IPRI Factfile







Gas Pipeline Projects


Preface I. Overview 1 International Gas Pipeline Projects 2 The Globe, (Kazakhstan), Summary of a Report 3 Natural Gas-Coal, Leading Players of the Future 4 Pakistan Oil and Gas Conference 2004 5 The 3rd Pakistan Oil, Gas and Energy Exhibition and Conference (18-21 May 2005) 6 Iran Crisis Casts Shadow Over All Three Pipeline Projects in South Asia 7 A Regional Energy Grid II. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan Caspian Sea Region: Natural Gas Export Options India and the Trans-Afghan Gas Pipeline Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan Natural Gas Pipeline Project Analysis: Pipelines or Pipe Dreams? Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan Agree on Multi-Billion Dollars Gas Pipeline Gas Pipeline Talks Begin Protocol Signed to Continue Discussions Afghan 'Pipe Dream' Draws Closer to Reality Pakistan and Turkmenistan Pushes with Gas Pipeline v 1 3 5 12 18 19 21 24 25 27 29 32 34 34 37 38 40 41 41 42 45 47 50 51 53 55 56

III. Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline 1 Pakistan Proposes Separate Project: Gas Pipeline 2 Gas Pipeline Diplomacy to Promote Peace: Aziz 3 Iranian Minister Invited to Discuss Pipeline Project: Saarc Energy Ministers' Conference 4 Oil Needs Change Strategic Face of Asia 5 Analysis: Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline Imperiled 6 US Secretary of State Presses India and Pakistan to Abandon Iranian Gas Pipeline 7 Progress on Gas Pipeline 8 India Says under No Pressure Over Iran Gas Pipeline Project 9 Gas Rate, Transit Fee Discussed with India: Iran to India Pipeline 10 Pakistan, India Give Top Priority to Gas Pipeline from Iran 11 To Check Slips, India, Pakistan Set up JWG on Pipeline


IPRI Factfile

12 Pak-India Agree on Iran, Turkmenistan, Gulf States Gas Pipeline Project 13 Iran Pipeline Cannot be Abandoned, US Told 14 Iran-Pakistan Sign Agreement on Gas Pipeline 15 Deadline Set for Final Pact on Gas Pipeline: Pakistan, India Pledge Commitment 16 India-Iran Relations: A Farewell to the Gas Pipeline? 17 Tri-Nation Pipeline Plan Makes Headway: Foreign Financing Likely 18 Pipeline Assurances IV. Gulf-South Asia Gas Pipeline 1 Pakistan, Qatar Agree to Cooperate in Pipeline, LNG, Oil and Gas Projects 2 Pakistan, Qatar to Speed up Work on Gas Pipeline 3 Qatari Gas Pipeline for Asia in Hamad-Musharraf Talks 4 Musharraf will Discuss Gas Pipeline with Qatar V. 1 2 3 4 5 6 VI. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

57 58 60 61 63 65 66

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China’s Interest in the Gas Pipeline in South Asia Peace Pipeline to China? 71 India Wants Gas Pipeline Extended to China 72 Expansion of India-Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline to China – A Strategic Asian Play 73 Pipedreams to Prosperity 74 China Ready to Join Pakistan, India 76 China to Import 50% Oil, Gas Requirements 2020 77 Myanmar-Bangladesh-India Gas Pipeline India-Myanmar Gas Pipeline Through Bangladesh – Pipe Dream? Bangladesh's Government Decides on Gas Pipeline Dhaka Lays Down Terms for Gas Deal Aiyar Warns Dhaka on Gas Pipeline Project Tri-Nation Gas Pipeline: Bangladesh Yet To India, Myanmar, Bangladesh to Sign MoU for Gas Pipeline Project Gas Pipeline Study Bangladesh-Nepal Natural Gas Pipeline to be Studied Bangladesh to Consider Gas Pipeline 79 82 83 84 86 87 87 88 89

i. which are surplus in natural gas and oil. The projects under consideration are the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. length. These pipelines in South Asia are an evolving development as the feasibility issues such as cost. These pipelines have already challenged the animosity between India and its neighbours – Pakistan and Bangladesh – as they signify enduring economic linkages between these countries. Therefore the analysts consider the gas pipelines as a significant confidence building measure. route. Qatar and Myanmar.e. Besides meeting the growing energy needs of South Asian region. Pakistan is situated on some of the shortest land routes between the gas and oil sources and the consumers are expected to play an important role. Economic cooperation and integration will ensure prosperity and political stability. security.Gas Pipeline Projects vii P REFACE The bourgeoning economies of South Asia need energy resources to accelerate their economic growth to break out of the poverty trap. Some of the states surrounding the region. 9 August 2005 Noor ul Haq . transition fee and other technical and financial matters of different pipelines are yet to be decided. Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline. Turkmenistan. gas price. Indian petroleum minister Mani Shankar Aiyar has proposed the establishment of an ‘Asian Gas Grid’ which would enable the South Asian states to maximize their economic gains by exploiting the Chinese market as well. This IPRI Factfile is a collection of articles and media reports on the gas pipelines in South Asia. Iran.. Gulf-South Asia gas pipeline and Myanmar-Bangladesh-India gas pipeline. these projects will have significant economic and political benefits. are exploring potential markets for their natural resources.


A Committee co-chaired by the Secretary. OVERVIEW I NTERNATIONAL G AS P IPELINE P ROJECTS I. 2003. • Different MoUs were signed during the intermittent period but no visible progress could take place due to instability in Afghanistan.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 1 I. . Five meetings of the Committee have been held so far and Sixth meeting is scheduled to be held in June in Ashgabat. shallow water and over-land. There are three different routes under consideration for the Iran-India gas pipeline viz. Pakistan has conveyed its full support and assurance for security of supplies to India.00 million for the feasibility study of the TAP project. 2002. The agreement provides for the formation of a Steering Com mittee represented by the respective Petroleum Ministers of the three countries to oversee the progress on the project periodically. Iran–Pakistan–India Gas Pipeline Iran – Pakistan Gas pipeline Project was conceived in 1993. which was later proposed to be extended in India. Turkmenistan & Afghanistan from May 29-30. MPNR along with Deputy Minister of Iran National Oil Company (NIOC) has been constituted to review the progress on the project. an agreement was signed. The Government of Turkmenistan floated the idea of a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan in 1991. Turkmenistan-Afghanistan –Pakistan Gas Pipeline • • • • • • II. 2002. The committee is assisted by the technical experts from both sides. deep sea. During the trilateral Summit held between the Heads of states of Pakistan. ADB has provided financial assistance to the tune of US $ 1. to coordinate and provide necessary assistance to expedite the construction of project. ADB is also in acting as a lead partner in the project. The Feasibility study is likely to be completed by September 30. Turkmenistan. A Gas Framework Agreement for the TAP Project was signed by the Heads of states in a trilateral Summit held in Ashgabat on December 27.

2 • IPRI Factfile • Feasibility study for the deep sea route is being conducted by M/s. Crescent Petroleum has completed the detailed route survey for the whole pipeline at a cost of US$ 4 million. MOU(s) for progressing the development of the Qatar – Pakistan gas pipeline known as the Gulf-South Asia (GUSA) Gas Project were signed in 1991 between the Governments of Qatar and Crescent Petroleum and in 1992 between the Government of Pakistan and Crescent Petroleum but the Project could not take off then due to various reasons. <http://www. A joint Coordination Committee consisting of the officials from Government of Pakistan. Crescent Petroleum International (CP) a Sharjah based company. Crescent Petroleum signed a new Heads of Agreement with the Government of Qatar in the Year 2000 giving them exclusive rights to export gas to Pakistan. BHP has completed the phase-I of the study. India will weigh those options after completion of studies on different routes. Crescent Petroleum and Qatari Government have been constituted to discuss gas sale agreement.gov. Also the engineering design of the pipeline was performed by Brown & Root of the USA. At present the feasibility studies of different pipelines from different destination are under progress. The outcome of the studies as well as findings of working group will be reviewed by Government of Pakistan at an appropriate time and a decision in this regard will be firmed up. The Feasibility study for the shallow water route is to be conducted by GAZPROM of Russia but they have not yet started the study. while that of overland route is being conduct by M/s BHP of Australia.pk/igpp. At the same time SNGPL & SSGCL have constituted a working group to assess Pakistan’s requirement of imported gas. initiated and sponsored a gas import project through an offshore pipeline from Qatar to Pakistan in 1990.php> III Qatar–Pakistan Gas Pipeline • • • • • • Conclusion • • • . It also entered into an MOU with Government of Pakistan on 17th July 2000. the Government advised the quantities of gas that need to be imported by Pakistan starting in year 2010-11. In recent exchanges with Crescent Petroleum.mpnr. Snam progetti of Italy.

while TDA would do the feasibility studies for the projects. the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline for oil producers of Georgia. will pay a week-long visit to Pakistan and India to discuss trade and investment. Both pipelines were intended to transit 700 km of wartorn Afghan territory. Iran is contacting Pakistan later this month about its ambitious Iran-India project.2 million barrels per day and gas exports 4. was courting Afghanistan's Taleban regime to lay a 1. and possibly on to India. as the project was called. Hyundai of South Korea and Crescent of Pakistan.850 billion cubic feet per year by 2010. including Delta of Saudi Arabia. as the oil and gas fields of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the Amu Darya basin. US companies had previously been working on transporting Central Asian oil and gas to Europe via Turkey.5 billion project. Itochu of Japan. Gazprom of Russia. The exploitation of Central Asian and Caspian reserves has long been an American dream. However. Unocal. Turkmenistan and Russia was crucial. The reason for all this activity is that Caspian region oil exports can reach 3. a high-level delegation of US Export-Import Bank. via Afghanistan. including oil and gas pipeline investment. Pakistan. where energy demand is high. For this. China and Iran are gearing up their competition for oil and gas pipelines in the region. . and the Kumkol field in central Kazakhstan. Inpex of Japan. The Taleban factor forced the CentGas investors to suspend the project in April 1998. China has shown interest in constructing a gas pipeline from its western Xinjiang province to Turkmenistan. for onward supply to Pakistan and India. the United States. to a terminal on Pakistan's Arabian Sea coast. Deputy Secretary of the US Treasury. Now the United States has shown its intention to provide Ex-Im Bank financing and OPIC political risk insurance for a commercial deal.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 3 T HE G LOBE (K AZAKHSTAN ): S UMMARY OF A R EPORT As the Afghan war winds down. a leading US company. Kazakhstan. and a stabilized Afghanistan is expected to attract massive foreign investment in such projects during the reconstruction period. However. with a capacity of 1 million barrels per day.600-kilometer gas pipeline from Daulatabad in Turkmenistan to Multan. even discussed the modalities and financing arrangements for the US$2. Also this month. Another part of this project was a crude oil export pipeline from Chardzhou in Turkmenistan. In the mid-1990s. CentGas. Trade and Development Agency (TDA) and Overseas Private Insurance Corporation (OPIC) officials are due in Islamabad to explore business opportunities. this project is again being seen as the most economical and commercially viable. The consortium led by Unocal. could be connected to CentGas's proposed pipelines. was expected to pump 700 billion cubic feet of gas per year. And Kenneth Dam. Azerbaijan.

The country's existing 23 trillion cubit feet of gas reserves. on current consumption estimates. Afghanistan and the Central Asian states. which will run from Port Qasim. Iran. which is expected to generate $500 million for Pakistan in the shape of royalties from India. However. Iran also hopes to lay pipelines from Central Asia to Iran for re-export to European and South Asian countries. which is still pursuing its own Kazakh pipeline project. Pakistan does not object to any of these projects. and economic cooperation among ECO member countries. It will also formally start negotiations with Pakistan this month for the proposed $5 billion Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project. and International Finance Corporation financing. to switch these power stations from oil to gas. and has only 19 days of strategic oil reserves. At present. is also trying to revive the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). The Government has tried to expand this further with the help of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation. China's Export-Import Bank has extended $120 million credit for the White Oil Pipeline. as it needs energy for growing domestic consumption and pipelines offer competitively economic supply routes. Pakistan relies mainly on imported crude oil and diesel. It signed a deal with Pakistan for the construction of the Gwadar deep port on the Arabian Sea. causing a shift of the strategic balance in favor of Russia. Iran or even China. Pakistan has a good.4 IPRI Factfile transporting all the Caspian basin's reserves through Azerbaijan and Russia would greatly enhance Russia's political and strategic clout. China has been quick to recognize the importance of such a huge oil and gas infrastructure project in the region. extensive domestic gas pipeline network. if a stable gas supply can be guaranteed. Similarly. and work began in June 2001. Known oil reserves are just enough for 15 years. comprising Pakistan. and. to northern Pakistan. Turkey. It intends to outmaneuver the US by bringing Turkmenistan and Pakistan into its own "CentGas" project before the Western companies re-enter the market. and meet 75% of Pakistan's oil transportation needs after completion. The aim is to extend the supply routes to thermal power stations. Chinese. near Karachi. Iran has officially approached Pakistan to formulate a joint strategy for Afghan reconstruction. Beijing has obvious concerns over the US military presence in Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics. a Pakistani project with Chinese involvement in construction and financing. and in recent weeks has shown an interest in its own version of the CentGas project. a program is under way to switch . More talks will be held in coming months. will only last for another 22 years. The construction contract was awarded to the China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Company. Iran. Some initial talks were held when the Pakistani petroleum minister visited Beijing in connection with the White Oil Pipeline Project. which is facing the wrath of the United States over alleged sponsorship of terrorism and support of warlords in Afghanistan.

with a message for both India and Pakistan to resolve their differences peacefully. Shenhua Group corporation of China has selected a Block in Thar Coal Field to set up a 3000 Mega Watt Power Complex in phases. Note: Iran's attempt to revive the ECO and formulate a joint strategy with Pakistan for economic cooperation among ECO member states and Afghan reconstruction is a danger the United States must foil if Iran is not to be the main beneficiary of its war against terrorism. Another 250 Mega Watt Power Project at Sonda-Jherruck is being negotiated with Jiangsu Mining and Engineering Corporation of China. Private sector petroleum companies expect an increase in international investment in the energy sector.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 5 vehicles from petrol to compressed natural gas (CNG). will benefit Pakistan. they say.e. The costly import bill for petroleum products claims almost 30 per cent of the total export earnings of the country on one hand while rendering the huge coal reserves and plentiful of natural gas reserves available within the country. China a trusted friend of Pakistan is coming up with huge investment in three coal-based power projects. India. given the great interest in pipeline infrastructure. Nadeem Malik. The Globe (Kazakhstan). According to official sources. which is averse to any oil and gas project going through Pakistan. $3 billion. L EADING P LAYERS OF THE F UTURE Natural gas and coal are poised to assume a leading role in the energy sector of Pakistan under the policy focused at cutting down the import bill i. after Argentina and Italy. The import expenditures on account of oil are feared to increase simultaneously with the increase in demand as well as price in future if appropriate steps for import substitutes are not taken well in advance. and they are looking forward to Kenneth Dam's visit. Pakistan now has the thirdhighest number of CNG vehicles in the world.htm> N ATURAL G AS -C OAL . and almost 20% of all motor vehicles have already been converted. The . Pakistan's Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources is drafting a new law to establish an Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority and promote private sector investment. 8 February 2002 < http://www. The foreign investors have responded warmly to the incentives offered by Pakistan especially for development of the coal and gas sectors as they are coming up with large investment for power projects in these two areas.org/articles/Kazakhstan/mar02. Investment involved in this huge power complex is estimated at $3 billion. may end its opposition if big US companies participate. The US Treasury has announced that Dam will discuss trade and investment.westerndefense. This.

Primarily. Negotiations between India. It may be noted that about 80 per cent oil and gas potential areas are under force majeure where oil and gas exploring companies cannot operate against the will of the tribal population. The additional gas supply of 900 mmcfd through SSGC and SNGPL would cost about Rs20 billion.e. options are also available to import gas from Iran. Usman Aminuddin. Smith Associates Power and Mining Company of USA is conducting feasibility for a 450 Mega Watt Coal fired power plant at Lakhra on right of first refusal basis in which the direct foreign investment is estimated at $400 million. Although the Afghanistan leaders are extending assurances for security of the Turkmenistan pipeline to be passed through Afghanistan yet this project may take some more time to materialize till the settling down of the dust in that country. Qatar and Turkmenistan through pipelines. Besides optimizing the indigenous resources. In order to enhance exploration programme. In order to sort out this problem. steps are being taken for rehabilitation of existing network. The minister said that resumption of oil and gas exploration activities in areas under force majeure in Balochistan is also under active consideration of the government. The value of petroleum imports is estimated at $3 billion. This project has a . we would have to develop import substitutes luckily available within the country i. additional pipelines and compression facilities. This programme. if everything goes well. Besides Chinese investment in coal based projects. The Minister said that Pakistan's total petroleum imports represent 41 per cent of the country's primary energy supply. may help accelerating the exploration activity in Balochistan. which is eating up 30 per cent of total export earnings every year. natural gas and coal reserves. certain steps are underway to accelerate exploration activity in Pakistan. In order to save the hard-earned export receipts and to strengthen the economy. the gas pipeline project was designed to route through Pakistan and originally destined for neighbouring India. Financing for these additional supplies would be arranged through own resources and commercial borrowing. 50 per cent of the royalty currently being given to the provincial government may go to the tribal chief while remaining fifty per cent of the royalty to the local government for the development of the remote parts of the country. To meet the gas requirements. One of the three-pipeline projects is likely to materialize. Iran and Turkmenistan are still on.6 IPRI Factfile China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation has also offered to set up a 100 Mega Watt Power Plant at Sonda-Jherruck. federal minister for petroleum and natural resources while talking to PAGE said that time has arrived to assign greater role to the natural gas in our economy.

particularly in the northern region of Pakistan. Gas Storage Reserves The petroleum minister feels that imported gas through one of these pipelines would require large underground storage due to following reasons: • • • • • Meet seasonal primarily fuel demand. Pirkoh: Currently having a balance of 1.9 MMB Dhullan: fully consumed.2 trillion cubic feet against the original recovery reserves of 1. Provide "Parking" capacity in respect of gas import contract obligations. This project is to be routed through Qatar to Gwadar through Arabian Sea. Mari: currently. He said that besides swift development of our local gas resources time is ripe to go for cross border pipeline for which three options are available. Increase base load. Add reliability to gas supply. This project originating from Pars North field will terminate at Sui in Balochistan and then onward to India if the deal struck between the countries involved in this cross border pipeline project. The third option is Qatar-Pakistan gas pipeline of 1600 kms. 44 inches diameter and a capacity of 2 billion cubic feet daily. balance 0. based on the availability of hydro power plants.3 cubic feet at the time of inception. Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline has a length of 1650 kms.1 and original recovery reserves 50.3 MMB Dhurnal: Balance 0. having a balance of 4.6 trillion cubic feet when the production was started from this source. Original recoverable reserves were 41. .6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas against the original recoverable reserves of 8.8 trillion cubic feet.4. 48 inches diameter and a capacity of 3 billion cubic feet daily supply.1 MMB while original recoverable reserves were 49. Meyal. The minister identified the following spots for possible gas storage reservoirs: Sui: currently.1 trillion cubic feet against the original recovery reserves of 6.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 7 length of 1400 kms with a diameter of 48 inches and a supplying capacity of 2 billion cubic feet daily. Meet seasonal demand for power generation. having a balance of 2.

Domestic consumption 18. Pakistan Scenario Currently. transport (CNG) 0. 4. An analytical review of POL consumption shows that demand for oil and petroleum products has grown at an annual consumption growth rate of 5 per cent. Looking at various advantages. The government has decided to do away with the royalty.2 per cent.9 per cent. 50 per cent would now go to the tribal Chiefs or Sardars and the remaining portion will be given to the local governments of the respective provinces.8 IPRI Factfile Demand Energy demand grew at an annual consumption growth rate of 4.061 mmcfd in 2000) is to increase up to 3.875 TCF per year.1 per cent. Pakistan has 24 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas reserves i. Sector-wise break up of the gas consumption indicates 37. Commercial 2. Total natural consumption during 2000-2001 was estimated at 774 billion cubic feet. the natural gas has become an obvious choice for developing economies being economically attractive and environment friendly fuel.9 per cent while general industrial consumption is estimated at 17. while demand for natural gas grew at an average of 6 per cent. Cement 0.7 per cent. the current natural gas reserves to production ratio are estimated for next 66 years as against oil reserves estimated for next 37 years. equivalent to 467 million-Ton Oil Equivalent (TOE). Gas Demand Projection The current demand for natural gas (estimated at 2.755 in 2020. The decision has been taken to give a free hand to the foreign companies engaged with oil and exploration in Pakistan. It may be noted that the local population demanding their share in the yield disallowed the oil exploration companies to carry on their operations in the tribal areas. If this formula goes on almost 80 per cent of the potential . which was so far received by the provincial governments from the oil exploring companies in the energy sector.6 per cent.1 per cent goes to power generation. which saves about $3 billion a year for the country.e. Globally speaking. The current rate of production of natural gas is 0.8 per cent in the last five years and is expected to grow at a similar rate till the end of the current decade. According to new formula. out of the 5 per cent royalty. The relative share of gas in primary energy supply has increased from 37 per cent to about 41 per cent in the last five years.5 per cent.785 mmcfd in 2010 and up to 5.559 mmcfd in 2005. Fertilizer (Feedstock) 17. Fertilizer (Fuel) 5.

during his recent visit to Pakistan has said that a decision on the issue of taking a gas pipeline from Iran to India either through Pakistan or deep-sea would be taken after completion of studies on both the options. which involved political commitment. apparently capital intensive preposition. Talking about smuggling Aminuddin said it was an issue which was concerning both Iran and Pakistan. promoting vehicular use of CNG in Iran and curbing smuggling of petrol from Iran to Pakistan. The other option of laying the pipeline in deep sea. he said.e. Usman Aminuddin. A Memorandum of Understanding has also been signed with his host counterpart. However he said they had always supported projects of regional pipelines. He said Iran had been heavily subsidizing . We would have no objection on a pipeline for supply of hydrocarbons to India through Pakistan. Zanganeh when asked about the financing of the pipeline project said that total cost would be over four billion dollars and a consortium of International banks and financial institutions would have to be engaged for the provision of funds. The pre-feasibility study on taking as pipeline through land route. would be studies by an Italian company. being debated for the past several years. We are ready to move forward quickly and a Pakistani delegation would shortly visit Iran for further discussion on proposals of exporting motor gasoline to Iran.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 9 areas in Balochistan would be open to grant concessions to the companies for the research and surveys in the oil and gas sector. The end of 2002 would complete the studies on both these alternatives of the super project of gas pipeline. an option which would result in substantial earning for Pakistan would be carried out by an Australian company Broken Hill. Iran Iranian Minister for Petroeluem Bijan Namdar Zanganeh. As regard to other proposals of bringing gas and oil from other regional countries from Gulf or Central Asian countries he said the thrust of the government was obviously on developing indigenous resources. Earlier Usman expressed Pakistan's strong desire to work closely with Iran on different projects in the field of oil and gas. political. has been completed. Zanganeh termed the signing of MoU for pre-feasibility study of onshore line an important step in reaching at a final decision of the project. He said the talks with the ADB and other international banks should start for lining up the funds. Aminuddin has assured Pakistan's political support for the project. economic and tactical. The project has three aspects i. The first phase of the project.

