Dental cements used as restorative materials  Have low strength (as compared to amalgam & composites)  Can be used for low stress areas Other Uses 2. For pulp protection  To protect the pulp against further trauma, thermal insulating uses are often placed under metallic restoration  Pulp capping agent & cavity lairs are placed on prepared tooth surfaces that are close to the pulp chamber.  As fissure sealants Some F containing cements As root canal sealants As core build ups for restora of broken-down tooth Cementation of prosthesis & orthodontic appliances Securing posts & pine SILICATE CEMENTS  Use diminished markedly with advent of composites & GIC Advantage: Possess anticaugenic properties  A mechanism that has been wel defined COMPOSITION Powder  Silica (Sio2)  Alumina (Al203)  Thuoride Compounds – (Naf, Ca2, Na3alf6)  Calcium salts – {Ca (H2PD4)2. H2O & Cao} Powder fused at approx 14000 C to form a glass- acidsoluble FUNCN OF F COMPDS - To lower fusing temp. of the glass. Liquid Aqueous solution of Phosphoric acid with buffer salts. Powder + Liquid – Surface of powder particles attached by acid, Ca2+ , F-, Al3+ions released Metalions precipitate as phosphates Matium has inclusions of Thuoride salts – Form cement matrix.

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7 during 18 to 24 hrs in H2O Hardness (KNH) – 70 Pulp response – Severe PH of silicate cements at time of insertion into cavity .   FLUORIDE RELEASING ZINC-PHOSPHATE CEMENT  Solubility was extremely high.relare can continue as long as 2 year but at a much lower rate than that from GIC.makes the amalgam more susceptible to corrosion. Leaching of F. Even after 1 month – PH<7 Cements solubility Silicate (Without F-) Silicate (With F) Lux Silico Phosphate GIC % age change in F-content %age change in acid .  An in VWO study showed F.0.<3. GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS / POLYALKENOATE CEMENT Glass ionomer is the generic name of a group of material that use silicate glam powder and an aqueous solution of polyacylic acid Advantage :. Another in Vitro study showed that F.relate from amalgams loaded with soluble fluoride salts was detectable within the first month & thereafter fluoride was not released in measurable units. .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES       Brittle Strong compressive strength – 180 Mpa (24 hr) Weak tensile strength – 3. N09 ).Need fro mechanical retention via a cavity prepares is eliminated or reduced. To ADA sp.5 Mpa (24 hr) Solubility (Ac.0 +3500 +5000 +3000 +20 -40 -50 -30 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH F.CONTAINING AMALGAMS.

7 9. TYPES OF GIC Based on their formulation & their potential uses consistency of element ranges from grow visconty to high vesconity by adjusting the particles size distribution & P/L ratio.6 12.lanthanum.3 3.4 20.additions provide radcopacity. barium or 2nO.Used for conservation restoration of ended area.0 .2 20.6 15. Composition of 2 GIC powder Species Sio2 Al2o3 Alf3 Caf2 Naf Alpo4 A 41. Type I Type II Type III Luting Restoration resin modified GIC Lanier or Base INDICATION Earlier recommended fro use in restoring with class III & class V cavity preparation conservation class I&II restoration Because of adhesive bond to tooth structure & its cavity prevention potential the type of GIC have expanded to include there are as 1) Luting agent 2) Pif & finure sealants 3) Othodontic bracket adhesive 4) Linier & base 5) core build ups 6)Intermediate restoration 7) Highly viscous conventional GIC cement used for ART. COMPOSITION Powder – Acid soluble calcium fluoroaluminis silicate glass.9 28.8 B 35.Type II GIC Class II & IV restoration – as lack fraclure toughness & appear to be more susceptible to wear by enamel compared with composites. The max particles size are 50 mm for luting agents.1 2.6 1. Glass is ground into a powder having particular in the range of 15-50 um. strontium.1 3. Raw material fused to a uniform glass by heating them to a temp of 11000 C to 15000 C.

