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"' They were concernedwith a study of special "devices"-with the qualitiesand literary which differentiated literature properties fromotherforms writing. p. p. best. This generalizationcan be made even with referenceto the Formalist school of criticism-a modern development which should have attracted the interestof students of literatureeverywhere. HARPER obvious reasons. a Boris Eikhenbaum. Shklovsky's study was reprinted under the title of "Parodiyny roman" ("A Novel of Parody") in the collection of his studies entitled 0 teorii prozy (2d ed.It is extremeto difficult generalizeabout this comly whichfunctioned."2 Shandy A fewintroductory wordsare in order. The avant-garde theirday. "literariness" itself. This rare first edition was made available to the writer through the kindness of Professor Roman Jakobson. The Forfor malists. 19-30. 125. this interest implied a disregard "content"in art. theyshared of withRussian Futurist authorsa profound distrust traditional of and critical literary methods.Those whoare acquaintedwiththe and provocative Formalist highlyoriginal studies recognize their value and urge that the language gap somehow be The most practical solution to bridged. a number roughly. is the premise ofthe present paper. 1929). Moscow. at comes second hand. 1949). Specifically.that the Formalist approachcouldbe mostaccurately judged in a piece of criticism dealingwithWestern literature. No English translation exists.however." American Bookman. since our present information. opposing of To schools of criticism. 117. [MODERN HEWestern for of world. and referencesto individual Formalist critics are made by Wellek and Warren. 1 The most extensive treatment of the Russian Formalists in English is a recent Columbia University dissertation by Victor Erlich. Petersburg. A concise review is given by Manfred Kridl. November.whichis designed for American non-Slavic scholars unfamiliar with this Russian school of criticism. 1921). 1927).. theirgoal was "to createan independent scienceon the basis ofthe specific literary of peculiarities literary material. I (1944)."4 2 Victor Shklovsky. plex critical movement. to the knowledge of the present writer. is not well acquainted with the large body of Russian literary criticismand scholarship. to "literariness. The Formalists werenon-Marxian and scholars.the utilizationof all these elementscontributes the speto cific quality of literature-that is.A RUSSIAN CRITIC AND TRISTRAM SHANDY KENNETH E. This. structure.1954] 92 . and "content"are all seen as "devices" in the hands of the artist. moreover. Literatura (Leningrad. PmILOLOT.from 1916 to the close of the 1920's.1 wouldbe the extensive the problem translation of representative Formalistworks. they objected to the exclusiveconcernof criticswith "exelements(social. 4 Ibid.psychologitra-literary" and to the direction of cal. In the absence of it such translations. It is likely.Language. Theory of Literature (New York. linguists looselyunitedby a concern with problemsof artisticform.. The workchosenforreviewis Victor Shklovsky's study."Sterne's Tristram and the Theoryof the Novel.the object of study. "Tristram Shendi" Sterna i teoriya romana (St.denied the distinction betweenformand content. it shouldbe clear that what folalthough lows is in no way an analysis or descriptionoftheFormalist school. metaphor. "Russian Formalism. would appear that reviews or summariesof specificcritical studies mightserve a usefulpurpose.The Formalistssoughtto erecta "science" of or literary studyand to make literature. of Harvard University. at least.the latter is seen merelyas one of the manifestations of form. philosophical) Symbolist poetryand poetic theory.