Resulting furnace oil consumption has increased and during January it touched about 0. In the power generating sector. These companies. Coal—a Viable Energy Option Dewan Muhammad Yousuf Farooqui. The Chief Executive Secretariat however has always come to the rescue of the utility companies.5 billion. had threatened to suspend gas supply to thermal power stations due to non-payment of their arrears. Wapda chairman complained that the SNGPL supply on daily average basis was 55 mmcfd in November. . WAPDA is already facing acute shortage of about 250 to 300-mmcfd gas whereas its total requirement is 703 mmcfd. Similarly. which forced Wapda to consume 1. Short Supply Beside development of local gas infrastructure to meet the growing need of industrial and power sector. 15 mmcfd in December and 33 mmcfd in January against the requirement of 243 mmcfd of the whole system. on several occasions.5 billion which according to the WAPDA's chief was highest-ever and alarming too. which were pending against the utility since long. the import of gas gradually become imperative to respond to the economic needs of the country. The Wapda chairman has sought the personal intervention of the Petroleum Minister to improve gas supply for the thermal power stations. Labor and Transport says that the global energy demand is expected to increase by 50 per cent by the year 2020 and a large portion of this demand will be met from Coal. The gas supplied during 2000-01 on daily average basis was 403 mmcd. Provincial Minister for Industries. Sui Southern Gas Private Limited (SSGCL) was not supplying sufficient gas to Thermal power Stations Jamshoro and GTPS Kotri.21 million tones of furnace oil resulting in additional cost of Rs4. Gas supply situation for Wapda power stations further aggravated during the current fiscal as supply to its various stations from Sui Northern Gas Pipeline Limited (SNGPL) has been reduced drastically since November last. He also gave the references of a high level meeting chaired by the President in November in which the President had instructed that the highest priority be accorded to the power sector in supply of gas. Wapda and gas companies were at loggerheads over the payment of outstanding dues.10 IPRI Factfile its petroleum products and the smuggling was equally hurting them besides causing harm to Pakistan's economy.23 million tones costing Rs2.

the primary use of coal is power generation. kilometers with 9. Today the world gets 38 per cent of its electricity from Coal. The New Energy Policy given by the Bush administration includes major funding for development of clean coal technology. Figures for some selected countries are: South Africa 90 per cent Australia 84 per cent China 80 per cent India 66 per cent Germany 51 per cent USA 56 per cent Clean coal technologies are making coal more attractive. In the Asian region 45 per cent power is generated from coal.64 Billion Tons is well developed and ready to maintain the supplies. Thar Coal Field located in Tharparkar is spread over an area of 9000 square kilometers. coal will always remain the single largest source of energy for mankind. By comparison the share of Hydro. Instead of using cheaper fuel a large portion of energy is generated by using the costliest fuel that furnace oil. Over 99 per cent of Pakistan's coal deposits are located in the province of Sindh.6 billion tons of coal. Reserves at Thar coalfield are estimated to 175 billion tons. Gas and Nuclear sources is 17 per cent each. In view of the expected growth in economic activity in Pakistan. Recently a Task Force has been set up for Thar coal development under direct supervision of the .3 billion tons. Additional power demand in Pakistan by the year 2010 is estimated at 9000 MW. Three major coalfields in Sindh are: • Lakhra Coal Field in District Dadu with estimated deposits of 1. Sonda—Jherruck Coal Field in Thatta District has estimated reserves of 7. Four blocks in the Thar coal field have been fully investigated.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 11 Worldwide. the electricity demand may further increase in the days to come. The latest technologies being used for making clean coal have made coal no longer a dirty fuel. Despite having much larger coal deposits approximately estimated at 185 billion metric tons in Pakistan. The blocks are spread over an area of 353 sq. • • The present government has started a programme for fast track development of coal in the province of Sindh. This is expected to increase to 60 per cent by the year 2020. its use for energy generation is almost negative that is only one per cent as compared to 45 per cent used by other Asian countries for power generation. In view of large reserves the world over.

Amanullah Bashar.com/database1/cover/c2002-19. The government has also started a coal development programme aimed at development infrastructure in the coalfields. A sizable portion of future power demand will now be met from coal based power generators. ladies and gentlemen: I would like to thank the Petroleum Institute of Pakistan and the Mediators Conferences for organizing the Pakistan Oil and Gas Conference 2004 after a gap of nearly four years. Enhanced use of locally available natural gas and coal would certainly help producing cheaper electricity in Pakistan. Four years is a long time in a dynamic sector such as energy where resource availability is as much subject to the vagaries of nature as to political risks. However. I cannot help but be impressed at the progress that has been made in the last half decade or so in making the dream of transporting energy resources. specifically gas in the Asian region. without hindrances of political borders. The process of conversion from oil to coal has been started in the cement industry as well. . Naved Hamid Senior Economic Advisor Pakistan Resident Mission Asian Development Bank 4 May 2004 Islamabad. Currently. The purpose of the task force is to ensure smooth implementation of coal mining and coal fired power projects. Conclusion The focus of the current energy policy of the government is to assign greater role to the natural gas and coal in power production obviously to cut down huge expenditures on import of oil and to save the hard earned foreign exchange. Chairman. The real impact of this policy would however be fruitful when the benefit is also passed on to the consumers.pakistaneconomist. Sindh Coal Authority is actively promoting and helping private investors to set up projects.12 IPRI Factfile President of Pakistan. a step closer to reality.asp > P AKISTAN O IL AND G AS C ONFERENCE 2004 ARE R EGIONAL G AS P IPELINES P OSSIBLE ? Presented by Dr. 10 March 2002 <http://www. as I ponder the ramifications of the topic at hand "Are Regional Gas Pipelines Possible". the power consumers have no option but to reluctantly pay the price for power consumption that is beyond their means and also highest in this region. Pakistan Mr.

5 billion cubic feet of natural gas up to India.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 13 Before going into greater details on the progress that has been made. royalties. finance. By 2012. can the business of supplying natural gas through pipelines traversing 2 or 3 countries. to talk today on the topic of trans-Asia pipelines fully appreciating the fact that there are political differences in the region. Afghanistan. In addition the 3 countries have agreed to the following: • • • • To establish a consortium led by one or more major international oil and gas companies or leading gas transmission companies. Over the last couple of years there has been considerable interest on the development of this Project that can transport 2. The theme of these opinions remains the same: "large political differences" will not let transnational pipelines succeed. The consortium will design. duties or other payments will be levied for activities directly related to the Project. The consortium will be responsible for the transmission of the gas and will be paid a tariff in accordance with a negotiated gas price. No taxes. in view of the differences. Pakistan's territory could be used to transmit gas from energy surplus Central Asian States. Amongst the countries in South Asia. I wish. Over the last decade I have not heard any other argument against the idea of transnational pipelines. I would first of all like to talk about the Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan pipeline (TAP). Pakistan could also be an importer of gas. value added tax. therefore. . India will be the main importer of gas with Bangladesh and Myanmar as potential exporters. The ADB has supported a feasibility study through a grant of $ 1 million that is nearing completion. I would first of all like to identify some of the negative opinions prevailing against regional gas pipelines across Asia. and Pakistan have formed a Steering Committee comprising the Petroleum Ministers of the 3 Countries to progress the project and the 3 countries have invited the Asian Development Bank to act as the lead development partner for the project. Each country will confirm the quality of gas it will use from the pipeline for its own consumption. The Governments of Turkmenistan. materials and personnel for the construction and maintenance of the pipeline. However. The 3 governments will provide land and free movement of goods. or even a gas grid of transnational pipelines develop in Asia? Let us first look at the various pipeline options that are available today for either import or export of gas in South Asia. construct and operate the pipeline. A Gas Pipeline Framework Agreement has been concluded among the 3 countries confirming their commitment to the Project.

The final cost of the Project is estimated at $2-2. supplemented by some demand for Afghanistan. this would substantially increase the size of the potential market. it is also proposed to evaluate the potential for underground gas storage reservoirs in Pakistan. In order to progress the Project the Steering Committee held a series of meetings.700 kms that can transport upto 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually from the Daulatabad fields in Southeast Turkmenistan to consumers in Afghanistan. Utilization of this potential will help counter unforeseen disruptions and shortages. Similarly. Should India at some point agree to participate in the Project. This however needs to be established on the basis of further work to be undertaken by the Consultant. This study is likely to be completed by September 2004. the formation of the consortium.4 bcfd by 2015 and 2. These pertain to gas supply and markets. There are also political risks. the figures need to be firmed up. The Project appears feasible based on a moderate growth rate projected for Pakistan. There are of course risks that need to be addressed to make the project viable and successful. They will need to clearly define the basic legal and regulatory framework within which the consortium will operate. Two routes for the pipeline were considered.9 bcfd by 2015. Regarding the demand for gas. I will talk about some of these risks here. India. Legal and Regulatory Framework: The Host Country Agreements between the partners have to be comprehensive.. • • The Gas Supply and Market Risks: An independent auditor needs to certify the gas reserves of the Daulatabad gas field. the Northern Route through Mazar Sharif and Kabul in Afghanistan and Islamabad and Lahore in Pakistan and the Southern Route through Herat and Kandahar in Afghanistan and Quetta and Multan in Pakistan. Under ADB's Technical Assistance for the Project.2 billion cubic feet per day (bcfd). The Sixth Steering Committee Meeting held in June 2003 chose the Southern Route to be surveyed and studied in detail first. the gas demand figures conveyed by Afghanistan indicate a shortfall of 0.14 IPRI Factfile The TAP Project consists of a gas pipeline of about 1. going up to 1. the legal and regulatory framework. should it agree to participate in the Project.5 billion. The Project will also need confirmed markets for the gas to confirm financial viability of the pipeline. ADB has . it is estimated that Pakistan's shortfall by 2010 will be 0. The TAP pipeline can supply a very large quantity at competitive prices. While there is a market in Afghanistan and we anticipate a reasonable demand from Pakistan. and. Pakistan and possibly India.3bcfd by 2010 going up to 0. of course has a huge requirement.7 bcfd by 2020.

Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. I have talked of the issues and risks pertaining to the TAP Project here since these would be common to most pipeline projects. The Government of Iran wants the $3 billion pipeline to be completed in two phases. which are being reviewed by the governments. A pipeline can also be built adopting the offshore route outside the territorial waters of Pakistan. confirmation for building such a pipeline is required from Pakistan since it passes through the Exclusive Economic Zone of Pakistan and permission is required from Pakistan to conduct surveys in its waters.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 15 • • • already prepared a draft which is under finalization at the present time. I would now like to look at other pipeline possibilities. iii. ADB has prepared drafts. Consortium Formation and Financing: The structure and participation in the pipeline consortium and its subsidiary companies should be agreed by the participating companies. Security Issues: The concerned governments will have to ensure the smooth running of the pipeline and its protection from unlawful elements. Under the Law of the Sea. There are 3 options to build this pipeline. this entails a much higher capital cost and also technical problems. The issue is currently under negotiation between the Governments of Iran and Pakistan.600 kms. Financing of the pipeline has to be arranged in principle and the financing required for the development of the Daulatabad field secured. So the most feasible option is the overland route. One of them is the Iran-India natural gas pipeline. These must be finalized. Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline Project: In January 2003 the Government of India signed an MOU with the Islamic Republic of Iran to establish joint ventures to invest in oil and gas projects in Iran and India. Moreover the coast offshore of Iran and Pakistan exhibits seismic activity because of plate movement that raises technological hurdles. While a pipeline can also be build through the deep waters of the Indian Ocean avoiding the Pakistan Economic Zone. i. Under Phase I the gas pipeline would be completed from Iran to Pakistan and then under Phase II from Pakistan to India in case of willingness of India. We believe the issues and risks can be addressed. It can be built over land crossing Pakistan and entering western Rajhastan covering a distance of roughly 2. ii. .

7 billion. In late 1992. the Chinese pipeline company CNPC together with the Japanese trading house Mitsubishi visited Turkmenistan to propose what became known as the Energy Silk route pipeline bringing gas from Turkmenistan to China. In all probability this pipeline will become a reality within this decade. or are there other historical/economic/technical reasons that have possibly delayed these projects. Japan. Korea and Japan. The question here is basically whether Central Asian sources can and will present themselves as being cooperative rather than competitive. the proposed Sakhalin pipeline. The fact that they have not yet reached fruition. the thaw in India . In the context of other pipelines in Asia. as the combined reserves of the three gas fields are estimated at 17 trillion cubic feet (equivalent to 485 billion cubic meters). It is likely that Sakhalin 2 will look at exports to South Korea. The pipeline can transport natural gas in large quantities to Japan for an extended period of time.6 billion cubic feet to Pakistan. coming from the Sakha gas fields in Russia with possible exports to Japan and to China is likely to have a significant impact on future gas business in Asia and the Middle East.Pakistan . The recent SAARC Summit held in Islamabad. are expected by 2008 with an extension of the pipeline to Tokyo in the same year. there have been signs of greater stability returning to South Asia. Again. Is this just because of political compulsions of the various countries that are concerned. the most quoted reason is the perceived difficulty in doing business with countries emerging from the old soviet system. In addition there are a host of gas pipelines proposals being developed across Central Asia. since the mid 1990s Chinese companies have been active in investments in Kazakh fields with the intention for building oil and gas pipelines to China. which will deliver Qatar gas through a 1. and win over the Asian markets. the one singular reason often quoted is the sensitive Indo-Pak. It is therefore clear that there are a large number of options/projects/plans that can be developed for transnational pipelines in Asia. Initial supplies to Hokkaido. The Project could supply 1. In the case of exports from Central Asia.16 IPRI Factfile Qatar-Pakistan Gas Pipeline: There is a renewed interest by the Government of Pakistan in the Qatar-Pakistan Gas Pipeline Project worth $2. Recently.600-km pipeline to Pakistan. The Project is currently under negotiation between the Government of Pakistan and Crescent Petroleum of UAE. This proposal is yet to develop further. and Indo-Bangladesh relations. Let us first take a look at the political context in South Asia today. gives rise to the topic we have before us today can these proposals be translated into reality or will they remain only just on paper? Let us consider the reasons why these pipeline projects have not taken off. In the context of South Asia.

refining and distribution of energy resources have given way to intelligent perceptions of new economic realities where counties now realize that the driving force in the new World order will be growth and development.7 bcfd by 2020.4 bcfd by 2015 and 2. the above efforts have been accompanied by technological innovations that have made possible the delivery of gas across countries possible in the first place at reasonable cost. In the case of Pakistan. The ADB remains committed to the cause of poverty alleviation and economic growth. Suffice to say that much of the demand will come from India and the People's Republic of China. It is today the fastest growing primary energy source. Areas of sovereign domain in extraction. Secondly. I believe. In the "chicken or egg case" of whether there should be a resolution of political issues first or whether economic development will come first. the demand for gas will steadily outpace the supply of domestically produced gas. The World gas scenario has changed rapidly in the last decade. there have been changes in regulatory regimes enabling freer participation by the private sector as the public sector unbundles activities it carried out previously. the formation of the Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority. ORGA. as an independent regulator for the industry as well as the deregulation of prices of petroleum products are examples. In conclusion I would like to state that. The natural gas share of total energy consumption is globally expected to increase from 23% in 2001 to 28% by 2005. as the country slowly rebuilds are some notable developments that augur well for the future of regional gas pipelines. the winner will be economic growth and development.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 17 relations accompanied by various confidence building measures like the resumption of communication links and greater stability in Afghanistan. They will provide cheaper and cleaner energy. To this end we believe that transnational gas pipelines will play a large role in enhancing regional cooperation and contribute significantly to economic growth. Country-to-Country interactions have introduced changes in the way countries do business with each other. Under a moderate GDP growth rate scenario of 3. generate income that can be used for addressing poverty. Natural gas has come a long way from being a "not-in-demand" product. I believe that during the course of this decade some of the planned transnational pipeline proposals will come to fruition. . going up to 1.2 billion cubic feet per day (bcfd). Pakistan's estimated shortfall by 2010 is 0.8%. And the most robust growth in demand is expected to take place in developing countries where the overall demand will rise more than what it will in the developed countries. firstly. In the context of Pakistan. and promote regional security. which currently have very low per capita gas consumption as compared to consumption levels in the more industrialized and developed countries.. as Pakistan's population grows and known gas reserves are steadily used up.

<http://www. resulting in over USD 950 million of investment in the Oil and Gas industry of Pakistan. However. gas discoveries and supply are not keeping pace with the increased demand and therefore the requirement for imported gas has become inevitable with an expected shortfall of 600 MCF per day by 2010. this figure is expected to increase to almost 100.000 barrels per day in the next five years.18 IPRI Factfile Thank you once again for inviting me to speak at this important conference. In Pakistan.000 sq km's of area.org/Documents/Speeches/2004/ms2004017. 526 wells have been explored over 146. contributing more than 82% share to the 48 million TOE of energy requirement in Pakistan for the current year. in the last year. These wells have provided gas reserves of 45 TCF. The total number of vehicles running on CNG has reached over 0. This has given a new dimension to the transnational gas pipeline projects from Qatar.000 barrels per day. making Pakistan the world's 3rd and Asia's largest consumer of CNG in the transportation industry.asp> T HE 3 RD P AKISTAN O IL . increasing the share of Gas in the Energy mix of the country to 45%. which are seriously being considered to cater to the energy requirements of the region. However.htm> .5 million. The two gas distribution companies in Pakistan have been investing over USD 200 million a year to increase the capacity of the existing distribution networks of 60. Demand for petroleum products is expected to stay steady at 18 million tons per annum with current indigenous production of Oil in Pakistan at 60. the government has adopted policies to increase the share of indigenous energy resources of the country. The commercial requirement of energy in the country has doubled over the last decade. < http://www.pogeepakistan.adb. G AS AND E NERGY E XHIBITION C ONFERENCE (18-21 M AY 2005) AND Oil and Gas are two of the major components of Pakistan's Energy Mix. with the demand for natural gas growing at 8% per annum. still only 18% of the population has access to natural gas.5 BCF / day. In this regard. Iran and Turkmenistan.com/industry%20overview%20o&g.000 km's. with a success rate of 1:3:7. With the increased exploratory and production activities in Pakistan. Gas production during the last five years has risen by 62% to over 3.

except that of Iran.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 19 I RAN C RISIS C ASTS S HADOW O VER A LL T HREE P IPELINE P ROJECTS IN S OUTH A SIA KARACHI. hoping for transit fees it could charge. But India’s Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar visited Islamabad last week and persuaded Pakistan to endorse the IndoIranian deal. June 13: South Asia has decided to enter the Big League nations’ struggle to secure oil (and gas) supplies that are not (yet) under the sole superpower’s control. While the US is assiduously wooing India. Its background is that serious 25 years old rift with the US. Needless to say all of ME oil is under tight US control. both countries go on saying that they will ignore the American objections and remain committed to the gas pipeline project. indeed Pakistan showed keenness to join the project. It raises questions. It emerged into full view last March when US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice termed the project as ‘not a good idea for Pakistan’. bypassing the two older Russian-controlled pipelines: one in the north directly from Russia to Europe and the second from Baku to Turkey through Black Sea and busy Straits of Bosphorous. But Pakistan’s climbing on the Indo-Iranian bandwagon was not single-minded: It actually adopted the policy of welcoming all schemes of transporting oil in any shape through pipelines. The idea of this gas pipeline originated in Iran for both political and commercial reasons. The US has minced no words in opposing the project. a named member of Bush’s Axis of Evil. Whereupon India too has begun showing lively interest in two other pipeline projects. Although this has actually diluted the enthusiasm considerably in the original Indo-PakistaniIranian gas pipeline. America . Pakistan that was originally enthusiastic about this project became gradually cool toward it. is anxious to conclude an agreement with Iran for assured gas supplies through an overland pipeline through Pakistan. Pakistan and India initially seemed not to have taken the American opposition to the project into their calculations. promising to help make it a global greater power. with the latter trying to isolate Iran. Indians seem to have rejected the American dislike of this project on the ground of their burgeoning energy needs that require a secure source of supplies. Both India and Pakistan responded positively to the Iranian idea. with a rapidly expanding economy. India. The rate at which the US is acquiring control over the vast deposits of hydrocarbons (oil and gas) in former Soviet Central Asian Republics was highlighted by the recent commissioning of a new oil pipeline to take oil from Caucasus directly to Europe. America has excellent relations with both India and Pakistan.

What the final upshot of this non-ideological struggle will be cannot be foreseen. One is for oil to be brought from Sharjah under waters of Persian Gulf through a pipeline. This UNOCAL project. not to speak of relative success of Chinese diplomacy in Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka. Kyrghistan. America is keen that this project should be implemented and should succeed. Uzbekistan. goodwill and help in sharply reducing the debt-servicing burden. though what the Israeli lobby. being backed by American government to the hilt. Neocons and hawks can do to make or unmake America’s Asian policies remains uncertain. From various angles. China’s ability to stay on good terms with authoritarian rulers can stand it in good stead in all Southern Asian regions. Kazakhstan as possible to Gwadar for export. the gas pipeline project looks wobbly. The company that will set up the pipeline and manage the distribution of these hydrocarbons is a composite subsidiary of major American oil corporations. even Nepal and Burma.20 IPRI Factfile heavily depends on Pakistan for the conduct of War on Terror. The Russians are not involved in UNOCAL or the new pipeline from Baku to a Turkish port via Georgia. Uzbekistan and Kyrghistan to their side and to meet China’s needs on a (secure) permanent basis. with a GDP growth of 7 to 8 per cent. The other is a major three-country project: Hydrocarbons will be of Turkmenistan. Both the latter are trying to win over the rulers of Kazakhstan. Pakistan. With the passage of time. This pipeline is intended to transport as many hydrocarbons from Turkmenistan. when and if it succeeds. This project more or less completes the American design of being able to carry (and control) as much oil from various regions of former Soviet Union in Asia. as of now. the US may have acquired effective control over most of oil of former Soviet Republics in Central Asia. the US is way ahead of its chief rivals. though the governments in Islamabad and New Delhi are upbeat for the record. All that can be said is that. the danger of war over them goes on decreasing. But Pak-American relations also include Pakistan’s various vulnerabilities. they will be carried through a pipeline to Afghanistan and Pakistan’s newest port at Gwadar to be exported to the rest of the world. an imperial enterprise. Bangladesh. on Taiwan. and indeed Iran. though the latter have strongly revived their Shanghai Six – China is also trying to woo India. Americans seem to have some minor share in the project. There are two other pipelines being actively discussed in Pakistan. This is of course pure geopolitical rivalry between the hyper power and the two giants of Asia: Russia and China. is sustained mainly by US aid. Much will depend on how the three major crises are resolved or when the push comes to shove: over North Korea’s nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruction. fight al-Qaeda and winning peace in Afghanistan. The aim of 21st Century Project. indeed Pakistan’s prosperity. .

serious negotiations are afoot among the three countries. The final details about gas price. nothing definite can be said. Notwithstanding the US opposition. . The project is expected to begin by 2006 and be operational by 2009. Following the visit of the Indian petroleum minister. tenders for construction. As to the future of the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline (IPIP) project.satribune. Any US intervention in Iran will be like 15 or 20 Iraqs. The economics of Sharjah pipeline is likely to knock it out. the issue is becoming so pressing that there is hardly any choice for these countries except to cooperate.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 21 would primarily require the subordination of Iran at least. and Turkmenistan. Even the Iranian pipeline will have to traverse. to Pakistan recently a joint working commission was established between the two countries. Sharjah. But geo-strategic struggles need not always demand wars: diplomacy backed by plenty of dollars – an art in which the US excels – can do wonders. Afghanistan situation can not be said to as amenable to improvement as Pakistan’s for the reason that continued presence of foreign troops is an incitement to rebellion – which is vital to the survival of Karzai regime.htm > A R EGIONAL E NERGY G RID The imperatives of geo-economics are competing with geopolitics and propelling countries in the region including Iran. But after what has happened in Iraq and Afghanistan (to a smaller extent).com/archives/200506/P1_mbn. There is thus the crisis over Iran casts a long shadow on all the three pipelines from Iran. The three countries are contiguous to one another. Europe and Japan will also actively enter the new Great Game in Asia to make it even more complex. At some stage. Nothing can be said about the future in that case. if not North Korea. Russia and China. west-east. the same Pakistani Balochistan. One thing is certain. In fact. The US favored UNOCAL pipeline has to run the gauntlet of what is a guerilla war in Afghanistan and to a smaller extent the law and order situation in Pakistani Balochistan. The law and order situation in Pakistani Balochistan can however vastly improve if good governance and political savoir faire can be brought to bear on it. The writer is a seasoned analyst who contributes to several Indian and Pakistani newspapers M B Naqvi. Mani Shankar Aiyar. 13 June 2005 < http://www. though. though dollars alone can not decide the outcome of titanic geo-political struggles among the US. and routes are still to decided. and India towards closer economic collaboration. Pakistan.

