum at (5r/4. Example 413: Find any local extrema of f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0. Because f"(x) = 12x2 – 16. . you find that f" (π/4) = . f'(x) = 0 at x = π/4 and 5π/4. the function has a critical point for which f'(x) = 0 and the second derivative is negative at this point. Because f"(x) = – sin x – cos x. Three possible situations could occur that would rule out the use of the Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema: (1) f l(x) = 0 and f m (x) = 0 doesnot (2) f l(x) = 0 and f m (x) does not exist (3) f l(x) does not exist doesnot Under any of these conditions. These results agree with the local extrema determined in Example 411 using the First Derivative Test on f (x) = – sin x – cos x on [0. Example 412: Find any local extrema of f (x) = x4 – 8x2 using the Second Derivative Test. f'(x) = 0 at x = –2.50 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema The second derivative may be used to determine local extrema of a function under certain conditions. f" (5π/4)= 2. and f has a local minimum (2. 0.2 ). If. and f has a local minimum at (–2.–16). however. . These results agree with the local extrema determined in Example 410 using the First Derivative Test on f (x) = x4 – 8x2. and f has local maximum at (0.
12x .Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 51 Concavity and Points of Inflection The second derivative of a function may also be used to determine the general shape of its graph on selected intervals. it is essential to test each interval around the values for which f"(x) = 0 or does not exist.f (x)) is a point of inflection of the function. If f"(x) changes sign. 2) and f m(x)> 0 on (2.12 f m(x) = 0 & 6x . If a function changes from concave upward to concave downward or vice versa around a point. there is no guarantee that the second derivative will change signs.12 f m(x) = 6x . a function is concave upward on an interval if its graph behaves like a portion of a parabola that opens upward. Geometrically. A function is said to be concave upward on an interval if f"(x) > 0 at each point in the interval and concave downward on an interval if f"(x) < 0 at each point in the interval. f is concave downward on (– ∞. its second derivative will be zero. If the graph of a function is linear on some interval in its domain. and therefore. you find that f m(x)< 0 on (.2) and concave upward on (2. a function that is concave downward on an interval looks like a portion of a parabola that opens downward. + 3) hence. Example 414: Determine the concavity of f (x) = x3 – 6x2 – 12x + 2 and identify any points of inflection of f (x). its domain is all real numbers. and function has a point of inflection at (2. In determining intervals where a function is concave upward or concave downward. you first find domain values where f"(x) = 0 or f"(x) does not exist. f l(x) = 3x 2 . Then test all intervals around these values in the second derivative of the function. and it is said to have no concavity on that interval. As with the First Derivative Test for Local Extrema. Likewise.3. Because f (x) is a polynomial function. it is called a point of inflection of the function. then (x.12 = 0 6x = 12 x=2 Testing the intervals to the left and right of x = 2 for f"(x) = 6x – 12.+ ∞).–38) .
sin x f m(x) =. will suggest which technique is appropriate to use in determining a maximum or minimum value—the Extreme Value Theorem. The restrictions stated or implied for such functions will determine the domain from which you must work. 7r m 4 4 f m(x)< 0 on c 7r . the First Derivative Test. The function that is to be minimized is the surface area (S) while the volume (V ) remains fixed at 108 cubic inches (Figure 42). 0. The function.cos x = 0 .52 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 415: Determine the concavity of f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0.2π] and identify any points of inflection of f (x). . Find the dimensions for the box that require the least amount of material.cos x f m(x) = 0 & .0).2π].sin x .sin x . The domain of f (x) is restricted to the closed interval [0. 7r 4 4 Testing all intervals to the left and right of these values for f"(x) = –sin x – cos x. f l(x) = cos x .2π] and concave upward on (3π/4. 2r m 4 hence.0) and (7π/4. Maximum/Minimum Problems Many application problems in calculus involve functions for which you want to find maximum or minimum values.3π/4) and (7π/4. you find that f m(x)< 0 on . together with its domain. f is concave downward on [0.7π/4) and has points of inflection at (3π/4. Example 416: A rectangular box with a square base and no top is to have a volume of 108 cubic inches. 3r E 4 f m(x)> 0 on c 3r . or the Second Derivative Test.sin x = cos x x = 3r .
hence. . you find that V = x 2 h = 108 cu in & h = 108 x2 S = x 2 + 4xh S = f (x) = x 2 + 4x d 108 n x2 f (x) = x 2 + 432 x with the domain of f (x) = (0. f l(x) = 2x .432 = 0 2x 3 = 432 x 3 = 216 x=6 hence.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 53 Figure 42 The opentopped box for Example 416. Using the Second Derivative Test: f m(x) = 2 + 864 x3 f m(6) = 6 > 0 and f has a local minimum at x = 6. the dimensions of the box that require the least amount of material are a length and width of 6 inches and a height of 3 inches.+∞) because x represents a length. a critical point occurs when x = 6.432 x2 f l(x) = 0 & 2x . h x x Letting x = length of the square base and h = height of the box.432 = 0 x2 2x 3 .
you find that h = 6r 8 6 6h = 48 . Find the maximum volume possible for the inscribed cylinder.8r h=8.r) = 0 r = 0. Letting r = radius of the cylinder and h = height of the cylinder and applying similar triangles.4r 3 Figure 43 A cross section of the cone and cylinder for Example 417.3 with the domain of f (r) = [0. The cone has 8 cm and radius 6 cm.4 r) 3 2 4 rr 3 f (r) = 8rr .4rr 2 f l(r) = 0 & 16rr . which cannot be greater that the radius of the cone. 8cm h r 6r 6cm 8cm Because V = πr2h and h = 8 – (4/3)r.54 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 417: A right circular cylinder is inscribed in a right circular cone so that the center lines of the cylinder and the cone coincide. The function that is to be maximized is the volume (V ) of a cylinder inscribed in a cone with height 8 cm and radius 6 cm (Figure 43).4rr 2 = 0 4rr (4 . 4 . f l(r) = 16rr . you find that V = f (r) = rr 2 (8 .6] because r represents the radius of the cylinder.
then v = s'(t) represents the instantaneous velocity. the derivative of a function representing the position of a particle along a line at time t is the instantaneous velocity at that time. If y = s(t) represents the position function. Velocity. represents the instantaneous acceleration of the particle at time t.6 ft/ sec .6 s l(2) =. where t is measured in seconds and s is measured in feet. hence.6 (2) . f (0) = 0 f (4) = 128r 3 f (6) = 0 hence. Find (a) The velocity of the particle at the end of 2 seconds. while a negative velocity indicates that the position is decreasing with respect to time. (b) The acceleration of the particle at the end of 2 seconds. which is the second derivative of the position function.6t . and a negative acceleration implies that the velocity is decreasing with respect to time. A positive velocity indicates that the position is increasing as time increases. The derivative of the velocity. Part (a): The velocity of the particle is v = s l(t) = 3t 2 .Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 55 Because f (r) is continuous on [0.6]. which will occur when the radius of the cylinder is 4 cm and its height is 8/3 cm.6 At t = 2 sec onds s l(2) = 3 (2) 2 . Example 418: The position of a particle on a line is given by s(t) = t3 – 3t2 – 6t + 5. If the distance remains constant. If the velocity remains constant on an interval of time. Distance. Likewise. and a = v'(t) = s"(t) represents the instantaneous acceleration of the particle at time t. then the acceleration will be zero on the interval. a positive acceleration implies that the velocity is increasing with respect to time. use the Extreme Value Theorem and evaluate the function at its critical points and its endpoints. then the velocity will be zero on such an interval of time. the maximum volume is 128π/3 cm3. and Acceleration As previously mentioned.
v = s'(t) = 0.5 m above the ground.56 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Part (b): The acceleration of the particle is a = v l(t) = s m(t) = 6t . Find the rate of change of its volume when the radius is 5 inches. namely time.9. The sign of the rate of change of the solution variable with respect to time will also indicate whether the variable is increasing or decreasing with respect to time.9 (5) 2 + 49 (5) + 15 s (5) = 137.75 in/min. Note that a given rate of change is positive if the dependent variable increases with respect to time and negative if the dependent variable decreases with respect to time.9. Related Rates of Change Some problems in calculus require finding the rate of change or two or more variables that are related to a common variable.8t + 49 = 0 . Example 420: Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon such that its radius increases at a rate of .6 At t = 2 sec onds v l(2) = s m(2) = 6 (2) . the object will reach its highest point at 137. .4.9.8t =. To solve these types of problems.5 meters hence.8t + 49 s l(t) = 0 & . where v = s l(t) =. How high above the ground will the object reach? The velocity of the object will be zero at its highest point above the ground.49 t = 5 sec onds The height above the ground at 5 seconds is s (5) =.9t2 + 49t + 15 gives the height in meters of an object after it is thrown vertically upward from a point 15 meters above the ground at a velocity of 49 m/sec. That is. the appropriate rate of change is determined by implicit differentiation with respect to time.6 v l(2) = s m(2) = 6 ft/ sec 2 Example 419: The formula s(t) = –4.
you find that dV = 4r (5 inches) 2 $ (. At r = 5 inches.75 in/min because the radius is increasing with respect to time. you find that dV = 4 r $ 3r 2 $ dr 3 dt dt dV = 4rr 2 $ dr dt dt The rate of change of the radius dr/dt = . Let x = distance traveled by the truck y = distance traveled by the car z = distance between the car and truck The distances are related by the Pythagorean Theorem: x2 + y2 = z2 (Figure 44). . the volume is increasing at a rate of 75π cu in/min when the radius has a length of 5 inches. Example 421: A car is traveling north toward an intersection at a rate of 60 mph while a truck is traveling east away from the intersection at a rate of 50 mph.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 57 The volume (V ) of a sphere with radius r is V = 4 rr 3 3 Differentiating with respect to t.75 in/ min ) dt dV = 75rcu in/ min dt hence. Find the rate of change of the distance between the car and truck when the car is 3 miles south of the intersection and the truck is 4 miles east of the intersection.
f (x) ∆x . Differentials The derivative of a function can often be used to approximate certain function values with a surprising degree of accuracy. The definition of the derivative of a function y = f (x) as you recall is f l(x) = lim ∆x " 0 f (x + ∆x) . the distance between the car and the truck is increasing at a rate of 4 mph at the time in question. x y z The rate of change of the truck is dx/dt = 50 mph because it is traveling away from the intersection. the concept of the differential of the independent variable and the dependent variable must be introduced.58 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Figure 44 A diagram of the situation for Example 421.60 mph) = (5 mi) dz dt 2 dz 20 mi ph = (5 mi) dt dz = 4 mph dt hence. while the rate of change of the car is dy/dt = –60 mph because it is traveling toward the intersection. To do this. Differentiating with respect to time. you find that 2x dy dy + 2y = 2z dz dt dt dt dx + y dy = z dz x dt dt dt (4 mi)( 50 mph) + (3 mi)( .
The smaller the change in x. the closer dy will be to ∆y. then the slope of the tangent is approximately the same as the slope of the secant line through (x. ∆x ! 0 hence.f (x) Because ∆y = f (x + ∆x) . provided that the change in x (∆x = dx) is relatively small. written dy. Figure 45 Approximating a function with differentials. 8 f (x + ∆x) . f(x)) y= f(x) ∆x = dx dy ∆y x x + ∆x x . That is. f l(x) . is defined to be dy = f l(x) $ dx .f (x)B /∆x or equivalently f l(x) $ ∆x . f (x + ∆x) .f (x) The differential of the independent variable x is written dx and is the same as the change in x. ∆x.f (x) you find that dy = f l(x) dx . f (x + ∆x) . dx = ∆x. f (x + ∆x) . f(x + ∆x)) (x. y (x + ∆x. enabling you to approximate function values close to f (x) (Figure 45).f (x) The differential of the dependent variable y. That is. f l(x) $ dx .f (x)). ∆y The conclusion to be drawn from the preceding discussion is that the differential of y(dy) is approximately equal to the exact change in y(∆y). If ∆x is very small (∆x ≠ 0).f (x)).Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 59 which represents the slope of the tangent line to the curve at some point (x.