As late as 1936.certainstructural to ing influencein Russian pre-Romantic references veritable chronology.slightedin traditional scholarship. in passing.had made him a lead.Specifically. This selection in the face of the was based. noncognitive perception stylisticdevices".Proof fessorWork offered certain reservations gressivelyunorthodoxinterpretation the novel followsquite naturally. on the first page of of Tristram Shandy.arydevicesin Tristram of attributes "literariness" Shandy-i. upon it rections. the immediate order in Sterne. which Shklovskyhad ning of incidentslater to be developed.that only"banalities"had been p. Profeswhichwould admit the importance to sor JamesA.e.upon his appreciaof salutarydogmatism dogmatismof the previousage. shouldbe said.Sterne to this generalopinion. The tenets of Formalist criticismwere deliberatechoice of Tristram Shandy-a novel-as the sub"formless" termsby men notoriously in oftenexpressed extreme but whoseaim was not moderation a kind ject of "formal" analysis. It was undoubtedly actions of the story.in 1804).eral opinion" of modern critics in the to recognize It is essential by Shandyis con.tion of the formalqualities of the novel could be suppliedby and of the elements of regularityand anced interpretation a later. he therefore the purelyliteror "vision.. A distinctionwas made between Shandyis dealingwithextra-literary The "literarito practical and poetic language." what different interesting highly criticism. Gentleman (New York.disorderand lack of logic.studiedthe utilizationin poetryof the author'sadherenceor rebellion an cult of the emotions. oftheleadersofthemove.the foresighted planed.Shklovskyheld that a of tion.5In turn.His ag. but it is not a legitimate in orderto preventits automaticpercepsubject of Formalist criticism.ness" of the novel was not to be foundin to ment. Reality is "made strange" worthy investigation othergrounds. .A RUSSIAN CRITIC AND "TRISTRAM SHANDY" 93 Since language is the basic materialof written about Sterne. his study. Thus ues. pointed to devicesused by Sterne: in translated 1793. The bal. of course."and by the eighteenth-century devicewhichhe called ostraneniye ("mak. relationofrhythm rhyme. 1940). Western to talistsin contemporary the rhythm.lish or to denysentimentalism Tristram patternsin literature valriod.more prosaic age. The Life and Opinions in mindwhenhe said.sincethefunction thepoeticimage but to work of art is merely the "sum of its is not to insure comprehension focused create a special. this interpretation aJames Aiken Work (ed.West that the novel was distinguished sky's analysis of Tristram ducted in this spirit of inquiry.chronological literature Shandy sequence of the two main (Tristram in part." literary that Shklov.the was translat.and theshifting formal Scholarshipwhich seeks eitherto estabin fromperiod to pe. one Shklovsky.that the formal elements which had been these studies were by no means "inte. of poeticlanguage. words "outside of meaning. Formalistsmade linguistic proachis clearly"antisentimentalist. xlvi.A Sentimental Journey. They produced thoughthe basis of his objection from that of antisentimenstudiesofpoetic"style.Sterne's relation to this cult may be on of ing strange"). according Shklovsky." is someanalysis their specialty. Shklovsky's. Work referred the "gen"device. This was an unconvennot science tional interpretation only in Russia task was the creationof a literary of the in the year 1921.and his approach had long been establishedin Russia as a is worthnotingby way of contrastwith he sentimentalist. Shklovsky's apalthe literature. to It is interesting observeShklovsky's grated" or consistent in methodology.)." The Formalistsearchforthe his wholeattention upon took manydi.
