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Lesson Plan #:AELP-ANA0005

Those Powerful Hormones


An Educator's Reference Desk Lesson Plan Submitted by: by Ann Nelson Endorsed by: Don Descy, Mankato State University Date: February 18, 1997

Grade Level(s): 10 Subject(s):


y

Science/Anatomy

Description: This unit plan is a designed to introduce high school students to the endocrine system of the human body and help them realize it's powerful influence in their lives. Goal: Students will understand the importance of the endocrine system to the normal functioning of the human body. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to define endocrinology, hormones and endocrine system and homeostasis. 2. Students will be able to give a brief history of the beginnings of research into the endocrine systems of the body. 3. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, student will be able to explain the difference between an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. 4. Given a diagram of the human body and a list of the major endocrine glands, student will mark on the diagram the location of each endocrine gland listed with 80% accuracy. 5. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, student will be able to list five major endocrine glands and describe the function of each with 80 % accuracy. 6. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, students will be able to describe the difference between a positive feedback mechanism and a negative feedback mechanism. 7. Students will be able to describe the two major positive feedback mechanisms in the human body. 8. Students will discover the importance of receptors for hormones action in the body. Day 1: Endocrinology Unit Objectives: 1. Students will be able to define endocrinology, hormones and endocrine system and homeostasis. 2. Students will be able to give a brief history of the beginnings of research into the endocrine system of the human body.

3. Given a diagram of the human body and a list of the major endocrine glands, student will mark on a diagram of the human body the location of each endocrine gland listed with 80% accuracy. Supplies Needed: 1. 2. 3. 4. computer computer disk on endocrine system liquid display screen with a connection to the computer or overheads overhead projector.

Lecture: (15 minutes with underlined terms on the board) Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system. This field is only about 150 years old. In 1849, a man named Berthold published a report on some research he had done on chickens. He noticed that male chickens had different parts on their bodies and they also behaved differently. They were more aggressive. So he castrated a non adult male chicken. When it grew up the male chicken wasn't aggressive. So he did another experiment. He put testes back on the rooster or cock from another male chicken. After the transplant that chicken grew a waddle and a comb and it became more aggressive. He concluded that male physical and behavioral traits were caused by something in the testes and he published that report. Does anyone in here know someone who has diabetes Mellitus? What actions must the individual take to treat their disease? They often have to give insulin shots to themselves because their Islands of Lagerhans, within the pancreas (write the words on the board) does not produce insulin which our bodies need. Insulin (write on board next to pancreas) is just one of the many hormones that are produced by endocrine glands. Put on overhead of the human body and project image on to a screen. Point to the location of the pancreas and islands of Lagerhans. This is where insulin is produced. (2 mins.) Diabetes Mellitus means "sweet water". Write it on the board. In 1889, Von Mering and Menkowski did an experiment. They opened up a dog and saw an organ they didn't know. They took it out and sewed up the dog and let the dog recover. The dog got sick and died. He urinated a lot and the ants were very attracted to this dog's urine. They would gather in his cage where he had urinated. One of them (Von Mering or Menkowski)leaned down and tasted the urine and that is how ":Diabetes Mellitus" got it's name. They concluded that the pancreas had something to do with carbohydrate metabolism. In 1922, Banting and Best removed a pancreas from another dog. It got sick. They put the pancreas back in and it was saved. They developed an extract and used this extract on another dog who had had a pancreaectomy. The dog was saved. They worked on this extract and discovered it was the protein portion that saved the dog. From 1948 to 1958, a scientist named Sanger worked on isolating the single protein that would save a dog who had been pancrectomized. He discovered that protein was insulin. This was the first protein ever sequenced and he won a Nobel prize. There are two hormones produced in the pancreas that regulate sugar in the body. They are insulin and glucagon. Insulin directly lowers blood glucose levels by activating glucose transport from the blood stream into skeletal muscle and adipose cells. Glucagon is a hormone that mobilizes stored glucose and moves it back into the blood stream a little bit at a time. (10 mins) Put on the overhead with the terms endocrinology, hormones and endocrine system and homeostasis.

