Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534 www.elsevier.

com/locate/polydegstab

Kinetic analysis of thermal degradation of recycled polycarbonate/acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene mixtures from waste electric and electronic equipment
´ ´ ´ R. Balart a, L. Sanchez a, J. Lopez a, A. Jimenez b,*
b a Polytechnic University of Valencia, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 03801 Alcoy, Spain University of Alicante, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, PO Box 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain

Received 20 October 2004; accepted 4 January 2005 Available online 3 October 2005

Abstract The study of properties in waste polymeric materials is important for a further recycling and eventual reuse. The determination of thermal properties of PCeABS mixtures obtained from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been carried out in this work. Kinetic parameters, such as apparent activation energies, have been calculated by using the autocatalytic model, which has shown a good correlation with experimental data. A good agreement between calculated and experimental results was observed for PC-based mixtures. This is an indication that the addition of a high amount of ABS permits the creation of a network formed by elastomeric domains which leads to a general increase in heterogeneity of the mixture. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Thermal properties; Kinetic parameters; Polycarbonate; ABS; Thermogravimetric analysis

1. Introduction Among the great variety of household materials which need to be recovered after use to increase their value, home electrical and electronic appliances are one of the most important for further recycling. Since not long ago, these products after their useful life were simply shredded and landfilled after minor recovery of metals. The residue of the breaking-up process at private shredding companies was called shredder dust and designated as hazardous waste because of its high heavy metal content. One alternative way to plastics waste disposal is recycling. It is often necessary to separate mixtures of materials into individual plastics by resin in order to produce a useful recycling product as some polymers are not compatible when re-melting.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: C34 96 590 3777; fax: C34 96 590 3781. ´ E-mail addresses: jlopezm@mcm.upv.es (J. Lopez), alfjimenez@ua.es ´ (A. Jimenez). 0141-3910/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.01.055

Production and use of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), such as TV sets, computers, mobile phones and many other daily-life items, are dramatically increasing over the last years. This means that the production of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is also increasing and it is a problem that governments and policy makers have to handle. In USA, a recent study predicted that over 315 million computers would be at end of their life by the year 2004 [1]. The situation is quite similar in Europe. Directives 2002/95/ EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment [2] and 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment [3] were designed to tackle the fast increasing waste stream of electrical and electronic equipment and complemented European Union measures on landfill and incineration of waste. Increased recycling of electrical and electronic equipment is supposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal. Producers are responsible by law for taking back and recycling electrical and electronic equipment. Therefore, the design

528

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534

and optimisation of recycling processes are important for electronic industries and a previous complete characterization of materials after a first processing and use is absolutely necessary to get the complete information on the input materials in the recycling process. Many polymeric materials are used in electronic equipment, but two important components of these products are polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene blends (ABS). PC and its mixture with ABS show very effective flame retardant properties upon the addition of conventional halogen and/or non-halogen flame retardant agents, and this is the main reason of their wide use in electrical appliances. PC shows several good properties, such as dimensional stability, flame resistance, high impact strength and high stability to different environmental conditions. Nevertheless, PC is relatively soft and its mechanical properties should be improved by the addition of reinforcement materials [4]. ABS blends possess good impact and mechanical properties due to the contributing properties of each of their components. Acrylonitrile provides chemical resistance, heat resistance and toughness, while butadiene provides impact strength and styrene provides rigidity and easy processing. In addition, their relatively low cost makes it especially interesting for blending with the more expensive high performance engineering plastics. Both materials can be found either individually or mixed in many commercial blends used in electric and electronic equipment. During the last years some work has been carried out in the development of different methods to give added value to WEEE [5,6]. In most of the cases, plastic residues generated after the useful life in EEE, mainly technical and engineering polymers, still show good properties, for instance adequate mechanical properties, high chemical resistance and thermal stability. Therefore, it is important from the industrial point of view that their recycling and eventual reuse, either directly or more usually, reinforced with materials obtained from other sources, like recycled PET, to improve some of their properties [7]. Nevertheless, sometimes these processes, even being viable from the technical side, are not economically profitable [8]. The main difficulty industries have to afford is the separation of the different materials in WEEE. This problem leads to several approaches to optimise the process. One of the most successful ones is the definition of separation systems based on the physico-chemical properties of materials to make recycling of materials constituting WEEE economically profitable [9,10]. Sometimes feedstock plastic recycling encompasses a number of technologies, which can be attractive recovery solutions for plastic waste not best suited to mechanical recycling, e.g. mixed packaging waste. Such technologies turn plastics into basic chemicals for use, among other things, as building blocks for new plastics after a sometimes complicated separation process [9]. However, this approach, which was successfully applied to some kind of residues [10,11] is not easy to adapt to the treatment of WEEE because of the great amount of materials (not only polymers) present in EEE. Before proposing a recycling procedure for WEEE, a previous complete characterization of each individual component is necessary to get all the information on the differences in

