Manchester Friends of the Earth Green Fish Resource Centre 46-50 Oldham Street Manchester M4 1LE Transport Policy Unit

Manchester City Council 30th January 2012 Response to Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester We welcome the opportunity to respond to the consultation on the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester. Manchester Friends of the Earth is a campaigning organisation run by volunteers whose emphasis is on reducing the impact of human actions on the environment, locally where we live in Manchester, nationally and globally. In recent years our primary focus has been on Climate Change, and promoting ways in which we can change our behaviour as individuals and change policy within local and national government in order to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions (including social inclusion and health, local environment quality etc). The transport sector is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and transport policy therefore has the potential to encourage reductions in greenhouse gases.1 Urban transport policy also has the potential, and therefore responsibility, to improve the quality of the local environment, particularly in terms of air pollutants; facilitate active, healthpromoting lifestyles; and to make all essential services accessible to all. Over the last five years, Manchester Friends of the Earth has been working on a project called Love Your Bike (www.loveyourbike.org), with the objective of promoting cycling in Manchester. In December 2011, the project won the ‘Green Futures’ category of the Manchester City Council’s Be Proud Love Manchester awards. During this work we have gathered and analysed a lot of information from cyclists and would-be cyclists about the problems and barriers that they face and laying down the challenges that Manchester faces as it aims to encourage cycling. We have drawn on this research during the preparation of our response to this document, which is enclosed below. Regards Dr Graeme Sherriff, Transport Campaign Co-ordinator, Manchester Friends of the Earth Pete Abel and Catherine Thomson, Manchester Friends of the Earth, Joint Co-ordinators.
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According to TfGM the GM CO2 emissions are 14 million tonnes - with approx a third coming from transport which is approximately 4.6 million tonnes. www.tfgm.com/corporate/environment_climate.cfm?submenuheader=1

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester consultation 1. Introduction We welcome the opportunity to comment on the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester.2 For clarity we refer to the consultation document as the ‘Cycling Strategy’ throughout this submission. As part of the Love Your Bike campaign, Manchester FoE has been developing a manifesto for cycling in Greater Manchester. ‘Getting Moving’ will be launched this year and is informed by discussions with other organizations promoting active travel in Greater Manchester. The aim of this work is two-fold: to find common ground amongst organisations interested in cycling, and to demonstrate the level of support for ambitious work to get more people cycling more often. It already has a number of signatories, including the Greater Manchester Public Health Network. Given the collaborative nature of the document, and therefore the level of consensus it represents, we believe it useful to structure this response around the five core principles of the manifesto. These are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Cycling infrastructure should be high quality, consistent and appropriate Cycling should be fully integrated into the public transport system On-road cycle training courses should be provided free of charge for adults Residential areas should have a default speed limit of 20mph Campaigns to promote cycling from A to B should be bold, sustained and targeted.

Throughout this response, we cross-reference with the sections in the draft Cycling Strategy. 2. What should a cycling strategy be? We believe a cycling strategy should: • reflect an ambitious and achievable vision of a cycling city, and one that is shared with organisations interested in promoting cycling; • be based on robust data and demonstrate learning from best practice from other cities in the UK and around the world; • contain clear targets that reflect this vision; • specify potential funding sources and delivery agents; • evidence an understanding of the current state of cycling in the city, set out a baseline and detail plans for monitoring – i.e. how will we know if the targets are reached? We are not convinced that the Cycling Strategy meets these criteria and would encourage the officers writing the next iteration to bear them in mind.

The Interim Cycling Strategy document was not available on the Manchester City Council or British Cycling websites but was made available via www.scribd.com/doc/75886391/Manchester-Cycling-Strategy-ConsultationDRAFT-v2-December-2012

