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INGLISE KEELE VARIANDID The English language originates from Germanic languages.

Before at the British Isles Gaelic was spoken, invaders came from nowadays Germany and Denmark. The time of Elizabeth I - the first 1533 to 1605. At her time there were about 5 billion speaking English as their native tongue 7million would be the most. English was not a popular language at the time, Dutch would be most useful because of historical reasons such as trading etc. 350-380 million people native speakers of English nowadays but it is difficult to measure and estimate. According to some scholars they say that there are about 2billion people who speak English (or either learning it). As a native language its the 2nd largest in the world, after Chinese (Mandarin the most spoken variety). At some point in history all languages had the potential to become widespread languages. THE SPREAD People spread over large territories. Primitive explanation. 1) When people migrated from the British isles (England, Ireland) to north America and Australia. -> Resulted in native varieties of English (first diaspora) 2) ? -> went to Asia and Africa -> varieties as a second language developed. (second diaspora)

The spread of English started even before queen Elizabeth the first, but at this point It was spoken in England only. There was a territory the Pale(?) it is translated as the boundary it meant a colony. The English believed that outside this territory there was no civilization and it was established by the Normans in the 12th? Century and lasted until the 17th century. Great influence of England in the territory of Ireland. 1492 USA discovered, the exploration of Canada began in the 16th century ,after USA was discovered, there was a family called the Cabot, they are called the first family ofthey explored Canada and these were the final years of the 15th century. Very early in history. This fact lead the foundation of the claims of England to Canada later on. During Elizabeth 2 there were more expansionist moves. There were Norman settlements in wales but in 1535 there was a statute of wales (law) that required people in Wales to speak English. It prevented welsh speakers to speak their mother tongue, if they held any serious position in the office. The welsh language just gave in in this point. 1553 by that time there was trade going on with west Africa, present day Nigeria. English trade with west Africa. A decade later the slave trade

started, then 1580s the first English settlements in north America. There were 2 : 1)1583 in Canada there was one settlement and 2)present day north Carolina 1584 Roanoke and this settlement is not so much known about, but a bit is known because the first English child born in north America was born in this settlement. It didnt last. In 1603 when Queen Elizabeth the first died, James the first of Scotland came to the English throne and was now called James the first of England. Scotland merged politically together and formed Great Britain. Politically they were now one. Effect of spreading English to Scotland. King James version of the bible (HIS VERSION OF THE BIBLE :D) was published in 1611. The year 1607 was a painful one and very important for the English language. The first lasting settlement in north America was established. It was established in Jamestown, Virginia. The first lasting settlement. After the English Kings and Queens. (King James and Virgin queen since she never married) The people who formed this settlement were largely from England, the west counties and the traces of their variety of English can be seen in this specific region. At this time the next major event was the plantation of Ulster. Queen Eli the first started all that, she tried some settlements parts of Ireland because there were some rebellions going on and this was a way to suppress those rebellions. The war still goes on because there is a battle between the church. Irish is catholic and English is protestant. Misunderstanding is still there. James the first continues the same policy and confiscated lands of the Irish nobility who he believed rebelled against the throne. They were supposed to fulfill a certain criteria : to be protestant. The desired effect wasnt achieved soon, it took a long time but there are common features in speech between lowland Scotland and Ireland, the people who settled there were from lowland Scotland, we can see the connection between northern Irish and lowland Scotland. Meanwhile, back to north America. The year 1620 when the English ship made flour, sailed to north America and carried a group of puritans?? and some other people from the eastern county of England. Couldnt reach Virginia but landed in the present day Massachusetts, organized a settlement Plymouth. It is called new England up to the present day. New England is a part of the united states. One of the oldest European sieges in America, it happens to be English at this point. Now there were Jamestown and Plymouth and they rapidly grew and attracted further immigrants mainly from the British Isles. The settlements in north America continued and the hold of the English hand in Ireland still strengthened. Now over to the 17thcentury - the English began to spread in the southern parts of America, the Caribbean <- all the result of slave-trade. Slaves were exported from west Africa and exchanged. Were exchanged for sugar and rum. The new kind of Englishs developed amongst the slaves and their captors. These languages are called PIDGINS.

This is not anybodys mother tongue, this is a language that develops when people cant understand one another. Very often people between different tribes couldnt understand each other, ofc they were translators and so on, they could hardly speak a common language, they also had to contact slave owners and those who brought them and these people spoke English. They used a simplified kind of English, which actually was the imitation of the English words. The next generation who was born into the family of people who spoke pidgin were Creoles. In the 18th century there was large scale of immigration from Ireland, again to north America, to the coastal area, todays Philadelphia but it quickly moved westward and to the south. Now, parts of Canada were settled by the French, but Britain also had its interest there and in 1763 Canada was ceded,conceded (cause it was forced to give) to the British. Canada - > French speaking areas, not the whole big thing we know today, this was the thing called Canada at that time. 1776 declaration of independence. Getting hold of Canada was a big step because it allowed them to have favorable position in north America. England didnt want to let the united states go, but at some point people who were born in north America considered themselves as Americans. The British didnt recognize that declaration the independence until 1783. Captain James Cook went to Australia, reached the coastline of new Zealand, 1769. He met his first kangaroo in 1770 the year he discovered Australia. Claimed Australia and New Zealand for the British Crown. Cook landed in the present day Queensland, (queen again in the name) and in 1788 the first fleet landed in new-south-wales and that was a very interesting factor, so in 1788 there was the first penal(mayps from the word penalty-punishment) colony, 160000 were brought from England, they were prisoners, they were transported from Britain and Ireland at that point and a few years later 1820 new settlers began to arrive. Penal colony (botony bay present day Sidney ) a large part of the proportion of settlers were from south-east of the country and London but in case of the convicts its not really clear where they came from. The result of this was that the dialects mixed and later they were influences by . People. And taking this into account we may later on speak about the Australian English but these are its roots. More similarities between british and aussie and south African English than british and American English for example. New Zealand - In 1790s it was first settled by European traders, but the official colony was in 1840 now it was the British maori treaty of Waitangi. Here immigrants arrived in 3 stages. The earliest 1840s and 1850s were from Britain, 1860s from Australia and Ireland and 1870-1885 from the united kingdom and a great amount were scotts. As in Australia it also resulted in the mixture of dialects and at the same time there was a great influence of maori especially in terms of vocabulary.