mechanical, chemical and thermal properties between materials in WEEE and original polymers and blends. Thus, while mechanical and chemical properties have been recently studied [5], thermal degradation of WEEE polymer components has been only partially studied, in particular for residues of PVC and ABS mixtures [12]. Thermal degradation of the target components of WEEE (i.e. PC and ABS) has been the object of recent research. Thermal degradation of PC has been studied either individually [13e15], or blended with other materials, in particular Bisphenol-A [16e18]. The most significant products evolved in the pyrolysis of PC have been identified. The main degradation pathways of polycarbonate have also been recently proposed [18]. On the other hand, there is some recent work on the thermal degradation of ABS terpolymer [12,19,20] in different conditions. However, the thermal degradation of PCeABS blends after their processing and use in EEE has been only partially studied when considering PCeABS blends as a base material for montmorillonite-nanocomposites [21]. Therefore, the thermal behaviour and stability of these materials in WEEE is still not well known and need to be studied. The main goal of this work is the preparation and optimisation of physical blends based on PC and ABS obtained from WEEE and the further determination of thermal and kinetic parameters. This work is carried out to finally evaluate the influence of each component in thermal degradation of blends, considering the complexity of the basic polymers, in particular ABS. Kinetic parameters, as apparent activation energies (Ea) have been calculated by the application of the autocatalytic method, which has been successfully applied to other polymer systems [22,23]. 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials As a raw material a mixture of PC and ABS obtained from WEEE was used. These materials were supplied by Reciclados ´ del Plastico S.L. (Alcoy, Spain). As usual in commercial materials, a previous characterization was carried out in order to know their mechanical properties (Table 1) and chemical structure by infrared spectroscopy (Fig. 1a and b) in comparison with commercially pure and virgin polymers. In addition, ABS showed a Melt Flow Index (MFI) (230  C/ 5 kg) Z 20.45 g/10 min and MFI for PC was (230  C/ 5 kg) Z 6056 g/10 min. Glass transitions temperatures were 104.4  C and 146  C for ABS and PC, respectively. As can be observed, from IR spectra, recycled ABS shows some differences with the virgin material. The presence of
Table 1 Mechanical properties of materials used in this study Material ABS PC sR (MPa) 37.78 59.51 A (%) 11.9 60.5 E (MPa) 1760 1750 Impact energy (kJ/m2) 51.2 Do not break Hardness shore D 80 76

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534

529

a)
absorbance

0,5

recycled ABS
0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

wave number (cm-1)
1,0 0,8

comercial ABS, Polylac PA-714C

absorbance

0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

wave number (cm-1)

b)

2,5 2,0

recycled PC

absorbance

1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000

500

wave number (cm-1)
1,6

comercial PC, Trirex 3122/3022 absorbance
1,2

0,8 0,4

0,0 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000

500

wave number (cm-1)
Fig. 1. IR spectra of ABS (a) and PC (b) compared to those of virgin materials.

a small but significant peak around 3300 cmÿ1 which is not observed in the non-treated polymer is an indication of the formation of oxidized species which indicate that some kind of thermo-oxidation has been suffered by the polymer. This fact is confirmed by the lower intensity of peaks around

950e1000 cmÿ1 which indicates that the butadiene phase has decreased and some degradation should be expected. On the other hand, PC spectra for recycled and virgin materials do not show significant differences (Fig. 1b). These materials have not suffered significant degradation during

530

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534
1,0
ABS 100/PC 0 ABS 80/PC 20 ABS 20/PC 80 ABS 0/PC 100

processing and use, as expected from the high thermal resistance of PC.
degree of conversion, α