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

The need for a vision for cycling The need for Manchester City Council to develop an updated and bolder Cycling Strategy with ambitious, yet realistic targets is long overdue, and we are pleased to see that this process has begun. However, Manchester is starting from an extremely low baseline and the strategy needs to acknowledge this and the scale of the challenge. It therefore needs to identify funding and mechanisms with which Manchester is to be made a ‘world class cycling city’. We note that the Transport Strategy for Manchester City Centre (TSfMCC) states: “Cycling has great potential to be a key sustainable mode for trips into Manchester City Centre.” (Cycling, Point 95) and would agree with the TSfMCC analysis that stated that the: “Wider Greater Manchester figures suggest that 78% of trips are less than 5km, a distance that can easily be cycled, yet 56% are by car and only 1% by bike. There is potential to encourage greater use of the cycle through the Smarter Choices programme. This would be a key element of the city centre cycling strategy and essential in encouraging modal shift towards cycling.” (Cycling, Point 98) Manchester could learn a lot from the bold steps that other cities are taking. For example, in October 2009, Liverpool Primary Care Trust (PCT) and Liverpool City Council signed a formal agreement at the Merseyside Transport Partnership annual conference which set out their commitment to increasing cycling levels in the city. The new agreement set out to generate a 10% increase in trips made by bike before the end of March, 2011, compared to journeys in 2006.3 Bristol has set bold targets in its cycling strategy4: • 20% of all journeys by bike by 2026; with • 30% of all journeys to work; and • 20% of all journeys to school. The Greater Bristol strategy has also set out clear funding and resource allocations between 2011 and 2025/26.5 It is reported that Merseyside has allocated 10% of the Local Transport

Daily Post (Liverpool), 14 October 2009, Creating a cycling city. The alliance aims to improve quality of life and create a healthy, low-carbon city for the future. The City partners now hope that others will join the alliance so that Merseyside councils and PCTs can work with businesses, universities and cultural and sporting agencies to bring renewed commitment to cycling.
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http://www.betterbybike.info/greater-bristol-cycling-strategy-2011-2026 http://www.betterbybike.info/greater-bristol-cycling-strategy-2011-2026 Section 8. Resources

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

Plan (LTP3) funding for measures to promote, support and increase walking and cycling levels in Merseyside.6 The following sections of this response include further examples of other cities taking the lead on cycling. We would urge that the new Cycling Strategy include bolder targets and clear indications of the support and funding required to achieve those targets. In this context, it makes no sense for the strategy to be an ‘interim’. The kind of changes that are needed require short and medium term actions that work towards a horizon of ten years or further: otherwise, a cycling city will always be 10 years away. A strategy should share, at least, the timescales of the Local Transport Plans. Recommendation: That the cycling strategy include the target of at least 20% of Greater Manchester journeys under 5 miles by bike by 2020. Recommendation: That Manchester look at the activities of cities, in the UK and the rest of world, for examples of proactive cycle policies that they can translate into a local setting. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy clearly identify the resources and funding to be allocated to make Manchester a World Class Cycling City. Finally, a cycling strategy should be upbeat and positive about cycling. Investing in cycling is an opportunity for Manchester to tackle health inequalities, climate change and congestion. In the executive summary of the Cycling Strategy it is stated that Manchester is investing in cycling ‘despite the current challenging economic climate’, but promoting cycling can help to increase access to work places and foster a healthy active workforce. 3. The need for clarity in structure and conceptualisation A successful strategy should recognise the needs of the different cycling communities in Manchester and be informed by meaningful consultation with them. For example, a report for Cycling England, Understanding the Potential Cycling Market7 provides details of research by Transport for London (TfL) into the amount of cycle trips in London by type of cyclist. Whilst this analysis was of cyclists in London, and therefore may not be directly comparable to cycling levels in Manchester, it highlighted the significant differences between the amount and type of cycle journeys made by different groups of cyclists. (See figure 1). Encouraging leisure and recreational cycling is important but the TfL analysis indicates that significant C02 reductions and health benefits would come from developing infrastructure and

http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/liverpool-news/local-news/2010/11/10/merseyside-s-transport-plans-could-scupperregion-s-regeneration-100252-27630229/ www.dft.gov.uk/cyclingengland/site/wpcontent/uploads/2008/08/sm01_understanding_the_potential_cycling_market.pdf
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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

promotional activities to significantly increase the numbers of people in the “cycle everywhere” and “dedicated commuter” categories. The implications of “market segmentation” within the cycling community should be taken into account when developing the Manchester Cycling Strategy. So, whilst we welcome the commitment in the Cycling Strategy that: “A Strategic Plan for Cycling in Manchester will be developed in partnership with British Cycling.” (Funded schemes and interventions, by 2010.) a successful cycling strategy must recognise the needs of all the different cycling communities in Manchester, we remain concerned that the current Cycling Strategy does not achieve this.