.76 cm 2 The area of the square will increase by approximately 2.23 cm.60 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 422: Find dy for y = x3 + 5x – 1. dy = 2 (6 cm)(.23. hence.55 to the nearest thousandth. choose a convenient value of x that is a perfect cube and is relatively close to 26.23. Because the function you are applying is f (x) = 3 x . Because y = f (x) = x 3 + 5x . you find that ∆x = dx = . 23 cm) dy = 2. namely x = 27. you find that ∆x = dx = –.1 f l(x) = 3x 2 + 5 dy = f l(x) $ dx dy = (3x 2 + 5) $ dx Example 423: Use differentials to approximate the change in the area of a square if the length of its side increases from 6 cm to 6. where y = f (x) = x2.23 cm.55. The area may be expressed as a function of x. hence. The differential dy is dy = f l(x) dx dy = 1 x .76 cm2 as its side length increases from 6 to 6. Note that the exact increase in area (∆y) is 2. Example 424: Use differentials to approximate the value of 3 26. The differential dy is dy = f l(x) $ dx dy = 2x $ dx Because x is increasing from 6 to 6.2/3 dx 3 dy = 12/3 dx 3x Because x is decreasing from 27 to 26.8129 cm2.45. Let x = length of the side of the square.55.
. which rounds to the same answer to the nearest thousandth! Chapter Checkout Q&A 1. 3 26. Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon such that its volume increases at a rate of 2 in3/sec. 3 .45) 3 (27) 2/3 45 1 = 27 $ .55 .1 60 dy = which implies that 3 26.9t + 20t + 2 gives the height in meters of an object after it is thrown vertically upward from a point 2 meters above the ground at a velocity of 20 m/sec.. Find the dimensions for the cylinder that require the least amount of material. x at the x2+ 1 3. 2 4.983 to the nearest thousandth Note that the calculator value of 3 26.1 60 .100 dy =. How high above the ground will the object reach? 5. A right circular cylinder is to be made with a volume of 100π cubic inches.983239874. For the function y = x – 5x + 5 on [0. find (a) The maximum and minimum values of the function. (b) All intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing. Find equations for the tangent and normal lines to y = 2 5 point (2.9833 3 26. . Find the rate of change of its radius when the radius is 6 inches.0167 . 3 .55 will be approximately 1/60 less that 3 27 = 3. 2.Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative 61 1 $ (.55 .6]. 2. (c) The concavity and any inflection points of the function. ⁄ ). The formula s(t) = –4.55 is 2. hence. 3 2 2.
approximately 22. (a) maximum 41.4 meters 5. 6]. 1/(72π) in/sec . r = 3 50.10/3) (c) concave down on [0.62 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Answers: 1. tangent line 3x + 25y = 16. 115⁄27) 3. 6]. h = 2 : 3 50 4. minimum –365/27 (b) increasing on (10/3. normal line 25x – 3y = 244⁄5 2.5/3). concave up on (5/3. decreasing on (0. inflection point at (5⁄3.
and H(x) = x3–2 are all antiderivatives of f (x) = 3x2 because F'(x) = G'(x) = H'(x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of f. and C is reffered to as the constant of integration. For example. Antiderivatives/Indefinite Integrals A function F(x) is called an antiderivative of a function of f (x) if F'(x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of f. F(x) = x3. where # f ^ x h dx = F ^ x h + C . and H differ only by some constant value and that the derivative of that constant value is always zero. Note that the function F is not unique and that an infinite number of antiderivatives could exist for a given function. The relationship between antiderivatives and definite integrals is discussed later in the chapter with the statement of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. if F(x) and G(x) are antiderivatives of f (x) on some interval. G. G(x) = x3 + 5. this means that the graphs of F(x) and G(x) are identical except for their vertical position. The function of f (x) is called the integrand. The expression F(x) + C is called the indefinite integral of 8 .thesecondThese operation may bediscussed in as inverse of one another. The notation used to represent all antiderivatives of a function f (x) is the indefinite integral symbol written ( ). Geometrically. It is clear that these functions F. thought of A long with differentiation. and rules for finding derivatives previous chapters will be useful in establishing corresponding rules for finding antiderivatives. or integration. In other words.Chapter 5 INTEGRATION Chapter CheckIn ❑ ❑ ❑ Understanding and computing basic indefinite integrals Using more advanced techniques of integration Understanding and computing definite integrals a important operation of calculus is antidifferentiation. then F'(x)= G'(x) and F(x) = G(x) + C for some constant C in the interval.
4. while other integration problems require more work. Example 52: Find the general antiderivative of f (x) = –8. Integration Techniques Many integration formulas can be derived directly from their corresponding derivative formulas.1 # sin x dx =. Using the previous example of F(x) = x3 and f (x) = 3x2. 6. Because the derivative of F (x) =. Basic formulas Most of the following basic formulas directly follow the differentiation rules that were discussed in preceding chapters. 7. Some that require more work are substitution and change of variables. 1.8x is F l(x) =. write # cos x dx = sin x + C.8dx =. 5.cos x + C # cos x dx = sin x + C # sec 2 x dx = tan x + C . trigonometric integrals. you find that # 3x 2 dx = x 3 + C . # kf (x) dx = k # f (x) dx # 8 f (x) ! g (x)B dx = # f (x) dx ! # g (x) dx # kdx = kx + C #x n xn + 1 dx = n + 1 + C. Because the derivative of F (x) = sin x is F l(x) = cos x.8. 2. integration by parts. n ! . Example 51: Find the indefinite integral of f (x) = cos x. and trigonometric substitutions.64 CliffsQuickReview Calculus F with respect to the independent variable x. The indefinite integral of a function is sometimes called the general antiderivative of the function as well. write # .8x + C. 3.
you find that Example 54: Evaluate 1 dx. # csc 2 x dx =. 15.1/2 dx 1/2 = x1 + C 2 = 2x 1/2 + C . a > 0. 14. x #x 4 5 dx = x + C . 5 Because 1/ x = x .ln cos x # cot x dx = ln sin x +C +C +C # sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x # # dx x = arcsin a + C 2 2 a x dx = 1 arctan x + C a a2+ x2 a # csc x dx =. 13. 11. using formula (4) from the preceding list yields # 1 dx = x #x . 16. 17.cot x + C # sec x tan x dx = sec x + C # csc x cot x dx =. 19. Using formula (4) from the preceding list. 10. a ! 1 ln a x # dx = ln x x +C +C # tan x dx =. 9.a2 a Example 53: Evaluate #x # 4 dx.Chapter 5: Integration 65 8.csc x + C #e #a x dx = e x + C x dx = a + C. 20. 12.ln csc x + cot x #x dx x = 1 arc sec a + C x2.1/2. 18.
the inside function of the composition is usually replaced by a single variable (often u).3) dx Applying formulas (1).66 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 55: Evaluate # (6x 2 + 5x . you find that Substitution and change of variables One of the integration techniques that is useful in evaluating indefinite integrals that do not seem to fit the basic formulas is substitution and change of variables. you find that # (6x 2 x2 x3 + 5x . it must be written in terms of the original variable of integration. substitute with u= x3+ 1 du = 3x 2 dx 1 du = x 2 dx 3 .3x + C 2 Example 56: Evaluate # x dx 4 . Although this approach may seem like more work initially. x = 1 arctan 5 + C 5 Using formula (19) with a = 5. Example 58: Evaluate #x 2 (x 3 + 1) 5 dx. you find that Example 57: Evaluate # 25dx x + # 25dx x + 2 2 . + # x dx 4 = ln x + 4 + + C. Because the inside function of the composition is x3 + 1. and (4). (2). (3).3x + C = 2x 3 + 5 x 2 . This technique is often compared to the chain rule for differentiation because they both apply to composite functions. Using formula (13). it will eventually make the indefinite integral much easier to evaluate.3) dx = 63 + 52 . In this method. Note that for the final answer to make sense. Note that the derivative or a constant multiple of the derivative of the inside function must be a factor of the integrand. The purpose in using the substitution technique is to rewrite the integration problem in terms of the new variable so that one or more of the basic integration formulas can then be applied.
1 cos(5x) + C 5 Because the inside function of the composition is 5x. # # #u 1 du u .1/2 du 1/2 =. #x 2 (x 3 + 1) 5 dx = 1 3 #u 5 du 6 = 1 $ u +C 3 6 1 = 18 u 6 + C 1 = 18 (x 3 + 1) 6 + C Example 59: Evaluate # sin (5x) dx. u = 5x du = 5dx 1 du = dx 5 # sin (5x) dx = 1 # sin u du 5 =.3 2 Because the inside function of the composition is 9 – x2. Example 510: Evaluate # 3x dx.2x dx .x2 =.1 du = x dx 2 3x dx =.3u 1/2 + C =. 9.1 cos u + C 5 =.3 $ u1 + C 2 2 =.x 2 + C .x2 du =.x2 u= 9 .3 2 9 .Chapter 5: Integration 67 hence.3 9 . substitute with hence. substitute with hence.
1 # x 4 dx 5 5 1 x 5 ln x . Letu = x and dv = sec 2 x dx du = dx v = tan x hence. You may consider this method when the integrand is a single transcendental function or a product of an algebraic function and a transcendental function.1 x 5 + C =5 25 . #x 4 5 ln x dx = x ln x 5 # x5 5 $ 1 dx x 5 = x ln x . The u function will be the remaining part of the integrand that will be differentiated to find du. # v du. Let u = ln x and dv = x 4 dx 5 du = 1 dx v = x x 5 hence.` . A general rule of thumb to follow is to first choose dv as the most complicated part of the integrand that can be easily integrated to find v.1n cos x j + C = x tan x + 1n cos x + C Example 512: Evaluate #x 4 1nx dx. which is easier to evaluate than the original integral.# v du where u and v are differential functions of the variable of integration.68 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Integration by parts Another integration technique to consider in evaluating indefinite integrals that do not fit the basic formulas is integration by parts. # x sec 2 x dx = x tan x  # tan x dx = x tan x . Example 511: Evaluate # x sec 2 x dx. The basic formula for integration by parts is # u dv = uv . The goal of this technique is to find an integral.
the goal is to find an integral that is easier to evaluate than the original integral.7 sin 7 x + C 5 .1 ln (1 + x 2 ) + C 2 Trigonometric integrals Integrals involving powers of the trigonometric functions must often be manipulated to get them into a form in which the basic integration formulas can be applied. Example 514: Evaluate # cos sin 3 4 # cos x sin dx x dx = # cos x sin x cos x dx = # (1 .# sin x cos x dx 3 4 2 4 2 4 4 6 4 6 1 = 1 sin 5 x . Let u = arctan x and dv = dx du = 1 dx v = x 1 + x2 2 hence. # arctan x dx = x arctan x .# 1 +x x dx = x arctan x .sin x) cos x dx = # sin x cos x dx .Chapter 5: Integration 69 Example 513: Evaluate arctanx # arctan dx. It is extremely important for you to be familiar with the basic trigonometric identities that were reviewed in Chapter 1 because you often used these to rewrite the integrand in a more workable form. As in integration by parts.sin x) sin x cos x dx = # ( sin x .
2 cos 2x + cos 4x m dx 2 2 1 = 8 # ^ 3 . x dx = # ( sin x) dx 4 2 2 = # c 1 .1 sin 2x + 32 sin 4x + C 4 .4 cos 2x + cos 4x h dx 1 = 8 c 3x .2 cos 2x + 1 + cos 4x m dx 2 # c 3 .cos 2x m 2 2 dx 2 =1 4 =1 4 =1 4 # (1 .2 cos 2x + cos 2x) dx # c1 .70 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 515: Evaluate # sec 2 2 6 x dx # sec 6 x dx = # sec x sec x dx = # ( sec x) sec x dx = # ( tan x + 1) sec x dx = # ( tan x + 2 tan x + 1) sec x dx = # tan x sec x dx + # 2 tan x sec 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 x dx + # sec 2 x dx = 1 tan 5 x + 2 tan 3 x + tan x + C 3 5 Example 516: Evaluate # sin 4 # sin x dx.2 sin 2x + 1 sin 4x m + C 4 3 1 = 8 x .