2.2. Equipment and procedure Dynamic thermal degradation measurements were performed in a Mettler-Toledo 851e-TGA-SDTA thermal gravimetric analyser (Schwarzenbach, Switzerland). Temperature was raised from room temperature up to 900  C using different heating rates, between 5 and 30  C/min in 5  C/min intervals. TGA tests were performed in alumina crucibles where samples were placed without any previous treatment and experiments were run immediately. TGA tests were carried out in nitrogen environment using a flow rate 20 cm3/min in order to remove all corrosive gases evolved during the degradation and to avoid thermo-oxidative degradation. Kinetic parameters were determined by using the autocatalytic model which is based on the fundamental kinetic equation:       da Ea A ln C Cn lnð1 ÿ aÞCm lnðaÞ ð1Þ Zln dT b RT where a is the conversion, Ea the apparent activation energy, A the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor, b the heating rate for each individual experiment and n, m kinetic parameters to be determined. FTIR tests were carried out by using a Satellite-3000 instrument from Mattson (Fremont, CA, USA) in the middle IR region (between 5000 and 600 cmÿ1). Mechanical properties were determined by using a universal test machine ELIB 30 from Ibertest (Madrid, Spain) with charges between 5 and 30 kN. SEM photographs were obtained by using a HITACHI S-3000N Scanning Electronic Microscope (Hitachi Ltd. Japan). 3. Results and discussion Fig. 2 shows TGA curves at 2  C/min for four different PCeABS blends. As can be observed, the degradation process of both materials, either individually or after blending, takes place in a relatively narrow temperature range. In general, both degradation processes are quite fast, but some particularities can be drawn. PC thermal degradation is observed at higher temperatures than those of many other polymers, with a high thermal stability even after processing and use [4,24]. Meanwhile, ABS shows a degradation process very similar to other styrene derivatives [25,26]. The analysis of curves for PCeABS blends shows that the addition of ABS to PC matrixes is not a simple sum of the contributions of both materials. Even with additions of small amounts of ABS (as low as 20% by weight) the degradation curves are far from that of pure PC, but are similar to those of pure ABS. Therefore, some interactions between both polymers during thermal degradation have to be considered, in particular the influence of ABS on thermal degradation of PC. The possibility of interactions between both polymers is

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0 550

600

650

700

750

800

temperature (K)
Fig. 2. TGA curves of PCeABS blends (% in weight) (2  C/min).

also supported when SEM microphotographs are observed, like in Fig. 3 for a PCeABS (80e20%) mixture. The dark continuous region corresponds to PC phase and the ABS appears as clearer spheres over the background. It is observed that while the largest spheres of ABS seem to be just lying over the PC phase, some of the smallest ABS macromolecules have established physical links modifying the PC continuous structure. This observation is in agreement with another study, which suggested that ABS can be well dispersed in PC without the aid of a compatibiliser [27] and that a co-continuous structure in industrial PCeABS blends is usual [28]. The reason of this high compatibility in industrial blends is still under discussion, but a recent work proposed that the OH groups on the ends of PC chains might be linked with the anhydride groups via esterification as a consequence of the higher polarity of ABS segments [29]. In the case of ABSePC mixtures where ABS is the main component, the action of PC is a general decrease in thermal stability with the overall process taking place at lower temperatures (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, this decrease is not enough to

Fig. 3. Microphotograph of the structure of a PCeABS (80/20% in weight) (!5000).