TARTARIC ACID – is also present in the liuid improves handling characteristics increase the working time however.Aqueoussolu of polycyclic acid in a conc. Rest of the Na+ions combine with fluoride ions forming sodium fluoride – uniformly dispersed within the set cement The ions linked phase becomes hydrated time with the same water used for mixing.A new phase forms – Al3t ions become bound within the cement mix Lads to a more rigid set cement Na+ & Fl ions do not participate in the ion linking of the cement Some of the Na+ions amy replace the H+ions of carboxylic group. it shortens the setting time (Fig 16-16) WATER SETTABLE GIC’S / ANHYDROUS GIC’S Freeze dried acid powder & glam powder in one bottle.5 & Fig 24. the acid powder denature to reconstitute the liquid acid & this process is followed by the acid base reaction . Within 24 hrs. acid is in form of a copolymer with itaconic. Na+ & Fl ions. Water or water with titanic acid in another bottle as the liquid component.same water hydrates the matrix & cannot be removed by desiccation & is then called as TIGHLY.6 16.BOUND WATER This hydration is critical in yielding a stable gel FRACTURE TOUGHNESS. thereby increasingly the material strength by yielding a stable gel structure that is stronger & in suscpactible to moisture. The liquid quite viscous & tended to get over time. . Fig 24. ADV:. of about 40% to 50%. malic or tricarboxylic acid ( Fig 16-15) These acid tend to increase the reactivity of the liquid decrease the viscosity and reduce the tendency for gelation by reducing hydrogen bonding between acid molecules. In most of the current cement.a measure of the energy required to produce fracture.linked matrix. It Them slowly hydrates the ions.Al3t .17 16-18 ROLE OF WATER IN THE SETTING PROCESS It sewes as the reaction medium initially.extended working time of GIC CHEMISTRY OF SETTING Powder + Liquid Surface of glass particular attacked by acid Ca2t . When the powder are mixed with water. Thus. This process is called MATURATION the uncrated portion of glass particulars are sheathed by silica gel that develops during unmoval of the cations from the surface of the particulars.During the initial reac period – this H2O can easily be removed by desiccation – called as LOOSOLY BOUND WATER As setting continuous. set cement consists of An agglomeration of unreacted powder particles surrounded by a silica gel in an amorphous matrix of hydrated Ca & Al polysalts.backed into the aquorous media the polyacylic acid chains are icon linked by Ca2t ions form a solid man.Liquid .

Thus GIC is not as desirable as zinc phosphate cement to support on all ceramic crown.7 MPA 39 Mild Yes --Resin Modified GIC 105 MPA 20 40 Mild Yes --- BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES  Same anticarogenic properties as silicate cement. Of guater inorganic content of enamel & its guater homogeneity from a morphologic stand point. Relative to Amalgam Posterior Components A Type II GI Cement B type II GI silver alloy admin 0.83-1.Primarily involves chelation of carhough group of the polyacid with the calcium in the apalite of enamel & denten . Any contamination by water that occurs at this stage can cause a dissolution of the matrix forming cation & amions to the surrounding areas.11 0.16 As compound to Zn(PO4)2 – Comprehensive strength comparable to Zn(PO4)2 Diametrical strength of GIC is slightly higher.6 MPA 48 Mild Yes 0. Fracture toughness of Mat. Results in a weak and more soluble cement.Type II GIC’S are much inferior to components in this respect. MECHANISM OF ADHESION PROPERTIES OF GIC Comprehensive strength (24 Hr) Diametral tensile Strength (24 Hr) Hardness(KHN) Pulp Response Anticanogenic Solubility(ADA Test) GI(TYPE II) 150 MPA 6. Fig 16-17 Structure & Building the strength of the cement CLINICAL IMPLICATION If freshly mixed cement are kept isolate from the ambient are. Modulus of elasticity is only about one –half that of Zinc Phosphate cement Thus GIC is an stiff & more suscpactible to elastic deformation CLINICAL RELEVANCE. If same mixes are exposed to ambient air without any covering the surface will crage & crack as a result of dessication.4 Metal Modified GIC(Cement) 150 MPA 6. The bond to enamel is always higher than that to dentin bec.3 0.29 0.Lovely held water becomes slowly tightly bound water results in a cement that is stronger & less suscpectable to moisture. MECHANISM OF ADHOSION.27 0. .