If the integrand contains x .x 2 = a cos θ 2 2 2. If the integrand contains a .x 2 2 let x = a sin θ dx = a cos θd θ and a 2 . 4.x2 Because the radical has the form a 2 . or x 2 .Chapter 5: Integration 71 Trigonometric substitutions If an integrand contains a radical expression of the form a 2 .a let x = a sec θ dx = a sec θ tanθd θ and x 2 . a 2 + x 2 .a 2 = a tan θ Right triangles may be used in each of the three preceding cases to determine the expression for any of the six trigonometric functions that appear in the evaluation of the indefinite integral. Some general rules to follow are 1. Example 517: Evaluate #x 2 dx .1) Figure 51 Diagram for Example 517.x 2 . If the integrand contains a + x let x = a tan θ dx = a sec2 θd θ and a 2 + x 2 = a sec θ 2 2 3.a 2.x 2 let x = a sin i = 2 sin i dx = 2 cos id i and 4 . 2 x θ 4 − x2 .x 2 = 2 cos i (Figure 5 . a specific trigonometric substitution may be helpful in evaluating the indefinite integral.
# dx = 25 + x 2 d # 5 sec ii i 5 sec = 2 # sec id i 25 + x 2 x + 5 +C 5 = ln sec i + tan i + C = ln .1 $ 4 =4 .2) Figure 52 Diagram for Example 518. CliffsQuickReview Calculus #x 2 dx = 4 .72 hence. 25 + x 2 Because the radical has the form a 2 + x 2 let x = a tan i = 5 tan i dx = 5 sec 2 id i and 25 + x 2 = 5 sec i (Figure 5 .x2 +C 4x Example 518: Evaluate # dx . 25 + x2 x θ 5 hence.1 cot i + C 4 =.x2 +C x 4.x2 2 di # (4 sin cos)(i2 cos i) i 2 =1 4 =1 4 d # sinii 2 # csc 2 id i =.
at t = 0. at t = 0. the initial velocity (v0) is v 0 = v (0) = (. In the discussion of the applications of the derivative.32t + C 1 Now.Chapter 5: Integration 73 Distance. velocity.16 (0) 2 + v 0 (0) + C 2 s0 = C 2 . Using the fact that the velocity is the indefinite integral of the acceleration. the initial distance (s0) is s 0 = s (0) =. is negative because the velocity is decreasing as the time increases. write v(t) = –32t + v0.32t + v 0 ) dt 2 =. In considering the relationship between the derivative and the indefinite integral as inverse operations. In case of a freefalling object.32)( 0) + C 1 v0 = C 1 hence. Velocity. note that the derivative of a distance function represents instantaneous velocity and that the derivative of the velocity function represents instantaneous acceleration at a particular time. the acceleration due to gravity is –32 ft/sec2.32dt =. you find that s (t) = # v (t) dt = # (. note that the indefinite integral of the acceleration function represents the velocity function and that the indefinite integral of the velocity represents the distance function.16t 2 + v 0 t + C 2 Now. Because the distance is the indefinite integral of the velocity.32 $ t2 + v 0 t + C 2 =. because the constant of integration for the velocity in this situation is equal to the initial velocity. you find that a (t) = s m(t) =. and acceleration.32 v (t) = s l(t) = = # s m(t) dt # . and Acceleration The indefinite integral is commonly applied in problems involving distance. each of which is a function of time. The significance of the negative is that the rate of change of the velocity with respect to time (acceleration).
8. v0 = 0 m/sec because it begins at rest. write s(t) = –16t2 + v0 (t) + s0.32t . and s0 = –35 m because the missile is below ground level.64 ft/ sec s 0 = 512 ft hence. Example 521: A missile is accelerating at a rate of 4t m/sec2 from a position at rest in a silo 35 m below ground level.192 ft/ sec hence. you find that v (4) =. the ball will reach the ground 4 seconds after it is thrown. you find that a (t) =.64t + 512 The distance is zero when the ball reaches the ground or .74 CliffsQuickReview Calculus hence. . Example 520: In the previous example. t = 4 hence.16 (t + 8)( t . v (t) =.16 (t 2 + 4t . what will the velocity of the ball be when it hits the ground? Because v(t) = –32(t) – 64 and it takes 4 seconds for the ball to reach the ground. How long will it take for the ball to reach the ground? From the given conditions. Example 519: A ball is thrown downward from a height of 512 feet with a velocity of 64 feet per second.32 (4) . How high above the ground will it be after 6 seconds? From the given conditions.16t 2 .4) = 0 t =. hence.32) = 0 .16t 2 .64 s (t) =. because the constant of integration for the distance in this situation is equal to the initial distance.32 ft/ sec 2 v 0 =.64t + 512 = 0 . the ball will hit the ground with a velocity of –192 ft/sec. you find that a(t) = 4t m/sec2. The significance of the negative velocity is that the rate of change of the distance with respect to time (velocity) is negative because the distance is decreasing as the time increases.64 =.
Definite Integrals The definite integral of a function is closely related to the antiderivative and indefinite integral of a function. or zero. An arbitrary domain value.35 3 2 (6) 3 .b]. If f (x) < 0 on [a. is chosen in each subinterval. then the Riemann sum will be a negative real number. and you will see that the definite integral will have applications to many problems in calculus.b] is expressed as S n = f (x 1 ) ∆x + f (x 2 ) ∆x + f (x 3 ) ∆x + $$$ + f (x n ) ∆x or S n = ! f (x i ) ∆x i=1 n A Riemann sum may.b].Chapter 5: Integration 75 v (t) = # 4t dt = 2t # 2t 2 2 dt = 2 t 3 . is determined. if it exists. is a real number value. xi.35m = 109m After 6 seconds. For example. therefore. depending upon the behavior of the function on the closed interval. the missile will be 109 m above the ground after 6 seconds. The product of each function value times the corresponding subinterval length is determined. f (xi).b]. if f (x) > 0 on [a. be thought of as a “sum of n products. Definition of definite integrals The development of the definition of the definite integral begins with a function f (x). The given interval is partitioned into “n” subintervals that. and these “n” products are added to determine their sum.3] using the four subintervals of equal length. then the Riemann sum will be a positive real number. . where xi is the right endpoint in the ith subinterval (see Figure 53). negative. although not necessary. The relationship between these concepts is will be discussed in the section on the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. you find that s (6) = 3 and s (t) = hence. which is continuous on a closed interval [a. can be taken to be of equal lengths (∆x). The Riemann sum of the function f (x) on [a. while the latter two represent an infinite number of functions that differ only by a constant. The primary difference is that the indefinite integral. and its subsequent function value. This sum is referred to as a Riemann sum and may be positive.” Example 522: Evaluate the Riemann sum for f (x) = x2 on [1.
y 8 6 4 2 y= x2 x 1 3/2 2 5/2 3 4 .76 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Because the subintervals are to be of equal lengths. 9 + 4 + 25 + 9 E $ 1 2 4 4 = . 86 E $ 1 4 2 S 4 = 43 4 Figure 53 A Riemann sum with four subintervals.a n 31 = 4 =1 2 The Riemann sum for four subintervals is S 4 = ! f (x i ) ∆x i=1 4 = f (x 1 ) ∆x + f (x 2 ) ∆x + f (x 3 ) ∆x + f (x 4 ) ∆x = [f (x 1 ) + f (x 2 ) + f (x 3 ) + f (x 4 )] ∆x = = f c 3 m + f (2) + f c 5 m + f (3)G $ 1 2 2 2 = . you find that ∆x = b .
In other words. The numbers a and b are called the limits of integration with a referred to as the lower limit of integration while b is referred to as the upper limit of integration. is used to define the definite integral of a function on [a.b]. is the same symbol used previously for the indefinite integral of a function. then the definite integral of f (x) on [a.Chapter 5: Integration 77 If the number of subintervals is increased repeatedly. This may be restated as follows: If the number of subintervals increases without bound (n → +∞). Also. As with differentiation. This limit of a Riemann sum. The function f (x) is called the integrand. but the converse is not necessarily true. used with the indefinite integral. Note that the symbol ∫. Unfortunately. the effect would be that the length of each subinterval would get smaller and smaller. the fact that the definite integral of a function exists on a closed interval does not imply that the value of the definite integral is easy to find. The question of the existence of the limit of a Riemann sum is important to consider because it determines whether the definite integral exists for a function on a closed interval. a significant relationship exists between continuity and integration and is summarized as follows: If a function f (x) is continuous on a closed interval [a. . The reason for this will be made more apparent in the following discussion of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f (x) is defined on the closed interval [a. then the length of each subinterval approaches zero (∆x →0).b]. if it exists. and the variable x is the variable of integration. keep in mind that the definite integral is a unique real number and does not represent an infinite number of functions that result from the indefinite integral of a function.b] then the definite integral of f (x) from a to b is defined as # f (x) dx = lim S b a n "+3 n n = lim = lim n "+3 ! f (x ) Dx i i=1 n i Dx " 0 ! f (x ) Dx i=1 if this limit exits.b] exists and f is said to be integrable on [a. continuity guarantees that the definite integral exists.b].
then # f (x) dx $ 0 # f (x) dx # 0 a 9. If a. b] and f (x) = 1 ba # f (x) dx b a Example 523: Evaluate # 3 dx 6 2 # 3 dx = 3 (6 . # f (x) dx = 0 a a # f (x) dx =. Difference Rule : # [ f (x) . If f (x) # 0 on [a. 3. then at least one number c exists in the open interval (a. If f (x) $ g (x) on [a. Some of the more common properties are 1. then 8.b]. Sum Rule : # [ f (x) + g (x)] dx = # a b a b f (x) dx + b a # g (x) dx b a 6. The Mean Value Theorem for Definite Integrals: If f (x) is continu ous on the closed interval [a. If f (x) $ 0 on [a. 4. then # a b f (x) dx = # a c f (x) dx + # f (x) dx c 11.g (x)] dx = # a b f (x) dx  # g (x) dx b a 7. b) such that # f (x) dx = f (c)( b .a) b a The value of f (c) is called the average or mean value of the function f (x) on the interval [a. b]. where c is a constant a # a b cf (x) dx = c b a # f (x) dx b a b 5.# f (x) dx b a a b b # c dx = c (b . b].a).2) 6 2 = 12 . then # a b b f (x) dx $ # g (x) dx b a 10.78 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Properties of definite integrals Certain properties are useful in solving problems requiring the application of the definite integral. and c are any three points on a closed interval. b. b]. 2.
4x 2 dx =. 7 7 3 3 7 # [ f (x) . 9 9 2 6 # f (x) dx.2 . 3 1 # [ f (x) + g (x)] dx 3 1 3 1 # [f (x) + g (x)] dx = # 1 3 f (x) dx + # g (x) dx 3 1 = 6 + 10 = 16 Example 528: Given that 7 evaluate # [ f (x) .36 Example 525: Given that # 4 4 9 9 4 x dx = 38 .9 =.g (x)] dx = # 3 3 f (x) dx  # g (x) dx 7 3 =.11 Example 529: Given that evaluate # f (x) dx = 12 and # f (x) = 7.4 # 0 3 x 2 dx = (.38 3 # 4 9 x dx Example 526: Evaluate # (x 3 + 5x 2 . 3 7 # f (x)dx =. 6 2 .Chapter 5: Integration 79 Example 524: Given that # 0 3 x 2 dx = 9.2 and # g (x) dx = 9. evaluate # .4) $ 9 =. evaluate # x dx 3 9 # x dx ==. 3 3 # (x 3 3 3 + 5x 2 .3x + 11) dx = 0 3 Example 527: Given that evaluate # 1 f (x) dx = 6 and # g (x) dx = 10.3x + 11) dx.4x 2 dx 3 0 # 0 3 .g (x)] dx.