The british arrived in 1795 to south Africa. Although previously starting from 1650s this part was colonized by the dutch. But the british came Annex the Cape? And occupied south African Cape colony and starting from 1820 the british began to settle in large numbers. Later on 1850s there were people from midlands. English was declared the official language in south Africa. Dutch were there for more than a century before that so it was not at all that easy. The Afrikaans is the descendent language of Dutch. 2nd diaspora 18th and 19th century a little bit different in nature than the first one English in west Africa is tied to slave trade (pidgin languages,creol). And from 15th century onwards (going back a little bit) british travel to and from west Africa and they came and went on coastal territories and among them were gambia, sierra leon, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon..the first settlement in this area came in the 18th century. And at that time English was emplored as lingua franca =the language between two languages who dont have a common language - to be used between the English traders and the people living there. There was a huge number of languages in Africa and still is, very often these languages are not systematically linked as the languages developed. To say how different these languages are we may say that thee are more similarities between Estonian and Japanese between two neighbouring tribes in Africa. At least they say so. Originally this language was French as understood from the term, but it doesnt refer to French any more and can be any language. Generally it is English. In east Africa their relationship with English was a little bit different, the countries settled there were Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe,Kenya,Uganda..extensively settled by English colonies. Starting from 1850s and after the expeditions and number of explorers was maybe david livingstone. Colony=protectorate. Official institutions like government and law. One by one these countries got their independence but English still remains an official language in some of them..zimbabwe, Uganda etc. If its not the official language then it is the second language to be learnt in these countries. Asia English was introduced in the subcontinent of south asia. Eurasia is the entire continent, south asia is the subcontinent. India,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan. 18th century. In india there was a period of british sovereignty that lasted from 1765 to 1947. This was called the Raj. 1835 English educational system was introduced in India. English became the language of indian educational system. Hindi is the official language, English is an associate official language. Used together with Hindi, as a neutral lingua franca. Hindi has influenced English spoken in India and it now has a distinctive national character, may be compared to Australian or American English. Variety. More influence of Britain in the late 18th century. Pacific South east asia, east asia and south pacific. They are maybe the result of Cooks expeditions and there were other explorers. In that part of the world we mean terriotories such as Singapore, Malaysia, hong kong, the Philippines.

1884-1920 hardly 36years Papua New Guinea which gave one of the best examples of pidgin languages, Tok Pisin. 16-18th century the spread took place. By the beginning of the 19th century English has spread to virtually every part of the world. 19-20th century the number of speakers only grew. If we look at some figures, in 1800 the pop of the united states was 5.8 million people, by 1900 76million people by the close of the 20th century it was heading to 250million people. The growth here was achieved by covering more land, exploring more land, going west, and accepting new immigrants from other places of the world. 1803 Louisiana from the French and in 1819 florida was bought from spain. Many immigrant came from the british isles again due to agricultural reforms that were taking place there and there were other related events taking place in the british isles. And if we in a way summarize all that, we can distinguish three stages in the development of settlements outside of british isles : 1750 and 1900 1&2 diaspora underwent 3 stages of development. Prior to that all settlers thought of themselves as british people speaking English who just happen to live abroad and overseas. But after that time they began to have a different sense of identity and they bought their own governments hence decreased in size. They began to be independent states and it extended the flavor of the English they used. The degree of linguistic differences grew. 3rd stage non native speakers began to learn English, as means of getting a job, finding employment, getting an official position in the office or governing class. Spreading,travelling,colonising etc. We should also consider political growth and power that spread, it grew not only from the number of countries, but also from the economic and military might and strength of the people. It also coincided with the time when the British empire grew. Even during the reign of queen Elizabeth the first. Probably the queen didnt have much choice than to make her empire grow. Grow the nation. And the wealth, growing in wealth coupled together with the trade and with industrial strength and might. All contributed to the growth of the British empire and at the same time there was a feeling of moral superiority. At that time there was a feeling, the countries and the colonies felt like they are saved by the white people and the British brought with them democracy, bureaucracy, Christianity, the English language, literacy. Not only the British felt superior but the places they went to, the people felt like they are the superior saviors. The united states began to be very dominant in the world, 1917 entered the first world war andup t the present, the united states military power is in almost every part of the world and its one of the major military powers in the world.

English is often the language of education, internet, airline services, EU, the language of business, international tourism, preferable language when studying cultures, literature etc. there are some authors where the only chance to read is in English, (Goethe?) the language of songs, popular culture and music, advertisement, computer diagramming ja nii edasi.okse.