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Paragraph (from the Greek paragraphos, "to write beside" or "written beside") is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing

with a particular point or idea. A paragraph consists of one or more sentences. The start of a paragraph is indicated by beginning on a new line. Sometimes the first line is indented. At various times, the beginning of a paragraph has been indicated by the pilcrow: A written work be it an essay or a story is about an idea or concept. An essay explains it; a story narrates it. To help the reader understand and enjoy it, the explanation or narration is broken down into units of text, the paragraph. In an essay, each paragraph explains or demonstrates a key point or thought of the central idea, usually to inform or persuade. In fiction, each paragraph serves to advance the plot, develop a character, describe a scene or narrate an action all to entertain the reader. All paragraphs support each other, leading the reader from the first idea to the final resolution of the written work. Components of paragraph are: The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be discussed is called the controlling idea. Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both the topic and the controlling idea: Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain or prove the topic sentence by giving more information about it. Following are some of the supporting sentences that explain the topic sentence about gold. Gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. A Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25 centuries ago. Another characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits. The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember: In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. However, para-graphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences.

FIVE IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING Writing should have focus y An essay should have a single

clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. Writing should have development y Each paragraph should support the central idea of the paper. Individual sentences should support the main point of the paragraph. Every paragraph in an essay should be related to the main idea. Each paragraph should stick to its main point. An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader. A paper should be written in generally correct standard English, with complete sentences, and be relatively error-free.

Writing should have unity

Writing should have coherence

y Writing should have correctness

METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT Classification method can be done if you are going to breakdown information into smaller parts, in simplifying a concept or in explaining something such as a series of things. Description of Process. It is usually done in describing a series of connected actions in chronological manner. The process of description might be in the form of natural, mechanical or historical processes. Like the other methods, it can also be use to expand the idea in the paragraph. Comparison and Contrast. The writer can use comparison if he/she want to show some similarities with the given ideas. On the other hand, the writer can use contrast if he/she wants to point out differences in ideas. It also possible to use the combination of both comparison and contrast in establishing both the similarities and differences of ideas in the given paragraph. Cause and Effect. Cause and effect method can be used to expand the idea in the paragraph by establishing or explaining what happened as a result of something. In

here, the writer can use signal words such as the words; because, cause, due to, for the reason and other words for the cause. The signal words for the cause are the words; as a result, consequently, in effect, therefore, thus and more. Narration. In here, the writer could expand the concept of an idea in the paragraph by arranging the ideas in order; in chronological, or in place, or in the level of importance telling what happened first and what will be in the next. For chronological or time order, the write can use the words that tell time such as; such as first, second then, after, later and more. For place order, the writer can use the words that locate, such words like; below, beneath, behind, behind, near, and more. For the order of importance, the writer can use the words that judge importance, such words like; next, last, must, greatest, in the first place and more.

PARAGRAPH WRITING APPROACHES Classic Approach Writing a paragraph correctly takes skill and understanding some important rules. The first sentence must introduce the topic under discussion and ideally offer an opinion on it. This sentence shouldn't contain any supporting ideas, as these will follow in the next sentences. There should a number of factual sentences that support your ideas or opinions and these should include statistics, examples and comparisons, as necessary. Relevant anecdotes can also be introduced at this point in the paragraph. Finally, there should be a concluding sentence, which reasserts the opinions introduced in the first sentence. Narration and Description In the narrative approach, the author develops a paragraph by describing a happening from beginning to end. This type of approach works well when the writer is relaying historical events or when describing background information. When writing a paragraph in the descriptive approach, the author supplies details about his topic and writes about any distinguishing characteristics. The information in these paragraphs is arranged by group or appearance. Process and Classification When writing a paragraph using the process approach, the author explains the workings of a product in a step-by-step fashion. The process approach to paragraph construction works well when recreating a certain result. Each sentence typically explains a step in the process that's required to make the product work. The last sentence in a paragraph of this nature indicates that the instructions are complete and normally offers a concluding comment relevant to the process. Paragraphs constructed using the classification approach separate the different sections of a topic into various groups and arrange them according to a logical classification.

Illustration In the illustration approach, paragraphs discuss cases and contain examples. The purpose of this type of paragraph is to explain how these examples and facts back up the point that's being made. An illustration paragraph is different from other types of paragraphs in that the evidence presented is from one source about the same topic. The Length The ideal length of a paragraph should be about 8 to 12 words. After twelve words the eye wants to automatically jump down one line, and so it is hard to read the rest of the line if it s too long. You can also make your paragraph shorter than 8 words as magazines and newspapers do. Unity in the Paragraph A good paragraph possesses unity when all the sentences develop the main idea. Unity in the paragraph is achieved by the use of (1) a topic sentence with its controlling idea (2) supporting details, and (3) a clinching sentence. Coherence in the Paragraph The word "coherence" derived from "cohere" literally means "to hold together". If the sentences in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence to effect a unified whole, these sentences should further be arranged in an orderly sequence and linked to one another to ensure a smooth progression of ideas from one sentence to another. Emphasis in the paragraph Emphasis is concerned with how important the ideas can be made prominent. Ideas in the paragraph are made emphatic through (1) position in the paragraph, (2) proportion in discussion, (3) the use of parallel grammatical structures, (4) the repetition of key ideas, and (5) the arrangement of ideas in a climate order. Important ideas are given prominence by placing them at the beginning or at the end of the paragraph.