6). and hence. which is very important because evaluating the limit of Riemann sum can be extremely timeconsuming and difficult.80 CliffsQuickReview Calculus # 2 9 f (x) dx = f (x) dx = # 2 6 f (x) dx + f (x) dx  # f (x) dx 9 6 # 2 6 # 2 9 # f (x) dx 9 6 = 12 . the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem is satisfied for this value of c.b].2 = 19 = 21 c = ! 21 Because 21 . By the Mean Value Theorem ValueTheorem . f (c) = 1 ba # f (x) dx b a f (c) = 1 ba # (x 6 3 2 . then # f (x) dx = F (b) . and F(x) is any antiderivative of f (x) on b [a.F (a) = F (x)A b .7 =5 Example 530: Given that # (x 6 3 2 .2 c 2 = x 2 .58 is in the interval (3. 4.a) b a for some c in (a. # f (x) dx = f (c)( b .b]. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus establishes the relationship between indefinite and definite integrals and introduces a technique for evaluating definite integrals without using Riemann sums. f (c) = c 2 . The statement of the theorem is: If f (x) is continuous on the interval [a.2) dx = 1 $ 57 3 = 19 Because f (x) and c 2 . b).2. a a .2) dx = 57 find all c values that satisfy the Mean Value Theorem for the given function on the closed interval.
and you 3 find that # 1 4 4 x 1/2 dx = 2 x 3/2 B 3 1 = 2 (4) 3/2 . choose the constant of integration to be zero for all definite integral evaluations after Example 531. an antiderivative of x 1/2 is 2 x 3/2 .1) .1 2 Example 533: Evaluate # 1 4 x dx. the value of the definite integral of a function on [a. you find that # 2r sin x dx = . Because the general antiderivative of x2 is (1/3)x3 + C.2 m =. Because x = x 1/2 .. r/3 Because an antiderivative of sin x is – cos x. Keeping this in mind. you find that # 2 5 5 x 2 dx = .2 (1) 3/2 3 3 = 16 .cos x @ 2r3 r/ 1 = (.Chapter 5: Integration 81 In other words.8 3 3 = 39 Example 532: Evaluate # r/3 2r sinx sin dx. Example 531: Evaluate # 2 5 x 2 dx. 1 (5) 3 + C E .b] is the difference of any antiderivative of the function evaluated at the upper limit of integration minus the same antiderivative evaluated at the lower limit of integration. Because the constants of integration are the same for both parts of this difference.2 3 3 = 14 3 .c . 1 (2) 3 + C E 3 3 = 125 . they are ignored in the evaluation of the definite integral because they subtract and yield zero. 1 x 3 + C E 3 2 = .
When x = 1. The methods of substitution and change of variables.6) . you find that # (x 3 1 2 3 .1 8(6) . 1 (1) 3 . u = 6.16 3 Definite integral evaluation The numerous techniques that can be used to evaluate indefinite integrals can also be used to evaluate definite integrals.2 (1) 2 + 1E 3 3 = (.2 B 4 1 1 1 =. trigonometric integrals.4x + 1) dx Because an antiderivative of x2 – 4x + 1 is (1/3)x3 – 2x2 + x.2 m 3 =.4x + 1) dx = .2E 2 2 3 =.2x 2 + x E 3 1 = . u = 3 and when x = 2. integration by parts.(3) . you find that # 1 2 x dx = 1 (x + 2) 3 2 2 # 3 6 6 du u3 =1 2 # 3 u . Example 535: Evaluate # 1 2 x dx (x 2 + 2) 3 u= x2+ 2 du = 2x dx 1 du = x dx 2 Using the substitution method with the limits of integration can be converted from x values to their corresponding u values. 1 x 3 .. and trigonometric substitution are illustrated in the following examples.82 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 534: Evaluate # (x 3 1 2 .c .2 (3) 2 + 3 E .3 du 6 = 1 ..c m 4 36 9 = 1 48 .1 u .2 . 1 (3) 3 .
r m c cos r m + sin r G .= c .x cos x + sin x + C hence.2 6 = 63 3+r 6 . r Using the substitution method with u = sin x + 1. hence.# . # r/2 r/3 x sin x dx = 6 .2 3 Note that you never had to return to the trigonometric functions in the original integral to evaluate the definite integral.cos x dx =.Chapter 5: Integration 83 Note that when the substitution method is used to evaluate definite integrals. # 3r/2 sin x + 1 cos x dx = # 1 0 u 1/2 du r 0 = 2 u 3/2 @ 1 3 = 2 8 0 3/2 .13/2 B 3 =.r m c cos r m + sin r G 2 2 2 3 3 3 J N 3 = (0 + 1) .K . du = cos x dx.x cos x + sin x @ r//2 r3 = = c . you find that u = 1 when x = π and u = 0 when x = 3π/2. r/3 Using integration by parts with u = x and dv = sin x dx du = dx v = –cos x you find that # x sin x dx =. Example 537: Evaluate # r/2 x sin x dx.r + 2 O K 6 O L P 3 =1+ r .x cos x . it is not necessary to go back to the original variable if the limits of integration are converted to the new variable values. Example 536: Evaluate # 3r/2 sin x + 1 cos x dx.
1) dx = # ( cot x csc x . 1 (e) 3 ln e . 1 x 3 ln x .1 E 3 9 9 2 = 9 e3+ 1 9 1 (2e 3 + 1) =9 Example 539: Evaluate # r/2 cot 4 x dx r/4 # cot 4 x dx = # cot x cot x dx = # cot x ( csc x .1) dx 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 =. 1 (1) 3 ln 1 . 0 .1 (e) 3 E . Using integration by parts with u = ln x and dv = x 2 dx du = 1 dx v = 1 x 3 x 3 you find that #x 2 ln x dx = 1 x 3 ln x 3 = 1 x 3 ln x 3 = 1 x 3 ln x 3 = 1 x 3 ln x 3 #c1 x 3 1 3 1 3 1 9 3 1 m c x m dx #x 2 dx $ 1 x3+ C 3 x3+ C hence.1 x 3 E 3 9 1 = . 1 (e) 3 .cot x) dx = # cot x csc x dx .1 (1) 3 E 3 9 3 9 = ..# ( csc x ..# cot x dx = # cot x csc x dx .1 cot 3 x + cot x + x + C 3 .84 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 538: Evaluate # 1 e x 2 ln x dx.1 (e) 3 E . # 1 e e x 2 ln x dx = .
3 dx . let x = a tan θ = 3 tan θ dx = 3 sec2 θ d θ and x2 + 9 = 9sec2 θ (Figure 54) Figure 54 Diagram for Example 541.r/2 3r/2 cos 2 4x dx = ..0 + 0 + r E . # r/2 r/4 r/2 cot 4 x dx = .4r)G 2 2 2 16 16 = .1 + 1 + r E 2 3 4 = r . # 3r/2 .2 or 3r . ... .Chapter 5: Integration 85 hence.= 1 c .r/2 r = = 1 c 32 m + 1 sin 12r G .r + 0 E 4 4 = 4r 4 =r Example 541: Evaluate # 3 Because the integrand contains the form a2 + x2. 1 x + 1 sin 8x E 2 16 . . x2+ 9 x2 + 9 x θ 3 .r m + 1 sin (. 3r + 0 E .8 12 4 3 Example 540: Evaluate # 3r/2 cos 2 4x dx.r/2 # cos 2 4x dx = # c 1 + cos 8x m dx 2 = 1 x + 1 sin 8x + C 2 16 hence.1 cot 3 x + cot x + x E 3 r/4 = .
5 x θ 25 − x2 .x 2 dx.x 2 .x 2 = 5 cos i (Figure 55).3 3 E 3 3 x + 9 3 2 = 1 7 arctan1 . x Because the radical has the form a 2 . Figure 55 Diagram for Example 542.c.arctan(. CliffsQuickReview Calculus sec d # x dx 9 = # 39 seciii + 2 2 2 = 1 # di 3 = 1i+C 3 1 arctan 1 x + C =3 3 and # dx = 1 arctan 1 x 3 . let x = a sin i = 5 sin i dx = 5 cos i d i and 25 .86 Hence.r mG 3 4 4 = 1 crm 3 2 =r 6 Example 542: Evaluate # 3 4 25 .1)A 3 = 1 = r .
x 2 dx = x i # 5 cosi (5 cos i d i) 5 sin =5 =5 # cos ii d i sin 2 2 sin # 1 sin i i d i = 5 # ( csc i . Evaluate 4. # xe # 0 x dx. Evaluate #c1 + x 2 3 x . 3 .1 = 5 ln 3 . x ex – ex + C 4. # x x+ 1 dx.e x + sin x m dx.5 ln 5 + x =. r 2 # 1 2 4.x 2 + 25 .6 .5 ln csc i + cot i + 5 cos i + C =.1 2 Chapter Checkout Q&A 1.5 ln + 25 . # 25 . ln x 2/3 x3/2 – ex – cos x + C 2.x W x S W T X3 = 6 . 1/4 5.Chapter 5: Integration 87 Hence. Evaluate 5.r 3 .x 2 +5$ x 25 .5 ln 2 + 3 @ . Evaluate 3. ln x 3 + 1 /3 + C 3. sin x cos 3 x dx.x 2 2W = S .sin i) d i =. x2 Answers: 1.x2 dx.x 2 dx x R V4 S 5 + 25 .x 2 + C x and # 3 4 25 .1n2) . Evaluate 2.x 2 +C 5 5 + 25 .5 ln 25 .5 ln 3 + 4 @ = 5 ( ln 3 .
Those considered in this chapter are areas The definite integral of a function hasrevolution. above the xaxis.b]. volumes of solids of the lengths of arcs of a curve. then the area (A) of the region lying below the graph of f (x).Chapter 6 APPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL Chapter CheckIn ❑ ❑ ❑ Calculating areas with definite integrals Finding volumes with definite integrals Computing arc lengths with definite integrals applications to many problems in calculus. Area The area of a region bounded by a graph of a function. and two vertical boundaries can be determined directly by evaluating a definite integral. and between the lines x = a and x = b is A= # a b f ^ x h dx . andbounded by curves. the xaxis. volumes by slicing. If f (x) > 0 on [a.
the xaxis.b]. below the xaxis.Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 89 Figure 61 Finding the area under a nonnegative function. and the lines x = a and x = b would be determined by the following definite integrals: A= A= # a b f (x) dx f (x) dx  # a c # f (x) dx b c . then the area (A) of the region lying above the graph of f (x). y y= f(x) a b x If f (x) ≤ 0 on [a. and between the lines x = a and x = b is A= # f (x)dx b a or A = # f (x)dx b a Figure 62 Finding the area above a negative function. then the area (A) of the region bounded by the graph of f (x).c] and f (x) ≤ 0 on [c. y a b x y= f(x) If f (x) > 0 on [a.b].
it is necessary to determined the position of each graph relative to the graphs of the other functions of the region. y y= f(x) a c b x Note that in this situation it would be necessary to determine all points where the graph f (x) crosses the xaxis and the sign of f (x) on each corresponding interval.90 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Figure 63 The area bounded by a function whose sign changes. As an example. The points of intersection of the graphs might need to be found in order to identify the limits of integration. if f (x) > g (x) on [a.g (x)B dx b a Figure 64 The area between two functions.b]. then the area (A) of the region between the graphs of f (x) and g (x) and the lines x = a and x = b is A= # 8 f (x) . For some problems that ask for the area of regions bounded by the graphs of two or more functions. y y= f(x) a b x y= g(x) .