Ask the students to open their notebooks and using the whole page draw an outline of the human body in their notes. They are to mark on their drawing the location of the islands of Lagerhans within the pancreas and write besides it, the two hormone that are produced there and the function of those hormones. They are also to write down the definitions of endocrinology, endocrine system, hormone and homeostasis on the next page their notebooks. Endocrine System: This system helps to regulate all the body's functions. It controls the rate we grow, our feelings of hunger, our body temperature, how much fluid we have in our bodies and much more. The endocrine system could be called the rhythm section of our lives. These glands secrete hormones that are responsible for how fast and large we grow, how awake we are, how happy we feel and more. Some hormones help us mature into adult men and women. Endocrinology: This is the study of the communication and control within a living organism mediated by chemical messengers called hormones. The function of the endocrine system is to achieve homeostasis. What is homeostasis? Homeostasis is the state of normal physiology, that is the following parameters are in the normal range (temperature, fluid volume, ions composition: Sodium, Potassium and Calcium) and metabolism. Hormones: A hormone is an informational molecule that is synthesized by cells called endocrine cells, that have specific effects in very low concentrations and are delivered through various modes of secretion to target cells called receptor cells found in cell membranes On the next page they are to write down this list of major players in the secretion of hormones. The major players in the secretion of hormones are (put up new overhead) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. hypothalamus: This gland drives the pituitary gland. pituitary gland thyroid gland parathyroid gland adrenal glands gonads (ovaries or testes) pancreas other glands: 8. placenta 9. kidneys secrete blood pressure hormones 10. gastrointestinal system has endocrine cells embedded in it. 11. heart secretes pressure hormones Activity introduction: (5 mins.) Ask: Who feels tired and sleepy in the first part of the school day? Who finds the afternoons more difficult to stay awake? Take a poll and put results on board. The rhythm of wakefulness is controlled by hormones. The endocrine system works like and automatic thermostat. When the building gets hot, the air conditioner comes on: when it is cold , the heater comes on. When our bodies need fuel, hormones are released to stimulate feelings of hunger. When we are threatened, a hormone prepares our muscles to be ready for action. We are going to find out what hormones are produced and secreted by the various endocrine glands as well as the location of the various glands.

Have students read their books on the exocrine system. (10 mins.) Questions and answer: (Put on overhead of endocrine system). As a class have students identify the various glands that are shown on the diagram. After they have identified them, ask them what hormones are produced by that gland. As they answer mark the overhead with the name of the gland and it's hormone. (10 minutes) Any questions.? ( homework introduction-5 mins.) Keep a chart of how sleepy or energized you feel and compare it to your hunger and body temperature cycles, Is there a relationship among the cycles that is similar for the whole class? For a couple of days students will need to keep track of the rise and fall of their temperatures with an oral thermometer. They should take their temperature in the morning, after lunch and at the end of the day. They also need to keep track of the rise and fall of their appetites for two days. Write down what patterns show up and include it with your data to be handed in two days from now. Day 2: Endocrinology Objectives: 1. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, student will be able to explain the difference between an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. 2. Given a diagram of the human body and a list of the major endocrine glands, student will mark on the diagram the location of each endocrine gland listed with 80% accuracy. 3. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, student will be able to list five major endocrine glands and describe the function of each with 80 % accuracy. Supplies: diagram of a human being on the blackboard, handouts of activity sheet. Activity: (45 mins.)(8 groups x 5 mins. each = 40 mins.) (5 mins. to organize themselves) Have students divide into groups. Each group is to make a presentation on a specific endocrine gland, it's location and the hormones it produces and that hormones effect on the human body to the class. Each group will need to take one of the following exocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, gonads and pancreas. Divide the class into seven groups. Each group will need to write the name of the gland on a bulletin board diagram of the human body, explaining where the gland is found. They will also need to describe the hormones produced by that gland and the effect of those hormones on the human body. Underneath the gland's name on the diagram they will need to write the hormones produced by that endocrine gland and in parenthesis what is effected by that hormone. Question & answer (5 mins.) Now that we have a better idea of what an endocrine gland is Can you think of some differences between a sweat gland and the thyroid gland or other endocrine gland. Put responses on the board. Examples of exocrine glands are oils glands, sweat glands, mammary glands. Endocrine glands are glands like the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands. Write exocrine and endocrine on the board and from the class take feedback on what they possible differences are between the two types of glands

EXOCRINE Glands are glands that have external excretion. ENDOCRINE Glands have internal secretion. Lecture (10 mins.) Exocrine glands are numerous and many of their products are familiar ones. All exocrine glands secrete their products onto body surfaces like the skin or into body cavities like the digestive tube. This is a diverse group of glands. They include glands that secrete mucus, the sweat glands and oil glands of the skin, the salivary glands of the mouth and the liver which secretes bile as well as the pancreas which secretes digestive enzymes, the mammary glands which secrete milk and many others. Endocrine glands are glands that have no ducts. They are often referred to as ductless glands. They secrete directly into the bloodstream rather than an epithelial surface.. More specifically they secrete messenger molecules called hormones which are released into extracellular space. Hormones enter nearby capillaries and travel through the blood stream to specific target organs. Each hormone signals it's target organ to respond in some characteristic way. For example,, endocrine cells in the intestine secrete a hormone that targets the pancreas signaling the pancreas to release the enzymes that help digest the meal. Homework: For tomorrow I want you to read on feedback loops from your textbook or from handout given out at end of class. Day 3: Endocrinology Objectives: 1. Given a piece of paper and a pencil, students will be able to describe the difference between a positive feedback mechanism and a negative feedback mechanism. 2. Students will be able to describe the two major positive feedback mechanisms in the human body. 3. Students will discover the importance of receptors for hormones action in the body. Supplies: 1. overhead and overhead projector 2. Question and Answer (from reading chapter or handout) (10 mins.) What is a feedback mechanism? A feedback mechanism is a process where the product or result of an activity modifies the factors that produce that product. There are over 1000 feedback loops in the human body. Each loop effects others and is effected by others. There are positive and negative feedback loops in the body. Give me an example of a negative feed back loop As soon as a hormone rises beyond a certain concentration in the blood, it's rate of secretion is forced to stop. Example: Those of us who had breakfast have more blood glucose in your bloodstream afterward, so our bodies were out of homeostasis. What is homeostasis?