Nonetheless.  Type II glam ionomers are relativity biocompatible . 2) Cool. CRITICAL PROCEDURE FOR GI-RESTORATIONS Cavity Surface Preparation 1) Pumice wash to remove the smear layer produce during cavity preparation. followed by a 5 sec or longer swabbing with polyacrylic acid. 3) In restoring eroded areas with no cavity preparation Dentum and cenetum should first be cleaned with pumice slurry. .  The luting agents (Type 1 cements) pore a greater hazard in this regard because of a lower P:L ratio and a slower setting reactions than that for Type II GI. This can alter the acid-water balance needed for a proper reaction.They elicit a greater pulp reactions than ZDE but generally less than from zn3(po4)2 cement. it is wire to place a thin layer of a protective cement. the surface s/he dried but it should not be unduly desiccated. dry glass slab-> to extend working time slab should not be used if its temperature is below dew point->that is temperature that enhances moisture condensation on the glass slab. water rinse] This procedure of removing the sinear layer is called as conditioning. such as polyacrlyic acid of various concentrations. It removes at a lower PH for longer periods. can remove the smear layer but still leave the collagenous tubuk plug in place.[10%-20% polyacrylic acid solution to surface for 10-20 solution followed by a 20-30 sec.over an extended period. Wait for a few minutes. 2) Organic acids. The purpose of pumice debridement is to remove the fluoride-rich surface layer that may compromise the surface-conditioning process.  There is a considerable range in the amounts of fluoride released from the lacious types of a/c. such as ca(oh)2. A paper pad is sufficient for mixing. PREPRATION OF THE MATERIAL 1) Pil ratio recommended by the manufacture should be followed. till the temperature of the slab rises sufficiently until water vapour no longer condenses on its surface. on areas close to the pulp in a deep preparation. Any reduction in the ratio-> affects properties of set cement & its susceptibility to degradation in the ocal environment. 2. Continue to release F. [Fig 16-19] 4) After conditioning & rinsing. with any a/c. It must remain clean because any further contamination by saliva or blood impairs bonding of the cement.

and instructions of the manufacture should be followed. based on the setting rate. A special VARNISH supplied by the manufacturer can be used. it protects the setting cement from losing or gaining water during the initial set. 2) Any delay in the placement-> leads to a dull appearance-> denoting setting reaction has progressed to an extent that fill carbonyl groups are inadequate to produce adhesion to the tooth structure. Tooth cavities should be over filled with cement. Adv:-> Convenience. surface must be immediately protected while the excess material is trimmed from the margins. it ensures the best possible surface integrity. Prolonged exposure to office atmosphere alters the precise acid water ratio of the liquid.  Ensures a better shade-matching ability by adjusting the existing powder to achieve the desired esthetic result. 3) Immediately after placement. so minimal finishing is required. 2) Secondly. This residual acid ensures adhesive bonding to the tooth. Elimination of the variations associated with hand spatulation. 5) On removal of matrix. and adhesion will not be achieved. OF HAND-MIXING P:L SYSTEM  Provides greater latitude in controlling the amount of cement needed for a specific situation. Mixing time-> should not exceed 45-60 sec. Mix at this time should have a glossy surface. 3) PLACEMENT OF THE MATERIAL 1) Mixed material packed by means of the plastic instrument or injected into the cavity. the mixing speed of the amalgamator is critical. a PRESHAPED MATRIX is applied. 4) The matrix is left in place for atleast 5 min. Indicates presence of poly acid that hasn’t participated in the setting reaction.  If mixing process is prolonged-a dull surface develops. 4) While using proportioned capsules. ADV. .2) P&L should not be dispensed onto the slab until first before the mixing procedure is to be started. 3) Powder incorporated rapidly into the liquid using a stiff spatula. this time varies with the product. ADV-> 1) Provides maximum contour. consistent control of P:L ratio. In addition.