and Sterne whenhe wishesto further actionor to the is everywhere consciousinnovatorand transfer fromone set of charactersto a it The "abnormali. upon occahis purely expositorymanner of Fielding-.Shklovsky declared. li. The Sterne'swhimsicality. he usually rethat from the fullexplanation.' Professor Work argues that a misinterpreted. trusting table) logic of conversation". . undisguiseddefiTo Shklovsky. revelationsare sometimesmade in the One mightadd that Sterne.the effect.the reader will correctlyinterprethis said but his di.partingthe characters tion with formaldevices. except in instances of semblance of normalcyis preservedand obvious parody of otherwriters. KENNETH HARPER and the principle of the association of discusses his problems and intentions." Sterne'svariachaos is viewed not as the product of tion on this solutionwas simplyto insert but whimsyor eccentricity as the result a passage or chapterwhichhas no logical and rationalplan. of opinions. Sterne'sabidinginterest ance of "normality..94 E. structural of ties" are proof thenovelist's involvedin a wellpreoccupa.The factthat this as Picasso painting. relation whathas gonebefore. dedicaplace as a sentimentalist humorist. mittedly complicatesmatters. Further.Shklovsky cites with an acknowledgmentof Sterne's such obviouseccentricities the deliberas and of the ate misplacing the preface. The apparent placed "separationscene. He was concernedonly with shouldbe evident:he is merely "retarding the formalelementsin Tristram of Shandy the transposition action. 7 Shklovsky. s Ibid. been are always planned for further Shklovsky.frains lationof Sterne'sown associatedideas ad. Shklovsky's approach and also moreextreme.sion. and certain individual chapters.Unfortunately. this was pre-eminently novelistto avoid overlyabrupt changes a novel offormand aboutform. was narrower tion. by especiallyimportant.not of action. 4. These reAs an example of Sterne's practiceof marks on structureare complemented "layingbare" his devices. p. or offering balanced interpretation a of According Shklovsky.meaningand intent."does not point to in formalproblems is self-evident.cal experimentation caprice."' The referand their illustration Formalisttheo.actuallydoes inform readerthat in chatswiththereader.the novelist's technique. p. intentions his have often gressions effect.It was that wheredisorderreigns. is an incritic was particularly delighted with stance of his habit of "laying bare" one Sterne's consistentpractice of revealing of the formal compositionaldevices to his formaldevices to the reader. The latter is Sternealso reliedheavilyupon the prachis since this is a novel tice ofrevealing techniquedirectly. whichtheauthor he is "laying bare" his compositional methods.This problemis oftensolved by experimenter.another. ignoblebuffoonery. to Sterne'spurpose the whole.7 in is done consciously. of to consciouswhich is responsible.ence hereis to a universalconcernof the of ries. it rather. To him.A clear illustration contained is 6 Ibid. and since it concreteexample. ideas. p. interpo.. 5. These whichall novelists have recourse.placed passage has a definite"braking" is leading:actually. derived fromLocke. have said that Often critics have frownedupon these We he was not seekingrecognizable patterns "tricks"as irritating. fully as great as if a separation novel is as orderlyand meaningful a scenehad been devised.it is Sterne's more commonto ascribe Sterne'stechniconcernwiththe irrationality the sub. ofa deliberate to The misthe appearance of disorderliness mis. In thus "laying bare" reflectsthe "unpredictable (but irrefu.
-as the parallel made moreforthe sake of letting apos.. Nowhere does he supporthis upright-joined to the main narrative at view by the novelist's own testimony. Oftenthe new arrivalwill break and the concomitantdigressionswhich into the scene with a strangeor utterly characterize novelare the real subject inappropriate the remark.tions of the event spread out fromthis ly not advertised so openly. Shklovskycites instancesof this need not agree that Sterne'sintent ex.ratherthan in the total effect. This inverted reliance of Sterne upon the writingsof 10o Shklovsky. is a permanent feature of Tristram of is. his discussionis highlyinin theworld. joined to the base line of of retardingthe transposition the novel at its tip. . standthis. deeming even more falseinference it to than sion. with the brief -Writersof mystamphaveone principle the reader is confronted and father the on colloquyof the mother in common withpainters. Shklovsky's i. Much more Shandy.-'tis not wrong pracguesses. The subtleway in whichapparentBook II. a relativelyminor matter. cum "causes beauty.the reverseis true: the cone is a to Sterne. does not under. 91. the further ramificapractice ("lettingthe apostrophecool") is normal. is the "disShklovskysaw in Sterne's method of placementof time"-a device employed introducingnew charactersanother inthe throughout whole novel.makes it possibleforthe readerto make the trophecool. tack'dvery closeto thelastspirited teresting and original. 