Homeostasis is the state of normal physiology that is the following parameters are in the normal range (temperature, fluid volume, ions composition; Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium) and metabolism. No hormones are stable. Several hormones are elevated when we wake up. They cycle throughout the day. Some hormones are elevated in the morning and they decline during the day. Others go higher and lower throughout the day. An example of one that goes up and down throughout the day is insulin. Who ate breakfast this morning? 1. Insulin levels are higher for those who ate breakfast today. Their bloodstream had elevated levels of glucose. They were out of homeostasis and into hyperglycemia. 2. Their blood went to their pancreas where glucose receptors on Beta cells reacted to elevated glucose levels by putting insulin into the blood stream. 3. The Insulin in their blood stream caused glucose to be transported to muscle and fat cells for storage. 4. This caused a decrease in blood sugar. This is an example of a negative feedback cycle which is the most common in the human body. What do you suppose a positive feedback loops is? There are few positive feedback loops in the human body. This is one where the result of the activity increases the factors that produce that product. So more and more of the product is produced. There are two major feedback loops in the body.(5 mins.) Oxytocin is a hormone made by the posterior pituitary. It has two target organs. One is the mammary glands and the other is the smooth muscles of the uterus. The posterior pituitary releases oxytocin into the blood stream. 1. The oxytocin effects the smooth muscles of the uterus causing contractions which is the biological response to the hormone. This contraction forces the head of the baby down causing stretching of the uterus. Nerves in the uterus perceive the stretching and send message to brain to put out more oxytocin. Stops soon after the birth of the baby. 2. Suckling has neurogenic effect on gland to release oxytocin. The target of the oxytocin is the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland. Oxytocin causes them to contract which squeezes the milk duct and causes the release of milk which stimulates more suckling from the baby. This is a positive feedback cycle. The biological catastrophe that stops it is the baby gets full and stops suckling. Detectives: (5 minutes) I'm going to ask you to be doctors now and help diagnose a patient's problems. Before going any farther we need to know more about the hormone "growth factor" because this patient has a problem with growth. (Diagram process on board and indicate feedback loops) How does the hypothalamus regulates growth in the human body? 1. Hypothalamus puts out growth hormone releasing factor which effects the Anterior Pituitary 2. The anterior pituitary release the growth hormone (GH) into blood s stream 3. The GH target is in the liver. That is were the receptors are located. 4. This causes the liver to secrete hormones called Somatomedins which go to receptors on bones, muscle and connective tissue and cause an increase of growth.

5. The Somatomedins in blood inhibit the release of growth hormone releasing factor in the hypothalamus. This is the long feedback loop. 6. The short feedback loop. The GH in the blood inhibits the release of GHRH. 7. The ultra short feedback loop-autocrine-GHRH affects hypothalamus and stops secretion of GHRF. Problem for class: (5 minutes) Now suppose you are a doctor. Someone comes to you who has a very short stature. What hormone do you test for? Growth hormone. When you test them you find out they had all kinds of growth hormone in their bloodstream. What to you test for next.? Somatomedins. Now suppose that there are lots of Somatomedins in the blood stream. What would you check for next? receptors Where? bones, connective tissue and muscles. Unless the receptor is there, the hormone cannot react with the target organ and if it can't react with the receptors, it can't effect the target organ. This scenario is a case study for Loran's Dwarfism which can't be helped with hormone treatments. Review: (10 mins.) Call on different students and have them come up and point to the locations of the various endocrine glands in the human body. Have a diagram of a man that has the glands on it but not their names. When they find the location ask "What hormones are put out by this gland? What is the target organ of this hormone? What is the effect of this hormone on the body of a human being?" If they don't know the answer ask another student if they can help answer the question. review (10 mins.) Homework assignment Have each student share the data they collected from their homework assignment. As they share their data, have a student put the data on the board. Collect the data and after everyone has shared have the class discuss their findings. Assessment: (10 mins.) I would hand out a diagram of a human being on which the various endocrine gland are marked by shape and location but not by name. There would be numbers on each gland. They would have to name the gland represented by each number and list next to it one hormone produced by that gland. They would also need to match a term underlined in the lesson and written on the board with it's correct description in a matching exercise. They would need to answer an essay questions that would ask them to explain the difference between a negative and a positive feedback loop and give an example of each.