the restoration should be coated again with the pretective agent. The excess cement can be removed immediately upon seating or after a length of time as prescribed in the manufacturing instructions. 6) POST DPERATIVE PROCEDURES Before dismissing the pt. 5) Hand instruments preferred to rotary tools for trimming the margins to avoid ditching. A single-component.It should be dried with compressed air as it may displace the varnish & dehydrate the surface of the exposed fresh cement. METHODS-> 2 methods of modification. because the trimmed areas expose cement that is still vulnerable to the environment until it reaches full maturity . 4. If these recommended procedures not followed. no matrix protection is needed. fracture toughness. producing cracks. unfilled light-cured resin bonding agent. METAL MODIFIED GIC Glc’s have been modified by the inclusion of metal filler particles. (Miracle Mix) 2nd system Involves fusing glass powder to silver particles through high Temperature sintering of a mixture of two powders. the risks of surface dyscrasias or tendency for the restoration to become slightly more opaque are reduced. With some of the faster settings cements. which is more impermeable coating may be a better choice. PURPOSE-> To improve the strength. and resistance to wear. In case of luting cements. ineviatablt a chalky or crazed surface will result. if needed should be delayed for at least 24 hrs. This Cement is commonly referred to As a cement. SURFACE FINISHING OF SET CEMENT  Further finishing procedure . 1st approach Mixing(Physically incorporating) Silver amalgam alloy powder with Type II G1 powder.[Fig 16-21] It is also wise to protect the existing G1 restoration with a coat of varnish or resin when other dental procedures are to be carried out as these cements are vulnerable to some degree of dehydration throughout their lifetime. . This cement is referred to as silver Alloy admix. The longer one waits. finishing times of 10 min are recommended.

6 48 Mild yes 0.The improvement in wear resistance is attributed to the metal filler as evidenced by the burnished appearance that occur when metals are sulyected to the wear test. The admix cement releases more fluoride that does its type II cement counterpart initially. However the magnitude of the release decreases over time. This is because a portion of the original glass particle that contains the fluoride is metal coated.Eg(Brand names) (Fig 16-23) GENERAL PROPERTIES Conventional Type II a/c Compressive strength(24 Hr) Diametral teresite (24 Hr) Hardness(KHN) Pulp response Anticarrogenic Solubility(ADA test) Fracture Toughness Table 24-5 Both tables indicate that the metallic fillers have little or no influence on the mechanical properties of type II GICS. less fluoride is released from the cement than from its type II counterpart. However.3 150 MPA 6.7 39 Mild yes --- Volume of material removed when specimens are rotated against synthetic hydroxyapatite cylinder for 2500 cycles. SIMULATED OCCLOSAL WEAR TEST:Material con during simulated occlusal wearAmalgam Conventional Composite Glass ionomer Cement *Volumetric change(cm3) 0. This could be because the metal filler particles are not bonded to the cement matrix. .4 Cement(Metal modified a/c) 150 MPA 6. thus. The cement is far more resistant to sliding wear than is TYPE II a/c.2 0.0 0. This greatly increases the surface area available for leaching of fluoride. the filler cement interfaces become pathways for fluid exchange. FLUORIDE RELEASE Fluoride reaches out from both metal modified systems in appreciable amounts.4 6.