0] and f (x) ≤ 0 on [0.16 m 3 4 1 A = 253 or 21 12 12 .2) = 0 x = 0.6x) dx 3 0 2 = . and x = 3.3.6) = 0 x (x + 3)( x . Setting y = 0 to determine where the graph intersects the xaxis. and the lines y = a and y = b. 1 x 4 + 1 x 3 .6x) dx 3 0 (x 3 + x 2 . x = –2. x = 2 Because f (x) > 0 on [–3.2 3 = 1 (3) 3 .6x = 0 x (x 2 + x . the yaxis. x =. Example 61: Find the area of the region bounded by y = x2.3x 2 E 3 3 4 4 0 3 = 63 . the area (A) of the region is A= = # # 2 (x 3 + x 2 .c .2] (see Figure 65).3x 2 E . 1 x 4 + 1 x 3 .Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 91 Note that an analogous discussion could be given for areas determined by graphs of functions of y.3]. Because f (x) > 0 on [–2. the xaxis.. the area (A) is A= # 3 x 2 dx 2 3 = 1 x 3@ .6x) dx  # 0 2 (x 3 + x 2 .1 (. you find that x 3 + x 2 .2) 3 3 3 A = 35 or 11 2 3 3 Example 62: Find the area of the region bounded by y = x3 + x2 – 6x and the xaxis.
x = 2 hence.2) = 0 x =.2 x 3 E 3 2 = 32 .x2 2x 2 . you find that x2= 8 . Because y = x2 and y = 8 – x2.32 m 3 3 A = 64 or 21 1 3 3 . the area (A) of the region is A= = # # 2 2 2 8(8 .2x 2 ) dx 2 2 = .8 = 0 2 (x 2 .x ) . y 8 y= x2 + x3 − 6x 4 2 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 x 2 4 6 Example 63: Find the area bounded by y = x2 and y = 8 – x2. the curves intersect at (–2.2. 8x .2] (see Figure 66).(x )B dx 2 2 (8 .4) = 0 2 (x + 2)( x .c .4). Because 8 – x2 > x2 on [–2.4) and (2.92 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Figure 65 Diagram for Example 62.
then their areas will be functions of x. . then their areas will be functions of y. y y= x2 8 6 (−2. If the cross sections generated are perpendicular to the xaxis. Because the cross sections are squares perpendicular to the yaxis.b] is V= # A (y) dy b a Example 64: Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region inside the circle x2 + y2 = 9 if cross sections taken perpendicular to the yaxis are squares. the volume (V ) of the solid on [a. provided you know a formula for the region determined by each cross section. denoted by A(y).Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 93 Figure 66 Diagram for Example 63.b] is V= # A (x) dx b a If the cross sections are perpendicular to the yaxis. the area of each cross section should be expressed as a function of y. In this case. The volume (V ) of the solid on the interval [a. The length of the side of the square is determined by two points on the circle x2 + y2 = 9 (Figure 67).4) y= 8 − x2 −4 −2 x 2 4 Volumes of Solids with Known Cross Sections You can use the definite integral to find the volume of a solid with specific cross sections on an interval.4) 4 2 (2. denoted by A(x).
y 2 C A (y) = 4 (9 .y 2 ) dy 3 3 = 4 . 9y . x = 0.18)A V = 144 Example 65: Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region bounded by the lines x + 4y = 4. and y = 0.y 2. A (y) = 9 2 9 . where s = 2 9 . y 3 −3 −3 3 x2 + y 2 = 9 x The area (A) of an arbitrary square cross section is A = s2.y 2 ) 2 The volume (V ) of the solid is V= # 3 4 (9 .94 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Figure 67 Diagram for Example 64. . hence.(. if the cross sections taken perpendicular to the xaxis are semicircles.1 y 3 E 3 3 = 4 718 .
16x .Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 95 Because the cross sections are semicircles perpendicular to the xaxis.8x + x 2 ) dx 4 1 = 128 r .x and r = 4 .x 8 4 2 A (x) = 1 r c 4 . The diameter of the semicircle is determined by a point on the line x + 4y = 4 and a point on the xaxis (Figure 68).x) dx 1 = 128 r # 0 4 (16 . 64 E 3 V= r 6 . y x + 4y =4 2 −2 x 2 4 The area (A) of an arbitrary semicircle cross section is 2 A = 1 rr 2 = 1 r c 1 d m 2 2 2 where hence.4x 2 + 1 x 3 E 3 0 1 = 128 r . the area of each cross section should be expressed as a function of x.x m 2 8 1 A (x) = 128 r ^ 4 . Figure 68 Diagram for Example 65.x h 2 The volume (V ) of the solid is V= # 0 4 2 1 128 r (4 . d = 4 .
The volume (V ) of a solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = f (x) and the xaxis on the interval [a. then its radius should be expressed as a function of x. .b] is revolved about the yaxis. Example 66: Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and the xaxis on [2. washers. Disk method If the axis of revolution is the boundary of the plane region and the cross sections are taken perpendicular to the axis of revolution.b] about the xaxis is V= # a b r 8 f (x)B dx 2 If the region bounded by x = f (y) and the yaxis on [a.96 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Volumes of Solids of Revolution You can also use the definite integral to find the volume of a solid that is obtained by revolving a plane region about a horizontal or vertical line that does not pass through the plane. Because the xaxis is a boundary of the region. then its radius should be expressed as a function of y. then its volume (V ) is V= # a b r 8 f (y)B dy 2 Note that f (x) and f (y) represent the radii of the disks or the distance between a point on the curve to the axis of revolution. This type of solid will be made up of one of three types of elements—disks. If a disk is perpendicular to the xaxis. then you use the disk method to find the volume of the solid. or cylindrical shells—each of which requires a different approach in setting up the definite integral to determine its volume. the volume of each disk is its area times its thickness. you can use the disk method (see Figure 69). Because the cross section of a disk is a circle with area πr2.3] about the xaxis. If a disk is perpendicular to the yaxis.
y 8 y= x2 6 4 2 f(x) −4 −2 x 2 4 The volume (V ) of the solid is V= # 3 r (x 2 ) 2 dx 3 2 =r # x 4 dx 2 3 = r . about the xaxis is . The volume (V ) of a solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = f (x) and y = g (x) on the interval [a.Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 97 Figure 69 Diagram for Example 66. then the area of the washer is πR2 – πr2. and its volume would be its area times its thickness.c 5 m G 5 V = 55r Washer method If the axis of revolution is not a boundary of the plane region and the cross sections are taken perpendicular to the axis of revolution. Think of the washer as a “disk with a hole in it” or as a “disk with a disk removed from its center.b] where f (x) > g (x). If a washer is perpendicular to the yaxis. you use the washer method to find the volume of the solid. then the radii should be expressed as functions of y. As noted in the discussion of the disk method.” If R is the radius of the outer disk and r is the radius of the inner disk. if a washer is perpendicular to the xaxis. 1 x 5E 5 2 32 = r = 243 . then the inner and outer radii should be expressed as functions of x.
98 CliffsQuickReview Calculus V= # a b r %8 f (x)B . Figure 610 Diagram for Example 67.6) x 2 4 .2] (Figure 610).3) and (2. Example 67: Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 + 2 and y = x + 4 about the xaxis.6) with x + 4 > x2 + 2 on [–1.3) 2 f(x)= x + 4 −4 −2 −2 g(x) f(x) (2.2 = 0 (x + 1)( x . you find that x2+ 2 = x+ 4 x2. Because y = x2 + 2 and y = x + 4. x = 2 The graphs will intersect at (–1. where f (y) > g (y) is revolved about the yaxis.x . then its volume (V ) is V= # a b r %8 f (y)B .8 g (y)B / dy 2 2 Note again that f (x) and g (x) and f (y) and g (y) represent the outer and inner radii of the washers or the distance between a point on each curve to the axis of revolution.b].8 g (x)B / dx 2 2 If the region bounded by x = f (y) and x = g (y) on [a. y g(x)= x2 + 2 8 6 4 (−1.1.2) = 0 x =.
then the radius and height should be expressed in terms of y. about the yaxis is V= # 2rx f (x) dx b a If the region bounded by x = f (y) and the yaxis on the interval [a.` x 4 + 4x 2 + 4 j D dx 2 4 2 ` . where f (y) > 0.3x + 8x + 12 j dx 1 =r # 1 2 = r . (2πrh). then its volume would be 2πrh times its thickness. Think of the first part of this product. The volume (V ) of a solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = f (x) and the xaxis on the interval [a. If the cylindrical shell has radius r and height h.Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 99 Because the xaxis is not a boundary of the region. then the cylindrical shell method will be used to find the volume of the solid. If.b].c . the axis of revolution is horizontal.1 x 5 .b]. you can use the washer method. where f (x) > 0. then the radius and height should be expressed in terms of x.x 3 + 4x 2 + 12x E 5 1 =r = 128 .` x 2 + 2 j D dx 2 1 2 r : ` x 2 + 8x + 16 j .x . The f (x) and f (y) factors represent the heights of the cylindrical shells. and the volume (V ) of the solid is V= = # # 2 r :^ x + 4 h 2 . then its volume (V ) is V= # 2ry f (y) dy b a Note that the x and y in the integrands represent the radii of the cylindrical shells or the distance between the cylindrical shell and the axis of revolution. If the axis of revolution is vertical. is revolved about the xaxis. as the area of the rectangle formed by cutting the shell perpendicular to its radius and laying it out flat.34 m G 5 5 V = 162r 5 Cylindrical shell method If the cross sections of the solid are taken parallel to the axis of revolution. however. . .
In using the cylindrical shell method.3] about the yaxis. Figure 611 Diagram for Example 68. 1 x 4 E 4 1 = 1 r (81 .1) 2 V = 40r .100 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 68: Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and the xaxis [1. the integral should be expressed in terms of x because the axis of revolution is vertical. y 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) y= x2 −4 −2 −2 x x 2 4 The volume (V ) of the solid is V= # 1 3 2rx $ x 2 dx = 2r # 1 3 x 3 dx 3 = 2r . The radius of the shell is x. and the height of the shell is f (x) = x2 (Figure 611).
b] is L= # a b 1 + 8 f l(y)B dy 2 Example 69: Find the arc length of the graph of f (x) = 1 x 3/2 on the inter3 val [0.5]. Because f (x) = 1 x 3/2 3 f l(x) = 1 x 1/2 2 2 5 L = # 1 + c 1 x 1/2 m dx 2 0 = = and # 0 0 5 1 + 1 x dx 4 1/2 # c1 + 1 x m 4 5 dx 5 3/2 = = 4 $ 2 c1 + 1 x m G 3 4 0 = 8 c 27 . The function and its derivative must both be continuous on the closed interval being considered for such an arc length to be guaranteed.Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 101 Arc Length The length of an arc along a portion of a curve is another application of the definite integral.b]. then the arc length (L) of f (y) on [a.b] is L= # a b 1 + 8 f l(x)B dx 2 Similarly. If y = f (x) and y'= f'(x) are continuous on the closed interval [a. if x = f (y) and x' = f'(y) are continuous on the closed interval [a. then the arc length (L) of f (x) on [a.1m 3 8 L = 19 3 .b].
and y = 0.102 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 610: Find the arc length of the graph of f (x) = ln (sin x) on the interval [π/4.8813736 Chapter Checkout Q&A 1.b . Find the area of the region bounded by y = x – 25x and the xaxis. .ln csc x + cot x B = ^ . Find the area of the region bounded by y = x and y = x. Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region bounded by the 2 3 lines x + 5y = 5. if cross sections taken perpendicular to the xaxis are squares. f (x) = ln ( sin x) x f l(x) = cosx = cot x sin Because and L= = = # # r/2 1 + cot 2 x dx csc 2 x dx r/4 r/2 r/4 # csc x dx r/2 r/4 r/2 r/4 = 8 . π/2].ln = 0 + ln L = ln 2+1 2+1l 2+1 L .ln l h . x = 0. 2. 0. 3.
1/6 3. Answers: 1. 625/2 2. Find the arc length of the graph of f (x) = ln(sec x) on the interval [0. 5/3 4. π/6]. 2π/15 5. 5. (ln 3)/2 . Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = x2 and y = x about the xaxis.Chapter 6: Applications of the Definite Integral 103 4.
e. c. Two nonvertical. d.CQR REVIEW Use this CQR Review to practice what you’ve learned in this book. d. 6. cos(x – y) 1/cot x cos (–x) cos x/sin x csc2x – 1 sin2x + cos2x . Chapter 1 1. 4. Any nonvertical lines are parallel if they have _____. b. Which of the following are functions? a. b. you’re well on your way to achieving your goal of understanding calculus. e. d. c. Find an equation of the line that has slope 6/5 and crosses the yaxis at 3. After you work through the review questions. b. nonhorizontal lines are perpendicular if the prod uct of their slopes is _____. Complete the trigonometric identity for the following: a. f. m = rise / run m = (y1 – x1) / (y2 – x2) m = (y1 – y2) / (x1 – x2) m = (y2 – y1) / (x2 – x1) f(x) = 5x + 3 y = cos 5x x=2 f(x) = 6/(x2 + 4) x2 + y2 = 144 2. c. 3. Which of the following can not be used to find the slope of a line? a. 5.
