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BY SCOTT WILSON

These problems are taken from the text by J. Munkres: pg.83 #1, 3, 6, 7. pg.91 #1, 3, 4, 6, 9. pg. 100#2, 3, 6. (1) Suppose for each x ∈ A there is an open set Ux in X such that x ∈ Ux ⊂ A. Then can write A = ∪x∈A Ux , and so A is open since it is a union of open sets. (2) By deﬁnition, a set is countable if it is ﬁnite or countably inﬁnite. Let Tc be the collection of all subsets U of X such that X − U is either countable or all of X. Then ∅, X ∈ Tc . The relation X − ∪α Uα = ∩α X − Uα shows that Tc is closed under arbitrary unions, since an arbitrary intersection of countable sets is countable. The relation X − ∩n Un = ∪n X − Un shows Tc is closed under ﬁnite intersections, since a countable union of countable sets is countable. Let T∞ be the collection of all subsets U of X such that X − U is either inﬁnite, empty, or all of X. This contains ∅ and X. But T∞ is not a tolopology since it is not closed under arbitrary unions. Note the proof above breaks down, since an intersection of inﬁnite sets may be ﬁnite. For example, take X = Z with the collection T∞ . Then U = {k|k < 0} and V = {k|k > 0}. Then U, V ∈ T∞ , but U ∪ V ∈ T∞ . / (3) Let Rℓ be the topology on R whose basis is given by all {[a, b)|a < b} and let RK be the topology on R whose basis is all intervals (a, b) along sets of 1 the form (a, b) − K where K = ∪n∈N n . We show these topologies are not comparable. We use Lemma 13.3. Consider the basis element [0, 1) in Rℓ . There is no basis element U open in RK such that 0 ∈ U ⊂ [0, 1), since any U containing 0 must contain some number less than zero. So RK is not ﬁner than Rℓ . Similarly, consider the basis element (−1, 1) − K in RK . There is no basis element V open in Rℓ such that 0 ∈ V ⊂ (−1, 1) − K, since any V 1 containing zero must contain some n . So Rℓ is not ﬁner than RK . (4) Consider the following topologies on R.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

= = = = =

the standard topology, the topology of RK , the ﬁnite complement topology, the upper limit topology using {(a, b]}, the topology having basis {(−∞, a)} .

1

1) is not open in R or in Y . and X − Y is open is X. so this is open. (7) Let π1 : X × Y → X be π1 (x. T5 . Therefore E is open in Y . Therefore A × B is closed in X × Y .e. 2)∩Y . Let x ∈ π1 (Z). d). such that z ∈ U × V ⊂ Z. a set U × V with U open in X and V open in Y . i. 1) is not open in R but is open in Y since B = (1/2. which is precisely the condition that U be open in A as a subspace of X. 1] is not open in R or in Y E = (0. First. Let Z be open in X × Y . c. q) ∈ V ⊂ U × (c. c × (−∞. q) ∈ V ⊂ U . C = [1/2. so that either p = a and q > b. for some V open in Y . respectively so that (p. A subset U is open in A. c < d. 1) is open in R and therefore Y . 1)−K 1 1 1 where K = { n |n ∈ N} is open in R. No other containments hold. B = (1/2. We’ll show π1 (Z) is open. y) = x. Then Y − A is open in Y . Let (p. For example E = ∪n∈N ( n+1 . Secondly the standard topology is ﬁner since the basis of rectangles with rational corners is contained in the basis of all rectangles. for all z ∈ Z we can ﬁnd a basis element of X × Y . b) × (c. So U = W ∩ A.2 BY SCOTT WILSON The following containments hold: T2 T1 . T3 . d)|a < b. 1] ⊂ R. T2 T4 ⊃ T1 ⊃ T3 ⊃ T5 ⊃ T1 . For each of this cases we take the open set V in Rd × R to be a × (b. iﬀ U = V ∩A. d are rational}. q) ∈ U × (c. p × d) in the dictionary order topology on R2 and we have (p. ∞). Conversely. But X − A = (X − Y ) ∪ (Y − A). Then π1 (z) = x ⊂ π1 (U × V ) = U ⊂ π1 (Z). or p = b and q < d. we can shrink the rectangle a bit (by rounding the coordinates up or down) so that it has rational corners and contains the same point. (5) Let A ⊂ Y ⊂ X. b. d) where U is open in Rd and V is open in R. A = (1/2. or a < p < b. (10) Suppose A is closed in Y and Y is closed in X. p × R. We can take the open “interval” V = (p × c. Then X − A is open in X and Y − B is open in Y . and a. (6) Let Y = [−1. Since Y is a subspace of X this says V = W ∩ Y for some W open in X. n ). q) ∈ U . (8) Consider the countable collection of rectangles in R2 that have rational corners: {(a. . For this z. (11) Suppose A is closed in X and B is closed in Y . We have to ﬁnd a basis element U of X such that x ∈ U ⊂ π1 (Z). D = [1/2. Choose z ∈ X × Y such that π1 (z) = x. this is a basis by the same argument for all rectangles. Therefore A is closed in X. We want to show π1 (Z) is open in X. Since Z is open in X × Y . A similar argument applies for π2 . and it generates a topology ﬁner than the standard topology on R2 since. as a subspace of Y . So (X × Y ) − (A × B) = ((X − A) × Y ) ∪ (X × (Y − B)) is open in X × Y . given a point in an arbitrary rectangle. (9) We show the dictionary order topology on R2 is the same as the product topology Rd × R where Rd is the discrete topology. choose U × V as above so that z ∈ U × V ⊂ Z. c×d) is an“interval” in the dictionary order topology on R2 . Suppose U = (a×b. suppose (p. d).

Let x ∈ ∪Aα . . and Aα be subsets of X. 1). Let x ∈ A ∪ B. so x ∈ A ∪ B.PROBLEM SET 1 SOLUTIONS 3 (12) Let A. If x ∈ A then every neighborhood U of x ¯ intersects A. For this α′ . 1]. so ∪Aα = (0. (c) We show ∪Aα ⊂ ∪Aα . So every neighborhood U of x intersects ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ either A or B. we have every neighborhood U of x intersects Aα′ . Then each Aα is closed. Then every neighborhood U of x intersections A ∪ B. For each real α ∈ (0. so ∪Aα = [0. ¯ ¯ (b) We show A ∪ B ⊂ A ∪ B. B.MATH 703 . 1) let Aα = {α}. Therefore x ∈ A or x ∈ B. Therefore every neighborhood U of x intersects ∪Aα . So x ∈ B. if x ∈ A then every neighborhood U of x ¯ intersects B. so x ∈ ∪Aα . 1). Here is an example to show equality can fail. Since A ⊂ B. But ∪Aα = (0. So x ∈ Aα′ for some α′ . ¯ ¯ ¯ (a) If A ⊂ B we show A ⊂ B.

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