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534

531

determine a significant change in the thermal stability of materials in real-life conditions. This behaviour is especially evident in thermo-oxidative conditions where it has been reported that the formation of free and peroxy radicals leads to a fast initiation of the degradation. This observation was confirmed by IR spectra as was previously indicated. But, this general decrease in thermal properties is also observed in inert atmosphere and would lead to the formation of micro-cracks, chain scission and cross-linking which finally result in a general loss of mechanical properties in the PCeABS blend [20,30,31]. The application of the autocatalytic kinetic model to the TGA results obtained at different heating rates and for the whole range of formulations (between 0 and 100% of ABS in PC) allows us to calculate all kinetic parameters, such as apparent activation energies and partial reaction orders, n and m by application of Eq. (1). Results for the calculation of Ea in five different mixtures are shown in Fig. 4. Two different behaviours can be observed for those mixtures where each polymer is the main component. Thus, in the case of ABS-based blends Ea values remain practically unchanged (considering the error in measurements and calculation) between 140 and 160 kJ/mol. These results are in agreement with those reported by Zong et al. [21], who calculated kinetic parameters by applying classical Kissinger and Ozawa methods and obtained an average value of 142 kJ/mol. On the other hand, Ea values show a great variability for PC-based blends with a clear increase at high heating rates, getting values as high as 320 kJ/mol. These high Ea values are not easy to explain, and can be attributed to the complexities in the thermal degradation mechanism of PC which will be further discussed. Moreover, the effect of blending shows that while thermal behaviour is quite similar for all those ABS-based blends, the addition of growing amounts of PC (higher than 30% weight) results in a gradual separation of the initial values and the subsequent approximation to the thermal degradation of PC. The adjustment of the proposed kinetic model to these PCe ABS blends can be determined, once the apparent activation
320 300 280
ABS 100/PC 0 ABS 90/PC 10 ABS 60/PC 40 ABS 20/PC 80 ABS 0/PC 100

26

Ln(dα/dT)+Ea/RT

24

22

β = 20 K/min β = 10 K/min β = 5 K/min β = 2 K/min

20 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0

degree of conversion (α)
Fig. 5. Determination of kinetic parameters by non-linear adjustment for recycled PC at different heating rates.

energies have been determined, by a plot of ln(da/dT ) vs. 1/T by calculation of the a function and a non-linear fitting and iteration process. Therefore, it is possible to determine ln(A/b), n and m (Eq. (1)) simultaneously through the whole degradation process, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6 for pure ABS and PC, respectively. Experimental data obtained directly from TGA curves have been plotted for all the PCeABS blends and non-linear fittings in the form of Eq. (2). yZKCn lnð1 ÿ xÞCm ln x ð2Þ

The fitting of experimental data (dotted points) with the calculated results (solid lines) is very good with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.99 in all cases, as observed in Figs. 5 and 6. This leads us to consider the autocatalytic method as adequate for the determination of kinetic parameters in PCeABS blends. The n and m values obtained by application of the model and Eq. (2) are shown in Fig. 7 for the whole range of
40

35

Ea, (KJ/mol K)

260 240 220 200 180 160 140 0

Ln(dα/dT)+Ea/RT

30

25
β = 20 K/min β = 10 K/min β = 5 K/min β = 2 K/min

20

15 5 10 15 20 25 30 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0

heating rate, β (K/min)
Fig. 4. Determination of kinetic parameters by iterative calculation according to the autocatalytic model for ABS (30  C/min).

degree of conversion, α
Fig. 6. Determination of kinetic parameters by non-linear adjustment for recycled ABS at different heating rates.

532

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534

a)

1,0
ABS 100% [E] ABS 80% [E] ABS 20% [E] ABS 0% [E] ABS 100% [M] ABS 80% [M] ABS 20% [M] ABS 0% [M]

degree of conversion (α)

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0 600

650

700

750

800

temperature (K)

b)
degree of conversion (α)

1,0
ABS 100% [E] ABS 80% [E] ABS 20% [E] ABS 0% [E] ABS 100% [M] ABS 80% [M] ABS 20% [M] ABS 0% [M]

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0 650

700

750

800

850

temperature (K)
Fig. 8. Comparison between the autocatalytic model results and experimental data for different PCeABS mixtures at 2  C/min (a) and 30  C/min (b). Fig. 7. Variation of ‘‘n’’ (a) and ‘‘m’’ (b) kinetic coefficients with composition of mixtures at different heating rates.

mixtures. In this figure, a clear difference for mixtures with quantities of PC higher and lower than 40% in weight can be observed. Thus, while both parameters (n and m) increase their values for all ABS-based mixtures from 0 to 30% PC, an inflexion is observed at 40% PC blends and a sudden change in tendency is observed for PC-based mixtures by reaching a plateau (for n) and even decreasing clearly their values (for m) up to values similar to those of ABS-based blends (between 0.3 and 0.6). This behaviour is general for the whole range of heating rates used in this study and can be attributed to the chemical interaction between both phases, which conditions their thermal degradation, in particular for blends with similar quantities of both the components. Once the kinetic parameters have been calculated, it is possible to integrate the differential Eq. (1) and obtain the results for the application of the model to every PCeABS mixture. Results for four different blends from 0 to 100% ABS at two heating rates in TGA experiments are shown in Fig. 8a and b. The applicability of the model to each mixture is variable, depending on the composition and

