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Condensed Matter Physics and the Solid State

Seeks to describe the physical behavior of large number of particles

3 States of Matter
Gas Liquid Solid fluid

Crystals
A crystal lattice is a periodic array of points in space

Most simple chemical compounds in the solid state are crystalline

Crystal Lattice
(simple cubic)

Crystal Habits
(cubic)

From H. E. Hall

Microscopic view of a Cu(001) Surface:


Atomic-scale terraces are visible Mounds appear as microscopic habits on an optically flat surface

100 nm

500 nm

Zuo & Wendelken, PRL 78 2791 (1997)

High-Temperature Superconductor: YBa2Cu3O7 O Cu Building blocks of the crystal lattice can contain complex units Y

Ba

www.wfu.edu/~lawct/ybco.html

Crystals
A crystal lattice is a periodic array of points in space

Most simple chemical compounds in the solid state are crystalline There are many amorphous compounds: no long-range order (glass and vitreous are other terms also used for this)

As we will see, crystalline materials helped physicists understand condensed matter

Crystal Structure = Lattice + Basis


Lattice: an infinite periodic array of points, each of which represents a quantity (basis) whose arrangement and orientation appear exactly the same at all points in the array.
Position vector:

r r r r R = n1a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3

Primitive vectors: the set of the smallest translation vectors that make up the lattice
Any point on a lattice can be reached by an appropriate choice of n1, n2, n3 (integers)

Basis: units or objects that are located at each lattice point.

Unit Cells
Primitive Unit Cell: Volume of space that can be translated through all primitive vectors of the lattice. It exactly fills space without overlapping or gaps. The definition is not unique.

r r r Vc = a3 (a2 a1 )

The Wigner-Seitz Primitive Cell a popular primitive cell construction Draw lines between neighboring atoms Draw lines perpendicular through the midpoint of these Wigner-Seitz cell is the smallest enclosed volume

Conventional Unit Cell (the Unit Cell): Can be primitive or nonprimitive cell (it can contain more than one lattice point/cell which would be included as a basis).
Primitive

Non-primitive (2 lattice points per unit cell in this example)

Bravais Lattices
Symmetry group of a crystal contains both: Translational Symmetry Point Symmetry

Point Symmetry Operations


2 Rotation n Cn

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

Reflection (mirror)

Inversion

r r r r

http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/j.p.goss/symmetry/Stereographs.html http://www.reciprocalnet.org/edumodules/symmetry/operations/index.html

C2 2mm One 2-fold rotation axis Two mirror planes


http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/j.p.goss/symmetry/index.html

Bravais Lattices
Symmetry group of a crystal contains both: Translational Symmetry Point Symmetry

2D: 5 Bravais lattice types 3D: 14 Bravais lattice types

Five Bravais Lattices in 2D

From Marder

Objects with 5-fold symmetry cannot fill space

3 Dimensions:
7 Crystal Systems 14 Bravais Lattices

http://frank.mtsu.edu/~njsmith/modernii/lec10I.html

Lowest symmetry

abc

Highest symmetry 3 Cubic Lattices

a=b=c o = = = 90

2 Tetragonal Lattices

a=bc o = = = 90

4 Orthorhombic Lattices

abc o = = = 90

1 Hexagonal Lattice

c a a

a=bc o = = 90 o = 120

1 Trigonal Lattice

Rhombohedral or Trigonal

a=b=c o o = = < 120 90

2 Monoclinic Lattices

abc o = = 90

3 Dimensions: 7 Crystal Systems 14 Bravais Lattices

From Kittel

BCC Conventional & Primitive Cells

From Kittel

The Wigner-Seitz Primitive Cell


Draw between neighboring atoms Draw lines perpendicular through midpoint of these Wigner-Seitz cell is the smallest enclosed volume

2D

BCC

FCC Conventional & Primitive Cells

From Kittel

From Kittel

Structures Derived From FCC


Diamond Structure: Examples are group IV elements: C, Si, Ge, -Sn, but not Pb 2 Interpenetrating FCC based at: (0,0,0) & (a/4, a/4, a/4) Zinc-Blende Structure: Examples: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdTe, CuF, CuCl, AgI III-V compounds: GaAs, AlAs, AlP, GaP, GaSb, InP 2 Interpenetrating FCC based at: Ga at (0,0,0) As at (a/4, a/4, a/4)

Structures Derived From FCC


Rock Salt Structure: 2 Interpenetrating FCC based at: Na at (0,0,0) Cl at (a/2, a/2, a/2)

Examples are usually ionically-bonded salts such as: Alkali-Halides: NaCl, LiFetc Alkaline-Chalcoginides (II-VI): CaS, MgS, SrSe, BaO, etc AgF, AgCl (Ag is usually monovalent) Rare-Earth Arsenides such as ErAs (Er is trivalent)

CsCl Structure: Derived From BCC


BCC-like structure with: Cs at (0,0,0) Cl at (a/2, a/2, a/2)

Examples: CsCl, NiAl, TiCl, TlI, AgCd

CaF2 Structure
FCC Ca based at (0,0,0) SC F based at (a/4, a/4, a/4)

F Ca

Examples: Alkaline-Halides: CaF2 , BaF2 Alkali-Chalcoginides: Li2O, Na2S Others: HfO2, CeO2, Mg2Si

Perovskite Structure
Ba at (0,0,0) Ti at (a/2, a/2, a/2) O at Face-Centered sites

Ti Ba O
Examples: BaTiO3, LaAlO3, SrTiO3, KNiF3. High-Tc superconductors based on these structures.
Often exhibit structural transitions to lower symmetry from rotation or stretching of the oxygen octahedra which are often Ferroelectric.

Hexagonal Structures

X X

a2 a1 a2 120 a1

X Aschroft & Mermin incorrectly give =60

a1 = a2 = a

=120 is the usual convention

Graphite (carbon): two hexagonal sheets

HCP FCC

Hexagonal Close Pack (HCP):


ABABAB stacking sequence c=a(8/3)=1.633a (not true for Graphite)

FCC: ABCABC stacking along [111] Can have Stacking Faults

Similarity of FCC & HCP

From Kittel

Miller Indices: method to define a crystal plane


(2,3,3) plane
1. 2. 3. Find intercept of plane on 3 axes Take reciprocals of these numbers Multiply to get smallest set of integers

(H,K,L) planes: {H,K,L} indicates all symmetry-related planes [H,K,L] indicates the direction in the crystal. For cubic crystals [H,K,L] is perpendicular to the (HKL) plane

From Kittel

14 Bravais Lattices in 3D

(Kittel)

3 Dimensions: 7 Crystal Systems 14 Bravais Lattices


http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/icl/heyes/structure_of_solids/lecture1/lec1.html