14. Complete the following statements about trigonometric function dif ferentiation. In addition to the notation f '(x). f. b. e. The point (x. which the following can be used to represent the derivative of y = f (x)? a. d. x " 1 8. then f '(x) = If f (x) = cot x. 12. then f '(x) = If f (x) = sec x. If the derivative of a function is less than zero at each point on an interval I. If the derivative of a function is greater than zero at each point on an interval I.1 . 11. Dfx df (x)/dx y' dx/dy 10. Find y' if y = 3 sin x + π.x3 . then f '(x) = If f (x) = tan x. then f '(x) = If f (x) = csc x.CQR Review 105 Chapter 2 7. Evaluate lim x3. then the function is said to be ______ on I. then the function is said to be _____ on I. f (x)) is called a critical point of f (x) if x is in the ______ of the function.1 1 . c. If f (x) = sin x.1 Chapter 3 9. then f '(x) = If f (x) = cos x. a. Find f '(x) if f ^ x h = Chapter 4 13. then f '(x) = x 2 + 1. 3 2 x " + 3 3x + x . . 15. d. c. The _____ is the line that is perpendicular to the tangent line at the point of tangency. b. and either f '(x) = ______ or ______. Evaluate lim x .
5]. 20. b. . What’s wrong with the problem “A rectangular box is to have a vol ume of 8 square units. 27.3) and decreasing on the interval (3. Evaluate # cos 6 x sin 3 x dx. 18. c. how fast is the depth changing? 22. If the volume is increasing at a rate of 2 cubic inches per minute. Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = x – 3x – 9x + 4 3 2 on the interval [–2. Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) = sin(x ) at 2 the point (0. Find the maximum surface area such a box could have.6]. Water is dripping into a cylindrical can with a radius of 3 inches.1/e). If you know that a function is increasing on the interval (0. Find the rate of change of the distance between the two cars when both are 1 mile from the intersection. one heading north at a rate of 65 mph and the second heading west at a rate of 45 mph. 19.b] is the ______ of any ______ evaluated at the upper limit of integration minus the same antiderivative evaluated at the lower limit of integration. 23.0). x2+ 1 21.” Chapter 5 25.106 CliffsQuickReview Calculus 16. does this imply that the function has a local maximum when x = 3? What sorts of situations are possible? 24. d. Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) = x e at the point (1. What is the acceleration of a freefalling object due to gravity? 26. According to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus: The value of the definite integral of a function on [a. Find the maximum value of y = x on the interval [0. Two cars are traveling toward an intersection. You can not use the Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema in which of the following situations? a. f '(x) = 0 and f"(x) = 0 f '(x) = 0 and f"(x) does not exist f '(x) = –(f"(x)) f '(x) does not exist 2 –x 17.6).
20] about the xaxis. 37. 36. 4 .1 x2 1 1 = 33. How long will it take for the ball to hit the ground? 32. x dx.3]. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = 1/x and the xaxis on [1. If a car takes s seconds to accelerate from 0 to 60 (and supposing constant acceleration). Find the area of the region bounded between y = x and y = 2 3 x.1 m # 1 1 1 dx =.CQR Review 107 28.. Is this the same as # f ^ x h dx ? b a . 40. Evaluate 29. 38. What’s wrong with the computation 1 . does it matter how far off the roadway the officer sits? (Hint: Think about it as a related rates problem with one of the rates of change being zero.x2 # 2 1 # x ln x dx.1x . 39. The area bounded by the function f (x) and the xaxis between x = a and x = b is given by (See Chapter 6. Evaluate 30. π] about the yaxis.) # a b f ^ x h dx . 31.) 34. Find the arc length of the line y = 2x on the interval [0. A rock is thrown upward from a 200 foot cliff with an initial veloc ity of 30 feet per second. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x and y = x . If a highway patrol officer is sitting off to the side of a road moni toring the speed of approaching traffic.1 m c . over what distance will it travel in the process? Chapter 6 35. Fast cars are often rated for how quickly they can accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour (which is equivalent to 88 feet per second).1 = 2? c. Evaluate # 0 1 xe x dx. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by y = sin x and the xaxis on [0.
(a) cos x cos y – sin x sin y (b) tan x (c) cos x (d) cot x (e) cot2x (f ) 1 7. If cost of materials were the only consideration.108 CliffsQuickReview Calculus 41. b and c 10. 2 ln 2 – 3/4 31. (a) cos x (b) –sin x (c) sec2 x (d) –csc2 x (e) sec x tan x (f ) –csc x cot x 11. Provide your own answer 20 41. 1 29. domain. presumably this would be the shape all canned goods would be sold in. maximum 58 19. and d 3. b. Why would this be so. a. minimum –23. Provide your own answer 33. 42. antideriva1 tive of the function 27. difference. y = 0 20. One of the early practical problems to which calculus was applied was determining the volume of a barrel that was filled with liquid when it was impractical to just pour the liquid out for measuring. 44s feet 35. normal line 3 sinx 2 x +1 21.x 2 9 30. 3 8. Provide your own answer 25. –1/3 9. increasing. a. . 1 cos 9 x . x 13. Yes.4 .6 seconds 32. 92 inches per minute 22.7 cos 7 x + C 28. b 2. 1/2 19r 36. 34. Provide your own answer 42. the same slope 4. but of course a trip to the grocery store makes it clear that few cans are this shape. approximately 4. Answers: 1. and d 17. –110/ 2 23. 1 x . 0. Provide your own answer π 24. 6x – 5y = –15 6. Provide your own answer 14. 1/2 e . does not exist 15. –32 ft/sec2 26. 2π2 38. decreasing l6. Find the dimensions of a cylinder with a volume of 100 cubic units which minimize surface area. 3 5 39. the greater the distance off the road the lower an approaching car’s speed is relative to the officer. –1 5.y = 0 18. 1 ^ sin + π h 12. 1/3 37. 19 40. Select an object with round cross sections and see how accurately you can find its volume by treating it as the solid of revolution generated by some curve. b. and what other factors influence the shapes of different cylindrical containers? Compare your ideas to the dimensions of actual cans to see how well they agree.
polynomials. area.CQR RESOURCE CENTER CQR Resource Center offers the best resources available in print and online to help you study and review the core concepts of calculus. and other material prerequisite for calculus. and the basics of coordinate geometry including plotting points. Inc.. Hungry Minds. polynomials.. inequalities.. plus study tips and tools to help test your knowledge. exponential and logarithmic functions. by Jerry Bobrow. sequences and series. by Jerry Bobrow. Kay. vectors. exponents. and inverse functions. decimals. Inc. distances.. graphing. If you need to brush up more of the prerequisites.. 2001.cliffsnotes. factoring. volume. Books This CliffsQuickReview book is just what it’s called. CliffsQuickReview Trigonometry. equations. Hungry Minds. CliffsQuickReview Geometry. You can find additional resources. factoring. the Pythagorean theorem. 2001. gives you a review of triangles. CliffsQuickReview Algebra II. 2001. by David A. roots. conic sections. complex numbers. Inc. midpoints. CliffsQuickReview Algebra I. and functions. 30°60°90° and 45°45°90° triangles. gives you a review of topics including the basics of working with fractions. complex numbers. . Hungry Minds. or if you want a fuller discussion or other practical advice. Hungry Minds. slopes and equations of lines. gives you a review of topics including solving systems of equations. and an introduction to algebraic expressions and solving equations. gives you a review of topics including sets. a quick review of calculus. gives you a review of topics including perimeter.com. check out these other publications: CliffsQuickReview Basic Math and PreAlgebra. by Edward Kohn and David Herzog. at www. 2001. powers. trigonometric functions and identities. Inc. Hungry Minds. 2001. by Edward Kohn. Inc. polar coordinates.
by Joel Hass. Cliffs Math Review for Standardized Tests. 2001. can give you all the extra practice problems you want. 1996. The book reviews crucial calculus topics. Hungry Minds. Each topicspecific review section includes a diagnostic test. CliffsAP Calculus AB and BC Preparation Guide. gives a lot of practical tips not just on the subject matter itself. helps you to review. by Elliot Mendelson. 1986. and a section devoted to key strategies. Finney. . The Story of Mathematics. rather than catering primarily to the arcane tastes of math professors. and prepare for standardized math tests. gives a very accessible account of the development of mathematics. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 3000 Solved Problems in Calculus. Abigail Thompson. Inc. by Jerry Bobrow. 2001. 1997. by David Berlinski. refresh.. 1992.110 CliffsQuickReview Calculus CliffsQuickReview Linear Algebra. is an indepth look at algebraic equations and inequalities. practice. Hungry Minds. Hungry Minds. from the earliest archeological evidence on. including calculus.. but also on picking teachers and preparing for tests.. and Colin Conrad Adams. Inc. this is the best place to go. gives a complete exploration of what many of the theorems of calculus really mean and a look at how the discipline of calculus is one of the human intellect’s most impressive accomplishments. by Kerry King. McGrawHill. Inc. W H Freeman & Co. is the most understandable standard calculus textbook available. 1998. Vintage Books.. Leduc. a review test.. and includes sample questions and tests. How to Ace Calculus: The Streetwise Guide. introduces testtaking strategies. A Tour of the Calculus. rules and key concepts. gives you tips and suggestions for getting the most credit you can on the Advanced Placement Calculus AB and BC tests. by Steven A. practice problems. Princeton University Press. glossary. by Richard Mankiewicz and Ian Stewart. by George Brinton Thomas and Ross L. 1985. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. If you want a complete treatment of calculus that’s meant more for students to learn from. and analysis for the most common types of standardized questions.
com/~hahn/calc.swarthmore. but it does offer easytouse online programs that do the heavy lifting for you—everything from graphing functions and equations to computing limits.com www. integration.utk. derivatives. edu/%7epscrooke/toolkit.math—is an awardwinning site that offers a free questionandanswer service.CQR Resource Center 111 Hungry Minds also has three Web sites that you can visit to read about all the books we publish: s s s www. Mathematics—www.com Internet Visit the following Web sites for more information about calculus: Ask Dr. Math—forum.html—is a complete calculus help site with entertaining and understandable explanations of most topics.S.O.com www. as well as archives of past questions and answers.math.sosmath.cliffsnotes.shtml—is not the most graphically exciting Web site out there. . and recommended books.hungryminds.edu/dr. including some animated graphics to demonstrate specific calculus ideas and some sample exams (with solutions).com—is a nice site with a broad range of helpful pages covering algebra through calculus and beyond.edu/visual .dummies.net—is an organized clearinghouse of links to a ton of other pages about math topics. Karl’s Calculus Tutor—www.math.calculus. free help with math problems. S. good links.netsrq. /archives.vanderbilt. The MathServ Calculus Toolkit—http://mss. and sequences and series. calculus@internet—www. limits.calculus/— Visual Calculus —http:/ is an awardwinning Web site from the University of Tennessee that offers a wide variety of stepbystep illustrated tutorials on calculus topics including precalculus. continuity.
stand. We created an online Resource Center that you can use today. Help With Calculus For Idiots (Like Me)—ccwf.calculus.html—gives a good yet very brief survey of the origins of many of the major parts of modern calculus.thinkquest.us/www/alvirne.utexas.112 CliffsQuickReview Calculus The BHS Calculus Project—http://www. and AIDS.com—actually computes integrals for you in the blink of an eye. Mathematica Animations—http://www. . and beyond.html—outlines major calculus topics as well as issues in other branches of mathematics.ac.wolfram. nh. Student research and reporting shows how calculus impacts everyday topics such as fractals. AP Calculus Problem of the Week—http://www. the second derivative function.uk/ history/HistTopics/The_rise_of_calculus.k12. ice cones. The Integrator—integrals.edu/ ~egumtow/calculus—is another page with explanations of several calculus topics that gives practical advice about what you’ll really need to know to get through a calculus class. and Reimann sums.org/20991/calc/index. bicycles. tomorrow.com.seresc. the volume of cones. Next time you’re on the Internet. don’t forget to drop by www.html—features short QuickTime movies that illustrate key calculus concepts such as the definition of a derivative. tape decks.htm— serves as an archive of student projects that show calculus’s connection to the real world.org/Contributions/ animations.mcs. A History of the Calculus—wwwhistory.bhsms.html—offers a different calculus based problem every week.cc. Visitors can also submit their own calculus challenges for future inclusion on the Web site. A fairly active precalculus and calculus message board enables visitors to ask and answer thoughtprovoking questions. cliffsnotes.org/calculus. Math for Morons Like Us: PreCalculus & Calculus—http:// library.