9 Work.A RUSSIAN CRITIC AND "TRISTRAMSHANDY" 95 in the first two paragraphsof chapter4.one folded."'0In usual narrative whether score tice a verymaterial uponany other given event may be symbolized by thereader of approves it ornot. In Sterne. Sterne's ex. clusively Goncharov.the author salis. p. its base.-though was in the middle I of parentsto "mindwhat theywereabout.-therefore forthwith an end to paragraphon the inabilityof Tristram's put the chapter.-Thisis to be understood grano explanation. windingof clocks.9 the geometrical of figure a cone: the cone point is that Sterne'sgeneral is inverted.stance of his disregard for logical seperimentationwith temporal sequence quence.-Where exact an makesour pictures striking.e. Here. Having endedthepreviouschap." mystory. said Shklovsky.ly irrelevant digressionscontribute to ter with an impassioned apostrophe to character development. Locke. to have apostrophe my uncle Toby. 6. I palate.) common. Turgenev. Here the Russian quently provide the necessary explanacriticseems to be unaware of the heavy tion. the causal moment(the tip) is One may ormaynotagreewithShklovsky reachedonly afterthe whole seriesof acthat the formaleffect whichhe describes tionsmakingup the eventhave been unis actually attained. is in Shklovsky interested I Wouldnot give a groatforthat man's the mechanicaldetails of the digressions From this in who knowledge pencraft. but says it The misplacing chapters ofcourse. 11Ibid. in any instance. The reader draws a less we copying about the subjectofdiscuschoose the less evil.-would The novelbeginswithone ofthesetemfeltboth cold and vapid upon the reader's After introductory the poralirregularities. The critic initialpointto fillout the cone. and only later is given the correct pardonable trespassagainsttruth. is are given afterconsequences. but be it as it will. Gogol). hereattributes certainconsciousmotive however.techniquein otherauthors (AndreiBely. than any thingelse. is formalistic.-Thatthebestplainnarrative point of view.for example.said Shklovsky.by way ofa flashback. is Uncle Toby. p.Sterne will subseof Shklovsky'sstudy. he continues: not considered.
if thereare two main scenesfrom one of thesealternate stories. p. would not have been necesthe with refsary to interrupt digression erences to the suspended sentence. 16 Ibid. but it usually servesa narrative purpose. cates that this is deliberatelydone by Sterne.. Parody is deliberate. his Normally. pp. does not the specify objects of parody. "is "This device.. . 6). time sequence is common in literature. in Russian). 7-8. III. p. Placinghis mother 15Ibid. Father Shandy's speech to Toby about the ass is called a parody of Don Quixote's speech to Sancho Panza on the art of government (p. as elsewhere.12 Anotherexperiment with temporalsequence. Supplementband VIII (1899-1901). .. the eminent classical scholar. Here Shklovsky argues that Sterne is consciously parodying established models. to Book II.'4Shklovsky'sstatementindi12 Ibid. Even when logic demands that two events should be simultaneous.he does so in such a way that their purely conventionalnature is revealed. . who had published a study entitled "The Law of Non-simultaneityand the Composition of the Iliad" (1896. at best.again."'" Shklovsky's point is that Sterne. Ia Shklovsky cites a differentprinciple in Homer. according to informationsupplied by Professor Ren6 Wellek.. Cervantes is cited frequently: for example. 21. Shklovskyselected several digressions in Tristram the conShandyto illustrate A scious parodyofconvention. "I think. consistent in Sterne. 18). 11. properly speaking. digressions. be alternated withthe adventures Sanof cho Panza. a secondary action may "coexist" with a main action.. with scenes from the other. a novelist will interrupt main story to introduce a secondary theme. 5-13). 32). The writer. was not obliged to interrupt latter in the middle of a sentenceor to leave the sentencesuspendedin mid-air fora distanceof some thirty pages. For the most part. (In Don the adventuresof the hero may Quixote.is the process of "weaving together"separate storiesinto the main narrative. .)I3 Sternerejectedthe "canonical methodsoffitting into separatestories the main novel. chap. 14Ibid. Shklovsky's references to parody are cast in general terms. unquestionably T. "consciously overdoing it"-i. in supplyingbackgroundmaterialon Uncle the Toby. Furit thermore. he is intentionally burlesquing conventional methodsof introducing new material in his subplot. they are represented as consecutive actions. 405-991. 