Type II GI Cement Silver alloy admix Type I GI GI liners:Conventional :Light curved CLINICAL CONSIDERATION These metal modified cements have been suggested for limited use as an alternative to amalgam or composites for posterior restoration.  Should be restricted to conservative & generally class I restoration.Dual-Cure GIC’s(For light cured & acid base reaction) . Light curved GICs’ .  These cements harden rapidly.Compomers .Tri-cure GIC’s(dual cure plus chemical cure) . Result in a light curable or chemical-curable material class overcome above two drawbacks & allow the bulk of the RESIN MODIFIED GIC or HYBRID IONOMER Cement material to mature through the acid-base reaction.[Low fracture toughness and brittle nature]  Particularly suited for use in young patients who are prone to caves.Resin-ionomers .so can be finished in a relativity short time. Imparts additional curing process. Available as->Chemical curing Products & Light curing products (Fig 24-12) Several Names .Fluoride release from various GI formulations.  Used as a core build up for teeth to be restored with cast crowns. RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT(HYBRID IONOMER CEMENT) Moisture sensitivity & low early strength of aic’s Result of slow acid-base setting reactions.  They should not be used whenever the cement constitutes more than 40% of the total core build up.Hybrid ionomers 14 days 440MG-f 200 Mg 3350 Mg 470 1000 1200 30 days 650 Mg 300 Mg 4040 Mg 700 1300 1600 . Additions of polymerizable functional groups to the polyacrylic acid of GIC.  Presence of metal fillers has made the material radiopaque & grayish in colour.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-> There is reduction of translucency of resin modified material because of a significant difference in the refractive index between the powder and the set resin matrix. To accommodate these ingredients for polymerization the overall water content is less.COMPOSITION AND SETTING REACTIONS:Light Cured Powder Ion leachable glass Initiator for light Curing and/or chemical curing.release is comparable to that of conventional GIC’s . CLINICAL CONSIDERATION:ADV:.The last 2 ingredients are responsible. Liquid water Polyacrylic acid OR Polyacrylic acid with some carborylic groups modified with methacrylate & hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers.  Surface conditioning with a mild acid is still essential for bond formation.  Biocompatibility-> Comparable to that of conventional GIC’s  Use of Ca(Oh)2 for deep preparations should be done as the transient temperature increase associated with the polymerization process may be concern.Rationale for modifying polyacrylic acids with methacrylate functional groups is to reduce the water sensitivity of a/c. adhesive for orthodontic machetes repair material for damaged amalgam core or cusps. INTIAL SETTING ROA-> is by the polymerization of methacrylate groups. retrograde Root filling material. core. Less sensitive to moisture during setting. Lower water & carbolyic acid content also reduces the ability of the cement to wet the tooth substrates which can greatly increase micro leakage compared to conventional a/c. restoration. WATER SENSTIVITY: . build up. which produces significant dimensional changes. But studies have shown that the lines versions of this group of a/c’s is still susceptible to dehydration & this mat.fissure sealant. base. The slow acid-base reaction is ultimately responsible for the unique maturing process & the final strength. Can also absorb water. Level of F.Longer working time.  Clinical application of resin-modofied GIC’s include its use as a liner.

The comprencive and tensile strengths of liners are lower than those of the restorative cements. LINER/BASE APPLICATION Hybrid glass ionomers can be used either as liner or base. The primary purpose of a GI liners is to serve as an intermediate bonding material between the tooth and the composite restoration. This tech is often referred to as SANWICH TECHINQUE recommended for class II and V composite restoration. As a result of nethesion to dentess. MARGINAL ADAPTATION:Exhibits a greater degree of shrinkage on setting as a result of polymerization.light cured products). it tends to reduce the probability of gap formation at gingival margins located in denter. which prevents penetration to the depth of the fissure. FISSURE SEALANT APPLICATION LIGHT CURED GIC’s The traditional ionomer cement is somewhat viscous. This is mainly attributable to their lower elastic modulus the greater amount of plastic deformation that can be sustained before fracture occur. Use of GI in sealant therapy should increase as less viscous formulation are developed(e. This is likely controlled by the residual unpolymerized functional group within resin modified GIC. ADHESION TO OTHER RESTORATIVE MATERIALS:Compared with conventional GIC’s.. Advantage OF GI OVER RESIN BOINDING AGENTS Proven adhesive bond . ADHESION TO TOOTH STRUCTURE:-> Bond strength values to tooth structure higher than those for conventional GIC’s but the differences are not significant. Bonding mechanism is similar to that of conventional GIC.g. resin modified GIC’s have a higher bond strength to composite resin. cementum or both caused by polymerization shrinkage of the resin.STRENGTH:-> The diametral tensil strengths of resin modified GIC are higher than those of conventional GIC’s.

Reduced technique sensitivity Established anticanogenic mech. . Also known as poly acidmodified resin-based composite. The sandwich technique takes advantage of the desirable qualities of the glass ionomer yet provides the aesthetics of the composite restoration [FIG 16-26] COMPOMERS Definition-.release.> Resin based composite material containing silicate glass filler particles and methacrylate and acidic monomers as matrices. By F. the term composer is derived from the words COMPOSITE and IONOMERS.

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