As the US policy options for military intervention in Iraq are narrowing day after day. Moreover. the US opposition to the pipeline goes against the grain of its philosophy of normalization of ties in South Asia through economic CBMs. is quite costly. media. First. population. Iran’s “look east” policy and the forging of ties with major regional powers (India. Regardless of the type of government in Iran. the compulsions for energy cooperation remain on top of the national agenda.22 IPRI Factfile it is a “win-win” game for the stakeholders: Iran gets much needed revenues for its gas sales. and is preoccupied with recent Iranian overtures towards normalization of ties with Iraq. Paradoxically. as the Turkmenistan gas reserves are still unproven and instability mars the Afghan scene. Its burgeoning domestic energy needs will double by 2010. economic strength and cultural nationalism. from Pakistan’s view point these options are neither technically feasible nor cost-effective. despite facing encirclement by the US forces. Under the present circumstance.US Karzai government in Afghanistan and giving out the contract to a US company for pipeline construction. this is not to suggest that the option is going to be easy. Second. The US opposition to the IPI is based on the following. This would be almost close to $700 million a year that it gets from the US as economic assistance. given the stake the US has in a country where it intends to stay lodged at least for the foreseeable future. This has to do with the bolstering of the pro. However. it is cumulatively adding to Iran’s sangfroid as a regional power of consequence. thereby adversely affecting Washington-Islamabad ties. On the energy front. China and Russia) are to its advantage. the regime in Iran is not as isolated as was that of Saddam Hussein in Iraq but is engaged with the European Union. the US faces difficulties: is tied down in Iraq. Interestingly. create jobs and help . China has also expressed its enthusiasm for the same. even if the US administration gives up its opposition the Congress. Given its size. The Qatar option. academia and other civic groups would continue to oppose it strongly. However. Although contingent upon regional developments and US reaction. Pakistan’s interest lies as a transiting state that would gain $600 million royalty a year. the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (ILSA) forbids more than $20 million of investment in Iran on the pain of the termination of US economic assistance and sanctions. Iran has its own perspective. The US wants Pakistan and India to look at the TAP and QatarPakistan options. on the other hand. Compared to Pakistan. India is energy-starved and is keen to be involved in the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) and Qatar-Pakistan gas project. the US preference is for the TAP gas pipeline project. Iran is acting in a self assured manner. The pipeline complex would boost industrial infrastructure.

extremism and nuclear weapons.com/2005/07/25/op.. is an “economically necessary. it is going to be a boon for the region. that holds Pakistan as a “major non-Nato ally” and “strategic partner” committed to combating “international terrorism. A peaceful South Asia. Germany. besides contributing to resolution in the subcontinent.e. the US will be sending negative messages to Canada. The province has seen political violence stemming from a strong sense of deprivation. 25 July 2005 <http://www. environmentally-friendly and security-enhancing initiative” that the US has long advocated. would move towards a stable world order in the interest of the global community and the US. The building of energy grids through pipelines and the promotion of economic interdependency and interlinkages will be synergistic steps. TAP or Qatar-Pakistan projects. Although Pakistan says that it cannot “abandon” the pipeline project circumstances may so shape that it may have to opt for the second best options i. assuage its acute security concerns and give it some space. After all.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 23 poverty alleviation in Balochistan and Sindh. says the US scholar George Perkovitch. also buy some gas besides earning royalties. having faced sanctions and isolation in the last 26 years the regime seems determined to pursue the generation of nuclear energy for peaceful use. Pakistan is not investing in Iran’s pipeline infrastructure for which the latter would be responsible as an exporting state. India. In fact. Moreover. Dawn.htm#4> . Japan and others who would view this as going against its nuclear non. Iran has the second largest gas reserves (after Russia) and needs to export energy resources to earn revenues.dawn. Perhaps China. hitherto a cauldron of poverty. in the process. Maqsud Ul Hasan Nuri. Pakistan and others could persuade the US to review its opposition to the energy “linkup” plan in the region.proliferation policies. by trying to block Iran’s plans and selling India nuclear technologies. it the US should engage Iran.” and. The US. Hence. Pakistan should urge both countries to exercise restraint in their words and deeds. especially of economically underdeveloped Balochistan. The IPI project.” should be interested in the latter’s sustained economic development. Also. Pakistan will only act as an energy “corridor state.

to Pakistan via Afghanistan or Iran In July 1997. Unocal announced that Centgas had not secured the financing necessary to begin the work. which would run 900 miles from the Turkmen natural gas deposit at Dauletabad through Kandahar. In October 1997. missile attacks on suspected terrorist training camps. has tempered interest in the Caspian region's natural gas potential. and Turkmenistan is seeking to boost its natural gas output. . as well as the lack of infrastructure to deliver this natural gas to customers. Turkmenistan signed a memorandum of understanding with Afghanistan. In addition. Turkmenistan and Afghanistan agreed to reactivate the Centgas project. already is being developed for export to Turkey. Afghanistan. and in early August 1998.S. and to ask the Centgas consortium. and terminate in the Pakistani city of Multan. Southeast. 1998.. This distance from markets. now led by Saudi . as well as in Uzbekistan. The majority of the Caspian Sea region's natural gas reserves are located on the east side of the Caspian. Russian natural gas giant Gazprom bowed out of the international consortium formed to build the pipeline. The pipeline was estimated to cost $2 billion. Pakistan. Kazakhstan.24 IPRI Factfile II. Unocal set up the Central Asian Gas Pipeline (Centgas) consortium to build the pipeline. in relatively remote Turkmenistan. multiple routes for Caspian region natural gas exports have been proposed. However. the 1999 natural gas discovery of Azerbaijan's Shah Deniz field appears to have boosted the region's natural gas export prospects. Kazakhstan is beginning to tap its huge natural gas production potential. thought to be the largest natural gas discovery worldwide since 1978. On August 22.. Unocal suspended construction plans for the pipeline due to the continuing civil war in Afghanistan and the U. In April 1999. with plans to become a net natural gas exporter in the near future. Pakistan. and the infrastructure that will be built to deliver this natural gas has helped to renew international interest in the region's natural gas. The Shah Deniz field.7 Tcf of natural gas per year via Afghanistan to Pakistan (and possibly on to India). natural gas exports from the Caspian region have been hindered by geography. and Uzbekistan to build a Central Asia Gas pipeline to carry 0. However. Although the infrastructure to deliver this natural gas to customers will be costly. in June 1998. T URKMENISTAN -A FGHANISTAN -P AKISTAN (TAP) C ASPIAN S EA R EGION : N ATURAL G AS E XPORT O PTIONS Energy Information Administration In addition to problems related to the unresolved legal status of the Caspian Sea and several regional conflicts.

Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 25 Arabia's Delta Oil. this pipeline option has gained some support. but with a fragile peace in Afghanistan established and the Taliban removed from power. and the United Nations on Afghanistan. and Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf held trilateral talks on the pipeline proposal. Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov and Afghan leader Hamid Karzai have expressed their support for the pipeline.long pipeline.S. continuing tensions between India and Pakistan make cooperation on a natural gas pipeline highly unlikely for the time being. Karzai. Negotiations by these .-led war on terrorism. the Argentinean oil company Bridas had won exploration rights in the Turkmen gas fields. As early as in 1992. the pipeline scene got murkier when in 1995 a consortium led by US-based oil giant UNOCAL and Saudi oil company Delta Oil started negotiating with the authorities in Turkmenistan for building contracts. The proposed US$ 2.eia. But the new power equations that came about in Afghanistan caused by the unexpected arrival of the Taliban forced Bridas to change its strategy and renegotiate the deal with the Taliban leadership. this is not the first attempt at negotiating to build this 1600 kms. Since the Taliban government in Afghanistan was ousted in December 2001 as part of the U. which was close to the extremist outfit. This was also in the interests of the Pakistani establishment. However. as well as sanctions imposed by the U. U. However. but continuing fighting in Afghanistan.S.html> I NDIA AND THE T RANS -A FGHAN G AS PIPELINE India has decided to adopt a wait and watch approach to the ongoing negotiations that aim to revive the trans-Afghan gas Pipeline (TAP) project. to proceed.5 billion gas pipeline project is expected to transfer of 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually from the Dauletabad fields in southeast Turkmenistan to Pakistan.gov/emeu/cabs/caspgase. Although the trans-Afghanistan pipeline could still be built to terminate in Pakistan rather than India. stated that the United States would support private companies that chose to undertake trans-Afghanistan pipeline projects if they were considered to be beneficial and commercially viable. In May 2002. the pipeline was considered effectively dead. the southeast pipeline option for Caspian natural gas exports remains a distant possibility < http://www. . and Uzbek President Islam Karimov is also on record advocating the pipeline. but continuing instability in the region may deter potential investors.doe. the idea of a trans-Afghan pipeline has been revived. during a visit to Ashgabat in January 2002. In fact. kept the project on hold. Until recently. Deputy Secretary of State Elizabeth Jones.S. Niyazov. Afghanistan and possibly India.

In fact. India needs to carefully consider its options before taking any final decision about it. India does not also want to be caught off guard in the event of an Indo-Pak conflict. India does not want to give any chance to Pakistan to jeopardize its energy security. Moreover. While India has never taken great interest in becoming a party to the trans-Afghan pipeline project. the international funding agencies may not be willing to make investments in the project if India’s participation is not guaranteed in it. The most significant difference between the current negotiations and those went on prior to the fall of the Taliban is that this time the negotiating parties are countries themselves unlike last time when the Oil firms themselves were conducting the negotiations. the oil and gas ministers of Pakistan.26 IPRI Factfile opposing camps with Taliban. The ADB has also sanctioned one million dollar technical assistance grant to undertake a feasibility study for the project. Though it is true that a large part of India’s future energy needs may be met by participating in this pipeline. The first phase of the feasibility study is over and the two subsequent phases are expected to take place soon. What are India’s fears about participating in the trans-Afghan pipeline venture? Firstly. This time. governments in Turkmenistan and Pakistan and various warlords in Afghanistan went on till the Americans attacked Afghanistan and brought about a regime change. Indian government is apprehensive about the safe flow of gas to India through Pakistan. Afghanistan and Turkmenistan jointly requested India to participate in the pipeline venture. such a fear does not need much elaboration given the kind of relationship both the countries share. Since Pakistan and Afghanistan are not sufficiently developed markets for Turkmen gas. given the present political situation in Afghanistan. The current negotiations to construct the pipeline began in May 2002 when a Steering Committee comprising of the oil and gas ministers of Pakistan. India is the logical focal point of this pipeline venture although Pakistan’s minister of Petroleum and Natural resources says that the “project would be viable without India’s participation”. The central government in Kabul does not have effective control in many regions of the country and the . Afghanistan and Turkmenistan was formed to oversee the project. India has been asked to participate both as an investor and consumer. after the Steering Committee of the project met in Manila on 9th April 2003. it was always urged upon by the governments and private companies involved in the pipeline venture to participate in it. and Afghanistan may develop its own gas fields for domestic use. With very low amount of hydrocarbon resources in its Strategic Energy Reserve. Secondly. The Asian Development Back (ADB) has been taking keen interest in the negotiations since the beginning and is involved in developing and processing the project. the safety of the pipeline cannot be taken for granted.

through the shallow waters along the Pakistani maritime boundary or through the deep Arabian Sea water.0 to $2. Though India meets more than half its energy needs by imports. Analysts also say that AlQaida elements may still be active in the regions the pipeline would pass through. which is to lay the pipeline through the insecure territories of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The final cost of the Project is estimated at between $2. in the TAP project. Happymon Jacob <http://www. in the proposed India-Iran pipeline there were three options to lay the pipeline i.observerindia. Second. Al-Qaida and Pakistan.htm> T URKMENISTAN -A FGHANISTAN -P AKISTAN N ATURAL G AS P IPELINE P ROJECT J UNE 2003 The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (the Project) is a gas pipeline of about 1. . Iran was ready to reach gas to India by tankers in the event of any disruption in the flow of gas through Pakistan.the Afghan warlords. in the Iran-India pipeline venture India had the option of saying that it will only pay for the gas reached safely at its doorstep and would not invest financially in the project. First. it may not be wise to jump into the TAP project however lucrative it might look at first sight. This is not the case in the TAP project. It is wiser for India to wait and see what emerges from the high profile negotiations which are going on.the TAP project. whereas the Iran-India pipeline would have only one potential threat.5 billion. which is Pakistan. The Project will take about three years to be implemented after all key decisions are taken by the cooperating countries.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 27 feuding warlords may see the pipeline as an opportunity to strengthen their hold in the area and to make some quick money. Third. through the Pakistani territory.e. as mentioned earlier. the TAP project. has threats from at least three quarters . Pakistan and possibly India. Moreover. there are even more reasons for India to be apprehensive about the trans-Afghan pipeline.com/analysis/A020.600 kilometers that will transport up to 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually from the Dauletabad fields in South East Turkmenistan to consumers in Afghanistan. If the Indian government was apprehensive about the security of the proposed Iran-India pipeline. At least for three important reasons one would consider the abandoned Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline as qualitatively different from and thus better than . Not so long ago the Indian government had abandoned plans to construct a pipeline through Pakistan to transfer gas from Iran due to security reasons. there is only one option. On the other hand.

the Steering Committee approved the report on the market study conducted for sale of Turkmen gas in Pakistan and Northern India. At its Fifth Meeting held in Manila on 8-9 April 2003. The three Ministers signed a joint letter inviting India to join in the Project. on the basis for pre-qualifying private sector companies interested in leadership of the pipeline consortium. M/s Penspen of UK. The Committee also approved the pre-qualification documents and authorized ADB to commence the prequalification process. ADB has committed to provide resources to undertake the full feasibility study and complete such a study by October 2003. The Framework Agreement was subsequently signed by the Heads of State in Ashgabat on 27 December 2002. it will be a pioneering effort in linking the energy deficit economies of South Asia to the hydrocarbon rich Central Asian countries. to play the role of a development partner and help with the feasibility study for the Project. The second meeting of the Steering Committee was held on 16 September 2002 in Kabul. the Committee initialed the draft of the Framework Agreement (subject to confirmation by their respective Governments) for signing by the Heads of State at their next meeting. and on the risks and mitigation measures to be adopted to improve the Project's risk profile. were introduced to the Steering Committee. the terms of reference (TOR) for the feasibility study was presented by ADB to the Steering Committee along with a draft of the Framework Agreement amongst participating countries. The Steering Committee approved the TOR and agreed to consider the Framework Agreement at its next meeting in Ashgabat scheduled for 17-18 October 2002. ADB was requested by the Steering Committee. Pakistan and Turkmenistan met in Islamabad on 29-30 May 2002 to announce the formation of a coalition for implementing this Project. Decisions were also taken on the project structure. At that meeting. who have been appointed as the consultants for conducting the feasibilities under the ADB-funded TA. The sixth meeting of the Steering Committee will be held in Ashgabat during 19-20 June 2003. The Project has significant potential for enhancing stability and improving living standards in South and Central Asia. The Fourth Meeting of the Steering Committee was held on 22 February 2003 at Islamabad. This has very long term and . If successful.28 IPRI Factfile The Heads of State of Afghanistan. The Committee also conveyed its "no-objection" to accepting a Technical Assistance from ADB for conducting the feasibility study on the pipeline. wherein a decision was taken to invite India to join the group. They have established a Steering Committee of Ministers of oil and gas from the three countries for necessary follow up and supervision. At the third Steering Committee meeting held in Ashgabat. during its first meeting held in 9-10 July at Ashgabat.

However. and these are considerable. We are confident that with necessary political will on part of participating countries.adb. would involve the construction of a pipeline about 1. TAP is designed to transport natural gas from the Dawlatabad fields in Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and eventually to India. The initial phase of the project.asp> A NALYSIS : P IPELINES OR P IPE D REAMS ? The on-again." ADB officials have confirmed that the TAP pipeline is "economically and financially a viable project. these risks can be seen as challenges that have to be faced to make the Project successful.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 29 widespread positive implications for these two regions. and Kabul's enthusiasm remains at current levels. has estimated that the Turkmenistan to Pakistan section of the pipeline would cost between $2 billion-$2." While Turkmenistan has yet to submit a certification of its Dawlatabad gas reserves. The Asian Development Bank (ADB). security aspects and the investment climate in the region. a multitude of other problems could render the pipeline no more than a pipe dream. mostly through Afghan territory. an unidentified ADB source quoted on 1 February by "Platts Energy Economist" said that the Turkmen side is expected to deliver the needed certification by March. which has financed a feasibility study for the project. First envisaged in 1991. ADB's role is that of an honest broker and an active development partner that helps to mobilize necessary technical and financial resources for the Project. These risks pertain to the techno-economic viability of the Project.org/Documents/Articles/AFG/afg_2003001.5 billion and would require four years of construction after all decisions are taken by the cooperating countries and international financial institutions. ADB is fully cognizant of the risks attached to this Project. . Without the Indian market. But even if New Delhi and Islamabad come to a full agreement on the project. off-again prospects of the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan Natural-Gas Pipeline Project (TAP) have come alive once more with a recent decision by India's cabinet to authorize discussion of three pipeline routes to India. these challenges will be addressed. that can transport up to 20 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually.700 kilometers in length. which is a primary mandate of the organization. including TAP. and based on excellent relationship between ADB and each of the four countries. TAP was not deemed a profitable undertaking. excluding the pipeline's possible extension to India. The Project reflects the essence of ADB's approach towards Regional Cooperation. < http://www. According to a 14 February report by "International Oil Daily.

whose country is eager to get the TAP project under way. A press release from Karzai's office indicated that pipeline would bring "significant economic benefit to Afghanistan and the region. Moscow could increase its leverage over a potential TAP participant. but as a minister I am paid to dream. Currently there are two routes under discussion. If the route through western Afghanistan emerges as the best option. the recent authorization given by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for his country to explore several possibilities to transport much-needed natural gas to India has rekindled interest in the TAP project. Afghan President Hamid Karzai. the second travels through western Afghanistan. "We have the BangladeshBurma [Myanmar] pipeline. The Security Issue Afghanistan's security remains a major question. especially if the U. The first runs through northern Afghanistan. India's reluctance to rely on gas from a pipeline crossing the territory of archrival Pakistan had proved to be a major stumbling block. passing through Kandahar into Pakistan. cutting through Kabul before entering Pakistan. Beyond interim security. Unfortunately. several stumbling blocks need to be cleared. However." Aiyar added. Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar told reporters in January that by looking at the region's map "you may accuse me of dreaming. which could be provided by Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) under ISAF command. rendering the dream of riches for Kabul and peace and energy for New Delhi and Islamabad a mere pipe dream." "Platts Energy Economist" reported on 1 February.S." But before Karzai and his Indian and Pakistani partners begin to celebrate economic prosperity and a constructive new phase in the elusive New Delhi-Islamabad partnership.-led coalition forces and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) begin to withdraw from that country. and we want a pipeline from Turkmenistan that would cross Afghanistan and Pakistan. we are looking at a pipeline from Iran that would cross Pakistan. Kabul needs to extend its legal and physical authority throughout the pipeline route. security concerns extend beyond Afghanistan. Should India cement its links to big state-owned players in Russia's energy industry. told visiting Indian External Affairs Minister Kunwar Natwar Singh on 15 February that his country hopes New Delhi will look favorably at the trans-Afghan pipeline.30 IPRI Factfile India's Geo-strategic Fears On the receiving end. and perhaps air patrols by Afghanistan's future military partners. the pipeline .

Gazprom has its own concerns about Turkmenistan's gas reserves. as local tribesmen increasingly are targeting natural gas facilities in the province to settle accounts with the central government. Turkmenistan's Price Hikes Turkmenistan's relations with Russia are another variable in the complex equation that will determine the gas-rich Central Asian country's future deals. paid half in cash and half in kind -. are known for their fierce independence. the pipeline would cross the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. If the alternative option is chosen. most notably the tribal areas.000 cubic meters. Further talks are expected. Gazprom and Turkmenistan resolve the price dispute. A pipeline serving Indian interests would present them with a tempting target. In January.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 31 would cross Pakistan's Baluchistan Province. Although Gazprom stated in a press release after the meeting that the two sides agreed to "follow existing agreements. The attack was not unique. As "Nefte Compass" reported on 20 January. Turkmenistan strong-armed Ukraine into accepting a price hike. ask for higher royalties. But the Russian-Turkmen relationship has been showing signs of strain lately. the Turkmen government's desire to force the renegotiation of an existing contract. In early January. Fighting for similar gains on the Russian front. Gazprom is waiting to see an audit of Turkmen gas reserves conducted by Texas-based DeGolyer and MacNoughton before investing in an upgrade of the Central Asia Center pipeline. not to mention the hardball negotiating tactics implicit in the shutoff of gas shipments to Russia. Gazprom head Aleksei Miller met with Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov in Ashgabat on 10 February. which includes the semiautonomous tribal areas. However. are a cautionary lesson to other would-be partners. raising the price of gas from $44 per 1.000 cubic meters to $58.is "unacceptable. but their talks were inconclusive. Moreover. Turkmenistan shut off gas shipments to Russia in January. or promote their nationalist agendas. a little-known separatist group attacked a gas storage facility in Baluchistan. Turkmenistan has signed a 25-year "gradual increase" contract with state-controlled Russian gas company Gazprom under which Russia's purchases of Turkmen gas will rise from roughly 7 billion cubic meters in 2005 to 70 billion-80 billion cubic meters by 2009. Both the NWFP and the adjoining Afghan border regions are also home to radical Islamists groups with very strong anti-India sentiments. These regions. As the "RFE/RL Central Asia Report" has noted." Russia's "Vremya novostei" reported on 14 February.$44 per 1." Turkmenistan's official news agency stressed that the current price -. .