7. His reason for doing the unnecessaryis his conscious desire to parody established practices.) Sterne. The phrase is repeated more than once in the courseof the succeeding Sterneis Here. p. Another instance is the long UncleToby's remark: digression following "I wish you had seen what prodigious armies we had in Flanders" (Book II. chaps. amuses himbut selfwithit. usuallyhas no such narrativepurpose: his chronologicalinversionsare quite arbitrary and are introduced nakedly. where the order of thingsis II.listeningto the conversationin the adjoining room (Book V. I. typicalexample is the digressionon Uncle Toby from pointwherehe removesthe pipe the his from mouthto say. this piece is also available in a German version: "Die Behandlung gleichzeitiger Vorg5nge im antiken Epos. chap.e." Philologus." to the point where his sentenceis finished (Book I. chap." If he does employthese methods. he not onlyperceivesthe hyperbolism of hisdevelopment. where two events are never shown to be simultaneous. as is clear fromhis jestingmentionof Uncle Toby along the way. Zielinski."says the critic.The Shot. 10. 7-8). (Shklovskycites variationsof it in Gogol and in Pushkin'sfamousstory.said the critic. openlyrevealed to the reader.1" In thisconnection also cited Shklovsky the passage in whichthe authorleaves his motherstandingat the door. These observations are credited to Zelinsky.or subplot. for all the world to see. His exaggerateddevelopmentof secondarythemesis a kind of burlesque or parody.96 KENNETH HARPER E. and. remaining in an "inactive state" (pp.
The artificeof the "discovered of manuscript"(repeated in A Sentimental minutes. with its fixed course of time in the drama. of familiar enough in literary criticism. the conventionality 'literary word.Formalistposition:Sentimentalism (senard works as Don Quixote and Manon timental'nost') cannot be the contentof Lescaut is pure convention.." It is tion of the novel. on the otherhand.thereferences Jenny are Trim -these and otherepisodes are described the secondarynarrative(Corporal in the kitchen)but simply"to refresh the in rather great detail by Shklovskyin " of mother. leadingto Yorick's sermonand the author more than related to the main storyby the intersuing digressions. said Shklov. tratesSterne'sawarenessof a convention vices to preventthe completedisintegraof long standing-"literary time. On impression the 'forgotten illus.iar methods of depiction. 18 Ibid. These step by step in A Sentimental Journey). said Shklovsky.' terms of their compositionalvalue. 13.vneemotsial'no.deliberately emphasizesthe existenceof or at literary timeto be stopped. Sterneemployscertaindethis detail to According Shklovsky. conventions violatingthemin thorto consider by whenhe such radical fashion. abandoned ruptionsof Toby and Trim. has its own peculsky. .this. "nonemotional. he for normalin works of literature an au." which Sterne:operating againstthe background distract the spectator from the normal of the adventure novel.but the expectinsteada yawning to ant readerfinds passed. Shake.A RUSSIAN CRITIC AND "TRISTRAM SHANDY" 97 in this position.) In illustration this theory."Literarytime" in such stand. the Lefevre once recalls his temporarily Tristram's mother ("I am a Turk if I had not as digression.and these are connected tive and has no compositional "outor. p. stateHis Sterne'sexperiments of the background literary menthereis typicalof the early. to to recollections not intended interrupt the "knot" theme.Thus the "unfinished as thisconven.extreme viewedagainst tradition. journey(developed much forgot my mother. p."'9 Most ofthefamousdigressions in amoral.premeditated device withSterne..Journey). introducesa subordinatemotive. of withtheunfolding thenarra. the parentheticscene consumes only a few novelist devised alternate forms which it of the The minutes. function. authorconsiders necessary impliedthe verydestruction form.in orderto bringthe "affairs the kitchen"up to date. which the prefix and is used as matter vnehas the forceofthe Englishprefix "a" time' is recognized.the one hand.or even a whole night.had seem to lead to a landing. 14. Shklovskycited the example of the fairy 17 19 Ibid. Ibid.often without apleast not a subject ofcalculation."20 (Shklovskyhere coins a of in Sterne. stylistic in The criticpaused briefly his discusately draws the reader's attentionto the it with"palpability. Even if the forms and set ending (marriage).followed tion in his "parentheticscenes."'8 sion to rejectcategorically conception the deviceand endows withtimeare thus of Sterne as a sentimentalist." moreproperly. .he said. "In side emotion.narrative"is described "canonical" for speare.art. 22. Ibid."). stairwayof one of Sterne'sepisodesmay "as if hours. mother"represent vari.parentmotivation. to lead the following action on further."Art.is a constant and a the "forgotten ation on thishalloweddevice: he deliber." Sterne'sincidentalreferences chasm. "if onlyforthe reasonthatart has no The approach of day or nightis not content. is the factorof time-duration absent. o20 p... During the en.forexample.the author declares his of the novelrevealthisawarenessoftechintentionto let her stand there for five nique. forjest.