The mathematical definition of the derivative is f ^ x + Dx h . done to the inside function. . concave upward A function is concave upward on an interval if f "(x) is positive for every point on that interval.Glossary antiderivative A function F (x) is called an antiderivative of a function f (x) if F'(x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of f. concave downward A function is concave downward on an interval if f "(x) is negative for every point on that interval. or in Dx " 0 Dx words the limit of the slopes of the secant lines through the point (x. The derivative is most often d denoted f '(x) or dx . critical point A critical point of a function is a point (x. continuous A function f (x) is continuous at a point x = c when f (c) exists. b denoted # f ^ x h dx. this means that an antiderivative of f is a function which has f for its derivative. To say that a function is continuous on some interval means that it is continuous at each point in that interval. definite integral The definite integral of f (x) between x = a and x = b. lim x " c f ^ x h exists. this means the curve could be drawn without lifting the pencil. and lim x " c f ^ x h = f (c). times the derivative of the inside function. The derivative can be interpreted as the slope of a line tangent to the function. the instantaneous velocity of the function. cylindrical shell method A procedure for finding the volume of a solid of revolution by treating it as a collection of nested thin rings. the d chain rule says dx b f ` g ^ x hj l = f l ` g ^ x hj $ g l ^ x h. with area above the xaxis counting positive and area below the xaxis counting negative. In words. derivative The derivative of a function f (x) is a function that gives the slope of f (x) at each value of x. In words. f (x)) and a second point on the graph of f (x) as that second point approaches the first. the chain rule says the derivative of a composite function is the derivative of the outside function.f ^ x h lim . In words. change of variables A term sometimes used for the technique of integration by substitution. In symbols. f (x)) with x in the domain of the function and either f '(x) = 0 or f '(x) undefined. gives the signed a area between f (x) and the xaxis from x = a to x = b. or the instantaneous rate of change of the function. Critical points are among the candidates to be maximum or minimum values of a function. chain rule The chain rule tells how to find the derivative of composite functions.
. b]. The indefinite integral of f (x) is represented in symbols as # f ^ x h dx . where a and b are not both zero. limit A function f (x) has the value L for its limit as x approaches c if as the value of x gets closer and closer to c. instantaneous velocity One way of interpreting the derivative of a function s(t) is to understand it as the velocity at a given moment t of an object whose position is given by the function s(t). then that point is a local maximum.b). implicit differentiation A procedure for finding the derivative of a function which has not been given explicitly in the form “f (x) =”. Extreme Value Theorem A theorem stating that a function which is continuous on a closed interval [a. and so forth for some function. A function will fail to be differentiable at places where the function is not continuous or where the function has corners. disk method A procedure for finding the volume of a solid of revolution by treating it as a collection of thin slices with circular cross sections. the limit of the average rates of change between a fixed point and other points on the curve that get closer and closer to the fixed point. intercept form The intercept form for the equation of a line is x/a + y/b = 1. higher order derivatives The second derivative. integration by parts One of the most common techniques of integration. third derivative. If a continuous function changes from increasing (first derivative positive) to decreasing (first derivative negative) at a point. general antiderivative If F(x) is an antiderivative of a function f (x). instantaneous rate of change One way of interpreting the derivative of a function is to understand it as the instantaneous rate of change of that function.0) and its yintercept (the place where the line crosses the yaxis) at the point (0. general form The general form (sometimes also called standard form) for the equation of a line is ax + by = c. b] must have a maximum and a minimum value on [a. then F(x) + C is called the general antiderivative of f (x). If a function changes from decreasing (first derivative negative) to increasing (first derivative positive) at a point. then that point is a local minimum. used to reduce complicated integrals into one of the basic integration forms. where the line has its xintercept (the place where the line crosses the xaxis) at the point (a.114 CliffsQuickReview Calculus differentiable A function is said to be differentiable at a point when the function’s derivative exists at that point. the value of f (x) gets closer and closer to L. indefinite integral The indefinite integral of f (x) is another term for the general antiderivative of f (x). First Derivative Test for Local Extrema A method used to determine whether a critical point of a function is a local maximum or local minimum.
Glossary
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Mean Value Theorem If a function f (x) is continuous on a closed interval [a,b] and differentiable on the open interval (a,b), then there exists some c in the interval [a,b] for which f ^ bh  f ^ ah f l ^ ch = . ba normal line The normal line to a curve at a point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line at that point. point of inflection A point is called a point of inflection of a function if the function changes from concave upward to concave downward, or vice versa, at that point. pointslope form The pointslope form for the equation of a line is y – y1 = m(x – x1), where m stands for the slope of the line and (x1,y1) is a point on the line. Riemann sum A Riemann sum is a sum of several terms, each of the form f (xi)∆x, each representing the area below a function f (x) on some interval if f (x) is positive or the negative of that area if f (x) is negative. The definite integral is mathematically defined to be the limit of such a Riemann sum as the number of terms approaches infinity. Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema A method used to determine whether a critical point of a function is a local maximum or local minimum. If f '(x) = 0 and the second derivative is positive at this point, then the point is a local minimum. If f '(x) = 0 and the second derivative is negative at this point, then the point is a local maximum.
slope of the tangent line One way of interpreting the derivative of a function is to understand it as the slope of a line tangent to the function. slopeintercept form The slopeintercept form for the equation of a line is y = mx + b, where m stands for the slope of the line and the line has its yintercept (the place where the line crosses the yaxis) at the point (0,b). standard form The standard form (sometimes also called general form) for the equation of a line is ax + by = c, where a and b are not both zero. substitution Integration by substitution is one of the most common techniques of integration, used to reduce complicated integrals into one of the basic integration forms. tangent line The tangent line to a function is a straight line that just touches the function at a particular point and has the same slope as the function at that point. trigonometric substitution A technique of integration where a substitution involving a trigonometric function is used to integrate a function involving a radical. washer method A procedure for finding the volume of a solid of revolution by treating it as a collection of thin slices with cross sections shaped like washers.
Appendix USING GRAPHING CALCULATORS IN CALCULUS
important area that hasn’t been the rest of this book is While it’s learn and Onethe use of modern technology.ofaddressed inpossible toand pencil, understand calculus without the use tools beyond paper there are many ways that modern technology makes tasks easier or more accurate, and there are also ways that it can give insights that aren’t as clear otherwise. Of course, this appendix can’t be exhaustive, but it will return to several of the examples from earlier in the book and show how you could apply graphing calculators to them. Because the variety of different calculators available is tremendous, everything here will be done in general terms that should apply to any graphing calculator. For specific details about how to handle your own calculator, you should look at its manual, but this appendix can give you ideas about how that applies to calculus. To keep things general and easy, this appendix usually just gives the calculator’s decimal answers to four places, and anything you need to type into your calculator appears in bold, sticking as close as possible to the way things will appear on your calculator keyboard and screen.
Limits
Graphing calculators are ideal tools for evaluating limits. The more sophisticated models have this as a builtin function (consult your manual’s index under “limits”), but on any calculator you can at least estimate most limits by looking closely at a graph of the function.
9 Example 23 Revisited: Evaluate lim x + 3 . x "3 x Graphing the function y=(x^2–9)/(x+3) on a calculator, you can visually estimate that for values of x near –3, the values of y on the graph are
2
Appendix: Using Graphing Calculators in Calculus
117
around –6. Most calculators won’t even show the hole in the graph at this point without special effort on your part, since they plot individual points using decimal values that probably don’t include exactly –3. If you have trouble judging the y value visually, you can also use the zoom or trace functions on most graphing calculators to get a more accurate estimate. For instance, tracing this graph to an x value near –3, you find that when x = –3.0159, you have y = –6.0159, and from that it’s not hard to guess that the limit is around –6.
x+3 Example 211 Revisited: Evaluate lim x  2 . x " 2 Most graphing calculators do a poor job of rendering graphs near vertical asymptotes, but if you know what you’re looking for, you can easily get the information you need. In this case, when you graph y=(x+3)/(x–2), the screen should show the curve plunging downward as x approaches 2 from the left and veering upward as x approaches 2 from the right, possibly with a misleading vertical line where the calculator naively tries to connect the two parts. That downward spike as you near –2 from the left is your sign that the limit is –∞.

Example 214 Revisited: Evaluate lim
x3 2 . 3 x " + 3 5x  3x + 2x
4
Graphing the function y=(x^3–2)/(5x^4–3x^3+2x), you look out to the righthand end of the screen to see what the height of the graph is for the larger values of x. Don’t be fooled into thinking there’s nothing there, it’s just that the y value of the graph is so close to zero that it appears to overlap with the xaxis. If you trace the graph, you can find that when x = 10, you have y = 0.0212, so the limit seems to be 0.
Derivatives
The more sophisticated calculators available today can evaluate derivatives symbolically, giving the same exact values or functions that you can find by hand. Many calculators also have builtin features to numerically compute the value of the derivative of a function at a point. You can consult your calculator’s manual for this. You can use any graphing calculator to get at least an approximate value for the derivative of a function at a point, and understanding how this works helps you understand what a derivative really is. Example 317 Revisited: Find f '(2) if f ^ x h = 5x 2 + 3x  1 .
The previous example could be seen that way. Another way to use a graphing calculator is to check answers you get by hand.0.7807) and a point just to the right of x = 2 (like x = 2. after all. if you zoom in towards the point (–1. So.5x+1. you can graph both y1=√(x^2+3) and y2=–. The more work done by hand the more likely most people are to slip. is that it should touch the function and have the same slope. Rearranging this to slopeintercept form. If your graph hadn’t turned out like this—if the tangent line hadn’t touched the function at the right point.2). you found that x + 2y = 3 is the equation of the tangent line. especially in a longer problem (like in the following example). so near the point of tangency it should be almost impossible to tell the two apart.5. you found the slope of a secant line that’s pretty close to the actual tangent line.9048. When this problem was worked in Chapter 4.5 together. y = 4.3.0635. the more the two graphs should appear identical.9048 .1459 1.y 2 m = x1 .1459). the closer you look. In fact. verifying your work can be worthwhile. by just keeping things to two decimal places and still gotten about the right answer. because when you worked it out by hand you got 23/10 and by calculator you got about 2.2). Now use the traditional slope formula to find the slope of the line connecting these two points: y1 . The whole idea of a tangent line.118 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Graph the function y=√(5x^2+3x–1) and use the trace feature to find the coordinates of a point just to the left of x = 2 (like x = 1. By picking two x values with the change between them small.x 2 m = 4.2).2.1587 m = 2. y = 5. You could also have been a little bit less careful.3. which is the same value found by hand in Chapter 3.7807 . . Example 41 Revisited: Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f ^ x h = x 2 + 3 at the point (–1. and the two graphs should appear to overlap near the point (–1. The reason this works is because the derivative is just the limit that the slopes of the secant lines approach as the change in x goes to zero.3652 m = .3012 So from this. or if they didn’t appear to have matching slopes there—you’d know something had gone wrong in your computations and could go back to check them over.0635 . and quicker.0. you can guess that the derivative is about 2.
so the minimum value for your interval appears to happen at x = 2.) It should be easy to see that the function increases for a short interval until the x value reaches π/4. You can now plug x = –2 and x = 2 back into the function to find that the maximum value is 39 and the minimum value is –9. but even without such a feature. If you use the calculator’s trace feature. then decreases until 5π/4. quickly doing any of the problems you could work out by hand. However. The lowest point seems to be near x = 2. (Most calculators have a feature that adjusts the viewing window to settings suitable for trig functions—also make sure your calculator is in radian mode rather than degrees.2]). determine all intervals where f is increasing or decreasing. To make it easy on yourself. Many graphing calculators have builtin features for finding maximum or minimum values of functions. as in the following example. you find out that the graph continues to decrease beyond x = 2. and then increases the rest of the way to 2π. have the xaxis tick marks every π/2 units. . Graph y=sin x + cos x and make sure your viewing window includes x values from 0 to 2π. you can see that the graph is highest at x = –2 (it also gets high on the right. but it’s not immediately clear if it happens right at x = 2 itself. graphing calculators make most extreme value problems easy. 2π]. just as you found in Chapter 4—but this time with much less work! Integrals Some of the more sophisticated graphing calculators available today can evaluate both definite and indefinite integrals symbolically. If you graph y=x^4–3x^3–1 and make sure the viewing window includes x values from –2 to 2.Appendix: Using Graphing Calculators in Calculus 119 Example 46. most graphing calculators don’t have this capability and therefore aren’t much help with indefinite integrals. so check your manual for details. Revisited: Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = x4 – 3x3 – 1 on [–2. Most do have a builtin feature which numerically computes definite integrals. but that’s beyond your domain of [–2. Example 49 Revisited: For f (x) = sin x + cos x on [0.2]. One final case where graphing calculators and work done by hand can complement each other is finding areas bounded by curves.