Figure 1

In particular, a cycling strategy needs to reflect clarity in conceptualising leisure, recreation and utility cycling. The Cycling Strategy does not. For example, Manchester FoE’s Bike Friday and Bike Fabulous activities, which aim to increase utility cycling, are in the ‘recreation’ section. On page 19, the Love Your Bike campaign is listed as promoting recreational cycling, whereas it is in fact focussed on utility cycling. The document seems to reflect an (incorrect) 5
Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

understanding that all cycle events are recreational, whereas in fact Bike Friday led rides are about encouraging people to cycle to work. In the implementation and monitoring framework utility cycling is missing, partially replaced by an infrastructure section even though infrastructure is only part of the challenge in promoting utility cycling. It is also important to understand the relationship between recreational and utility cycling. Recreation may be an entry point to utility cycling (page 19) but it cannot be assumed that it is the only one, or even the most cost effective. Many people will be attracted to utility cycling for its own benefits: cost savings, journey time reliability, building exercise into daily routine, and reducing CO2 emissions from personal travel. Participation in recreational cycling is neither necessary nor sufficient for utility cycling: weekend cycling does not necessarily help to create the skills and confidence required to negotiate Manchester’s roads to get to work or education destinations. Moreover, the consultation document appears weighted towards recreation and leisure cycling. This is disappointing, since a significant impact on congestion and climate change ambitions can only be made by taking utility cycling equally, if not more, seriously. For example the challenges, listed on page 12 of the Cycling Strategy relate mainly to recreation and sport. As with the objectives, on page 13, there is reference to an undefined ‘cycling infrastructure’ which belies the fact that attracting people to utility cycling is about far more than cycling infrastructure. Our research in developing our cycling manifesto has highlighted key factors in encouraging utility cycling. These include: On-road cycling skills of the population The availability and quality of cycle parking The cycling environment: traffic speeds, driver behaviour, and enforcement of these Integration of cycling into the public transport network

The Cycling Strategy would be significantly strengthened by the inclusion of these principles at the level of the objectives, and this would help to convince us that MCC is serious about cycling as a mode of transport. The marketing and communications section appears focused on recreation and leisure even though encouraging utility cycling is clearly an important communications challenge. The ‘drivers’ in the diagram on page 12 include ‘being active and achieving competitive success’ but not reducing congestion, CO2 emissions, air pollution and obesity. It is not clear why ‘Workforce and Volunteering’ and ‘Marketing and Communications’ have been selected as underpinning themes when there other important cross-cutting themes such as ‘planning and infrastructure’ and ‘training and skills’. It is also important that ‘marketing and communications’ is seen in a broad sense, to include not only ‘marketing’ campaigns but also personalised journey planning, work with businesses and communities, and other approaches to promoting cycling as a mode of transport. These should reflect a ‘joined up’ approach to improving infrastructure, increasing skills and enhancing awareness, rather than isolated marketing initiatives.

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy should clearly distinguish between recreation, sport and utility cycling and its aims, objectives and contents reflect the differences between these types of cycling and the measures needed to encourage them. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy should be developed in consultation with the different cycling communities. Recommendation: Manchester City Council should add ‘planning and infrastructure’ and ‘training and skills’ to the underpinning themes.