heating rate of the TGA experiment. However, some general conclusions can be obtained from Fig. 8. The fitting of calculated values (solid lines) with experimental data (dotted points) is better for low heating rates (Fig. 8a). This was expectable, as TGA tests at high heating rates in activated or autocatalytic processes show some differences between the model and experimental results, as was previously observed for other polymer formulations [22]. The largest differences are observed in the case of ABS-based blends at low conversion degrees, with a much better fitting for high a values. This can be due to the heterogeneity of the ABS-based materials and the inherent limitations of the model in explaining the thermal degradation of ABS, in particular during the initial stages of the process. The use of the autocatalytic model is much more interesting for PC-based blends. As it can be observed, the superposition of calculated curves and experimental data is good and near perfect for a O 0.4 and low heating rates. Therefore, it is remarkable that the autocatalytic model can be used for the determination of kinetic parameters in recycled PCeABS blends at any proportion and low heating rates (Fig. 8a), while higher

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534

533

differences are observed at high heating rates in particular for ABS-based blends. It can be concluded that the autocatalytic model fits especially well for those blends where PC is the continuous phase.

4. Conclusions Integration through numerical methods of TGA results obtained for different PCeABS mixtures shows the validity of the autocatalytic model where f(a) Z (1 ÿ a)nam. The fitting between the calculated curves and experimental data is higher for those blends where PC is the continuous phase. This could help to elucidate the mechanism of the thermal degradation of these materials obtained from WEEE. Apparent activation energies determined from TGA data are practically independent of heating rates, in particular for ABS-based mixtures, which suggests that the most important process in the degradation of these materials corresponds to ABS, in particular thermo-oxidative processes in the elastomeric phase of the blend. This could lead to the proposal of stabilizing systems for PCeABS blends. On the other hand, those mixtures with high PC content show a clear increase in apparent activation energies with heating rate, suggesting that the thermal degradation mechanism of these samples is composed of several complex processes, each predominant during different stages of the overall process. Therefore, the use of complex stabilizing systems will be necessary for an efficient stabilization of these mixtures and a limitation of the action of the main degradation processes (hydrolysis, thermo and photo-oxidation). When comparing our results with mechanisms proposed in the literature [15,16] some comments can be introduced. Montaudo et al. [16] proposed a mechanism based on oxidation and decomposition of the polymer with formation of different sized oligomers and further cross-linking reactions through the oxidative coupling of polymeric units to form biphenyl groups. At the end of the degradation many low molecular-weight oligomers are formed and acetophenones, benzyl alcohol and phenols are observed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. According to this mechanism, which is in agreement with observations in the present study, a higher heating rate would lead to a higher number of alternative ways to degrade PCeABS mixtures. An increase in the ABS content would lead to a point where the dispersed ABS domains connect together forming a network, which gives rise to a general stabilization of the system.

References
[1] Silicon valley toxic coalition. Just say no to e-waste: background document on hazards and waste from computers. !http://www.svtc.org/ cleancc/pubs/sayno.htmO. [2] Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

