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APPENDIX C

LIFT LUGS
COMPRESS includes the option for three (3) different types of lift lugs, i)) standard plate type / tailing lug, (ii) ear type lug and (iii) trunnion lugs. The ear and trunnion type lugs are used with a tailing lug on vertical vessels which will be subjected to a rotational lift. Standard plate type lugs can be used for horizontal vessels or as a tailing lug for vertical vessels.

Lift Load Determination:


The first requirement in the lug analysis is to determine the lift load on the lug. When determining the lift load, the lift weight, W, will be the vessel weight multiplied by the load (or impact) factor. The load factor can be specified in the lift lug dialog, typically a value of 1.5 is used for this factor. The lug load is then determined from a static analysis based on the lug locations, the center of gravity location and the total lift weight.

Horizontal Lift
For the case of a horizontal vessel with two lugs the force is determined from:

Where x1 is the distance between the lug and the center of gravity, x2 is the distance between the second lug and the center of gravity, is the angle between the lift force and the vertical.

A similar procedure is used for other lug arrangements.

Vertical Lift

For vertical lifts lugs can be attached to the upper cylinder or the top head. COMPRESS permits up to 4 lugs on a top head for a vertical lift. For the case of a 2 lug vertical lift the load distribution is analogous to the horizontal procedure above. For the case of a 3 lug vertical lift the load distribution per lug is determined as follows.

W*L2 = F13*(L2 + L13) F13 = W*L2 / (L2 + L13) F2 = W*L13 / (L2 + L13) F13*L3 = F1*(L1 + L3) F1 = F13*L3 / (L1 + L3) F3 = F13*L1 / (L1 + L3) Where F1 , F2 and F3 are the vertical forces at lugs 1, 2 and 3. F13 is the vertical force at the intersection point of the lines from lug 2 and lugs 1 and 3. A similar procedure is used for the case of 4 lugs on a top head to find the vertical forces at each lug. Note that for a vertical lift any eccentricity of the center of gravity is also considered.

Rotational Lift
For the case of a rotational lift from horizontal to vertical the top lug loads and the tail lug load are determined from:

Where; N = number of top lugs - typically 2 ear type l1 = distance from top lug hole to center of gravity l2 = distance from tail lug hole to center of gravity l3 = distance from tail lug hole to vessel center line = lift angle from horizontal

Lug Calculations: Failure Modes:


1. Lug Pin shear stress - this value is calculated at the maximum resultant force. Shear stress

The shear stress value used in this equation is the allowable shear stress value input for the lug. 2. Lug plate thickness - use the effective width of the plate at the pin. This value is calculated at the maximum resultant force.

The tensile stress value used in this equation is the allowable tensile stress value input for the lug. 3. Lug plate stress - the combined stress due to tensile and bending loads in determined at the base of the lug. For rotational lift calculations the combined stress is calculated at all angles from 0 to 90 and the maximum value is reported. For non-rotational lifts the bending and tensile stresses are calculated based on the input load angle .

4. Weld Stress - the combined weld shear stress is calculated at the lug to shell (or lug to pad) location as well as at the pad to shell location if a pad exists. The combined shear stress is determined from the tensile, bending and direct shear stress values. The combined shear stress is compared to the allowable weld shear stress. For rotational lift calculations the combined stress is calculated at all angles from 0 to 90 and the maximum value is reported. For non-rotational lifts the bending and tensile stresses are calculated based on the input load angle .

Tailing Lugs
In addition to the standard lug calculations described above, if a tailing lug is included at a skirt base ring then additional calculations are performed to determine the loading and deflection on the base ring. This procedure is based on "Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain - 6th Edition, Table 17, case 20". Vertical deflection and bending stress is determined for the base ring at all lift angles and the maximum case is reported.

Base ring loading calculation If the base ring is overstressed the user has an option to consider additional base ring calculations with a single strut to reinforce the base ring. This option can be turned on from the Set Mode dialog (F7) => Calculation page by selecting the "Consider strut in tail lug / base ring calculation" option in the Lift Lug section.

The lift force on the tail lug acts at the top of the base ring. When a strut is included the loading is broken down into 3 separate analyses and the net loading and deflection is determined by superposition. Deflection of the base ring with net loading at top; Dy_top = -0.0744(Wtail - Ws)*R3 / (E*I) Deflection of the bottom of base ring with net loading Ws; Dy_bot = -0.0744(Ws)*R3 / (E*I) Elongation of strut due to loading Ws;

L = 2*Ws*R / (A*E) = Dy_top - Dy_bot Substituting and solving for the strut load Ws gives; Ws = (0.0372*Wtail*R2) / ( (Iring / Abeam) + 0.0744*R2)

Local Stresses Local stress in the vessel shell is checked by either a WRC 107 analysis or by a procedure given in the European pressure vessel code EN13445. The analysis type can be selected by the user in the lift lug dialog. For Ear Type and Trunnion lugs, only the WRC 107 analysis is available. Lug Angles
The lug analysis uses various angles to determine the loading on the lug. = angle between lift force and the perpendicular to the lug = angle between lift force and the vertical = shell angle from horizontal