4. Quality Consistent and Appropriate Cycling Infrastructure The following sections deal with substantive issues in developing policy. A cycling strategy needs to tackle these, along side broader statements about improving infrastructure. 4.1 Infrastructure The Cycling Strategy lists as one of its objectives the need to ‘improve the quality of cycling infrastructure and to identify locations which would benefit from better provision for cyclists’. Manchester Friends of the Earth would agree that quality infrastructure to encourage cycling is vital, believing that much of the cycling and walking infrastructure in Greater Manchester is poor compared to “best practice” in other UK cities. A coherent and consistent cycle network in Greater Manchester requires strategic thinking and long-term planning, which we feel the Strategy does not provide. We would also like to see a programme of evaluation of the demand, benefits and impacts of the different types of cycling infrastructure currently being installed or proposed. 8 Such evaluation should also consider whether cycling infrastructure is consistent with the national standards cycle training. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy should include a long-term commitment to develop a coherent and consistent cycle network in Greater Manchester working with all stakeholders. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy should include a commitment to an evaluation of the current and proposed cycling infrastructure. We would like to see more detail on ‘cycling infrastructure’ in the Cycling Strategy and for the document to identify the following themes. 4.2 Priorities for highway maintenance / potholes
See for example, Dill,J; Monsere,CM; McNeil,N (2012) Evaluation of bike boxes at signalized intersections, Accident Analysis and Prevention, v44, n1, pp126-134.
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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

We note that the Strategy does not provide strong support for an adequate maintenance policy and policing and enforcement structure: these are vital in ensuring a save cycling environment. A principle of ‘put it back as you found it’ needs to be adopted, so that road works do not disrupt cycle markings and infrastructure.9 Recommendation: The cycling strategy provides strong support for an adequate maintenance policy and enforcement structure. 4.3 Cycle Parking We note the commitment in the Cycling Strategy that Manchester: “will continue to work with public transport operators, car park operators, businesses, the rail industry and cycle groups to deliver additional parking in key locations.” [What we are working towards. Cycle Parking. Page 29] We agree with the observation in the Transport Strategy for Manchester City Centre (TSfMCC) that: “At the moment, there are some significant gaps in infrastructure provision on key links into the centre and increasingly, a shortage of secure cycle parking spaces.” (Cycling, Point 95).10 The TSfMCC also stated that: “The Council will also ensure that planning guidance reflects current best practice with regards to provision for cyclists and to ensure that provision both in terms of cycle storage and changing facilities is to an agreed standard.” (Way Forward, Point 187)

According to the Department for Transport (DfT) document "Specification for the Reinstatement of Openings in Highways: Second Edition 2002". Section 6.4.5.4 Coloured Surfacings states that : "Coloured surfacings used to highlight highway features such as speed warnings, bus or cycle lanes, ‘gateways’ etc. shall be permanently reinstated using like materials of equivalent type and similar colour, subject to the following requirements: a) Where the coloured surfacing is overlaid onto a road surface, a coloured overlay shall be applied to the same thickness. b) Where the coloured surfacing is laid full depth, a coloured material shall be laid to the same thickness, wherever possible and practical. Where it is not possible or practical, the coloured surfacing material shall be reinstated by agreement. c) Some high friction surfacing materials that are coloured have a limited manufacturer’s guarantee and may be subject to wear and abrasion during the guarantee period. However, the reinstated area shall not be inferior to the adjoining surface during the guarantee period."
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http://www.manchester.gov.uk/downloads/download/1871/transport_strategy_for_manchester_city_centre

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

Manchester Friends of the Earth believes that there is a clearly demonstrated need for higher levels of secure cycle parking facilities across the Manchester region. We are therefore disappointed that the Cycling Strategy makes no mention of the need to increase the levels of cycling parking required within the (Greater) Manchester planning system. We understand that this was agreed as part of the MCC Climate Change Action Plan – Internal Delivery Plan but are not aware of any progress on this issue.11 According to the Greater Manchester Parking Standards12 listed in the 2006 Local Transport Plan (LTP2) Technical Guidance. For office building type developments (Type A2: Financial & professional services) the "Minimum standard for cycle parking provision" is one cycle parking space per 400 square metres (minimum of 2). Compare this to the requirement adopted by York City Council that demands all plans for new office buildings provide 1 space per 55 square metres. This means that any new buildings in York are required to provide 7 times more cycle parking space than an equivalent office building in Greater Manchester. Also it is not clear whether the Greater Manchester guidelines actually have any “teeth” for enforcement purposes. According to a Greater Manchester Local Transport Plan Cycling Group report in April 2002 the "notes give advice regarding design and numbers of places, and whilst they cannot be enforced yet, form a suitable basis on which to implement facilities."13 The Greater Manchester Police Cycle Parking Design Guidance (Design for Security), released in October 2009, are based on the York Council 'level of parking' requirements and in the "What are Cycle Parking Standards?" section state that: "These are generally acknowledged by Local Authorities as providing 'best practice'. These standards should be applied to all planning applications by Local Authorities." (emphasis added).14 We would recommend that Manchester City Council adopt the Greater Manchester Police guidance and promote a higher standard for levels of cycle parking and facilities within the planning requirements. It is also essential that there is enforcement of any cycle parking requirements included as conditions within planning applications. There are still too many examples of new developments, or re-developments being built without any, or inadequate levels of, cycle parking.