Graphing y=x^3+x^2–6x makes it clear that you need to integrate from x = –3 to x = 0.120 CliffsQuickReview Calculus Example 62 Revisited: Find the area of the region bounded by y = x3 + x2 –6x and the xaxis. but determining the limits of integration in the first place can be a nuisance. and then use the negative of the integral from x = 0 to x = 2 where the graph of the function lies below the xaxis. . The actual integration involved in this problem is straightforward.
21 vertical. 113 change of variables definition of. 110 CliffsQuickReview Trigonometry (Kay). 119–120 review questions on. 109–110 web site for. 110 algebraic substitution. 35–37. 28 cosecant differentiation rules. calculating with. 107 asymptote horizontal. equation for. 51–52. 10–11 limit properties of. 48–49 definite integral. 45–46 in increasing/decreasing functions. reference for. 111. graphing. derivative. 109 CliffsQuickReview Basic Math and PreAlgebra (Bobrow). 110 chain rule. 80 and integration. 113 and Extreme Value Theorem. 34 function for. 1 references for. 109 closed interval. 55–56 with indefinite integrals. calculating with. 110 D decreasing function. 51–52.Index A absolute value. 44–45 definition of. 116–120 prerequisites for learning. functions continuous on. 66–67 circle. 34 function for. 101–102 areas. 109. 2 on related topics. 110 antiderivative. calculating with definite integrals. 34 function for. calculating with definite integrals. 24–28. Herzog). 101–102 review questions on. 2. 105 cross sections. Finney). 110 web sites for. 109 CliffsQuickReview Geometry (Kohn. 63–64. 111. calculating with derivatives. 77 review questions on. 102–103. 9 cosine differentiation rules. 80–82 antidifferentiation. See also integration techniques arc length. See also indefinite integral definition of. 113 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. 73–75 Advanced Placement Calculus AB and BC tests. calculating volumes with. 112 CliffsQuickReview Algebra I (Bobrow). 113 and differentiability. 16 analytic geometry. 113 concave upward. 50 review questions on. 93–95 cylindrical shell method. 48–49 and local extrema. 27 concave downward. 99–100. 19 CliffsNotes books providing feedback. 109 CliffsQuickReview Linear Algebra (Leduc). 30 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. 88–93 with graphing calculators. 88–93 continued . 113 C calculators. 113 evaluating definite integrals with. See also definite integral. 113 continuous function definition of. 112 Calculus and Analytic Geometry (Thomas. See definite integral. 82–83 evaluating indefinite integrals with. 8 Cliffs Math Review for Standardized Tests (Bobrow). 23 substitution in integration. limit definition of. 44. indefinite integral arc length. 4 acceleration. 109 CliffsQuickReview Algebra II (Kohn). indefinite integral. 116–120 calculus. 107 area. 12 cotangent differentiation rules. 1 references for. 110 CliffsAP Calculus AB and BC Preparation Guide (King). 1 graphing calculators for. 9 Law of Cosines. 110 algebra prerequisite for calculus. 103. 9 critical point calculating. 71 values at common angles. 1.
See function. calculating with. derivative tests for. trigonometric function approximating with differentials. 93–95. calculating equation with. 31. 114 exponential. 114 difference rule for definite integrals. 32 differentiable function. 77 properties of. 51–52. 43–44 notation for. 51–52 continuous. 1. linear equation. 55–56 exponential function differentiation. 51–52. 48–49 logarithmic. 113 differentials. 78–80 review questions on. 114 graphing calculator. 115 normal line. 55–56 with indefinite integrals. 96–100 degrees. 37–38. 44–45 decreasing. using to calculate. 45–46. calculating with. 114 F First Derivative Test for Local Extrema. 96–97. 32–34 exponential function rules. 52. 44–45 decreasing functions. 29–30. 114 First Derivative Test for Local Extrema. 29–31. 113 point of inflection. limit. 25 . 105. 115 review questions on. 80–82 Mean Value Theorem. 113 concavity of functions. 8 dependent variable. 61–62. 114 geometry prerequisite for calculus. 30 critical point of. 52–55 notation for. 4 definite integral (continued) definition of. calculating with. 55–56. 34–35 disk method. calculating equation with. 48–49 definition of.122 CliffsQuickReview Calculus differential calculus. 32–38. 40–41 logarithmic function rules. 115 trigonometric function differentiation. differentiation of. 113 common rules. 55–56 chain rule for. 49. 114 inverse trigonometric function rules. 114 implicit differentiation. 5 greatest integer. 41–42 extrema. 78 for derivatives. 114 distance. 41–42 implicit differentiation. 52. 40–42 distance. 13. 45–46. See also indefinite integral general form of linear equation. 48–49 instantaneous rate of change. 46–47. 115 tangent line. 49. 80 notation for. 51–52. 52. 104 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus definition of. 73–75 DNE (Does Not Exist). 37. 1 references for. 114 instantaneous velocity. 106 G general antiderivative. 78. 37–38. 30. 49. 29–30. 107 volumes of solids. 114 logarithmic function differentiation. 50 Extreme Value Theorem. calculating with. as angle measurement. 31. 41–42 graph of. 113 critical point. See also derivative E equation. 39. calculating with. calculating with derivatives. 30. 114. 61–62. 38. calculating with. 58–61 differentiation rules. 35–37. 80–82 review questions on. 25 increasing. 82–87 evaluating with graphing calculator. calculating with. 48–49 definition of. 114 increasing functions. 114 function. 41–42 maximum/minimum values. 55–56. 58–61 concavity of. 109. 40–41 velocity. 41–42 trigonometric function rules. 41–42 Extreme Value Theorem. 115 rate of change. 102–103. 15. 7. 75–77. 30. calculating slope with. 42. 114. 35–37. 106 Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema. 41–42 minimum and maximum values of. 58–61 differentiation rules. 110 graphing calculators. lines exponential function. 24–28. 43–44 tangent line. 4 point of inflection of. 117–119 higher order. 87. calculating with. 113 evaluating. 45–46. 18 domain of a function. 46–47. 4 derivative acceleration. 52–55 Mean Value Theorem. 64. 116–120 greatest integer function. 56–58 review questions on. See also derivative. See also derivative chain rule. 34–35. 50. 119–120 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. See also derivative differentials. 4–5 differentiable. 52.
functions continuous on. 110 linear equation continuity of. 82–83. equation for. 77 linear algebra. slope of. 16–18 evaluating with graphing calculator. See also definite integral. 115 for trigonometric integrals. 68–69. 23–24 limits of integration. 7. 5. 28. 18 evaluating. 7. 27 ordered pairs. 19–20 at infinity. 68–69. 46–47 slope of. calculating with. 106 L Law of Cosines. 25 forms of. 49. 66–67. 105 simple substitution for. 106 Mean Value Theorem for definite integrals. 52–55 evaluating with Extreme Value Theorem. 114 instantaneous velocity. 114 review questions on. 63 review questions on. 115 lines. 52–55 evaluating with Extreme Value Theorem. 73–75. 87. 13. See also integration techniques acceleration. 83–84. 114 interval notation. 5–6 tangent. 115 review questions on. 56–58. 1. 80–82 notation for. See also linear equation normal. 115 intercept form. 4 infinite limits. 115 local extrema. 21–23 inflection. 73–75 independent variable. 3–4 irrational numbers. 114 substitution and change of variables. 61–62 O onesided limits continuity of. limits at. 73–75 definition of. 4 infinity. 7–8 general form of. 115 tangent. 106. 50 logarithmic function. differentiation of. 63–64. equation for. 71–72. 42 horizontal asymptote. 3 infinite. 4–5 . 64–66 integration by parts. derivative tests for. 115 equation for. 14–15 onesided. references for. 114 pointslope form of. 115 minimum value of function evaluating with derivatives. 114 distance. 46–47. 114 increasing function. 39. 83–84. indefinite integral basic formulas for. 43–44 review questions on. 30. 114 intercept form of. 8. calculating with. 10–11 Law of Sines. 14 N normal line definition of.Index 123 H higher order derivatives definition of. 114 integration techniques. 114 integral calculus. 114 DNE (Does Not Exist). 73–75 instantaneous rate of change. 61–62. 104 slopeintercept form of. 78. indefinite integral integration by parts. 116–117 form of. 19–20 infinite values in interval notation. point of. 38. Adams). 119–120 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Thompson. 8. 45–46 review questions on. 25 evaluating. 37. 45–46 review questions on. 21–23 intuitive definition of. 18–19 patterns in. 55–56. 37–38. 64–72 evaluating with graphing calculator. 18–19 open interval. 115 normal. 80 for derivatives. 107 velocity. 14–15. 15. 7. 31. 115 instantaneous acceleration. calculating with. 115 standard form of. 51–52. 16 trigonometric functions in. 41–42 M maximum value of function evaluating with derivatives. 84–86 trigonometric substitution. 24–28 definition of. 16 review questions on. 21 How to Ace Calculus: The Streetwise Guide (Hass. definition of. 43–44 tangent. 61–62. 30. 69–72. 10–11 limit algebraic substitution for. See also definite integral. 73–75 evaluating. 46–47. 48–49 indefinite integral. definition of. 16 continuity and. 110 I implicit differentiation. 86–87. 43–44 secant. 55–56. 7. slope of.
32 T tangent line definition of. 51–52. 77 velocity. 40 in limits. calculating with derivatives. 23 substitution in integration. 78 for derivatives. 9 substitution in integration. 9 Law of Sines. 115 tangent (trigonometric function) differentiation rules. 46–47. 84–86 trigonometric substitution. volume of solids of. 84–87 inverse. 34 function for. 9–10 graph of. 110 triangles.124 P CliffsQuickReview Calculus substitution evaluating definite integrals with. 115 solids. 9 integration involving. 69–72. 97–99. 8–9 differentiation rules for. 96–100 calculating with cross sections. 56–58. 69–72. 2. 108 for solids of revolution. 111–112 . 75–77. 25 quotient rule for derivatives. 115 Story of Mathematics. 115 slopeintercept form. 32 product rule for derivatives. 10 continuity of. 71 secant line. 5–6 review questions on. 30. 115 trigonometry prerequisite for calculus. 66–67 sum rule for definite integrals. 3 real numbers. 106 slope of. 12 trigonometric integrals. 32 parallel lines. 82–83 evaluating indefinite integrals with. 37. 46–47 second derivative. 11 trigonometric function common identities of. 96–100 for solids with cross sections. 9 substitution in integration. 102–103. continuity of. 34 function for. continuity of. See higher order derivatives 3000 Solved Problems in Calculus (Mendelson). 73–75 review questions on. 115 and maximum/minimum problems. 12 slope of any line. 52 review questions on. 104. 34 function for. 10–11 limit properties of. 96–100 Riemann sum. 7. 115 pointslope form. 93–95 W washer method. 1 references for. 50. 114 with indefinite integrals. 105 values at common angles. 8 range of a function. 34–35. 71 values at common angles. calculating review questions on. 43–44. volume of calculating for solids of revolution. 71 values at common angles. 38. 3–4 revolution. 86–87. 115 polynomial function. 109 Q quadratic function. 107. 13. 38. 93–95 standard form of linear equation. 46–47. 71–72. 61–62 vertical asymptote. 61–62. 6 point of inflection. 61–62. 23–24 review questions on. 104 of tangent line. 115 Web sites. A (Berlinski). 40–41 forms of. 37. 43–44 review questions on. 12 third derivative. 16 sine differentiation rules. 110 Tour of the Calculus. 25 definition of. 55–56. 7. 105. 4 rate of change calculating with derivatives. 114 review questions on. 30. 42. 106 rational function. continuity of. 6 perpendicular lines. Stewart). 115 S secant differentiation rules. 25 rational numbers. 25 power rule for derivatives. 32 R radians. 19 volume. 42. 110 V variable of integration. See higher order derivatives Second Derivative Test for Local Extrema definition of. 115 equation for. 7. The (Mankiewicz. 31. 80. 13. 30. 106 simple substitution.
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