600 kilometer long pipeline that will originate from Daulatabad field in Turkmenistan will benefit Afghanistan in terms of transit revenue and meet growing energy needs of Pakistan. State-controlled Gazprom provides a steady stream of revenues to the Russian budget. An anonymous oilindustry source told RBC on 18 January that the Russian gas company Itera.32 IPRI Factfile Gazprom. Reuters reported. Moscow could increase its leverage over a potential TAP participant. which at one point considered involvement in TAP. Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar is expected in Moscow on 21 February for talks that will focus on a possible agreement between India's Oil and Natural Gas Corp.rferl. and the Kremlin can be expected to safeguard its interests. now drawing attention with its interest in TAP. the Yukos production asset state-owned Rosneft recently plucked from the ruins of erstwhile oil oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovskii's empire. rendering the dream of riches for Kabul and peace and energy for New Delhi and Islamabad a mere pipe dream. may also be looking to expand its ties with the Russian energy sector. The 1. is likely to take a dim view of any alternate export routes for Turkmenistan. which has contracted to buy large amounts of Turkmen gas to cover for declining yields at its existing fields against a backdrop of fearsome development costs for new fields in Siberia. A tripartite meeting.html> P AKISTAN . T URKMENISTAN ." India. (ONGC) and Gazprom to cooperate on natural-gas extraction projects in both Russia and India. might have disassociated itself from the project because it "was not supported by Russian authorities.BILLION D OLLARS G AS PIPELINE ON Pakistan.org/featuresarticle/2005/2/83E13251-DE33-4A99-896B810AAFE277FA. ONGC has also been conducting talks about the possibility of acquiring a stake in Yuganskneftegaz. 18 February 2005 < http://www. Should India cement its links to big state-owned players in Russia's energy industry. . Amin Tarzi and Daniel Kimmage. Turkmen Oil and Gas Minister Amangelgi Pudakov assured the meeting to provide the verification certificate within a month. decided to start work on the feasibility after submission of a certificate on the quantity of reserves at Daulatabad field that had remained one of the major hurdles in undertaking the project. and specifically Gazprom. A FGHANISTAN A GREE M ULTI . Turkmenistan and Afghanistan on Wednesday agreed to pursue multi-billion dollars trans-national gas pipeline project after the Asian Development Bank (ADB) declared it feasible. chaired by Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz.

Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 33 Pakistan insisted the project would be profitable only if it provided 3 billion cubic feet of gas supply every day. allaying a major concern of the planners in the wake of the security situation in the war-torn Afghanistan. The Minister told the reporters that Afghan authorities were clearing the landmines and there had been a lot of improvement in the security situation in the country.133266.” Pakistani Petroleum Minister Amanullah Jadoon told reporters after the meeting also attended by Afghan Minister Engineer Mir Mohammad Saddiq. “The project will create linkages.3 million US dollars pre-feasibility report on the project.” Aziz said. The ADB had financed the 1. Pakistan Also Pursing Other Options Prime Minister Aziz said Pakistan was also looking for various other options including overland gas supply from Iran. Aziz said the project could be an important confidence building measure (CBM) between Pakistan and India. has denied any US pressure and said it will take a decision on the project in the country’s best economic interests. The petroleum ministers of the three countries were to meet in March but the meeting was postponed amid reports that the United States was exerting pressure on Pakistan and India to stay away from the project Pakistan. DW-World. 13 March 2005 < http://www2. Experts observe the project could ultimately be extended to India as well where energy requirements are increasing by 27 percent annually.1. Pakistan and Iran had recently agreed to speed up work on the gas pipeline project with the possibility of India also joining. undersea gas from Qatar and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). however. “This is good news for all the three countries. which initially showed reluctance to join over security concern. Security Concerns Saddiq assured to ensure the safety of the pipeline with the help of the donor agencies and the international community. interdependence and promote people to people contact which would help improve ties and strengthen regional cooperation.de/southasia/pakistan/1. A team of Pakistani experts will visit the site shortly to conduct some technical and geological checks. The pipeline will travel nearly 500 kilometers through Afghanistan.DE.dw-world.html> .

Pakistan's Petroleum Minister Amanullah Khan Jadoon said progress was being made in this direction." he said.7 trillion cubic metres. "They are clearing the land mines and. According to Turkmen estimates Daulatabad has reserves of 1. Mr Jadoon said the Turkmen delegation presented some figures but had asked for another month to give a complete picture and Pakistani experts would visit the site to conduct some technical and geological checks. the one from Kandahar. Afghan officials want India to join the project but Indian officials have shown only cautious interest. "The Afghan minister has given quite some surety and it appears to us. "It is our compulsion. April 12: Pakistani. Among reasons for the delay have been worries about security in Afghanistan and questions over the size of the reserves in Turkmenistan's Daulatabad gas field. -Reuters Dawn.htm > P ROTOCOL S IGNED TO C ONTINUE D ISCUSSIONS P AK S UPPORTS G AS PIPELINE : P RESIDENT Rawalpindi—President General Pervez Musharraf Wednesday expressed Pakistan’s support for Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline project and said the country is open to all options with regard to its finalization. The long-delayed project envisages a $3.34 IPRI Factfile G AS P IPELINE T ALKS B EGIN ISLAMABAD.dawn.com/2005/04/13/top9. adding that the country had to work simultaneously on pipeline projects from Iran and Qatar. with the southern Afghan province of Kandahar seen as the most suitable route for geographical reasons. . making it the world's fourth largest gas field. despite security problems." Jadoon told reporters after the ministers met in Islamabad. as the minister said. 13 April 2005 < http://www. Turkmen and Afghan ministers met on Tuesday to discuss a multi-billion gas pipeline. it would improve considerably. "It is more feasible. that there is a lot of improvement in the situation over there.600-km pipeline running through Afghanistan to Pakistan. but Pakistan wants to be sure about that. the size of Turkmen gas reserves and security in volatile Afghanistan.3 billion 1. providing Kabul with transit revenue and Pakistan with much needed energy. He said the route of the Turkmen pipeline had also been discussed. He said Pakistan was under tremendous pressure to speed up pipeline projects to meet growing energy needs. because there are no mountains there. " he said. too." he said.

Asian Development Bank’s Mr Dan Millison was also present. Minister of Mines and Industry. he said. Mir Mohammad Saddiq and Asian Development Bank Energy Specialist Dan Millson who called on him at the Prime Minister’s Secretariat on Wednesday. Foreign Minister Khurshid M Kasuri. Afghan Minister for Mine and Industries. the Prime Minister said. saying the three countries had productive discussions on the project. “We will import gas to fulfill energy requirements for our fastgrowing economy in both agricultural and industrial sectors”. Amangeldi Pudakov said that his government is very keen to provide gas to its southern neighbors and described this pipeline of great significance. The Prime Minister said that the trilateral meeting is significant because Pakistan’s economic growth needs increased energy sources and it is looking for various options including overland gas supply from Iran and Turkmenistan. undersea gas from Qatar and liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Pakistan. The President said the project will benefit all three countries. Eng Mir Mohammad Sadiq. Meanwhile Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz said that the TurkmenistanAfghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) pipeline will be a tremendous initiative to promote economic. Engineer Muhammad Sadiq. The meeting also included representatives of Asian Development Bank who have done the pre-feasibility of the project and the Prime Minister appreciated their role in structuring this very important project. The delegation briefed the President about the ADB-assisted feasibility of the pipeline project. The Prime Minister stated this during a meeting with Turkmenistan Minister of Oil & Gas Industry and Natural Resources. diplomatic and political coordination between these countries. interdependence and promote people to people contact which would result in long lasting ties and strengthen regional cooperation. Amangelgi Pudakov.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 35 He told a tripartite delegation of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline project that the country favours transportation of gas under the project. Federal Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources Amanullah Khan Jadoon and senior officials also attended the meeting. They updated the President about the progress in deliberations on the project. He said it will create linkages. Afghanistan said that his country would provide a safe corridor for the . The delegates included Turkmen Minister of oil and gas industry Amangedi Pudakov. is very keen to diversify its energy sources to ensure fuel for future growth which will benefit both industrial as well as individual consumers. Afghanistan Minister of Mines and Industry Engr.

” He. Afghanistan. Gas Industry and Mineral Resources A. Mir Mohammad Siddiq and Turkmen Minister of Oil.36 IPRI Factfile project and informed the Prime Minister that President Hamid Karzai is fully committed to the success of this project. however. Amanullah Khan Jadoon said on Wednesday that Pakistan would keep its options open for other regional gas pipeline projects.3 billion Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) Gas Pipeline Project as viable and feasible. Amanullah Jadoon said the feasibility study on the proposed 1. He said a preliminary audit report on the gas reserves at Daulatabad has also been compiled and laid down in the meeting while the detailed report would be available in a month time.480kilometer pipeline completed in June last year was discussed in the meeting. he said “We would not object if India wants to join the TAP project. Replying to a query. The study was funded by the Manila-based Asian Development Bank. He said additional security forces have also been recruited for providing security to various project going on in Afghanistan.” Minister for Mines and Industry of Afghanistan Eng. he assured would extend all possible assistance to make this project a success. our requirements are about 2-3 billion cubic feet per day.” he added. The Minister said at present. He said work on the TAP pipeline project could be started by end of this year. Gas Industry and Mineral Resources A. he added. said that gas at the Daulatabad gas field will be sufficient for Pakistan’s requirements for next 30 years. Earlier Terming $3. Mir Mohammad Saddiq said his country has taken all steps for the safety and security of the pipeline and he himself is involved to ensure the safety and security of the pipeline.” About route of the pipeline project. Turkmen Minister of Oil.000 national army and national police force. Addressing a press conference here at the end of two-day TAP Steering Committee.G. Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources. he said “A lot of progress has been made on the TAP project but we would keep our option open to finalize one of the three gas pipeline projects. Eng.G. In his remarks Minister for Mines Afghanistan. he said the tripartite meeting discussed the Daulatabad-Chaman-Multan route which could be changed on the recommendations of investors. Pudakov were also present. Pudakov said “We have hired consultants who have given preliminary report while the detailed report will be finalized in one month. “The security situation is satisfactory in our country as we have 60. Responding to a question about the detailed report on the gas reserves. The three ministers also signed a protocol to continue discussions on the proposed .

In the rough parlance of oil industry executives. President Hamid Karzai told donor countries the project was a top priority on a par with the war on terror and opium eradication. Mr. how . But growing Pakistani demand. And for Afghanistan. and we would like to keep Afghanistan a place that is open and attractive for foreign investment. "This pipeline is an opportunity for Afghanistan. Turkmenistan in July this year. working on a pipe dream: bringing natural gas from Turkmenistan down through Afghanistan to Pakistani ports on the Arabian Sea. is the closest thing to a win-win scenario as one can find in Central Asia. "The foreign investment rate of return is 17. and the government of Afghanistan is capable of providing security. Only security of the pipeline is left. APP Pakistan Observer. and other sources of energy. the three countries and the Asia Development Bank held their eighth round of meetings to hammer out details of what Turkmenistan has. For Pakistan. They also agreed to hold 9th TAP Steering Committee meeting in Ashakabad. Sediq is minister for Afghanistan's energy. but talks between Turkmenistan. Taliban attacks in the south appeared to be on the increase. it helps to provide a market for its substantial gas reserves. the pipeline. Driven by a Pakistani economy growing at nearly 7 percent a year and higher energy prices. As yet. mining. it could mean from $200 million to $350 million per year in transit fees. there are no foreign investors vying for the project. In midApril.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 37 pipeline project. Today. and he's confident that the pipeline is coming close to reality. based on the assumptions that the gas reserves in Turkmenistan are enough and the consumption rate in Pakistan remains high. and industrial sector. that beats a kick in the head. Afghanistan. I NVESTMENT KABUL. and Pakistan are proceeding.5 percent. Mir Sediq was an engineer for Unocal.asp > A FGHAN 'P IPE D REAM ' D RAWS C LOSER TO R EALITY A P ROPOSED G AS P IPELINE FROM T URKMENISTAN TO A RABIAN S EA COULD B OOST J OBS . For Turkmenistan. on paper. were more attractive. AFGHANISTAN – Back in the days of the Taliban." says Sediq." It wasn't so long ago that the pipeline was thought to be dead. and higher energy prices for Turkmenistan have made the pipeline increasingly feasible. 14 April 2005 < http://pakobserver. expected to run out of its own reserves in five years.net/200504/14/news/topstories07. such as Iran or Qatar. This week. the pipeline will help sustain growth. increased Afghan stability.

If approved.464 kilometres.and rightly though -. which has been delayed since 1998 by unrest in Afghanistan. Pakistani diplomats said. Turkmenistan had signed the deal with a consortium. so security is a question. There are lots of pipelines in countries where there is war. [Y]ou can have all the security you want. "We need to know if there is enough gas for the next 30 years. an adviser to the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry. Estimated cost of the project is US$1. Delta of Saudi . Both countries attach great importance to early completion of this project. in competition with neighbouring Iran and India. The proposed 1. General Mosharraf's visit to Turkmenistan was the first to a Central Asian nation since he took over in a military coup in 1998 [October 1999] and points to Islam-Abad's efforts to play a more active role in the region. the project that has the backing of Washington would constitute another big disappointment for the Islamic Republic of Iran that considers itself -." Scott Baldauf.csmonitor. but if the price is five times higher than getting gas from Qatar. analysts says. Pakistan. Turkmenistan government. which will comprise American UNOCAL.9 billion for the segment to Pakistan and an additional US$600 million for the extension to India Approximately 750 kilometres of the pipeline will cross Afghanistan. and whether Afghanistan is safe enough. (IPS) The two billion-dollar Trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline project dominated two days of discussions between Pakistan's Chief Executive General Parviz Mosharraf and the Turkemen President Saparmurat Niyazov. "The biggest question is certification of gas reserves in Turkmenistan. The next round comes in July. but Sediq is expected to travel to the Turkmen capital of Ashkabad Friday to see if the government's survey of reserves will be finished in time. then the deal is broken." says Mary Louise Vittelli. 48-inches diameter natural gas pipeline that would carry up to two billion cubic feet per day (20 billion cubic meters per years) stretches from the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan border in south-eastern Turkmenistan to Multan.38 IPRI Factfile much gas Pakistan needs. 13 May 2005 <http://www. but not a deal breaker.html> P AKISTAN A ND T URKMENISTAN P USHES W ITH G AS P IPELINE ISLAMABAD 16TH May. with a 640 kilometres extension to India under consideration.com/2005/0513/p05s01-wosc.as the "natural" transit route for the transit of Turkmenistan and other Central Asian energy reach nations to world outlets.

he added. "We have geo-economic and geo-strategic linkages with Turkmenistan". economic cultural relationship and in all the fields including the defence field. "He wants to remind Putin that he is independent politically". 16 May 2005 <http://www. During their meetings. He said Pakistan was looking to promote relations with Turkmenistan in diplomatic. General Mosharraf's visit is closely watched by Iran. Gazprom of Russia. General Mosharraf declared we believe in peace and would like to have peace in the region.com/articles/pakistan_turkemenistan_16500. pointing out to the Russian new President's forthcoming visit to Eshghabad. as the country that has close economic and political ties with Turkmenistan after Russia. sources said.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 39 Arabia. Iran Press Service.iran-press-service. Itochu of Japan. Meeting with newsmen after his first round of talks with Turkmen President. Hyundai of South Korea and Crescent of Pakistan. said Moscow-based analyst Andrei Piontkovsky. regional and international issues with special emphasis on Afghanistan and Kashmir. "We want peace between Pakistan and India and peace in Afghanistan and we believe in peace with honour and dignity". the Pakistani strongman hold and President Saparmurat Niyazov exchanged views on important bilateral. Analysts said Niyazov wants to balance the different powers in the region. INPEX of Japan.htm> .

" said the statement. An official statement said the meeting discussed bilateral issues to enhance cooperation between the two countries with specific reference to export of Iranian gas to Pakistan. Sources privy to the meeting told Dawn that Pakistan informed the Iranian side that Iran-to-Pakistan gas pipeline project had become very attractive in the light of fresh studies conducted by Islamabad about the country's gas demand. "During the meeting. the sources added. IRAN-PAKISTAN-INDIA GAS PIPELINE P AKISTAN P ROPOSES S EPARATE P ROJECT : G AS P IPELINE ISLAMABAD. The studies suggest that Pakistan's gas shortfall will start from 400mmcfd (million cubic feet of gas per day) by 2010 and increase to about 4bcfd (billion cubic feet of gas per day) by 2025 because country's economy was poised to grow at a rate of seven per cent by the end of the current fiscal year. both the sides agreed to take steps to initiate (the project) without further delay as Iran wants a market for its gas and Pakistan needs to meet its shortfall in the coming years. Pakistan also suggests that the two countries should start working side by side on Iran-to-Pakistan and Iran-to-India through Pakistan gas pipeline so that if Indian option is delayed the Iran-to-Pakistan pipeline option is not left out in the cold. The two sides agreed that India was unnecessarily avoiding the project despite the fact that it was energy-deficit and was purchasing LNG at much higher economic cost. sources said. .40 IPRI Factfile III. The Iranian delegation that was here on a day-long visit left in the evening for New Delhi to discuss Indian participation in the gas pipeline project. These options were discussed here on Wednesday at a meeting between oil and gas ministers of Iran and Pakistan. Iran has agreed to the proposal but has expressed its desire to give India a chance to join the project to ensure a bigger market and reduce overall cost of the project. Jan 5: Islamabad has told Tehran that Iran-to-Pakistan gas pipeline should be pursued as a stand-alone and independent project in case India is not ready to join it. Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zangeneh led a six-member delegation at the meeting while the Pakistani side was headed by Petroleum and Natural Resources Minister Amanullah Khan Jadoon. it is learnt. The sources said the Iranian side was convinced about the suggestion and agreed to move forward on both the options simultaneously.

The positive points of this project are that there are no transit countries in this project that can be completed through bilateral agreements and both the countries have the capability to construct the pipeline in their own countries.dawn.htm/> G AS P IPELINE D IPLOMACY TO P ROMOTE P EACE : A ZIZ TEHRAN. 6 January 2005 <http://www. Referring to Pakistan's growing economy. Iran has also offered to enter into some formal agreement with Pakistan to sell specific quantities of gas. Dawn. . Mr Aziz also expressed happiness over India's agreement to join the pipeline plan. 23 February 2005 < http://www. "This development will build a very good atmosphere for improvement of relations among all the region's countries.dawn. Feb 22: Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz said here on Tuesday that 'pipeline diplomacy' would bring peace to the region. "Fortunately with the agreement of the Indian government.com/2005/02/23/top4.com/2005/01/06/ebr1. the state news agency IRNA reported. Iran will bring its gas to the Pakistan-Iran border from where Pakistan will lay its own pipeline to its load centres.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 41 The Pakistan side also reiterated its full support and foolproof security arrangement as earlier announced by President Pervez Musharraf in case India joins the project. Under the Iran-to-Pakistan project." he said. we need a reliable source for energy supply." -AFP Dawn. we hope that this significant project will be operational as soon as possible.htm > I RANIAN M INISTER I NVITED TO D ISCUSS P IPELINE P ROJECT : S AARC E NERGY M INISTERS ' C ONFERENCE ISLAMABAD." said the prime minister who arrived here on a three-day visit to boost ties and discuss a proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project. Iran has indicated a price at the Pakistan border at $2 per mmbtu which Pakistan understands could be negotiated to a reasonable level. he said: "In order for us to ensure such a fast and constant growth. Feb 28: Pakistan has invited Iranian Petroleum Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh to start tri-lateral negotiations on Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project on the sidelines of Saarc energy minister's conference next month.

1 March 2005 < http://www. other sources said it was yet to be seen whether Russian. Qatar and Iran for gas imports and decision would be made on the basis of lowest gas delivery price in Pakistan. Responding to a question. Speaking at a news conference. Dawn. Sources said no such a big pipeline project in the world has ever been completed without the involvement of the US. Mar. French and Indian companies could join together to form a consortium for the project.com/2005/03/01/top5. 3 (UPI) -. DC. 21. He said Turkmenistan has also sought a date for holding a meeting on Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline and hopefully the TAP steering committee would meet sometime in April.htm> O IL N EEDS C HANGE S TRATEGIC F ACE OF A SIA Washington. "The Indian government's recent approval of the gas pipeline has created an encouraging atmosphere for pushing ahead this highly important project. However. which no doubt would have a positive impact on regional .The relentless demands of the world energy market have brought three major nations of Southern and Southwest Asia into a new partnership that crosses and obliterates old rivalries and tensions. He said Iranian oil minister has also been invited to take advantage of the occasion and hold tri-lateral discussions. Petroleum Minister Amanullah Khan Jadoon told newsmen. the UK or Japanese companies. Secretary petroleum ministry Ahmad Waqar said Pakistan was simultaneously holding discussions with Turkmenistan. He did not agree that US sanctions against Iran could make gas import from Iran impossible and said the project could be implemented without US involvement because US sanctions did not mean UN sanctions. Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi announced that India was considering joining a proposed gas pipeline project stretching from Iran to India through Pakistan.dawn.42 IPRI Factfile The two-day conference of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation will be held on March 17 and 18 in Islamabad to promote regional cooperation in the fields of oil and gas. Mr Jadoon said Pakistan was currently in negotiations stage for the implementation of the project with all the parties and at the same time it was also looking into the import of Liquefied Natural Gas. On Feb. the minister said Indian Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar would also be attending the conference and the two sides were expected to discuss the multi-billion dollar project on the sidelines of energy minister's conference.

Mani Shankar Aiyar. The pipeline would extend 1.000 barrels of crude oil a day to China for the next 25 years at market prices from its giant Yadavaran field. ." According to Mengal." Kharrazi said.724 miles across southwest Asia.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 43 convergence. Aiyar said: "There will be two sets of bilateral agreements. it will have far-reaching geo-strategic implications for all three countries." the Iranian foreign minister said. Kharrazi in his Feb. a year for 25 years. hopes that agreement on the gas pipeline deal will be finalized when he visits Tehran in June. while the second would be between Iran and Pakistan on how the gas is to be transported to the Indian border. and the acceleration of economic progress and foreign investment in the countries of the region are some of the main motivations for implementing such a large project. But if the project goes through. a strong supporter of boosting energy links with Iran." According to Aiyar." "The Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline would be the best and most desirable step towards enhancing the cooperation between Iran and India in the field of energy." India's Petroleum Minister. For Iran has already singed an enormous $70 billion oil and natural gas deal with [China] last October that locked both countries into a 30-year relationship. In return. In the first one. Under that deal. the creation of new job opportunities. Iran would not enter into any agreement with Pakistan and it is the responsibility of Iran to negotiate with Pakistan on the pipeline's construction and ensure the safety of supplies on Pakistan's territory.000 barrels of oil per day from them. Mengal said: "Whether or not India joins the project. India agreed to participate in developing Iran's oil fields and extracting some 100. stating. And he said that Pakistan had little concern over the liquefied natural gas deal between Iran and India. Pakistan will continue efforts for its realization. Iran will enter into a pact with India for delivery of natural gas at Indian borders. and 472 miles of it would cross Pakistan. 21 speech described that deal as "one of the most significant results of the strategic agreements reached by the two countries so far. Pakistan appears eager to play ball with the project." Kharrazi's comments followed the signing of a far reaching energy agreement between the two countries in January 2005 whereby Iran agreed to sell India 7. "The lower cost of the piped gas. India may agree on laying the pipeline from Iran via Pakistan up to India's territory. "Laying the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline would be the best and most desirable step towards enhancing cooperation between Iran and India in the field of energy.5 million tons of liquefied natural gas. "It (the deal) has nothing to do with the proposed gas line project. or LNG. Iran is committed to supply 150. Pakistan's Petroleum and Natural Resources Minister Mir Naseer Mengal has announced that Pakistan was eager to begin constructing the proposed Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project.

and other sources -. Not all the high tech capabilities to a tiny country of 6 million people will weigh in the scales against the energy needs of two enormous energy dependent nations seeking the fuel to provide for more than a billion inhabitants each for decades to come. or whether even if it can. Aiyar played host to an "energy summit" of petroleum ministers from China. let alone against China. In any case. And the eagerness of India and China to buy Iran's oil and gas also serves notice to Israel that its dreams of courting both Asian giants as an equal partner and.44 IPRI Factfile The emerging natural gas deal with India does not appear -. 3 March 2005 <http://washtimes.htm> . as well as from eight nations in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to try and create a new "Organization for Oil Importing Countries. Washington Times. or at least reduced to more realistic ambitions. For both nations are now seeking to harmonize their ravenous thirst for Middle East -. He has long been a proponent of reviving and transforming the old NonAligned Movement ideals of the 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia to bring together India and China in a new partnership to lead Asia in the 21st century." It remains to be seen if such an organization can be created. On Jan. India's crucial need for Middle East oil. especially from Iran now looks certain to set limits on the degree to which it is prepared to cooperate with the United States against the major Muslim oil-producing nations of the Middle East.S.of oil and gas to avoid a potentially dangerous energy rivalry getting out of control. South Korea and Japan. But it serves notice that Iran is eager to seek lucrative energy deals with both the emerging potential superpowers of mainland Asia. But there is no doubt that Aiyar is seriously committed to the idea.as yet -to be remotely on the same scale. Iran is sending clear signals that the country continues to want to do business with India as well as China regardless of the current global political pressure. Nor was the Indian deal with Iran done behind China's back. whether it will be able to defuse and harmonize the ever more ravenous energy needs of India and China.-Iranian situation. Also. let alone Japan. And having the friendship and energy dependence of China and India will clearly be a crucial counterweight to the current U.com/upi-breaking/20050303-112309-2253r.. as a potential ally against the Muslim Middle East should be discarded. 6. in India's case.

are unwilling to pay more than $3 per MBTU. Iran is keen to exploit this resource as a source of revenue. and India would buy 7. the gas would end up costing $4. "We have communicated to the Indian government our concerns about gas pipeline cooperation between Iran and India. Press Trust of India reported on 9 March. but Aiyar's suggestion that the deal could fall through comes at the same time that U. In fact. One of the biggest potential customers so far is India. On 16 March. Tehran also rejected India's request for natural gas that is rich in petrochemicals. With the addition of transportation and transit charges to the Iranian price. I think our . she referred to the proposed pipeline during a 16 March press conference in New Delhi. and negotiations for a pipeline stretching across Pakistan have been going on since the mid-1990s. A recent flurry of diplomatic visits suggested that the deal was about to be concluded.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice is visiting India and Pakistan." 7 March 2005).5 million tons of LNG [liquefied natural gas] a year for 25 years (see "RFE/RL Iran Report. India-Pakistan tensions over Kashmir and related security concerns have delayed the project. in which India must pay for the agreed amount of gas even if it does not take delivery of it. Aiyar explained that Iran wants to charge as much for natural gas as it does for LNG (about $4 per million British thermal unit [MBTU]). furthermore.the fertilizer and power sectors -. and Iran should offer a special price for such a large order. whereas the main Indian consumers -. India reportedly prefers a "supply-or-pay" contract. in which Iran must deliver gas to the Indian border or pay for the contracted quantity. ethane. RFE/RL reported. "We will not buy gas from Iran if we cannot sell it in India. It could be a coincidence. Tehran.50 per MBTU.700 kilometers long. security concerns and Indian anger over Iranian business practices are putting this in doubt. It is therefore pursuing gas export deals with a number of countries. preferring instead to deliver "lean" gas that does not contain butane. Iran and India signed an agreement for an overland natural gas pipeline in 1993. is insisting on a "take-or-pay" agreement. She said.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 45 A NALYSIS : I RAN -P AKISTAN -I NDIA G AS P IPELINE I MPERILED As the owner of the world's second-largest proven natural gas reserves. Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar announced that his country might withdraw from the gas deal. or propane. Aiyar added that India and Pakistan will need approximately 200 million standard cubic meters of gas daily." Press Trust of India reported him as saying. however. Aiyar said. but U.S. In late-February and earlyMarch diplomats from all three countries said a deal would be signed soon. and in 2002 Iran and Pakistan signed an agreement on a feasibility study for such a pipeline. and Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi said the pipeline would be 2.

Burma could be a source of natural gas.including Bechtel. Qatar --with the world's third-largest natural-gas reserves (14. and deliveries began in January 2004. "The Financial Express" reported on 12 March.Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Erstwhile Gas Authority of India. and Burmese officials have indicated an interest in running a pipeline to West Bengal in India. Indian Petroleum Minister Aiyar visited Moscow and Kazakhstan in late February to discuss energy issues." 25 February 2005). according to the Energy Information Administration. too. although Iran did export to Armenia and Turkey. India's Petronet and Qatar's Ras Laffan LNG Company (Rasgas) signed an agreement for the provision of 10. He reportedly said that India is willing to pay $2 billion for a 15 percent stake in Yuganskneftegaz.6 trillion cubic meters. Gaz de France. Iran is eager to reach other markets. He also said India could invest $25 billion in the entire Russian energy sector. and it could be taking advantage of Rice's visit to leverage its position. General Electric.is another competitor for the Indian market.5 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 2002. India produces gas and has worked with outside partners -. According to the Energy Information Administration. Most of that gas was used domestically. but it is looking to other countries to fulfill its requirements.3 billion cubic meters per year of LNG. India's Other Suppliers India is a huge and growing natural-gas market. therefore. according to the Energy Information Administration. Iranian Petroleum Minister Bijan Namdar-Zanganeh and Omani Oil and Gas Minister Muhammad bin Hamad bin Sayf al-Rumhi on 15 March signed an agreement on the export to Oman . One idea is to connect Bangladesh's natural gas reserves with the Indian gas grid." The timing of the Indian petroleum minister's comments suggest that New Delhi is pressuring Tehran for a better deal. Total. India's cabinet recently authorized discussion of the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan Natural-Gas Pipeline Project (see "RFE/RL Afghanistan Report. but the country only produced about 76.3 billion cubic meters in 2015. have a stranglehold on the Indian market.46 IPRI Factfile ambassador has made statements in that regard and so those concerns are well known to the Indian government. And Iran's Other Markets Iran natural-gas reserves is an estimated 26. Two Indian companies -. and Unocal -.to increase production. Ltd (GAIL) -. natural gas use was nearly 25 billion cubic meters in 2002 and is projected to reach 34 billion cubic meters in 2010 and 45. Iran does not.4 trillion cubic meters) -.own equity in Burmese natural gas reserves.

Bulgaria. Earlier in March the possibility of Ukraine purchasing 15 billion cubic meters of natural gas from Iran every year was discussed at an IranUkraine energy commission meeting in Kyiv." He earned his Ph. Greece. because it will curtail some of its political isolation and will earn it a place in the international gas market." He has contributed to several books about the Middle East.Iran-Armenia-Georgia-Russia-Ukraine or Iran-ArmeniaGeorgia-Black Sea-Ukraine. While the project promises significant benefits for both countries.html> US S ECRETARY OF S TATE P RESSES I NDIA AND P AKISTAN TO A BANDON I RANIAN G AS P IPELINE During her first trip to South Asia as US secretary of state in mid-March. Zanganeh said the deal with Kuwait is worth more than $7 billion over 25 years. IRNA reported.D. Italy. Bill Samii. beginning in 2006. Rice’s visit to the two American allies was of course cordial. China.org/featuresarticle/2005/3/D107F257-10BC-4B2A-83E7BB87C3533EA5. His research articles have appeared in the "Middle East Journal. Two pipeline routes are being considered -. Other countries that have signed gas-related memoranda or at least discussed the topic with Iran include Austria.rferl. but these are not binding contracts." and the "Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) Journal. Iran likes to present every meeting as a major accomplishment by staging the signing of a memorandum of understanding. IRNA reported. Bill Samii is a regional analysis coordinator with RFE/RL Online and editor of the "RFE/RL Iran Report. and Turkey.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 47 of 10 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually. The same day." "Middle East Policy. At a joint press conference. He went on to say that the legal documents relating to the deal will be drawn up in a few months. 18 March 2005 <http://www. Indian Foreign Minister Kunwar Natwar Singh praised . at the University of Cambridge. beginning in late 2007. But Tehran's pricing policies and Washington's opposition may scuttle this effort to breakout. Conclusion of the deal with India is potentially very important for Iran. it cuts across the Bush administration’s aggressive campaign of economic isolation and military threats against Tehran. Zanganeh and Kuwaiti Energy and Oil Minister Ahmad Fahd al-Ahmad al-Sabah signed a deal for the export to Kuwait of 10 million cubic meters of natural gas a day. one of Condoleezza Rice’s top priorities was to pressure India and Pakistan to abandon plans for a major gas pipeline from Iran.

Rice responded in kind. Rice played down Washington’s chief accusation against Iran: namely that it is developing nuclear weapons. which has produced and tested a nuclear device. US president George Bush announced a year ago that Washington would consider assisting India in constructing nuclear power plants. “[We] believe broad energy dialogue should be launched with India because the needs are there.48 IPRI Factfile Rice for her political vision and spoke of the potential for US-India relations to “shape our global future to our mutual advantage”. Rice held out the possibility that the US might lift the ban on nuclear cooperation with India imposed in 1974 if New Delhi abandoned the Iranian gas pipeline project. and the figure is projected to rise. In preparation for the visit.com web site: “We have certain issues with Iran because that country is involved in terrorism. The double standards are all too obvious: while the Bush administration is demanding UN sanctions against Tehran over unproven allegations that it is seeking a nuclear bomb. as well as to Pakistan. While in India. The US secretary of state said Washington would take the next step in developing the Indo-US strategic partnership. So we not only expressed our concerns to India but also told Japan to stop [a] gas project with Iran. which includes providing nuclear reactors for civilian purposes. Rice emphasised that the US has “communicated to the Indian government [its] concern about gas pipeline cooperation between Iran and India. the US has eased economic restrictions on India. India currently must import 70 percent of its oil. David Mulford. defence and economic ties.” Significantly. met with Indian petroleum minister. but increasingly global responsibilities. Mani Shankar Aiyar to express US “concern” over the pipeline project. the US ambassador in New Delhi. Behind the scenes. She also held out the prospect that the US would sell sophisticated F-16 fighters to India. The use of the term “global” acknowledged the ambitions of India’s ruling elites for a greater role in international affairs. declaring that the US and India not only had regional. He hinted that India could face US economic retaliation under the 1996 Iran-Libya Sanctions Act. the Bush administration’s demand cuts directly across India’s relations with Iran and more broadly its own ambitions in the Middle East and Central Asia. While close military and economic relations with the US bring benefits. which provides for sanctions on countries investing more than $US20 million in Iran’s energy sector. In fact. . Washington’s opposition to the Iranian pipeline poses a political dilemma for New Delhi.” She told the Indian-based rediff. one imagines the exchanges were somewhat blunter. has been interfering in the affairs of its neighbours and is also facing UN sanctions.” Rice declared.

” The Times of India cautiously noted that the “Iran pipeline represents a diametrically opposite path to US foreign policy. [I]f Mani Shankar Aiyar’s plans come to fruition. That is unlikely to enthuse the Bush administration. India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation has already invested around $5 billion over the past four years in a number of countries. Speaking in Moscow last year. but both New Delhi and Islamabad are looking to the potentially large economic rewards that a gas pipeline from Iran through Pakistan to India would bring..” Last month Aiyar floated the idea of an ambitious Asian gas grid linking suppliers in the Middle East with Asian gas users. and so the pipeline is important.” Concerns about US Ties Washington’s stance also provoked opposition among layers of India’s ruling elite. its bellicose policy towards Iran is directly undermining the prospects for a negotiated settlement on the Indian subcontinent. The Hindu bluntly declared that India and Iran “do not need the benediction of the US to do business with each other.” US pressure is. India rebuffed the US demand. Standing alongside Rice at their joint press conference.. but Turkmenistan and Burma as well.. Negotiations are stalled at present. however. citing “a number of reasons for the shift. among others. In tandem with developing economic cooperation. such as the high price of Iranian gas and the endemic security problem of laying the pipe through lessthan-reliable Pakistan.” India’s oil minister Mani Shankar Aiyar told the media: “[T]his relationship [with Iran] can’t be compromised for any third party concern... including China and Korea. Earlier this month the Indian cabinet discussed bringing gas not only from Iran. Publicly. We need a lot of new additions to our sources of energy. then the pipeline grid could eventually stretch from the Caspian Sea to China.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 49 The US stance also undermines a key economic motivation behind Indo-Pakistan talks to resolve longstanding conflicts between the two countries. Aiyar praised India’s relations with the former . Iran. Vietnam and Burma. While Washington has pressed for the talks. including Russia. who are concerned not just about the pipeline. we have a very important requirement of energy without which we cannot hope to sustain priorities. [A]ll friendly countries in the world must recognise that even if they have national concerns.. Indian foreign minister Singh pointedly remarked: “We have no problems of any kind with Iran. which wants to play a dominant role in the region. but the dangers of a close alliance with the US and the Bush administration in particular. An article on the Asia Times web site suggested that India is considering backing out of the pipeline deal. having an impact. New Delhi is exploring closer strategic relations with China and Russia in particular.

The US demand to abandon the Iranian pipeline carries an implied threat to India’s other relations.wsws.org/articles/2005/mar2005/rice-m31. resource-rich regions of the Middle East and Central Asia.50 IPRI Factfile Soviet Union. be a major economic blow to Pakistan. which is determined to establish its own stranglehold over the strategic. When completed. Yadavaran. Russia and China is anathema to the Bush administration. this will be one of the most significant confidence-building measures undertaken by India and Pakistan in the context of the ongoing process to normalize relations. Putin declared that the three countries “would make a great contribution to global security. This month. but defence issues. the Indian government has warmed up to the proposition in the past couple of months. not only on economic. Annual transit fees from the “peace pipeline”. it accepted Pakistan’s proposal for a gas pipeline from Iran as part of an energy corridor for the region. Ratnayake.shtml> P ROGRESS ON G AS P IPELINE INDIA’S insistence on pursuing the option of importing gas from Iran overland through Pakistan despite American reservations is encouraging. however. would be frowned on by the United States. Since the idea of a tripartite project was mooted initially in 1994.” Visiting India in December. The prospect of a developing economic and strategic bloc between India. … K.” she told the media. Rice’s attempts to forge closer ties with India are not just aimed at Iran.” he declared. amounting to an estimated $200-300 million. The abandonment of the gas pipeline would. Russian president Vladimir Putin called for close collaboration between the two nations and China. but against any opposition to US interests—from China in particular.” Chinese prime minister Wen Jiabo is due to visit India in April. “Russia has guaranteed our territorial integrity and in the second half it may be able to guarantee our energy security. “In the first half century of independence. “[A]ny move to strengthen Iran. Pressure on Pakistan Rice spelt out the same message in Islamabad. . would be a significant financial boost. India is collaborating with China in the development of Iran’s largest off shore oil field. by trade or otherwise. 31 March 2005 <http://www. the Indian government gave its approval to the four-billion-dollar project. In March. Credit goes to the Indian leadership for the decision to go-ahead despite external pressures and to the Pakistani government for pursuing the project consistently. as well the Juifer oilfield.

including the United States. If the problems in Balochistan are not resolved satisfactorily. Rajasthan and Gujarat states.htm> I NDIA SAYS U NDER NO P RESSURE OVER I RAN G AS P IPELINE P ROJECT India's Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar said here on Saturday that India is under the pressure of no country. one important area that needs to be tackled is the law and order situation in Balochistan. For the project to move forward. . For Iran. regarding the gas pipeline project with Iran".dawn. including the US. Studies suggest that Pakistan’s gas shortfall will start from 400 million cubic feet per day in 2010 and will increase to four billion cubic feet of gas per day by 2025. Such an undertaking will go a long way in cementing the bonds of cooperation between Iran. the idea of cooperation on energy resources should be taken up on a priority basis. it must expect the onset of a domestic energy crisis. Pakistan and India. Aiyar said. The project promises great potential for all the three countries involved. the export of gas would earn the country badly needed foreign exchange. Keeping in mind past experience. If Pakistan is unable to obtain gas from outside sources. there is the possibility that the nationalist elements in the province would object to any such venture in which their share is not conceded. 10 May 2005 < http://www. Pakistan stands to gain financially through transit fees for gas supplied to India as well as supplies for itself. both countries will be able to sort out all outstanding issues relating to the pipeline project. Most of India’s concerns relate to security and the guarantee that gas supply will not be disrupted even if India-Pakistan relations sour in the coming years. "There is absolutely no pressure on India from any corner. With limitless possibilities.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 51 One hopes that during the visit of the Indian oil minister to Pakistan later this month. which has been under American economic sanctions in one form or another since 1979. Dawn (Editorial). as the economy grows at the rate of over seven per cent annually. A share of the royalties can be passed on to the provincial government considering the underdevelopment of Balochistan. this is a genuine worry and needs to be addressed in all seriousness.com/2005/05/10/ed. the transmission of natural gas from Iran will tie in with the gradual decline in domestic gas production. For India. attention should focus on actually getting the project off the drawing boards as soon as possible. While there is agreement on the need for such a transmission pipeline in the region. For Pakistan. over the gas pipeline project from Iran. the pipeline project will mean a cheaper alternative to its expensive fuel imports to run industries in Punjab.

the cooperation of Asian countries might become a similar platform for similar ventures in the continent. Talking about how cooperation in the field of energy might bring Asian countries closer to each other. Iran is capable of meeting very large section of India's energy requirement. "The meetings would be back-to-back. It should be . China and Pakistan all would be partners in the energy grid. it hoped we were aware of the their concerns. "We should have a cooperative atmosphere in Asia. Because Iran's reserves are so large. Iran. We told in response that we are aware of your concerns but hope that you.52 IPRI Factfile "All that the United States has asked India was that. Asia is the largest producer and consumer of oil and natural gas. are aware of our concerns. Aiyar said like the European Coal and Steel Community which was the precursor of the European Union. Aiyar mooted a formula. In fact we know that the Yadavaran field will see a Chinese company play a very vital role. an overland pipeline that could carry gas to India would transform India's energy sector. he stressed. At the moment there is no trilateral meeting on the agenda. According to him. Aiyar said gas alone is not sufficient for the formation of the energy grid. Russia. Elaborating on his vision of energy grid. Regarding the difficult issue of price of the piped gas. too. "China and India should cooperate with each other rather than compete for energy." Aiyar stressed. there will be a series of bilateral meetings between Iran and India and India and Pakistan and others. Asia which is the largest producer of oil should also include crude as one of the pillars of the energy grid. he said. Kazakhstan. there should be harmony between the producers and consumers in the continent. Therefore. Aiyar said that he will not hold any trilateral meeting with Pakistan and Iran during this trip." the Indian minister said. Iran." Aiyar noted. "The price of the gas should follow a simple formula. Azerbaijan and possibly also Qatar. Instead." Aiyar recalled the remarks by Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf regarding the gas pipeline project from Iran when he noted in a communication that "if it was all right for Europeans to come and purchase gas from Iran than why should Asian countries not buy Iranian gas"." Concerning China's interest in the Iran-India gas pipeline project Aiyar said it is for Iran to pursue the proposal with the Chinese. Regarding his coming trip that will take him to Pakistan. "I think Iran is the anchor for any energy security in India.

ir/en/news/view/line-17/0506040206122152. Mr Aiyar told a news conference after the first round of talks that both India and Pakistan had shared interest in the pipeline project as buyers and should adopt a shared strategy to negotiate a better gas price with Iran. The Indian delegation was led by Mr Aiyar and his counterpart Amanullah Khan Jadoon led the Pakistani side. . Mr Aiyar said both countries discussed the issues of wellhead prices. These issues would be further discussed on Monday and future discussions would be carried out in technical meetings till these issues were resolved. “Iran does not suffer on selling gas but we both countries will be buying the gas at affordable prices. he said both sides had agreed that the price should be affordable. The two sides will continue discussions on Monday and issue a joint communiqué at the conclusion of the two-day talks.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 53 remunerative for Iran and affordable for India. The Indian minister will call on Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and Commerce Minister Humayun Akhtar on Monday to formally seek approval to export diesel and other petroleum products to Pakistan.irna. he said the issue would be resolved in line with international standard practices. When asked whether the two countries had agreed to adopt a joint modus operandi for negotiating gas price with Iran. He said Pakistan officials gave a detailed briefing on Pakistan’s gas economy on the first day of discussions and details about the oil and gas reserves in Pakistan and its energy requirements at the official level for the first time. cost of transmission and transit fee. June 5: Pakistan and India on Sunday discussed wellhead gas price. 4 June 2005 <http://www. Indian Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar asked Islamabad to invite him to future meetings on Turkmenistan and Qatar gas pipelines.” he added. The Indian side also asked Pakistan to allow import of diesel and other petrochemicals from New Delhi and indicated to become part of proposed gas pipelines from Turkmenistan and Qatar. Responding to a question about the pipeline transit fee to be paid to Pakistan." IRNA (Tehran). T RANSIT F EE D ISCUSSED I NDIA P IPELINE WITH I NDIA : I RAN TO ISLAMABAD. In this regard.htm> G AS R ATE . transmission cost and transit fee of the Iran-to-India gas pipeline through Pakistan and agreed that land route was technically and economically the most viable option for the project.

“Ministers only dream and babus implement the dreams. He said India wanted to import gas from everywhere keeping in view its needs. Some years back gas pipeline from Iran via Pakistan to India was a dream. Mr. Trade of hydrocarbon would help improve the lot of poor people of both the countries.htm > .54 IPRI Factfile Mr Aiyar said the Indian side also shared its gas needs in the meeting. Mr Aiyar said Pakistan had been informed that India wanted gas and LNG from Iran. Mr Aiyar said: “We want the mutual trade based on mutual investment also. When asked whether the Indian side had raised any concern about the security of the pipeline and uninterrupted gas supply. he said India would decide about the project as per its gas requirements and added that New Delhi was not under US pressure on this issue. The Indian minister said both sides had agreed to jointly study the pre-feasibility studies carried out by the BHP Company about the IranPakistan-India gas pipeline.” About the US pressure on the pipeline project.com/2005/06/06/top1. However. Dawn. He said he had asked his Pakistani counterpart to invite him to future meetings of the steering committee of Turkmenistan.dawn. and also from Turkmenistan and Qatar. Afghanistan and Pakistan gas pipeline for the import of gas from Turkmenistan. but said since the studies were conducted quite a long time ago they were required to be updated in view of the latest gas requirement of both countries. He said a section of the gas pipeline from Qatar would pass through the sea and India had asked Pakistan to provide details of the feasibility study on the Qatar gas pipeline for its examination. he said he would be visiting Beijing some time in November and he would ask the Chinese authorities on his own to become part of this project. he said it was his dream but he did not discuss the matter during the meeting. Khaleeq Kiani.” he said. Both sides had agreed to share knowledge about their respective studies on gas pipeline projects. he said the Pakistani prime minister and the petroleum minister had promised to address New Delhi’s concerns on the issue. When asked whether he took up his proposal to make China a part of this project. 6 June 2005 < http://www. he added. Aiyar said that discussions on gas pipeline were currently at the preliminary information-sharing stage. In this regard I will meet Commerce Minister Humayun Akhtar on Monday for export of diesel and other petrochemicals to Pakistan.

saying the nearly $4 billion project will help strengthen ties and fuel their energy-hungry economies.S. Crocker said there is U. Meanwhile. "The U. it will be the IPI that takes off first.” He said. U. "We have now moved from the stage of asking questions about security." The nearly 2. I NDIA G IVE T OP P RIORITY FROM I RAN TO G AS P IPELINE Pakistan and India have agreed to give top priority and accelerate preparations for a proposed gas pipeline from Iran to South Asia. "There has been positive forward movement and there has been milestones put in place. As far as India is concerned. pipeline is expected to begin within the next six months.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 55 P AKISTAN .800-kilometer pipeline will transport natural gas from Iran to India through Pakistan. “You are hoping to make a headline.” he noted. Minister Aiyar says the discussions on the security of the pipeline are also progressing well. Aiyar says his government understands the concerns. but also from Turkmenistan and Qatar. ”I am hoping that in consequence of this we will be able to report substantial progress by the end o the year. to addressing security concerns in a serious and sincere manner. I am trying to lay a pipeline. Responding to questions about Washington's opposition to the proposed pipeline project from Iran.S." he added. we have said to them that we are sensitive to their concerns and we trust that they are aware of our requirements. but it has never gotten off the ground mainly because of India's tense relations with Pakistan. Speaking to reporters at the end of his talks with Pakistani leaders Tuesday.” Mr. Of the three projects. Local media quoted Ambassador Ryan Crocker as saying. ambassador to Islamabad in a written statement denied the United States is pressuring Pakistan against importing natural gas from Iran. has mentioned its concerns to us. government does not believe in exerting pressure on strategic partners like Pakistan on any question. But in the wake of rapid improvement in the bilateral ties. "the U. Mr.S. Indian Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar said the two sides discussed not only a pipeline from Iran. particularly its cost and security. Aiyar says he will hold talks with Iranian officials later this week to discuss the project. it does look as if it's likely that in the phasing of the three projects. The minister says that work on the Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI). legislation against . Tehran proposed the project in 1996. but needs energy.S.” Mr.

’’ he said.56 IPRI Factfile investment in Iran but that President Bush can always make an exception if it is in the U. P AK S ET UP JWG ON P IPELINE ISLAMABAD. Today.’’ It is learnt that Pakistan insisted the JWG be headed by the two countries’ Petroleum Secretaries. but also to create linkages and interdependencies for establishing an enduring relationship between the two countries. Aiyar promises fast negotiations — starting with an early visit of his counterpart Amanullah Khan Jadoon to India at the end of August. . he added that following his meet with Aziz.S. The Journal of Turkish Weekly. that may require phasing to meet growing energy requirements. On Sunday. national interest.’’ said Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar as Pakistan’s National Assembly began to hear the budget. It will clarify positions on technical. Pakistan Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz — whom Aiyar met earlier in the day — said: ‘‘Pakistan gives top priority to the overland gas pipeline for the supply of gas to Pakistan from Iran and Turkmenistan and to carry it forward to India. While Aiyar’s six-month timeline takes note of Pakistan’s desire to take a final decision on the Indo-Iran pipeline by the year-end. In a statement. commercial and legal issues relating to the pipeline. but additions. India and Pakistan have set up a Joint Working Group (JWG) to move the project forward. A formal note on its structure will be issued on Tuesday. I NDIA . ‘‘We would like to get this project to some significant ground by the end of this year. not only to meet its own energy requirements.php?id=12211> T O C HECK S LIPS . June 6: In a boost to the Iran pipeline project. the JWG marks the first time the two countries will engage on meeting their long-term energy requirements.’’ This bilateral engagement will run parallel to India’s talks with Iran on the issue. 7 June 2005 < http://www. An invitation is expected from the Asian Development Bank for India to join the next Steering Committee meeting.turkishweekly. ‘‘I hope to be there to signal India’s intent to convert TAP to TAPI. appropriate steps are to be taken to get India on board. Aiyar had said India is now also willing to be included in the process behind the other pipeline option — Turkmenistan via Afghanistan and Pakistan (also known as TAP). The shadow of US reservations on the Iran pipeline was evident in the minister’s insistence that the various pipeline proposals be looked at as ‘‘not mutually exclusive.net/news.

June 08 (Online): Pakistan and India have agreed to import gas through Iran. To this end. it was agreed that the momentum pertaining to the project should be accelerated by constituting a joint working group at the secretary level. which will meet regularly and report progress to the minister to facilitate definitive by them. Pakistan is looking at a sub-sea pipeline from Qatar. legal and related issues to realize a safe and secure world-class project. which envisaged supply of gas to Pakistan and India through a transitional pipeline. The Indian Express. Pakistan provided the details of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline project in which Indian Minister showed their interest in participating in this project. at the earliest. and Gulf states and constitute a joint working group at the Secretary-level to start the gas pipeline project of Iran to India via Pakistan. Turkmenistan. T URKMENISTAN . he said: ‘‘The US is sensitive about our requirements. Sunit Arora.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 57 Regarding US pressure. It was announced in joint press statement issued here on Tuesday at the end of four-day official visit of Indian Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar. . Both sides explained to each other's energy requirements of gas by pipeline and the arrangements worked out. technical. Indian Minister Discusses Pipeline with Musharraf Indian oil minister Mani Shankar Aiyar met with President Gen Pervez Musharraf at Army House in Rawalpindi on Tuesday and thrashed out with him proposed $ 4 billion Iran-Pakistan-India natural gas pipeline project.com/full_story. Pakistan outlined the parameters of the proposed Gulf South Asia Pipeline project and India also expressed in participating in this project. Both countries agreed to exchange information in regard to financial structuring.’’ Both projects were feasible. It stated that it should be seen as a significant project for the benefit of the peoples of these countries. commercial. India also provided some details of arrangements to import LNG and both sides agreed to share technical information and experience in this regard with the Pakistani side.php?content_id=71851> P AK -I NDIA A GREE ON I RAN . The statement said that two countries were agreed that the IranPakistan-India gas pipeline project. There is a third. India expressed its ‘‘deep interest’’ in the technology being considered. 7 June 2005 < http://indianexpress. would go a long way in meeting the energy requirements of the two countries. G ULF S TATES G AS P IPELINE P ROJECT ISLAMABAD.


IPRI Factfile

Sources privy to the meeting quoted the president as saying that the project is in the interest of three countries since it would generate huge economic activities, thus, contribute to ongoing efforts for reducing poverty, creating more jobs and improving quality of life in the region. The president emphasized modalities of the project be finalized at the earliest so that work on it could start by next year. He assured the Indian minister that the pipeline passing through Pakistan would be fully protected. He brushed aside concerns by the United States on the gas pipeline project, saying, "there is nothing for anyone to worry about the project. The project will not be abandoned at all." He said Islamabad would have no aversion if India was interested in partaking in projects meant for Pakistan procuring gas from Turkmenistan and Qatar, and would rather welcome its involvement in them because like Pakistan, India also requires to import gas to meet its energy requirements. Gen Musharraf said the completion of proposed gas projects would not only promote mutual relation of the three nations but would also accelerate socio-economic activities in the entire region. He said, "It's our earnest desire to finalize matters on gas pipeline with India and Iran at the earliest." The Indian oil minister updated the president on his two-day official talks with Pakistani counterpart Amanullah Jadoon on the project and said both the countries had agreed to start work on it soon. Mani Shankar said both New Delhi and Islamabad would negotiate with Tehran on the project soon for finalizing its technical, financial and legal specifications. Sources said the Indian offer for supply of 325,000 tons of diesel at concessional rates to Pakistan from its refinery at Panipat also came up for discussion in the meeting. Petroleum and natural resources minister Amanullah Khan Jadoon was also present in the meeting.
Pak Tribune, 8 June 2005 < http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=108492>




WASHINGTON, June 12: Pakistan is believed to have informed the United States that it cannot abandon the Iranian gas pipeline project despite a strong US opposition to the scheme, diplomatic sources told Dawn. The project was discussed in detail at a meeting between Foreign Minister Khurshid Mehmood Kasuri and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in Washington on Friday.

Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia


Ms Rice, who has publicly opposed the project, reiterated Washington’s position that the proposed pipeline, which will be bringing Iranian gas to India through Pakistan, is against US laws. The US Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996, known as ILSA, forbids more than $20 million of investment in Iranian oil and gas projects. The violator can be deprived of US economic assistance and may also face sanctions. During the meeting Ms Rice is believed to have argued that even if the US administration gave up its opposition to the pipeline, there were powerful groups in Congress, media and academia that would continue to oppose the project and it will ultimately adversely affect Washington’s relations with Islamabad. Pakistan’s response, conveyed by Mr Kasuri, covered both the economic and political aspects of the proposed deal. Pakistan argued that it would earn up to $600 million a year from the pipeline, which is close to about $700 million a year Islamabad receives from Washington. The pipeline will also allow Pakistan to import about $1 billion of gas every year from Iran. As Indian oil minister Mani Shankar Aiyar pointed out during his recent visit to Islamabad, Pakistan will have to import gas by 2010 to meet its domestic and industrial requirements. Pakistan already consumes more per capita energy than India and has a high domestic consumption. In Pakistan, domestic users consume more energy than both industrial and agriculture users who are second and third on the list. In India, agriculture has the highest consumption of energy, followed by industrial and domestic users. The pipeline will also create a major industrial infrastructure in Pakistan, generating new jobs. Pakistan also pointed out that the Iranian pipeline to India will have a major political impact on South Asia and will add a huge economic incentive to the ongoing peace process between India and Pakistan. Both are major reasons for Islamabad to opt for the Iranian project, the Pakistanis argued. Responding to Pakistan’s concerns, Ms Rice is believed to have urged the Pakistani delegation to look at other options as well, such as bringing a pipeline from Qatar or the Central Asian republic of Turkmenistan. Pakistan said that bringing gas from Qatar would double the cost while gas reserves in Turkmenistan are still unproven. Political instability in Afghanistan is another cause for concern that will need to be sorted out before a pipeline is routed through that country. Despite this frank and bold response, there are concerns in the Pakistani camp that annoying America over the project could have serious economic and political consequences for the country. Pakistan is a major recipient of US economic assistance. Recently,


IPRI Factfile

Washington has also resumed military assistance to Islamabad and in March agreed to sell the much-needed F-16 fighter jets to the Pakistan Air Force. India, the major partner and the beneficiary of the gas pipeline, receives only $25 million of annual humanitarian assistance from the United States and still buys its weapons from Russian and European sources. Wary of the obvious consequences of annoying America, Pakistan is trying to convince the Americans that it will not be violating any US law by agreeing to build the Iranian gas pipeline. Pakistanis say that they will not make any investment in Iran’s oil infrastructure, which ILSA forbids. The Iranian side of the project will be financed entirely by Iran and a group of multi-national investors Iran will be required to put together. Pakistan’s investment into the project will start only after the pipeline reaches the Pakistani territory.
Anwar Iqbal, Dawn, 13 June 2005 <http://www.dawn.com/2005/06/13/top2.htm>




LONDON, July 9 (Iran Mania) - Pakistan on Thursday signed an agreement with Iran for a gas pipeline project with gas supply from Iran expected to begin within three years, state media said. "The two sides have agreed to the terms and conditions of the project, we hope to start receiving gas from Iran within the next three year," Pakistan's Petroleum Secretary Ahmed Waqar was quoted as saying by the Associated Press of Pakistan. Waqar and Iranian Deputy Minister for International Affairs M.H. Nejhad Hossiniyan signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in Islamabad, it said. "After many years we have signed an MoU which is the first written document about gas export from Iran to Pakistan," Iran's Petroleum Minister Bijan Namdar Zanghaneh said after the signing ceremony. "By the year 2010 we will be facing shortage of gas in Pakistan for which we have started planning," Pakistan's Petroleum Minister Amanullah Khan Jadoon said. Pakistan Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz hailed the agreement. "It is the translation of an idea into a reality," Aziz said. "Pakistan is very keen about Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project and would like it to start as soon as possible. The key is speed and transparency." The 2,600-kilometre (1,600-mile) overland gas pipeline project, with an estimated cost of about 4.5 billion dollars, has been strongly opposed by the United States because of its concerns about Tehran's nuclear programme.

I NDIA P LEDGE C OMMITMENT NEW DELHI. the two energy-starved countries have been engaged in a peace process and relations are at their best for years. Mr Aiyar “conveyed the firm support of the government of India to the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline project and other trans-national pipeline proposals under consideration”. which would also transport gas to India via Pakistan. since January 2004. To keep the other options open for their mutual quest for piped gas. Aiyar had also held talks with Zanghaneh in Tehran last month to discuss the deal. 9 July 2005 <http://www. July 13: The first meeting of India-Pakistan Joint Working Group on the Iran gas pipeline project ended here on Wednesday with a commitment from both the sides to push forward the project despite US objections. The venue has not been named. Besides having substantial delegation level discussions.” the statement said and added: “Both the sides conveyed their serious . a joint statement said. Negotiations for the pipeline began in 1994 but made little headway because of tensions between Pakistan and India. which have fought three wars since gaining independence in 1947 from Britain. where they are expected to explain their respective point of view on the issue. the Pakistani side led by Petroeleum Secretary Ahmad Waqar called on Indian petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 61 India's Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar was in Pakistan last month and his visit concluded with the setting up of a joint working group to thrash out the details of the proposed pipeline project.asp?NewsCode=33213&N ewsKind=Current%20Affairs> D EADLINE S ET FOR F INAL P ACT ON G AS P IPELINE : P AKISTAN .com/News/ArticleView/Default. Mr Aiyar also urged the two delegations to prepare a time frame in respect of various items pertaining to the project. However. The prime ministers of both the countries will be in Washington this month.iranmania. The pipeline will supply gas from the massive South Pars offshore fields in the Gulf. “The discussions between the two delegations were marked by a positive and constructive approach and were held in an atmosphere of candour and mutual understanding. India has been formally invited to a Steering Committee meeting of the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) gas pipeline project due to be held later this month. officials said.

Various approaches to determine a reasonable price of gas as also various options pertaining to project structure were discussed by the two delegations. The two sides agreed that once basic issues pertaining to the project had been satisfactorily resolved between the three countries concerned. The two sides agreed that they shared an immediate commonality of interest in regard to the technical aspects of the project such as the size and specifications of the pipeline.” They agreed that dialogue on the basis of bilateral joint working groups between India. financial commercial and legal aspects of the project. at ministerial-level. they would enter into a ‘Framework Agreement’.” the statement said. “The two sides noted with satisfaction that each of them had initiated the process of joining the Energy Charter. provided a satisfactory mechanism to address and resolve all matters pertaining to the project.” . Pakistan and Iran. initially with observer status. It was agreed that technical experts of the two countries would meet quickly in order to harmonize the position of the two sides in this area to achieve a project of international standard. the provisions of the Energy Charter would be referred to. arrangements would need to be provided for in every aspect of the project. the quality of gas. They agreed that in the various inter-governmental agreements entered into by them in respect of the project. The proposed pipeline routes and delivery point were also discussed. It was agreed that they would be established on the basis of techno-economic considerations. financial and legal matters. commercial and legal matters.62 IPRI Factfile commitment to address various issues pertaining to the project so as to maintain the momentum of the dialogue. The two sides agreed that in order to realize a safe and secure world class project. The two sides agreed that the price of the gas as well as the project structure were of crucial importance. “The two delegations had in depth discussion on the technical. It was agreed that the matter would be pursued in greater detail at subsequent meetings of the JWG. including technical. the quantum of gas required by the two countries and the build-up period. In this regard. it was agreed that the Indian side would submit a draft text to the Pakistani side before the next meeting of the JWG. The two sides agreed on the crucial importance of urgently appointing their respective financial advisory consortium to advice on project structure and related technical. financial. commercial. interspersed with periodic interactions. They agreed that every effort would be made to appoint the respective financial advisory consortium at the earliest.

to the negative reaction in Washington to the Iranian electorate's choice of a man the U. “The Pakistani side briefed the Indian side on the latest developments pertaining to the project as also on their recent discussions pertaining to the GUSA project. sanctions — a good reason not to touch the project. In what is another first in the Indian discourse on the pipeline. He then added: "But I am realistic enough to realize that there are many risks.” the joint statement said. says is a "hardliner. a reference to the election of Mohammed Ahmadinejad as President of Iran earlier this month. I don't know if any international consortium of bankers would probably underwrite this. the Prime Minister said India desperately needed new sources of energy. The two sides discussed the other pipeline proposals under consideration by them — TAP pipeline and the Gulf-South Asia (GUSA) pipeline.S. What the Prime Minister has done is to give international bankers — who were not exactly queuing up anyway because of the fear of U. which is vital to India's energy security in the near to medium term." Whether he deliberately meant to do so or not. Which is why it was surprising to see Prime Minister Manmohan Singh being so candid in an interview to the Washington Post on Wednesday on the bank ability of the proposed gas pipeline from Iran." . the Prime Minister has linked the riskiness of the project to "the uncertainties of the situation there in Iran. the two sides agreed that the next meeting of the JWG would take place in Islamabad by the end of August 2005. more precisely. “They noted that India had been invited to attend the next meeting of the Steering Committee of the TAP Project.dawn." This is. Javed Naqvi.S. presumably. Asked about India's discussions with Iran on the pipeline. because considering all the uncertainties of the situation there in Iran. 14 July 2005 <http://www. Dawn.com/2005/07/14/top4. Or.htm> I NDIA -I RAN R ELATIONS : A F AREWELL TO THE G AS P IPELINE ? H AS THE P ROJECT BEEN S USPENDED F OLLOWING US P RESSURES ? Businessmen and economists who have misgivings about the creditworthiness of one of their projects do not usually advertise that fact when they are in the market for a loan. Dr.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 63 In order to carry the process forward. Singh's last sentence is likely to knock the stuffing out of the ambitious project's financial prospects.

Singh told reporters prior to his departure from Washington on Thursday that a decision on the pipeline belonged to India. What is left now is the implementation. Now that the grand energy `bargain' has been struck in Washington. his remarks to the Washington Post certainly suggest a major shift in the Indian position is already under way. to declare when its troops will leave Central Asia. If the new U. paying transit fees to the Musharraf regime. Those who argue that this condition is an acceptable price to pay do not realise the crucial role hydrocarbons — and in particular natural gas — will have to play as a source of energy for India's growing economy. wanting reverse transit rights." Though Dr. as have the recent attempts by China to speak of a new security framework for Asia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation's call for the U.S.S. U. safety and security — will be recycled in order to justify walking away from a project which Dr.S. All the old arguments — about becoming dependent on Pakistan. the Manmohan Singh government itself showed a new willingness to engage with America's strategic agenda in Asia. the unexpected election of Mr.64 IPRI Factfile Shift in India's Stand? Taken together with Monday's deal on nuclear energy with the United States. For one. the key to its unlocking lay in the safeguards and test ban concessions India made.-India defense framework took New Delhi up to the door. If the Bush administration is able to implement its commitments. . the Indian nuclear energy sector could potentially get a boost in the short-term. Nuclear energy today provides barely four per cent of India's energy needs. Singh himself so boldly put onto the energy and diplomatic agenda of the country earlier this year. Iran and Pakistan alone and that "outside parties" had no role to play. Her advice that India abandon the Iranian project drew a spirited public rebuttal from External Affairs Minister Natwar Singh but a lot has changed since then. Washington delivered on its promise of an agreement on the nuclear front. On Monday. flexibility on the nuclear question to the Iran pipeline. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice was the first to explicitly link U. For another. the Prime Minister's new-found scepticism on the Iran pipeline will heighten the suspicion that the Bush administration is extracting a very heavy price from India in exchange for recognising it as a state with "advanced nuclear technology.S. In proposing an "energy dialogue" with India when she was in New Delhi in March. Ahmadinejad has forced the Bush administration to rework its sums. And India has been told in no uncertain terms that if Congress is to legislate the changes President Bush has committed — he could have used a Presidential waiver but chose not to — the pipeline deal with Iran must not go through. one can safely predict that the tone and tenor of discussions about the pipeline within the "strategic community" in India will shift from qualified support to outright hostility.

” a source close to the talks said. A meeting presided over by Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz on Wednesday discussed Pakistan’s growing energy needs and decided to pursue . had expressed willingness to finance the project. Some Indian concerns are also reported to be willing to finance it. nuclear power will generate.globalresearch. including the involvement of China as the end-point of the pipeline. it is also the key which will help us unlock the potential of a panAsian energy grid involving Central Asia and China as well. Pakistan and India are going ahead with their $4 billion gas pipeline project despite Bush Administration’s serious reservations over it. The Hindu. July 28: Iran.670km pipeline either as international banks and institutions consider it a feasible project. Sources said that Italy’s ENI Company. Losing interest in the project — or discouraging potential investors from getting involved — is the last thing India should be doing. U. It is because Washington knows the involvement of Iran in this kind of project will undo the efforts it has made all these years to dominate the transit routes of Asian energy. the project as talks on its various aspects were continuing.php?context=viewArticle&code=VAR2005072 3&articleId=729> T RI -N ATION P IPELINE P LAN M AKES H EADWAY : F OREIGN F INANCING L IKELY ISLAMABAD.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 65 though many former and serving scientists in the Department of Atomic Energy have grave reservations about the compromises the Indian side will have to make. opposition to the pipeline is not just because of its antipathy to the Islamic regime that is in power there. Siddharth Varadarajan.S. Qatar. There is no problem of arranging funds for the 2. Where is the remaining 80 per cent going to come from? Piped gas from Iran is a low-cost source but even this would need to be supplemented by gas imports from Myanmar. “The gas project is very much on the cards and will not be abandoned. the sixth largest oil and gas producing concern in the world. Informed sources told Dawn on Thursday that the US concern had not made the three countries to put brakes on.ca/index. or even slow down. Importing gas in liquefied form is an option but the costs are much higher. Even with the most optimistic predictions. some 20 per cent of our energy needs by 2030. it is learnt. 23 July 2005 <http://www. Security of transit through Pakistan remains an issue but there are a number of financial and political solutions available. however. The Iranian project is not only vital for India's medium-term energy security. at best. and Central Asia.

in view of the uncertain situation in Iran and the likely reluctance of financiers to provide funds for the project. A final decision. 705km in Pakistan and 850km in India. Pakistan would be required to invest around $1 billion to lay its part of the pipeline from the Iranian border to the India border. Dawn. It is learnt that the Pakistan-India joint working group. His comments. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s comments in Washington earlier this month that the Iran-Pakistan-India project was fraught with risks and that it would be difficult to get an international consortium of bankers to underwrite it were described as ‘politically motivated’ and meant for public consumption. especially to the satisfaction of the Indians. in an interview with the Washington Post during his recent US trip.htm> P IPELINE A SSURANCES INDIAN Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s statement in the Lok Sabha that the US understood India’s need to have “unhindered access” to “adequate and affordable energy supplies from all sources” should allay fears that New Delhi might drop out of the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline project that is strongly opposed by Washington. which met in New Delhi recently. Doubts arose when. 29 July 2005 <http://www.dawn. Under other projects.com/2005/07/29/top1. Ihtasham ul Haque. the sources said. The source said that India was seeking subsidized gas prices from Iran and that was the reason it was talking about the so-called risks. He also talked . would be taken once the transaction structure developed. Unlike the scepticism aired by the Indian media. “Both Pakistan and Iran have assured India that there will be no security problem to the pipeline. the sources said. Dr Singh referred to the “many risks” the project entailed.66 IPRI Factfile the three proposed gas projects.115km in Iran. gas will come from Turkmenistan and Qatar. held preliminary discussions on the proposal. The pipeline would run about 1. were seen as contradictory to Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar’s latest statement in which he said that New Delhi would go ahead with the project as scheduled. Two technical groups were conceptualizing the project structure with a view to making it safe. technical experts in that country do not have two opinions about the importance of the pipeline or the sovereign guarantees offered by Pakistan for its security under an international agreement.” a source said. The three countries are expected to firm up separate consortia for building the pipeline in their territories. Pakistan and India would soon appoint separate consultants to prepare structure for the formulation of consortia and other pros and cons of the project. the sources said.

one expects him to refrain from saying things that could derail the peace process and also affect potential economic and energy benefits. but it should not allow its judgment to be influenced by Washington’s likes and dislikes. had threatened to block progress on peace. While one should regard Dr Singh’s swipe at Pakistan (and Iran with whom India has strong ties) as a onetime deviation. Dr Singh’s assurances to parliament are thus welcome and closely follow those of the Indian Petroleum Minister. The speculation. Besides meeting energy needs. Mani Shankar Aiyar. Dawn (Editorial). the pipeline is also important to the ongoing confidence-building process between India and Pakistan. India may have entered a new era of cooperation with the US. set off by Mr Singh’s earlier statements to the Post and his remarks at various points of his US visit. The pipeline is in the interest of all three countries. Moerover.dawn. President Musharraf has chosen not to attach too much importance to Mr Singh’s controversial utterances and has said that the peace process remains on track. and referred to militancy in Pakistan. Security considerations should ideally be talked over directly with the parties concerned and any kind of media speculation should be avoided at this delicate stage of the peace process. In clarifying Pakistan’s stance.htm#2> . who denied any American pressure on India vis-à-vis the pipeline deal and said that there was “no going back” on the project. and publicly expressing misgivings about its viability can only create mistrust.com/2005/07/31/ed. 31 July 2005 <http://www.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 67 of “reckless” nuclear proliferation in the region.

Amanullah Khan Jadoon said that both sides held talks on bilateral cooperation in the field of oil and gas and agreed to set up a high level committee headed by the Secretary. The Qatari side offered to provide technical assistance in different areas of oil and gas sectors to Pakistan. In views of advance technological expertise of the State of Qatar in the field of LNG.pk/Press%20Release%2062.gov. the potential Qatari investors would be encouraged to make investment in Pakistan. A delegation of Qatari experts will visit Islamabad shortly to hold talks with their Pakistani counterparts for . liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). In a joint communiqué issued here today at the conclusion of a two day meetings between the visiting Deputy Premier and Minister for Energy and Industries Mr.68 IPRI Factfile IV. Secretary Petroleum Ahmed Waqar and senior officials of the Ministry assisted the Pakistani Minister in the talks while the Ambassador of Qatari and members of the delegations assisted the Qatari Deputy Prime Minster. import of LNG from Qatar to Pakistan was considered as an additional option to be pursued on parallel basis. Minister of State for Petroleum Muhammad Naseer Mengal. Q ATAR TO S PEED UP W ORK ON G AS P IPELINE DOHA: President Gen Pervez Musharraf and Emir of Qatar Shaikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-thani held wide-ranging discussion on bilateral and regional issues on Sunday as they agreed to expedite initial work on a pipeline project for export of gas from Qatar to Pakistan. Ministry of Petroleum and natural Resources and Director of Oil and Gas Ventures (QP) for discussing and resolving technical and other related issues with regard to Qatar-Pakistan Gas Pipeline Project. The two leaders met here Diwan-e-Emiri soon after President Musharraf’s arrival for a two-day state visit. of technical assistance and investment in the oil and gas. LNG. G ULF -S OUTH A SIA G AS P IPELINE P AKISTAN . Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attiya and Pakistani Minister Mr.mpnr.php> P AKISTAN . It has been decided that the committee shall be meeting in the coming weeks with mutually convenient schedule to work out the financial and other technical aspects of the project. 16 February 2005 <http://www. O IL AND G AS P ROJECTS Pakistan and Qatar have agreed to cooperate in the gas pipeline project. Keeping in view of liberal investment polices of the Government of Pakistan. Q ATAR A GREE T O C OOPERATE I N P IPELINE .

capable of leading the Muslim world to socio-economic development. The president said Pakistan is facilitating foreign investors as economic activities help generate employment opportunities and therefore reduce poverty.pk/thenews/jun2005-daily/06-06-2005/main/main3.3 per cent growth rate achieved by Pakistan this year ranks second only to China. Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Resources Muhammad Naseer Mengal and Minister of State for Water and Power Engr Amir Muqam were accompanying the president during the meeting.htm> Q ATARI G AS P IPELINE F OR A SIA T ALKS IN H AMAD -M USHARRAF The Amir of Qatar Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani held on Monday with the President of Pakistan B. The talks concentrated on the project to erect the Qatari liquid natural gas to Asia (India and China) via the Pakistani territories. Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmood Kasuri. Labour and Manpower Minister Sarwar Khan. "Pakistan needs more gas to further fuel and sustain higher economic growth in the years ahead. saying the country needs to import gas for meeting its growing energy requirements in both agricultural and industrial sectors. Musharraf informed his host about Pakistan’s recent economic strides. .com. Musharraf in Doha talks that dealt with oil and gas projects between the two sides as well as means of enhancing bilateral cooperation relations. Shaikh Hamad said his country greatly values Pakistan’s recent economic progress and would like to continue its participation in the development of the country. The president informed the Emir about Islamabad’s efforts for establishment of durable peace in South Asia through resolution of longstanding Jammu and Kashmir dispute with India. 6 June 2005 <http://www. The two leaders also exchanged views on the Middle East situation with reference to Palestinians’ right to an independent homeland. They also discussed reform of the Organisation of Islamic Conference and agreed that it should be made an effective body. The News. Musharraf is due to meet with Qatari businessmen in the framework of Islam Abad attempts to increase the volume of its trade exchange with the Arab Gulf states. adding that the 8." he said.jang. Welcoming President Musharraf. Foreign Minister Khurshid Kasuri later told APP.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 69 looking into various aspects of the gas pipeline project. Investment and Privatization Minister Dr Hafeez Shaikh.

70 IPRI Factfile The Pakistani president commended relations linking his country to Qatar and described them as brotherly and built on the ground of reciprocated interests. and have also asked Pakistan to follow suit.6 bcf gas per day.asp?page=story_4-6-2005_pg7_29> . Negotiations so far claim the initial gas flow will be 1. but Qatar is willing to provide 1.com.arabicnews. noting that these relations have been continuously reinforced since the formation of the Pakistani government. The president will be visiting Middle East countries from June 4 to 8. The JTC meeting to finalise the technical and legal issues of the proposed gas has yet to be held. 6 July 2005 <http://www. The total length of the GUSA pipeline is 1. during the visit of then Second Deputy Prime Minister of Qatar and Minister for Energy Abdullah Bin Hamad AlAttiyah to Pakistan. because of Tehran developing nuclear capabilities. The Pakistani president also commended the solid relations linking his country with the Gulf Cooperation Council member states and the Arab states in general.pk/default. with one intermediate compressor station at Diba in the United Arab Emirates. The United States has already asked India not to import gas from Iran.dailytimes. Daily Times. Pakistan will be facing a gas shortage by 2008 because of increased economic activity in the country and wants to import regular gas and LNG to increase the growth rate of 7 to 8 percent. However.600 mmscf per day and the delivery point in Pakistan is Jiwani near Gwadar.html> M USHARRAF WILL D ISCUSS G AS P IPELINE WITH Q ATAR ISLAMABAD: Progress on the proposed US$1. Qatar and Turkmenistan. Pakistan and Qatar had earlier constituted a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) on February 14.com/ansub/Daily/Day/050607/2005060707. Pakistan and Qatar have long been negotiating the proposed project. both countries will take up this project at the highest level during Musharraf’s visit and substantial progress is likely. 9 August 2005 <http://www.88 billion Gulf-South Asia Pipeline (GUSA) gas project from Qatar to Pakistan and the import of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be discussed during President General Pervez Musharraf’s visit to Qatar on June 4. Islamabad wants 2 billion cubic feet (bcf) gas per day.186 kilometres. but no progress has been made so far. Pakistan is not in a position to further delay its decision to choose the project among the three proposals of gas pipelines from Iran.

occasional jehadi explosions will not affect consumers. not just a foe. the other from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and Pakistan. why not . stand-by supplies through tankers will be guaranteed by Iran. just as ULFA militants do in Assam. Yet today India seeks to make China an energy security partner. Putting energy security before conventional security. Both countries will import energy through the same pipelines. in which case energy needs may quadruple. The hope is that the pipelines will bind the countries together in a new partnership. Energy security is now an urgent issue. and the cost of stand-by guarantees. India's GNP will grow at maybe 7 per cent annually in the next 20 years. More dramatic is the Cabinet nod to negotiations for two gas pipelines through Pakistan. Estimates of transit fees payable to Pakistan range from $80 million to $700 million a year. Besides. Both will be supplied by international consortia that insist on governmental guarantees of unhindered transit. Optimistic? Very. why not expand our vision to create the mother of all pipelines. This explains two developments. Pokharan II was about attaining the nuclear capacity to bomb China. the project needs to maximise scale economies. India suddenly views Pakistan as a potential partner. Possible? Yes. Provided we have 15 days gas in reserve storage. India seeks joint bidding for oil and gas blocks globally with China instead of competing with it. One will bring gas from Iran. Baluch militants occasionally cut the Sui pipeline in Pakistan. The Defence Ministry no longer has a veto on the ground that Pakistan will control India's energy pipeline.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 71 V. Jehadi groups can cut the pipelines even if the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan are supportive. Normally onshore pipelines are cheaper than offshore pipelines or tankers carrying liquefied natural gas (LNG). To overcome these costs. reducing tensions and actually improving conventional security. But pipelines through Pakistan will entail heavy transit fees as well as insurance cover against interruptions. So. C HINA ’ S I NTEREST I N T HE G AS P IPELINE I N S OUTH A SIA P EACE P IPELINE TO C HINA ? Energy has converted India's traditional foes into energy allies. Techno-economic surveys need to establish that such pipelines are cost-effective. going all the way to China? The rising energy needs of Pakistan and India pale beside the gargantuan energy needs of China. First. Nor will the external affairs ministry insist any more on a quid pro quo from Pakistan (such as most favoured nation treatment for Indian exports). To do that. But cut pipelines can be repaired in one to three days. Pakistan will lose transit fees and pay penalties if it cuts supplies or fails to repair damaged pipelines. Remember.

the British sent supplies to their ally Chiang Kai Shek through the China road that ran from India's north east into Burma and thence into Yunan. India and China.swaminomics. and Xinjiang has a small population with limited energy needs. Centuries ago. Dealing with so many countries is a hassle. Pakistani authorities have blown hot and cold over the smaller pipeline to India. and its seaboard can import LNG. Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan into China's Xinjiang province. Asian natural gas industry players should come together to form an Asian gas grid. 13 February 2005 < http://www. The pipeline can become the best guarantees of peace. One route could be through Turkemenistan. Bush. In security terms." Indian Petroleum Minister . west of Burma and north of Thailand. it will virtually ensure a new form of conventional security for the whole region. That will constitute a tremendous security advantage for India. The techno-economic feasibility of such a pipeline has yet to be established. The bulk of the China pipeline will be through India. The same route could now carry gas.72 IPRI Factfile construct a giant pipeline from Iran through Pakistan and India into China's Yunan province. "We should look beyond a national gas grid. To overcome US resistance.5 billion project. The last thing the USA wants is a great and glorious partnership between Iran. far higher than any transit fees payable to Pakistan. The USA is desperately trying to isolate Iran and undermine its economy. a move that could lend political security and urgency to the $4. which lies west of Burma? China has already been talking to Iran on long-term fuel supplies.htm> I NDIA W ANTS G AS P IPELINE E XTENDED TO C HINA NEW DELHI. but the prospects look encouraging. The biggest opposition is likely to come from outside the region. Maybe we can call it the Peace Pipeline. India and China may need to join hands in a diplomatic initiative. The Chinese heartland can get gas from Siberia. The USA is not in a position to force China or India to desist from a pipeline. Such a project will enable India to charge large transit fees from China. In World War II. Indeed. The one area of China without an obvious large gas source is Yunan. The Times of India.org/articles/20050213_peace_pipeline_to_china. Pakistan will not be able to cut off supplies to India without cutting them off to China too. For that reason. But Pakistan is another matter: the USA has much leverage over that country. from George W. the Yunan-India road was one of the old Chinese silk routes. Feb 14: India said on Monday that it wants the proposed gas pipeline from Iran via Pakistan to be extended to China. Pakistan.

Iranian representatives present at the deliberations lauded the minister's suggestion. which it had done a few years ago.htm> E XPANSION OF I NDIA -I RAN -P AKISTAN G AS P IPELINE C HINA – A S TRATEGIC A SIAN P LAY TO India today proposed to extend Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline to China and sought greater collaboration between Indian and Chinese oil majors to build energy security for two of the world's most populous and energy-thirsty nations. All partners need it and this is an assurance for safe delivery.dawn. end the "wretched western dominance" and ensure energy security and economic growth in Asia." Jawed Naqvi. "It is possible that Iranian gas would be made available to China by extending the proposed Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline to South China." National Iranian Gas Export Company chairman M H Rahbari told reporters. . "We welcome Indian companies in the development of one of the phases of South Pars gas field. Mr Aiyar defended the proposal to establish an Asian gas grid as the region had more than 55 per cent gas reserves.com/2005/02/15/top9. Mr Aiyar said the Asian gas grid would enable the countries in the region to maximize the gains. he said: "The pipeline is required by everybody." Mr Aiyar said. "The 21st century should be the century of gas and demand for it was rising with India and China playing a major role as the buyers of gas for their energy needs. On the security of supplies. Officials from the National Iranian Gas Exports Company met their Indian counterparts in GAIL. 15 February 2005 <http://www. He said demand in Asian region was rising as India and China were turning major buyers of gas. said it would be constructed in five years' time." he said.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 73 Mani Shankar Aiyar said while inaugurating the third Asian gas buyers' summit here this morning. The officials will workout details and propose to discuss further on the Iranian Gas pipeline feasibility report. Mr Rahbari. Dawn. who is holding technical discussion with the Indian side on the 2775-km pipeline. He also underlined the need for the country to look beyond only the national gas grid and called upon important Asian natural gas industry players to jointly make initiatives to harness the gas reserves for the benefit of the entire Asian region and form an Asian gas grid. IOC and ONGC Videsh Limited. The two countries also began preliminary discussions on Monday for a proposed pact for the pipeline they are expected to sign in Teheran in June.

there is also a possibility that we collaborate in certain places. despite fierce US opposition to the involvement of Iran." Aiyar said in an apparent reference to competing bids for overseas upstream blocks by Indian and Chinese oil majors. Aiyar said India and China could also collaborate in their quest for oil and gas fields abroad.asp> P IPEDREAMS T O P ROSPERITY The spotlight may not have been on energy cooperation during the recent visits of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf to India but this is an issue that can fundamentally transform our relationship with these countries beyond soft borders. Take Pakistan. India Daily. 12 April 2005 <http://www." Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar told reporters here.74 IPRI Factfile "There has been no separate detailed consideration of energy cooperation between India and China (but) in my interactions with Chinese officials (on sidelines of summit meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao) I raised the issue of extending IranIndia gas pipeline to south China via Myanmar. Interestingly. all these countries intend to pursue their ‘pipedreams’. India is pursuing gas imports from Iran through an onland pipeline passing through Pakistan." "We have the option to compete or collaborate with one another to secure better deals. The calculus here is pure and simple national interest in enhancing their long-term energy security. Similarly.com/editorial/2286. President Musharraf hardly betrayed any of that in his response to a question . The 2600-km pipeline which would land in Rajasthan. by Pakistan or terrorist organisations. At his televised breakfast meeting with editors. is proposed to travel through the heart of India and into Myanmar via Bangladesh and than travel to China. would than mean the fuel supplies are also cut to China and therefore such an arrangement would guarantee greater stability to the project. Normally. for instance. India’s proposal to extend the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline from India to China made its transition from loud thinking to the diplomatic arena with talks to be held this fall. Supply disruption to India. "While market will dictate competition (between the two nations) on projects. as it were. one would have expected our neighbour to be somewhat more sensitive to American concerns. Far from it. the ministers of petroleum and gas of India and Pakistan are stated to talk in May to explore cooperation in this sector including on the issue of pipelines.indiadaily.

but only on key issues where its own national interest is involved. While the US intends to evacuate oil and gas supplies from Central Asian countries like Kazakhstan westwards as. is also seeking to lock in long-term energy supplies with investments all over the world like Sudan. As if all this weren’t bad enough. Where (Pakistani and Indian) interests are involved. In the 19th. Venezuela. China seeks to tap into these oil and gasfields through a 1. Both Indian and Chinese state-owned oil majors like ONGC and Sinopec respectively also have significant stakes in the Yadavaran oilfield. and early years of the 20th. which holds an estimated 3 billion barrels of oil reserves. both these countries have locked in long-term supplies from that country as well. add a new twist to the new Great Game. The US thus has more strategic reasons to worry about India and China than the Iran connection. Iranian President Mohammad Khatami had a telephone conversation with the general reminding him about the subject of "gas transfer" to India. Prior to his arrival in India. century. There are no prizes for guessing what were India’s fears given the longstanding animus between the two neighbours: What if Pakistan decided to cut off supplies? There were also concerns that . Iran thus has agreed to supply LNG for 25 years to India and for 30 years to China. he did. It does not sneeze at everything. Angola. according to IRNA news agency reports from Tehran. in fact. But it is the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline and its proposed extension to southwestern China that will radically transform the relationship between these countries. we should go for it. South Asia catches cold?' 'I know when it sneezes. India has been seeking to get some exploration blocks for the last seven years but indications are that it may have missed the bus unlike the Chinese. despite the US threat of sanctions. Britain and Czarist Russia jostled for strategic influence in Central Asia. this pipeline had few takers in the country. India and to a much greater extent China with their growing demand for energy. Till this proposal to include China was floated by Aiyar. India’s petroleum minister Mani Shankar Aiyar similarly responded to questions on US’ demarche to India over the Iran pipeline. and that they "are ready to form an international consortium to upgrade security indices of the project" and so on. like India. But now the stakes in the Game are oil and gas supplies.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 75 on US pressure not to go ahead with the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline: Why is it that 'when America sneezes. China. Iran has a major stake in looking eastwards towards India and China. through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline.' Musharraf replied in a lighter vein. Thus. including the Caspian region in which the US is jostling for control of oil and gas supplies with Russia in the 21st century version of the Great Game. And go for it.300 km pipeline from Atasu in eastern Kazakhstan to Alashanku in the western province of Xinjiang. for example. he added.

This pipeline advances the interests of these countries into a grid of prosperity and shared future beyond soft borders. The upside is that both India and China then might decide to work in tandem to secure their long-term oil and gas supplies all over the world -. Chandra Mohan. China has so far been on the winning side as its state-owned oil majors have more autonomy in making big-ticket investments. India and Iran in the construction of cross-border gas pipeline project. This was stated by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) Assistant President Liao Yongyuan in an interview here at the CNPC’s headquarters.energybulletin. I NDIA .” he said. Pakistan gets its trans-shipment fees while gas-guzzling India and China slake their thirst for more energy -. Aiyar has been talking of cooperating with China on the oil and gas front but competition is the more accurate description of the state of play till now.76 IPRI Factfile the trans-shipment fees would fund jehadi terrorism. Getting China into the equation clearly is a strategic masterstroke. adding. Extending the IranPakistan pipeline from Rajasthan across northern India and the Brahmaputra valley.exemplified in Sudan and Angola to name a few instances. All of this will change with extending the pipeline to Yunnan. China’s interests are much better served than through the alternative pipeline from Sittwe in Myanmar to Kunming in Yunnan. stated that it would go ahead with the pipeline regardless of India’s participation.obviously a more potent ground for the US to feel concerned about than Iran. The speed with which the oil dragons close deals is indeed the envy of the lumbering Indian behemoths -. “We are convinced that the Iran-India pipeline through Pakistan is of significant importance and will substantially benefit all three countries. India and Iran in the petroleum sector and wished to cooperate with . Pakistan.html> C HINA R EADY TO JOIN P AKISTAN .net/5632. Pakistan would naturally be wary of shutting off the tap or resorting to blackmail if its major ally gets affected.a win-win situation for all concerned. The extension to China bids fair to allay India’s misgivings vis-a-vis Pakistan at one stroke. Outlook India. 22 April 2005 <http://www. in turn. a southwestern region that is distant from its oilfields and ports. I RAN : G AS P IPELINE C ONSTRUCTION CHENGDU. N. May 3: China is prepared to join Pakistan. Liao said that China has already developed good partnership with Pakistan. Both India and China have been competing fiercely for equity oil all over the world. Myanmar and finally ending in Yunnan thus will foster mutual dependence among these countries like no confidence building measure can. China wishes to facilitate construction of this gigantic project.

and engineering project construction. Currently. China is estimated to consume 450 million tons of crude and 200 billion cubic meters of natural gas by 2020.dawn. gas and water pipelines within China. Kuwait. pipeline construction.” he added. Mongolia. a subsidiary of CNPC. 3 May 2005 <http://www. . China will have to import almost 50 percent of its oil and natural gas requirements due to the widening gap between domestic demand and production. Turkmenistan. —APP Dawn. This could be also a step forward consolidating the mutually beneficial cooperative partnership at the regional level. G AS R EQUIREMENTS BY 2020 Beijing. Kuwait. logging and downhole operations. Tunis. said Wang Gongli. and half of the supply would depend on imports. and petroleum or petrochemical projects. it has over 150 operational teams working in over 40 countries and regions. May 25 : By 2020. South America. and Sudan. Besides its completion of over 20. “We can also cooperate in setting up gas stations along the pipeline. it has undertaken a number of projects in the areas of oil and gas exploration and development. and other regions.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 77 them. The company has successfully carried out technical services in overseas countries such as Pakistan. Central Asia. The construction begun in September 2004 is scheduled to be completed by December 2005. Russia. Kazakhstan. said they had developed rich capability and experience in construction of pipelines home and abroad in the recent years.000-km of pipeline in Malaysia. Liao.000-km of oil. it had constructed over 3. In addition. The CNPC has accumulated rich experience in the construction of oil and gas field surface engineering. making the project a reality. and oil refining and petrochemical production in the Middle East. who holds top position in Sichuan Petroleum Administration (SPA). The CNPC is currently engaged in construction of the 998-km China-Kazakhstan oil pipeline. reports Xinhua. and established many technical crews specialized in survey. He hoped this offer would be received well by the respective countries. providing services in geophysical prospecting.htm> C HINA TO I MPORT 50% O IL . Iraq. since China being a friendly neighbouring country could be in a better position to help in implementing the project on reasonable conditions. and Sudan. drilling.com/2005/05/04/ebr12. design. he added. North Africa. petroleum and petrochemical projects and long-distance pipeline. president at China Oil and Natural Gas Designing Institute.

8 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year. and the gap between domestic demand and supply would reach eight billion cubic meters by 2020. China now produces 40.newkerala.php?action=fullnews&id=2537> . and the maximal annual output could not exceed 200 million tons in the future. According to Wang. Wang said Tuesday at an energy forum at the ongoing International High-tech Expo here.78 IPRI Factfile China produced 175 million tons of crude in 2004.com/news. New Kerala Online Daily. 25 May 2005 < http://www.

Though some of this demand will be met domestically. which could hold 6. still some countries are not only reluctant to export their surplus gas reserves but also hesitant to allow even the gas pipeline to pass through their territory. By linking the gas pipe line transit to many other issues.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 79 VI. there has been a change in Indian approach towards meeting its energy needs. Bangladesh is a case in point. Ltd. MYANMAR-BANGLADESH-INDIA GAS PIPELINE I NDIA -M YANMAR G AS PIPELINE P IPE T HROUGH B ANGLADESH D REAM ? For a long time now it is known in the subcontinent that gas is an economic source of energy. the other option of obtaining gas from neighbouring countries appears to be the only way to meet the increasing energy needs. . holds 20 per cent stake. It produces about 90 million standard cubic meters of natural gas per day as against its daily demand of 120 million standard cubic meters that is likely to go further in the coming years. South Korea's Daewoo International operates and owns 60 per cent of Myanmar's gas-rich A-1 block. Daewoo's 100 per cent-owned A-3 block is close to A-1. there has been huge finds of gas reserves in Myanmar.0 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas. India needs huge amount of gas to meet its ever growing energy demands. which is environment friendly too. GAIL (India) Ltd has been appointed by Myanmar as the agency responsible for marketing the gas from A1 block. This change in strategy has necessitated greater dependence on gas to meet India’s energy needs. while GAIL India Ltd and Korea Gas Corp each hold 10 per cent. in which India's Oil and Natural Gas Corp. It is also known that pipeline is the best mode to carry this gas from the vast gas fields that have been discovered in the region and neighboring territories in recent times. still a large gap would remain. While domestic production has its limitations in spite of new gas fields in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. The projected demand of natural gas in India by 2020 stands at a staggering 400 million standard cubic meters a day. But. The effort is to shift its focus from striking crude oil to natural gas. Bangladesh has in effect complicated the issue. Recently. Gas from Myanmar In recent times. The rising demand has to be met both by increasing domestic production and importing gas India is making efforts on both the fronts.

Initially Bangladesh was not even willing to consider this proposal. India would build the $1-billion 290-km gas trunkline while Bangladesh’s state-owned Gas Transmission Company would have responsibility for managing the stretch in its territory. These include: revenue earning from granting a right of way to the pipeline. But things have changed to some extent after the 12th SAARC summit. and the project jointly managed by India and Bangladesh. Gas Pipe Line Through Bangladesh: India has been pushing for an early agreement on the Myanmar-BangladeshIndia gas pipeline proposal as there is almost no chance for it to get gas from Bangladesh. with natural gas from Tripura also being fed into the pipeline. which has not been properly exploited due to absence of local market. then via the Indian states of Mizoram and Tripura before crossing Bangladesh to Kolkata. Bangladesh is the country which had first mooted SAARC and for this it is going to receive an award during the forthcoming 13th SAARC summit. Mohona Holdings. due to strong domestic opposition within the country. it has also put certain conditions. It wants the pipeline to be laid along its existing roads and highways. Benefits to Bangladesh: Bangladesh stands to benefit in a number of ways by the construction of this pipeline. After all. given its transnational nature. an investment of about 150 million dollars inside Bangladesh for the pipeline construction. It also wants India to agree to allow Bangladesh to use the pipeline to export its gas to India or import it from Myanmar.80 IPRI Factfile India has its own gas reserves in Tripura. India and Pakistan are now talking cooperation. wheeling charges over the gas transmission through Bangladesh. A recent cabinet committee brief prepared by its energy ministry underscored the pipeline's benefits to the country. In a situation like this it would be difficult for Bangladesh to continue with its recalcitrant approach. These advantages are coming to Bangladesh even when it is not investing in the pipeline nor assuming any risk involved in its construction. an estimated 100 million US dollars per annum. which may earn the company 24 million dollars per year. Though this change in situation has resulted in Dhaka now agreeing in principle to allow the construction of pipeline. Myanmar and a Bangladeshi company. and involvement in the project of the Gas Transmission Company Limited (GTCL). The pipeline is one of the several options being considered by India for exploiting the gas reserves. . to be shared between India. The proposed pipeline would run through Arakan (Rakhine) state in Myanmar. The project. anticipates exporting natural gas from Myanmar to India. But the issue of gas pipeline is quite complex.

Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia


State Minister for Energy and Mineral Resources AKM Mosharraf Hossain believes that Myanmar's initiative to export gas to India through a pipeline would also ensure future energy security of Bangladesh. In the event of exhaustion of Bangladesh's gas resources the country would be able to import gas from Myanmar from its huge natural gas reserves. It may also pave the way for investment in the country's energy sector, and will lead to massive industrialization in the country. The tri-national gas pipeline is being pursued in Bangladesh by the Mohona Holdings since 1996. Recently, this company reiterated its interest, and following a discussion with state minister for energy, the Bangladesh prime minister verbally directed the energy ministry to send the proposal to the cabinet committee. But the cabinet committee on economic affairs decided that the matter should now be taken up at the highest level, that is, by Prime Minister Khaleda Zia’s office, as it looks after energy issues.

Bangladesh Puts Forth Conditions:
During the recent visit of Bangladesh Finance and Planning Minister Saifur Rahman to India the issue of gas pipeline figured prominently. Rahman who was in New Delhi to attend the India Economic Summit, had talks with the Indian Prime Minister and other ministers on the issue of transit facilities and development of tri-nation gas pipeline through Bangladesh. Bangladesh refused outright permission of road transit but agreed to consider the issue of rail transit. Regarding pipeline, Saifur wanted all the Bangladesh-India problems to be discussed with the aim of a package deal. Taking cue from New Delhi’s demand for transit routes through Pakistan and Iran, Bangladesh has said that it will consider allowing a similar pipeline originating from Myanmar provided India allows Dhaka a free trade corridor to Nepal and accompanying trade benefits. It also asked India to remove barriers that exist in trade between the two countries. A section in Bangladesh also wants India to allow purchase of cheap hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal so that the gas reserves of Bangladesh could be conserved. These new conditions have further complicated the negotiation over the laying of pipeline, as any free transnational movement through the sensitive ‘Siliguri Corridor’ may not be acceptable to India. Bangladesh is fully aware of this situation. India’s Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar will visit Dhaka and Yangon in January to explore the possibility of laying this pipeline. The Bangladesh energy ministry has been given a go-ahead on the pipeline issue by the foreign ministry. The issue is expected to top the agenda at the trination energy ministers’ conference to be held in January 2005 in Myanmar. Here some forward movement could be expected due to the changed political situation in South Asia and also because of lead taken by the source country Myanmar in bargaining with the intermediate country, Bangladesh.


IPRI Factfile

There will be serious bargaining before this pipeline comes through. India would also have to consider other related costs due to the conditions put by Bangladesh. These new conditions have made the situation trickier. Meanwhile, the development in technology has provided India other options of transporting gas. This has considerably reduced the bargaining power of Bangladesh. But pipeline has its importance for regional cooperation. A decision to construct the pipeline would depend on all these. But if it materializes, it will start the process of regional economic cooperation in South Asia in a major way, which has so far been held hostage by the regional politics. India will have to look for other options too for transporting gas from Myanmar in the near term as the transit country Bangladesh is unlikely to treat the issue as purely an economic one.
Anand Kumar, 7 January 2005 <http://www.saag.org/papers13/paper1216.html>




Bangladesh's Minister for Energy and Minerals, AKM Mosharrof Hossain, will attend an international gas pipeline conference in Rangoon, Burma. Mr Hossain's duty will be to decide on whether a gas pipeline will be built through Bangladesh. The conference will run from the 12th to the 13th of January 2005. According to a report, the meeting will be attended by the Indian Petroleum Minister, Burmese officials and Mr Hossain after Bangladesh accepted a formal invitation from Burma's military government. Burma's military government has agreed to sell its gas to India, but the government has not yet decided on the route of the gas pipeline will export to India, a local source said. The aim of the talks is to convince the Bangladesh government of the benefits of the pipeline. The construction of the gas pipeline will commence at the end of the year once the Bangladesh government agrees to let the pipeline run through its territory. Bangladesh will make annual US $125 million revenue from the gas the pipeline transports. US$ 100 million will come from a wheeling charge and US$ 25 million as maintenance charges. In addition, Bangladesh will get the right of way revenue from the pipeline and there will be an investment of US$ 150 million that will also create employment opportunities for Bangladeshi workers. The afore-mentioned facts are likely to convince the Bangladesh government to give its final approval for the gas pipeline to be constructed through its territory, the source said.

Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia


The pipeline will cross the Bangladesh border through Brahmanbaria from the Indian state of Tripura, and it will cross into west Bengal through the Rajshahi border. In Burma, the gas pipeline will extend along the Kaladan River, which runs from the Arakan state's capital of Akyab to the Tripura state of India. The minister will fly to Rangoon on January the 11th, along with other two top businessmen including chairman of Petrobangla, a distinguished petroleum firm from Bangladesh.
Narinjara News, 7 January 2005 http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/NN2005-01-07.htm




DHAKA: Bangladesh is set to prepare a comprehensive proposal, detailing three conditions that the government of Khaleda Zia wants to be met by New Delhi before signing any memorandum of understanding for tri-nation gas pipeline from Myanmar to India through Bangladesh. Dhaka's pre-conditions include transit facilities for Bangladesh to import hydroelectricity from Nepal and Bhutan, space for Bangladesh to trade with the two Himalayan countries and reduction of trade imbalance between Bangladesh and India. The ministry of energy and mineral resources on Wednesday wrote to the Prime Ministers' Office requesting to ask three ministries concerned to prepare a position paper by three ministries - energy and mineral resources, power division and commerce ministry. "We want to push, and hold high level meeting with, Delhi on the three conditions before the signing of the gas-pipeline MoU, draft of which was prepared at the tri-nation working committee meeting," Bangladesh's state minister for energy and mineral resources, AKM Mosharraf Hossain, told reporters on Wednesday. Dhaka, Yangon and New Delhi on January 13 agreed to cooperate in a gas exploration and overland pipeline project to send gas to energy-hungry India from Myanmar through Bangladesh territory. "Based upon technical and commercial feasibility, the pipeline would be operated by an international consortium as may be agreed upon by the parties concerned," said a joint statement issued following a two-day meeting on January 12-13 in Yangon between the energy minister of Myanmar, Brigadier General Lun Thi, the Indian minister for petroleum and natural gas, Mani Shankar Aiyar, and the Bangladesh state minister for energy and mineral resources, AKM Mosharraf Hossain.

" "Besides. there are several other ways we could bring Myanmar gas. India wants to bring gas reserves from Shwe field in . which reportedly accommodated.dawn." Mosharraf told reporters in Dhaka on Wednesday. including injecting and siphoning off their own natural gas. Dhaka asked Yangon for deferring a meeting of the tripartite technocommercial working committee. The meeting was eventually held in Yangon on February 24-25. which was scheduled to be held in Yangon on February 14." the statement read. the process of negotiation faced a brief setback. which was scheduled to be held in Dhaka in the first week of January. 3 March 2005 <http://www. Mani Sankar Aiyar told reporters in Delhi on February 27 that the three nations would sign the MoU in March. Mosharraf said that the three parties have agreed that they would engage an international consulting firm for feasibility study to identify the best possible route. after Delhi abruptly pulled out from the 13th summit of the Saarc. Indian energy minister. Meanwhile. AKM Mosharraf Hossain. About the route of the pipeline. Dawn. But his Bangladeshi counterpart believes that it is quite unlikely to be singed in March as "we want to be fully prepared on the specific proposals on conditions. in principle. Bangladesh's state minister for energy and mineral resources.com/2005/03/03/int10. 'If Bangladesh does not cooperate in implementing the trilateral statement (signed in January). provide the two Himalayan countries with transit facilities and reduce trade gap with Bangladesh". which would take at least six months. the Dhaka's pre-conditions. Delhi requested Dhaka to send an official proposal on the conditions. Aiyar said. cabinet has to approve the draft MoU before signing of the understanding.84 IPRI Factfile "The Governments of Bangladesh and India reserve the right to access the pipeline as and when required. The meeting was deferred by 'at least a week'. The meeting formulated a draft MoU.htm> A IYAR W ARNS D HAKA ON G AS P IPELINE P ROJECT India would be forced to look at other options of bringing natural gas from Myanmar if Bangladesh does not cooperate in working out a trilateral agreement on the Indo-Myanmar gas pipeline. However. told the press in Dhaka on January15 that "Dhaka will not sign any tripartite agreement if New Delhi does not allow it to bring hydroelectricity from Nepal and Bhutan. In response.' Gail and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation have participation in two gas blocks in Myanmar. Speaking to Business Standard. on the plea that Dhaka was not prepared for the meeting. Nural Kabir.

Enumerating the other options. He said Bangladesh was keen that the memorandum of understanding for the pipeline should be signed in Dhaka.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 85 block A-1 in offshore Myanmar." On land pipeline could also directly come from Tripura or Mizoram. India had half a dozen options but was keen to involve Bangladesh since it would be good for the geo-political climate of the country. which showed that it was keen on the project." said Aiyar adding that there was no issue of substance that remained to be solved for the pipeline. Jyoti Mukul. Aiyar's ministry of petroleum and natural gas is spearheading the diplomatic dialogue on the pipeline after a Cabinet approval for the same but finds it difficult to give any such assurance since the issues of transit. "A pipeline could also be laid in the shallow waters. The three bilateral issues were identified by a committee of nine secretaries set up by the Bangladesh government for examining the IndiaBangladesh-Myanmar pipeline. transit and power supply from Nepal and Bhutan to be included in the trilateral memorandum of understanding. trade and power are not within its purview. Talks on pipeline transiting from Myanmar has got stuck with Bangladesh insisting on an assurance from India on trade. Officials said an assurance on power supply from Bhutan and Nepal to Bangladesh could not be made part of the trilateral MoU since it concerned two other countries which were not party to the document. Pipeline through Bangladesh would be cheaper and would also help in monetising Tripura gas. he said gas could come as compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas.htm> . It could also be outside the shallow waters though there were technical problems in it. The companies are also expecting discoveries in the adjacent block A-3.com/money/2005/apr/20pipe. The Indian government also cannot do much about the favourable trade balance it enjoys with Bangladesh since it was not willing to sell natural gas to India. India allows transit to Nepal-bound Bangladesh traffic for few hours but officials said there was not enough traffic to justify increase in the number of hours. 20 April 2005 <http://www. "Whether Bangladesh is involved or not depends on whether he stick to points that are relevant and not peripheral. said Aiyar.rediff.

There was an agenda on Indian conglomerate TATA for investment of over two billion US dollar in Bangladesh as well as the demands they have made with their proposal was not discussed in the meeting. After the finalisation of strategy. Replying to a question. allowing import of hydro electricity from Bhutan and reducing trade deficit between Bangladesh and India. A source told The New Nation on condition of anonymity yesterday that Bangladesh was thinking of relaxing from its previous strict position on . Ministers and senior officials of the concerned ministries and departments had the first round of discussion on the crucial issue at the Energy and Mineral Resources Division Monday morning. attended the meeting. Bangladesh wants reducing trade gap between Dhaka and New Delhi. Decision was taken yesterday at an inter-ministerial meeting held at the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry with Commerce Minister Altaf Hossain Chowdhury in the chair. he said a resolution will be passed in the next meeting and it will be sent to the Prime Minister for her approval. The inter-ministerial meeting asked the concerned bodies to prepare their respective views on the issue and submit those to the Energy and Mineral Resources Division within a week. among others. and Indian corridor for its bilateral trade with Bhutan and Nepal.86 IPRI Factfile T RI -N ATION G AS P IPELINE : B ANGLADESH Y ET T O Bangladesh will formally place three conditions to India on MyanmarBangladesh-India tri-nation gas pipeline. As India sought specific proposals from Bangladesh in this regard. After the meeting. and bringing electricity from the two Himalayan kingdoms. Conditions are 18 km corridor facilities between Nepal and Bangladesh through India. Mosharraf Hossain told journalists that concerned ministries have been asked to examine the proposals and send those to the inter-ministerial meeting. State Minister for Energy and Mineral Resources AKM Mosharraf Hossain. officials concerned said. Different ministries have started talks to determine Bangladesh's strategy to materialise its three conditions in exchange of giving right of way for the tri-nation gas pipeline from Myanmar to India through Bangladesh. Prime Minister Khaleda Zia approved a bid of the Energy Ministry to formulate an integrated strategy in consultation with the concerned ministries. Tata wanted 20 years smooth gas supply for their proposed three gas-based industries. State Minister for Power Iqbal Hasan Mahmood and representatives from the ministries of Home and Foreign Affairs. Bangladesh will invite Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar to discuss about the three conditions.

<http://www. The agreement was reached on the sidelines of the BIMSTECEC high-level committee meeting held in Dhaka." he said. told reporters here.allindianewspapers. Dhaka has decided to explore this plan within its framework of "greater energy and other regional cooperation. Explaining details of the project.ittefaq. B ANGLADESH TO S IGN M O U P IPELINE P ROJECT FOR G AS Dhaka. Nepal has been reeling under oil shortage. own and operate the pipeline. "It is expected that the three nations will very soon sign an MoU for an international consortium company which will build. While the first option was for the pipeline to go through Paltwa and Aijwal in Mizoram through Tripura and after crossing into Bangladesh through Brahmanbaria and Jessore districts before entering the Indian state of West Bengal." Ahmed said. with Bangladesh to decide on giving 'right of way' through its soil. so the import of natural gas from Bangladesh will certainly . which formulated the concept. Previously the position had been that Bangladesh would not sign the agreement if India did not agree to fulfill the three conditions.com/artman/publish/article_18463. according to Bangladeshi proponents of the project.com/business-newsindia/may/business2005052406. "It would not only benefit the country but also usher in new areas of regional cooperation.htm> G AS P IPELINE S TUDY The agreement to conduct a feasibility study on the extension of natural gas pipelines from Bangladesh to Nepal and Bhutan via India has generated much enthusiasm. May 24 (PTI) India.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 87 signing the tri-nation gas pipeline agreement with India. M YANMAR .shtml> I NDIA ." Managing Director of Mohona Holding Ltd K B Ahmed." Ahmed said. "Myanmar has sent us letters agreeing to sell gas and India has agreed to buy it. the other envisaged a route through Bangladesh from Myanmar through Teknaf district along the coast and enter Bandgaon with other routes remaining unchanged. 16 May 2005 <http://nation. he said there were two options for the pipeline which would go through Bangladesh. Myanmar and Bangladesh are expected to sign a Memorandum of Understanding to build an international consortium company for the construction of a tri-nation gas pipeline.

will export a small portion of natural gas. The extension of natural gas pipeline will also strengthen the economic ties among Nepal.php?&nid=42148> B ANGLADESH -N EPAL N ATURAL G AS P IPELINE S TUDIED TO BE A study is going to be conducted to find out the possibility of laying down a pipeline to transport natural gas from Bangladesh to Nepal and Bhutan. have made a condition that without a commitment to export. has now turned its attention to Nepal and Bhutan. and India has already discovered alternatives to meet the energy demand. the natural gas discovered in the KrishnaGodavari basin in eastern India has reduced the urgency of importing it from Bangladesh. Nepal may not have access to the natural gas pipeline being talked among India. making a sub-regional trade arrangement a success.kantipuronline. The international oil companies.88 IPRI Factfile reduce the burden on oil. A total net recoverable reserve is about 16 trillion cubic feet. in other words. water or other disputes between Delhi and Dhaka. The power sector is the single largest consumer of gas. they will not tap natural gas resources. This clearly explains that Bangladesh is determined to export natural gas to Nepal and Bhutan. Bangladesh. Besides. Bangladesh will export its natural gas to Nepal and Bhutan after the feasibility study. though a section of Bangladeshi politicians continue to oppose the export of natural gas. For some years until Reliance discovered a large natural gas field in the Krishna-Godavari basin. Bangladesh's current gas reserve of 22 gas fields has been estimated at about 28 trillion cubic feet. So. 6 June 2005 <http://www. which had been looking forward to exporting natural gas to India. Iran and Pakistan. If no differences crop up between Bangladesh and India in the wake of territorial. And India's plan to import gas from Mynamar may just be able to fulfil the demand of northeast Indian states. So India must see the natural gas agreement positively and even ensure an effective and unhindered transit for trade between Nepal and Bangladesh. At present nearly 90 percent of the power generated in Bangladesh is gas-based. Bangladesh.com/kolnews. which could just meet the demand of Nepal and Bhutan. Bangladesh has shown its temptation to export natural gas to Nepal and Bhutan. an official said Thursday. which have invested a lot of money in the Bangladesh hydrocarbon sector. . Bhutan and Bangladesh. India had eyed on Bangladesh's natural gas to meet its demand. However. Now. Natural gas output accounts for about 70 percent of Bangladesh's commercial energy supply.

The minister said that because of the high level of foreign investment and potential revenue from the pipeline. transport and communication." revealed Nepalese Foreign Secretary Madhuraman Acharya. Thailand. During the meeting. 9 June 2005 <http://english. India.bbc. Bangladesh.cn/200506/09/eng20050609_189365. Establish in 1997. The Bangladeshi energy minister Mosharraf Hossain said an expert committee would assess the viability of the two-and-half billion dollar project. energy.people. Sri Lanka. 16 July 2002 <http://news. Bangladesh had no objection in principle to the project. Nepal and Bhutan. Myanmar. A number of groups. tourism and fisheries. believe that Bangladesh should not export gas to other countries until it has secured supplies for its own domestic needs. trade and investment. those who favour export say the country could earn about five-hundred-million dollars a year.com. The agreement was reached during a foreign secretary-level meeting of the Bangladesh. Myanmar and Bangladesh are rich in natural gas.co. officials from the regional group stressed the importance of utilizing natural gas. the Awami league. Sri Lanka and Thailand Economic Cooperation (BIMST-EC) in Dhaka. who led the Nepalese delegation at a regional meeting last week. The current areas of cooperation in the regional group are technology.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2132229. he said.stm> .html> B ANGLADESH TO C ONSIDER G AS P IPELINE Bangladesh says it will consider proposals for the construction of a pipeline that would allow the export gas from Burma to India. However.Gas Pipeline Projects in South Asia 89 "We have agreed to undertake such a study. but he dismissed speculation that the pipeline would also be used to export gas from Bangladesh to India. Myanmar. the BIMST-EC now groups seven countries including India. including the main opposition party. given the increasing price of petroleum products. located around the Bay of Bengal.

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