“We will adopt the Greater Manchester Police Cycle Parking Design Guidance (Design for Security) within our own planning procedures to ensure improved perception of cycle storage safety and encourage increased cycling within city.” Transport – Internal Delivery Plans – mapped July 2010.
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www.gmltp.co.uk/pdfs/2006/GM_Parking_Standards.pdf Greater Manchester Cycle Parking Guidelines, www.gmltp.co.uk/pdfs/cycle_parking.pdf www.designforsecurity.org/uploads/files/DFS_Cycles_Design_Guidance_REV_A.pdf

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

We would also like to suggest that Manchester City Centre consider a range of alternative methods, such as the reallocation of road space for cycle parking. This approach permits an increase in the provision of cycle parking but avoids removing space for pedestrians particularly people with disabilities, wheelchairs, pram buggy access. There are a wide range of examples of creative approaches from cities worldwide including Portland15 (Oregon, USA), Montreal16 (Canada) and Dublin17 (Ireland). The Car Shaped Bike Rack (photo below) was design originally commissioned by the London Festival of Architecture, has since been Installed around the UK and several cities in Europe.

The design converts a car space into cycle parking for 10 bicycles and the “car shape acts as a barrier to protect parked bicycles from the cars.”18 We also note that some property developers in Manchester have been reluctant to install cycle parking because the standard ‘Sheffield stand’ does meet their design aspirations. We would recommend that the Cycle Strategy and cycle parking guidance include information on the range of stylish designs that are available whilst still meeting the requirements for secure cycle parking. For example, in 2008, New York Department of Transport also installed nine new bikes racks designed by musician, artist and biking enthusiast Byrne. The DoT noted how: "These clever and innovative racks were created to generate more interest in cycling in New York and also to add attractive, temporary art the City's streets."19
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www.worldchanging.com/archives/005599.html http://theurbanearth.wordpress.com/2008/04/ http://dublincitycycling.ie/blog/

Easy to assemble and transport, it is ideal for temporary cycle parking. The unit can also be bolted down for permanent use Options include an integrated bicycle pump and a central display panel for branding http://www.cyclehoop.com/products/car-bike-rack/
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www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pr2008/pr08_031.shtml

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

David Byrne. Coffee cup design We would suggest that there are many locations across the City Centre where such schemes could be installed, and that would help to liven up the public realm and improve the image of cycling. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy should outline policy mechanisms to encourage the installation of higher levels of cycle parking throughout Manchester, in line with targets to increase cycling. Cycle parking is needed not only in the public realm but also in business and residential buildings, and Council planning policy should reflect this. Planners should think creatively about the type, and extent, of parking provision best suited to each location. Recommendation: The Cycling Strategy adopt the planning guidance for cycle parking contained in the Greater Manchester Police Cycle Parking Design Guidance (Design for Security), 4.4 Cycle lanes and enforcement measures We note that the Cycling Strategy makes reference to the proposed increase provision of cycle lanes on Oxford and within the City Centre as part of the Cross-City bus package, for example: “Construction of raised cycle lanes on Oxford Road and additional through routes for cyclists in the City Centre.” (Page 41). These commitments were also contained in the Transport Strategy for Manchester City Centre (TSfMCC) which makes several references to the increased provision of cycle lanes on Oxford Road and within the City Centre, namely: “As part of the Cross-City bus package, we will construct raised cycle lanes adjacent to the carriageway on Oxford Road and provide additional through-routes for cyclists in the city centre.” (Funded schemes and interventions) “As a key part of the GMTF Accelerated Package, the bus improvement works include provision for the extension of many cycle lanes in the city centre. (Cycling, Point 92) 11
Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

However, we also note that with the exception to the following statement: “The existence of a bus lane enforcement programme aims to improve compliance with bus lanes using civil enforcement powers. This is done through fixed CCTV cameras in Manchester City Centre, and on some radial routes, and a mobile 'CCTV smart car' on other routes.” (Page 23) the Cycling Strategy contains no reference to the enforcement of parking restrictions or other measures to prevent vehicles from blocking or parking in cycle lanes or any measures to reduce the impact of pavement parking on the walking and cycling environment. Recommendation: That the Cycling Strategy contain clear policy guidance on measures to protect existing and new cycle lanes from being used as “green tarmac” car parking facilities. 5. Full integration into the Public Transport System Manchester Friends of the Earth are disappointed that the Cycling Strategy simply restates the current poor level of GM wide policy on integration of cycling with the public transport network (Cycles on Public Transport, page 24). Currently, Transport for Greater Manchester’s policies on the integration of cycling with the public transport network are only focussed on providing cycle parking facilities at public transport interchanges and stations. Basically, that people cycle to the public transport location and leave their bicycle behind. Whilst we welcome the provision of additional cycle parking at Metrolink stations, the decision to allow carriage of cycles on Metrolink trams, during off-peak hours, is long overdue. In the Cycling Strategy it should be recognised that cycle carriage on trams will enhance the level of integration and facilitate public transport journeys that are currently possible – e.g. when there is a mile at the end of the tram journey for which the commuter needs a vehicle and therefore currently chooses to drive the whole journey. Meanwhile, a growing number of cities in Europe and North America have recognised that, because a number of transport needs cannot be covered by cycling or public transport alone since neither can offer a sufficiently flexible transport solution on its own, cycle carriage needs to be included within public transport/cycling integration policies. As the US Federal Transit Administration has recognised: “Linking bicycles and transit together is a win-win proposition. Bicycle friendly transit provides cyclists with increased options for travel, and it also expands transit ridership. Together, bicycles and public transportation can help establish more liveable communities.”20 Manchester Friends of the Earth would agree and believe that Manchester needs to learn from the progressive transport policies being developed by other world-class cities.
Bicycles and Transit: A Partnership that Works. US Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, 1999. www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_Bicycles_and_Transit_Booklet_1999.pdf
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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

As an example of pro-cycling policies in Northern Europe, the table below provides a comparison of the Copenhagen policy on combining cycling and public transport with the provisions included within the latest Greater Manchester Local Transport Plan (LTP3).
City of Copenhagen Cycle Policy 2002-2012. Combining cycling and public transport. A number of transport needs cannot be covered by cycling or public transport alone since neither can offer a sufficiently flexible transport solution on its own. Proposals are set forth in the City Plan 2001 which would make it easier to combine cycling with public transport, thus providing a realistic alternative to private cars. The Copenhagen Transport Public Transport Plan (1998) takes a highly favourable view of combining cycling and public transport and targets cyclists as potential customers to a greater extent than in the past. This has resulted in the removal of most restrictions applying to bicycles on commuter trains. There are still some restrictions applying to rush hours. However, the most recent development is that bicycles are now allowed on commuter trains in rush hours when travelling in the opposite direction to the main traffic. As more and more commuter trains of the new type are acquired bicycles will eventually be allowed on the train at all hours of the day. Bicycles will be permitted on the new Metro around the clock.
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GM Local Transport Plan (LTP3). Integration with public transport. "Combining cycling with public transport provides a viable alternative to the private car for many medium and long-distance journeys. It can both increase public transport patronage by increasing the catchment area of stations, and reduce the demand for car parking around stations. Cycle carriage is permitted on Northern trains (the major operator in Greater Manchester) but overcrowding means that there are serious problems in accommodating more than two bikes on some trains, and conductors have the right to refuse access if the train is crowded. There is, however, no restriction on the number of folding bikes carried. The carriage of bicycles on Metrolink is prohibited under the by-laws due to constraints on space on the existing trams, unless they are folded and fully encased. This policy was recently re-affirmed following a review. Bus operators in Greater Manchester do not permit cycle carriage."

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The Greater Manchester LTP3 policy is remarkably negative when compared to ‘cycling integration’ policies being developed, or implemented, in other UK,23 European and North American cities. For example, the Danish State Railways, offer free bike carrying on their trains that serve greater Copenhagen, in an effort to further endorse biking as a legitimate mode of transit. As the blog Copenhagenize.com wrote, “DSB hopes to make everyday journeys easier for Copenhageners and encourage more people to use their bicycle.”24 It was also reported that:

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page 28 www.vejpark2.kk.dk/publikationer/pdf/413_cykelpolitik_uk.pdf www.gmita.gov.uk/downloads/file/3400/item_07_appendix_1

“To achieve greater integration between public transport and bicycles” Blackburn and Darwen Cycling Strategy, p5. http://www.blackburn.gov.uk/upload/pdf/BwD_Cycling_Strategy.pdf
http://thecityfix.com/blog/in-denmark-bikes-have-a-seat-on-some-trains/ ; http://www.copenhagenet.dk/CPHMap/CPH-Central-Station.asp
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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

“Copenhagen is doubling the space for bikes on a number of its suburban trains to meet growth stimulated by the switch to free bike travel. ! The Copenhagen S-train has also introduced one-way traffic in the new bike compartments to make it easier and faster to get on and off.25 Research in the United States has recognised that: “Coordinating bicycling with public transport is mutually beneficial, enhancing the benefits of both modes and encouraging more bicycling as well as more public transport use. Bicycling supports public transport by extending the catchment area of transit stops far beyond walking range and at much lower cost than neighborhood feeder buses and park-andride facilities for cars. Access to public transport helps cyclists make longer trips than possible by bike. Transit services also can provide convenient alternatives when cyclists encounter bad weather, difficult topography, gaps in the bikeway network, and mechanical failures.”26 For example, in Minneapolis it was reported that all: “Metro Transit and suburban transit buses are equipped with exterior bike racks, and the city has five stationary bike racks for first-time users to practice loading their bikes. Every light rail vehicle has interior vertical racks that accommodate four bikes. Bikeand-ride has become increasingly popular in Minneapolis. Metro Transit surveys in spring 2007 and fall 2008 found a doubling in the number of bicycles transported on bus racks and a 41 percent increase in bikes on light rail.”27 Manchester Friends of the Earth recognises that implementing such policies will be a longerterm process. However, unless Manchester makes a start we will never get there: a strategy for integration needs to be developed and reflected in policies and programmes. The Local Sustainable Transport Funding is an opportunity to further this process. Recommendation: Manchester City Council need to be working with Transport for Greater Manchester to start to develop policies to improve the integration of cycling with the public transport network and facilitate bicycles to be carried on the public transport network.

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http://www.goingsolar.com.au/pdf/transport/newsletters/transport_newsletter_213.pdf

Pucher,J, Buehler,R (2009), Integrating Bicycling and Public Transport in North America, Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp79-104 27 (Page 90)

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

6. Cycle Training for All Within the Cycling Strategy it is disappointing to see that there is only a weak commitment to providing adequate cycle training in Manchester.28 Manchester Friends of the Earth believe that the provision of cycle training is a vital component of any plan to increase cycling levels. Heavy traffic volumes and decades of carcentric planning mean that the speed and volume of traffic on Greater Manchester’s roads are real barriers to cycling and, whilst it is important to address these, it is also vital that individuals are given the skills and confidence they need to cycle on the road. Manchester Friends of the Earth has also carried out research around Bus driver and cyclist attitudes and has demonstrated a need for greater dialogue between these two groups. TfGM stated in December 2011 that it would work with partners to support Highway Authorities in “developing appropriate initiatives to promote cycle safety including raising bus driver and cyclist awareness.” [15.2.2] 29. However, these recommendations have not been taken up in the Strategy. Recommendation: That the Cycling Strategy acknowledges the importance of cycle training for both children and adults and sets out how this will be delivered in a comprehensive way and for an extended time period. Recommendation: That the Cycling Strategy includes the policy recommendation to include bus and essential drivers / Cyclist awareness schemes in Quality Bus Partnerships.

