Experiment 1

May 15, 2010 Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH of an unknown solution using an acid-base indicator. Using indicators, we were able to place each of nine solutions within a thin range of pHs. Using a pH meter and an electrode, we were able to measure the theoretical pH of nine solutions as well as our unknown sample and a sample of tap water. We were also instructed to create a buffer solution with a pH of 6.5 using solutions in the lab.

60 yellow yellow yellow-orange yellow-orange red-orange red magenta dark pink color: yellow/yellow-orange pH: 6.8905 Let x= volume of 0.1)/(50) X=50-y (50-y)=3. Buffers and pH indicator used 6.100 M HC2H3O2 and 0.80 unknown #94 aqueous sample (water fountain) bromthymol blue color lime green light green green teal aqua blue blue blue color: light green/green pH: 6.20 7.40-6. Data For Table 1.0013266 -log(x) = pH = 2.80 7.8905y 50=4. There were no exceptions and/or changes.59 [HPO42-]/[H2PO4-]= 10.21 + log(HPO42-/ H2PO4-) log([HPO42-]/[H2PO4-])= 7. see page 4 Table 2.76 x 10-5 for HC2H3O2 *quadratic formula was calculated using a TI-83 Plus x = .15 pH calculations: 1) Weak acids: 0.21= 0.20-7.1)/50=3.6 crestol red Sample Calculations Henderson-Hasselbalch7.1)/(50) [HPO42-]= (x)(0.8(given)= 7.8-7.1M Na2H2PO4(aq) Then x+y=50 [H2PO4-]= (y)(0.40 8.8 color: red-orange pH: 7.Procedure: The experiment was performed as stated on the laboratory printout for experiment number 1: Acid-Base Equilibrium and Buffers.85 X=50-12.59= 3.00 6.100 M H3PO4 Ka = = = 1.88 .8905(y)(0.4-6.1M Na2HPO4(aq) and y= volume of 0.00 8.85=37.40 6.60 8.8905y Y= 12.8 color: teal/ aqua pH: 7.

= NH4Ac = Unk# 94 = H2O > NH4+ > HPO42. I would not change anything from this lab.> PO43..00. We used the HendersonHasselbalch equation to determine the exact ratio of acid to base needed to create the buffer.87 = 11.00 Conclusion & Discussion In this lab.87 pH = 14-2.> NH3.100 M NH4C2H3O2 Since this equation involves a Ka and Kb that are so similar (since each represents an opposite process).0 unit of our pH values and ranges and our buffer solution was within ± .17 pH = 14-1.55 x 10-2 for Na3PO4 *quadratic formula was calculated using a TI-83 Plus x = . The only error that may have occurred would be human error such as our measurement. so we created a buffer using this and its conjugate base. and then used indicators to determine which range of pHs each solution was in. and in taking the actual pH with a pH meter. This lab ran quite smoothly.27. We chose Bromthymol blue and Crestol red.> C2H3O2.67 for Na2HPO4 6) Salt formed from weak acid and weak base: 0. Our pH calculations came roughly between ± 1. 2.8. We used calculations in order to determine the pH from given pKas.100 M Na3PO4 Kw/Ka = = = 4. See Table 1. we were able to choose two different indicators to determine the pH.001338 -log(x) = pOH = 2.100 M NH3 Kb = = = 1.2) Weak base: 0. Using this.13 3) Salt of weak acids: 0. Due to information given that the pH of the unknown solution was between 6 and 8.8. the pH is going to be roughly around 7. We also calculated the theoretical pH values for the nine known aqueous solutions. as well as a pH meter with an electrode.59 x 10-10 for NH4Cl *quadratic formula was calculated using a TI-83 Plus x = 7.83 4) Salt of weak base: 0.100 M Na2HPO4 pH = = = 4.100 M NaH2PO4 and 0.17 = 12.13 5) Intermediate salts: 0.10 of our given pH. #94. pH ~ 7. we determined the pH of our unknown to be around 6. it was fair and easy to perform.100 M NaC2H3O2 and 0.79 x 10-5 for NH3 *quadratic formula was calculated using a TI-83 Plus x = . and different indicators that allowed us to place each solution within a thin range of pHs. we were able to determine the pH of several solutions in a number of ways. Results: Part 2: 1. We used indicators to determine the pH of a given unknown. We were also instructed to produce a buffer with a pH of 7.100 M NH4Cl Kw/Kb = = = 5. Most acidic to least acidic: H3PO4 > HC2H3O2 > H2PO4. . The solution given with a pKa closest to this value was H2PO4.47 x 10-6 -log(x) = pH = 5.06741999 -log(x) = pOH = 1. we were successful in creating a buffer with a pH of 7.

Part 4: 1. Calculated pH and final HC2H3O 2 C2H3O2 - H3PO 4 - H2PO4 4.87 8. Our calculations were correct.84.0. This is most likely due to human error in that some ranges were too wide to make an exact estimate as to the pH. and ranges of two solutions overlapping. the data we calculated was roughly within ± 1. 2. With a pH meter.0 unit. Experimentally. I think all of the ranges we determined were fairly accurate.94 1.55 ----------- . In table 4 we concluded that our range of pH for our unknown #94 was between 6.0 unit of our range so there were not any major disagreements among the values.8 3 1. 2. There were some discrepancies in our data between the pH obtained with the pH meter and the calculated pH for several solutions.67 . Overall.9 5 11. The final pH of the buffer solution we created was 7.0-7.27 ----------- H2O 7.20 6.13 0.18 NH4 + Final pH values Target pH Absolute Differenc e 2.56 .95 5.68 2.27.1 3 0. but overall the calculated results were more accurate than these sometime wide ranges. There were a few discrepancies in our calculations due to ranges being too wide.57 1.88 2.5 units of our experimental results.91 9.27 - HPO42 8.3. in that the pH meter was difficult to use at times and we did have some trouble calibrating and using the device.0-1.01 1.88 . I would consider this an accurate result because it falls within our range.82 NH4A c 6.03 PO4311. Our calculated results were roughly within ± 1. we were instructed to create solution with a pH of 7. Most of our measurements were fairly accurate.01 5.8.27 Unk # 94 6. the pH meter is what I would consider the most accurate.0 . Table 3. Part 5: 1. we determined the pH to be roughly 6. I believe this is primarily due to human error. See Table 3.3 7 12.46 NH3 10.73 ~ 7.45 4. although there were a few that were above or below our calculated pHs by more than 1.

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