fully fashioninghis compositionalmaterial.22 The motherhears the news in the ridiculous ear-by-door sequence.as the material for artisticdevelopment. p. 39.. Dfilworth.in Tristram notthe subject. Shklovsky quoted the passage which described Father Shandy's gift for eloquence: "A blessing which tied up my father's tongue. he must not observe the belt "from pointofview ofa vegethe tarian.. Sterne's mischievous play on words is "noncompassionate. Sterne is viewed comic not as the erratic. 23. for instance.98 KENNETH E. was chief Here. The tragthe of ic in art is not the same as the tragicin real life. p.. and a misfortune which set it loose with a good grace." but even moreso are the words of Father Shandy. it is only incidental in Shklovsky's. said Shklovsky."21 This apparentlydeliberateparadox is with the Formalistconquite consistent cern with "literariness."The fable. 1948). 22 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 25Ibid." A man wishingto understandthe operation of a machine must considerthe leatherdriving-belt as a mechanicaldetail. replete with accounts of terrible deeds relatedin gruesome detail."but even here one must considerit fromthe compositional point of view. p. one ofthe materialswhichmay constitute the subShandy. and the pain of the misfortune but as five--my father gained half in half.because the gruesomequality has been alteredthrough efficacy art."23 for can Only passingreference be made to pp.Shklovskyrepeated his thesis: "The concept of the subject[syuwith zhet]of art is too oftenconfounded the description of events-with that which I propose to designate the fable is [fabula]. formof ostraneniye ("making strange").. 23-25). where the pleasure of the harangue was as ten. N. The same passages are cited in greater detail by E. Shklovsky cites examples of this situation in Russian literature and in folk drama. pp. writing These problems alwerestated explicitly.24 Shklovsky also dealt brieflywith the question of whichhe regarded a as Sterne'seroticism. In conclusion. p. 28. pp. 23 Ibid. 352). Sterne'sconstantrevelation of the formallaws of art is so pronouncedthatthecontent thisnovelcan of be describedonly as the perception its of form. a the deviceinthisrespect euphemism. Shandyis the mosttypical novel in worldliterature." Shklovskycontendedthat the formal of problems novel wereplaced on exhibitby Sterne.The newsofthedeath is introduced in such a way that misunderstanding resultsamongthe members the family(a of in typicalcomicsituation whichtwo charactersare talking about different things). Here..It is truethat the artistmay use compassion. Sterne illustrates with unusual clarity "the difference between 'happiness' and in 'misfortune' real lifeand the same phenomenatakenas thematerial art.as it never had befallen him" (Work. ludedto. p."''21 Instances of Sterne'snonemotional apof proach include the treatment Bobby's death. said the critic. 24 . The critic comof mentedon Sterne'sminutedescription unusualposes and gestures-FatherShanawkwarddy lyingon the bed or reaching ly into his pocket-and cited theirinterest fortheyoungLeo Tolstoy. HARPER tale.or story. The questionof "poses" in Sterne'scharactersdrewbrief mention. 11-12. irrepressible caregenius but as a master-craftsman. two otheraspectsof Shklovsky's analysis. The refutationof sentimentalism in Sterne is the chief theme of Dilworth's work..it is ject of the work.25as elsewhere. The UnsentimentalJourney of Laurence Sterne (New York.In "Tristram truth. The insinuating language and numerous sexual symbols were essentiallydevices forcreating novel or unusual effect. 22-23. 28 Ibid. In this connection.and illustrated directexample by Ibid. 35. indeed. Those who deny that Tristram Shandyis a novel will also deny that the symphonyis music. Children insist that these details be retained. were pretty equal: sometimes. 17-19.forexample. where it is canonical and where it often crowds the main theme offthe stage (pp. the misfortune was the better of the two. and consequently was as well again off.