[3] Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). [4] Jiang W, Tjong SC. Thermal stability of polycarbonate composites reinforced with potassium titanate whiskers: effect of coupling agents addition. Polym Degrad Stab 1999;66:241e6. [5] Cui J, Forssberg E. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review. J Hazard Mater 2003;99:243e63. [6] Matsuto T, Jung CH, Tanaka N. Material and heavy metal balance in a recycling facility for home electrical appliances. Waste Manag 2004;24: 425e36. [7] Evstatiev M, Fakirov S, Krasteva B, Friedrich J, Covas JA, Cunha M. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) as polymerepolymer composites. Polym Eng Sci 2002;42:826e35. ´ [8] Villalba G, Segarra M, Fernandez AI, Chimenos JM, Espiell F. A proposal for quantifying the recyclability of materials. Resour Conserv Recycling 2002;37:39e53. [9] Shen H, Forssberg E, Pugh RJ. Selective flotation separation of plastics by particle control. Resour Conserv Recycling 2001;33:37e50. [10] Pappa G, Boukouvalas C, Giannaris C, Ntaras N, Zografos V, Magoulas K, et al. The selective dissolution/precipitation technique for polymer recycling: a pilot unit application. Resour Conserv Recycling 2001;34:33e44. [11] Poulakis JG, Papaspyrides CD. Recycling of polypropylene by the dissolution/reprecipitation technique 1. A model study. Resour Conserv Recycling 1997;20:31e41. [12] Brebu M, Bhaskar T, Murai K, Muto A, Sakata, Azhar-Uddin MD. The individual and cumulative effect of brominated flame retardant and polyvinylchloride (PVC) on thermal degradation of acrylonitrileebutadienee styrene (ABS) copolymer. Chemosphere 2004;56:433e40. [13] McNeill IC, Basan S. Thermal degradation of polycarbonates: reaction conditions and reaction mechanisms. Polym Degrad Stab 1993;39:13e9. [14] Becker L, Lenoir D, Matuschek G, Kettrup A. Thermal degradation of halogen-free flame retardant epoxides and polycarbonate in air. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 2001;60:55e67. [15] Katajisto J, Pakkanen TT, Pakkanen TA, Hirva P. Ab-initio study on thermal degradation reactions of polycarbonate. J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003;634:305e10. [16] Montaudo G, Carroccio S, Puglisi C. Thermal and thermoxidative degradation processes in poly(bisphenol-A carbonate). J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 2002;64:229e47. [17] Montaudo G, Carroccio S, Puglisi C. Thermal oxidation of poly(bisphenolA polycarbonate) investigated by SEC/MALDI. Polym Degrad Stab 2002; 77:137e46. [18] Jang BN, Wilkie CA. A TGA/FTIR and mass spectral study on the thermal degradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate. Polym Degrad Stab 2004;86:419e30. [19] Donga D, Tasaka S, Aikawa S, Kamiya S, Inagaki N, Inoue Y. Thermal degradation of acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene terpolymer in bean oil. Polym Degrad Stab 2001;73:319e26. [20] Tiganis BE, Burn LS, Davis P, Hill AJ. Thermal degradation of acrylonitrileebutadieneestyrene (ABS) blends. Polym Degrad Stab 2002;76:425e34. [21] Zong R, Hu Y, Wang S, Song L. Thermogravimetric evaluation of PC/ ABS/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 2004;83: 423e8. ´ [22] Jimenez A, Torre L, Kenny JM. Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) plastisols based on low-migration polymeric plasticizers. Polym Degrad Stab 2001;73:447e53. ´ [23] Navarro R, Torre L, Kenny JM, Jimenez A. Thermal degradation of recycled polypropylene toughened with elastomers. Polym Degrad Stab 2003;82:279e90. [24] Chiang WY, Hwung DS. Properties of polycarbonate/acrylonitrilee butadieneestyrene blends. Polym Eng Sci 1987;27:632e9. [25] Luda di Cortemiglia MP, Camino G, Costa I, Guaita M. Thermal degradation of ABS. Thermochim Acta 1985;93:187e90. [26] Suzuki M, Wilkie CA. The thermal degradation of acrylonitrilee butadieneestyrene terpolymer as studied by TGA/FTIR. Polym Degrad Stab 1995;47:217e21.

534

R. Balart et al. / Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 527e534 [30] Motyakin MV, Schlick S. Thermal degradation at 390 K of poly(acrylonitrileebutadyeneestyrene) (ABS) containing a hindered amine stabilizer: a study by ID and 2D Electron Spin Resonance Imaging (ESRI) and ATRFTIR. Polym Degrad Stab 2002;76:25e36. [31] Boldizar A, Moller K. Degradation of ABS during repeated ¨ processing and accelerated ageing. Polym Degrad Stab 2003;81: 359e66.

[27] Wildes G, Keskkula H, Paul DR. Fracture characterization of PC/ABS blends: effect of reactive compatibilization, ABS type and rubber concentration. Polymer 1999;40:7089e107. [28] Inberg JPF, Gaymans RJ. Co-continuous polycarbonate/ABS blends. Polymer 2002;43:2425e34. [29] Elmaghor F, Zhang L, Fan R, Li H. Recycling of polycarbonate by blending with maleic anhydride grafted ABS. Polymer 2004;45:6719e24.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful