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NC DIVISION OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT NC CENTER FOR GEOGRA PHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS
Land Suitability Analysis User Guide
For ArcView 3.x and ArcGIS 9.x
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide
Table of Contents
1.0 Background ................................................................ 3
1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 5.1 5.2 CAMA Requirements for Land Suitability Analysis in Land Use Plans .................. 4 GIS Approach ........................................................................................................... 5 GIS and Spatial Analysis .......................................................................................... 6 Raster vs. Vector Approach...................................................................................... 6 Technical Issues with a Raster Data Model.......................................................... 8 Introduction to Spatial Analyst ............................................................................... 11 Introduction To Model Builder............................................................................... 11 Computer Requirements and Getting Started ......................................................... 13 Define the Criteria................................................................................................... 16 Define the Data ....................................................................................................... 22 Determine the GIS Operations ................................................................................ 23 Data Preparation...................................................................................................... 26 Using ModelBuilder................................................................................................ 27 Running the Land Suitability Model....................................................................... 27 Evaluating the Results............................................................................................. 44 Modifying the Land Suitability Model ................................................................... 45 Description.............................................................................................................. 54 Criteria ................................................................................................................ 55 Setting Classifications in the Model ................................................................... 56 Exporting Images .................................................................................................... 61 Note on ArcView 3.x Extensions ............................................................................ 61
2.0 GIS Tools for Land Suitability Analysis ................... 6
3.0 Land Suitability Model............................................. 15
4.0 Environmental Composite Map .............................. 54
5.0 Images and Extensions ........................................... 61
Acknowledgements and Contacts ......................................... 62
Figure 2-1 – Vector Data Example .......................................................................................... 7
Figure 2-2 – Raster Data Example ...................................................................................... 7 Figure 2-3 – Raster Overlay Example ................................................................................. 8 Figure 2-4 - Vector Polygon ............................................................................................... 9 Figure 2-5 - Raster Polygon; 209 ft Resolution.................................................................. 9 Figure 2-6 - Raster Polygon; 400 ft Resolution................................................................ 10 Figure 2-7 - Model Builder Example ................................................................................ 12 Table 1 – Criteria Table Example ......................................................................................... 19 Table 2 – Calculating Absolute Weight ................................................................................. 21 Table 3 - Environmental Criteria ........................................................................................... 55 Appendix 1 - Data Notes Appendix 2 - Data Processing for ArcView 3.x Models Appendix 3 - Data Directory 2
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide
The Land Suitability Analysis (LSA) project is a GIS-based process for evaluating the suitability of land for development. The LSA project is a joint effort by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Coastal Management (DCM) and the North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (CGIA). The project is an outgrowth of the 2002 Coastal Resources Commission (CRC) land use planning requirements that place added emphasis on basing land use policies on natural systems capabilities and limitations and a land suitability analysis. The CRC requirements contain specific provisions for development-related analysis of natural systems and land suitability. The LSA project makes it easier for local governments to address these requirements. Also, the project increases the capacity of coastal communities to consider land suitability in developing their land use plans and other related policies and in making day-to-day decisions about land use and development. The project also makes GIS technology and spatial information more accessible to local governments in the coastal area. In this regard, the project utilizes ESRI GIS software with the Spatial Analyst extension along with data layers available from DCM, CGIA and other sources to evaluate natural features and existing development related to the suitability of land for development. The project also allows local governments to add their own spatial data. The two major outputs of the LSA project are an environmental composite map and a land suitability map. The environmental composite map shows the extent and overlap of natural features and environmental conditions that indicate the capability and limitations of natural systems for urban development. The land suitability map shows the relative suitability of land in a planning area for urban-type development. Both of these map outputs are consistent with current requirements for preparing Coastal Area Management Act (CAMA) land use plans 1. The project team identified the following requirements for the application of GIS to land suitability:
The project must be capable of easily handling very large amounts of spatial data
Some of the information specifically identified by the CRC 2002 land use planning rules is not currently available. Appendix 1 details data that are included in the LSA project and those that are not included.
and III summary environmental analysis (see further description below) (C) Proximity to existing developed areas and compatibility with existing land uses. CAMA Land Use Plan − Land Suitability Factors (A) Water quality. including natural system constraints. enabling local decision-makers to modify the weighting the factors used in the analysis • The output of the LSA should be suitable for planning and policy development. This map is a major part of the foundation for the development of local land use policies and the future land use map. (D) Potential impact of development on areas and sites designated by local historic commissions or the North Carolina Department 4 . In the CAMA planning requirements. updating the project should be relatively easy The project should be capable of accommodating locally developed data The project should be interactive.1 CAMA Requirements for Land Suitability Analysis in Land Use Plans In the CAMA land use planning process. A key output of the analysis is a land suitability map that shows vacant or under-utilized land that is suited for the development. land suitability analysis is a mandatory component of the local land use plan. existing land use policies. The analysis includes consideration of a number of factors. II. products should not be designed to apply to specific land parcels or sites 1. These factors are listed below. and the availability of community facilities. It is a process for determining a planning area's supply of land that is suitable for development. compatibility with existing land uses and development patterns. [CAMA Land Use Planning 15A NCAC 7B .0702 (c)(5)].Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide • • • As new data are available. (B) Land classes I.0702 (c)(5)] The CRC requirements for CAMA land use plans are the basis for identifying the data that are used in the LSA project. there are six categories of factors that must be considered in analyzing development suitability [.