one is less impressedby the causal relationship Locke's theoof ries. The validityofthe Formalistapproach is.It was in theauthor'sawareness and utilization technique of that the critic foundthe novel's enduring. example. or even the factorsin the relevance. possible.the novel should be taken at its face value and studied for properties in whichare inherent worksof art-form and technique.Shklovsky of appears to have ignoredthe novelist'sbeliefthat the idea ofdurationoftime"is gotmerely from trainand succession ourideas. Sterne's interest in eighteenth-century thought is increasing." JHI.They constitute essenceof the thenovel.Shklovwas certainly sky acquaintedwithmodern distortions this nature. of psychological best represented Russia by thenovelsof in AndreiBely.One is even of temptedto say that the potentialities have not yet been rethiskind of inquiry alized in morerecentcritical works.Although Shklovsky's studyillustrates quite well the narrowness this of the intrinsic meritof his analapproach.stilla matterof considerable dispute. inadequate as it is.in discussing For thedislocation time. the structural composer.as one becomes aware of the greattechnicalvirtuosity of Sterne. mentalist interpretation has been suband our awarenessof stantiallymodified. "that writer understanding whose work exhibits and reflectsboth the deeplyand playfully best philosophic of his day.of extra-literary of the novel. The sentiSterne. 99 Sterne'smind. from his different vantage point. Thus. . the "Russian JamesJoyce. Other explanations or deviationsare meaningsof the structural not considered.27 the of This notionand the free-association prinLocke are the basis for ciple derivedfrom Sterne'schronological deviations. should not the critichave taken into account Sterne's very real interestin current psychologicaland philosophictheory? On what groundscan the influence of Locke be ignored? The apparent answer is that it is impossible to prove the value. universalsignificance.or imputecertainmotives to him. has been made of Sterne. but a purely formalistic experimentation. "Imagination and Sympathy: Sterne and Adam Smith. Shklovsky's analysis." In his discussionof the interlacing patterns and themes of TristramShandy. p. of course.Such studies as KennethMacLean's comparison Sterne of and Adam Smithhave contributed our to of Sterne.theFormalist hopesto revealtruths hidden by generationsof conventional commentators.may be admitted. why should he ing in indulgein a burlesqueof thetheory action? The fact of parody suggestsa different interpretation: the primary factor in chronologicaldistortionwas not Sterne's interestin Locke. X (1949). Actually. seems to the present writer be quite as revealing morereto as cent studiesby Western specialistswhose critical approachis in some degreesimilar to that of the Russian Formalists. It is evidentthatShklovsky all times at a conscious formalistic on intent presumes Sterne's part. ysis should be recognized.the Formalistview is that one cannot determinethe primary cause at all: one cannot reconstruct psychological the processesin 27Work.the writer. If nothingof this sort can be proved. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES 28 Kenneth MacLean. 409. Sterne's intercomposition est in Locke.A RUSSIAN CRITIC AND "TRISTRAMSHANDY" or parody.Modern scholarship has extendedour admittedly imperfect knowledgeof Laurence but in otherdirections. 103."28It is still entirely thought thatno adequate study however. Conversely. but how does one explain his conscious parody on the principle associaof If tionism? theauthorweremerely reflectthe theoriesof Locke. forexample.
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