7. Default 20mph Speed Limits in Residential areas. Manchester Friends of the Earth notes the statement in Manchester’s Healthy Weight Strategy supporting 20mph default speed limits and which commits Manchester NHS to lobbying for: “a commitment to a 20mph speed limit for residential streets and those close to schools and public buildings or important for walking, cycling and children’s play”. (Page 29)30

“Manchester will continue to seek to identify funding opportunities to provide both adult cycle training!” (Page 29)
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[Page 18. Update on the progress with the operators Code of Conduct. 2nd December 2011.

www.transportforgreatermanchestercommittee.gov.uk/downloads/file/4230/item_07_update_on_the_progress_w ith_the_operators_code_of_conduct www.manchester.nhs.uk/document_uploads/Public%20health/SD03640%20%20Manchester%20Healthy%20Weight%20Strategy%20%28website%29.pdf
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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

We would also draw attention to a recent policy recommendation in a Transport Research Laboratory Report, published by the Department for Transport in 2010, which stated that: “Of all interventions to increase cycle safety, the strongest evidence is for the benefits resulting from reduction in motorised vehicle speed. Interventions that achieve this are also more likely to result in casualty reductions for all classes of road user.” 31 (Emphasis added). Manchester Friends of the Earth are therefore disappointed that the Cycling Strategy does not outline any policy mechanisms to introduce a default 20 mph speed limit in residential areas across the Manchester region. The table from the Transport Research Laboratory "Infrastructure and cyclist safety" report32 highlights that the majority of cycling related fatalities and ‘Killed and Seriously Injured’ occur within 30mph speed limit areas. The report authors list a number of "caveats" and "health warnings" relating to the data - but the variation between the 20mph and 30mph speed limit areas highlight a powerful reason for introducing 20mph default limits in Manchester. 8. Bold, sustained promotion of Cycling as Transport It is pleasing to see that the Cycling Strategy’s ambition to increase the number of commuter cyclists will be supported by ‘a program of promotional and marketing activity.’ However, while listing the existing promotional activities that are taking place in Manchester, the Strategy does not provide any detail of future plans to expand the marketing of commuter cycling
‘Infrastructure and cyclist safety’ www.trl.co.uk/online_store/reports_publications/trl_reports/cat_road_user_safety/report_infrastructure_and_cycli st_safety.htm Page 16 www.trl.co.uk/online_store/reports_publications/trl_reports/cat_road_user_safety/report_infrastructure_and_cycli st_safety.htm
32 31

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

across Greater Manchester. Clearly, with cycling levels so low in Manchester, there is a need to develop a well-considered marketing strategy that goes above and beyond the current measures. Promotional campaigns are an effective part of a number of measures available to increase cycling levels. Research carried out by the Department for Transport in 2004 found that travel awareness campaigns can not only complement other policy initiatives but also make them most effective. The research also raised the issue of ‘perception mismatch’ between changes and their benefits, finding that campaigns can help to make potentially unpopular measures more palatable. Campaign approaches include: • Traditional billboard, TV and radio campaigns. Campaigns can also include awareness raising events such as the regular Bike Week, Sky Rides and European Mobility Week. It is important that campaigns reflect consideration of their target audience. Individualised travel marketing, in which information relevant to specific journey requirements is provided, is a valuable approach. Sustrans’ TravelSmart TBC programme demonstrated that this approach can bring about increases in trips by sustainable transport modes by as much as 20%

Recommendation: That the Cycling Strategy include clear policy reference to the requirement to develop a range of promotional and support measures to encourage more people to cycle that are bold, sustained and targeted. Recommendation: That workplaces are encouraged to put in place Travel Plans that will include the provision of adequate parking, changing and storage facilities, including the requirement for such Travel Plans to be monitored to ensure they are effectively implemented.

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Manchester Friends of the Earth response to the Interim Strategy for Cycling in Manchester, January 2012.

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