distance from a water line) are continuous. storing. the relative importance of each layer is not explicit or quantifiable. stormwater. the method has practical limits on the number of layers that the eye can interpret at once. 5 . and applicable federal regulations. culturally significant. displaying and reporting spatial information. this method has several drawbacks: 1.g.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide of Cultural Resources as historic. analyzing.2 GIS Approach Land suitability analysis involves the application of criteria to the landscape to assess where land is most and least suitable for development of structures and infrastructure.. A planner may be able to make an effective presentation of land suitability using the map overlays. (E) Land use and development requirements of local development regulations. 3. The system enables planners to create and modify a land suitability analysis that makes the best use of available data. including water. CAMA use standards and other applicable state regulations. and transportation. By inspection. the results cannot be easily summarized or applied to other planning tasks. and 4. or scenic." 1. GIS supports methods to apply guidelines and criteria set by coastal management rules. 2. a planner could see how a layer depicting environmentally sensitive areas relates to a layer of sewer pipes. GIS capabilities for spatial analysis overcome the drawbacks of the paper map overlay approach. or how a layer showing flood hazard areas relates to roads. and integrate value judgments of the planner’s jurisdiction into the analysis. all data on the maps are discrete. A planner could generate a series of maps on transparent media and overlay the maps so that each one fits over or under each other and all the shading and labeling on each map is visible. sewer. A computer application is not essential for an analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) is an efficient tool for organizing. and (F) Availability of community facilities. where some of the variables (e. However.
GIS helps the user determine what locations are most/least suitable for development. Determine what GIS analysis operations should be performed 4. and polygons. 2. intersections. and other analytical operations. spatial joins. Prepare the data 5.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2. Define data needed 3. a geographic information system enables the user to create buffers. These feature shapes are defined by x and y coordinates. Create a model 6. overlays. In this way. the results of GIS analysis can provide support for decision-making. for example road name and pavement type for a given road segment. Run the model 7. 6 .2 Raster vs.0 GIS Tools for Land Suitability Analysis 2. lines. Analyze results 8.1 GIS and Spatial Analysis In addition to storing. retrieving. Vector data consist of discrete points. In the context of land suitability. There can be multiple attributes associated with each feature. Refine the model as needed These steps are discussed in further detail in section three. proximity analysis. map algebra. The eight steps in Spatial Analysis include: 1. displaying spatial data. Vector Approach There are two possible data models that can be used in a GIS: vector and raster. Define criteria for the analysis 2.
For example.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Figure 2-1 – Vector Data Example The raster data model represents features as a matrix of cells (pixels) in continuous space. And most analysis occurs by combining the layers to create new layers with new cell values. raster data enable the user to perform a weighted overlay on several layers. Vector data enable analysis on only two layers at a time in an operation that 7 . Each layer represents one attribute (although other attributes can be attached to a cell). Figure 2-2 – Raster Data Example Raster data are used for land suitability modeling because analysis can be performed on several raster layers at once.
8 . The LSA project uses 1acre cells (209 feet per side—rounded from 208. Using a cell size that is too small requires a lot of storage space. Using too large a cell size will cause some information to be lost. the greater the accuracy. For a given analysis. without adding additional precision to the map.000. The higher the resolution. you will need to decide the optimal resolution to maximize accuracy and performance. The cell size should be based on the original map scale and the minimum mapping unit.2. but performance suffers.1 Technical Issues with a Raster Data Model • Resolution The cell size used for a raster layer will affect the results of the analysis and how the map looks.7 feet) to represent base data that are mapped at a scale of 1:24. Raster data provide continuous coverage of a geographic area and analysis is much more efficient. Figure 2-3 – Raster Ove rlay Example 2.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide requires a great deal of computer resources. and takes longer to process.
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Figure 2-4 .Vector Polygon Figure 2-5 . 209 ft Resolution 9 .Raster Polygon.
If.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Figure 2-6 . For example. • Only one item of information is available for each location within a single layer Multiple items of information require multiple layers. 400 ft Resolution • Pixels contain one value only Limiting a cell to one value can misrepresent spatial data. you have two attributes—septic suitability and flood frequency--you will have to create two raster layers: one that contains septic suitability information and one that contains flood frequency information. 10 .Raster Polygon. the boundary of two soil types may run across the middle of a cell. In such cases. the cell is given the value of the largest fraction of the cell. or the value of the middle point in the cell. in a soils vector layer.
and derive new information from existing data to determine land suitability. users can rate areas according to several factors with varying weights and values. Operations available with Spatial Analyst: • • • • • • Convert feature themes (point.x platforms. query information across multiple data layers. and analyze cell-based raster data and to perform integrated vector–raster analysis. map. and analyze cell-based raster maps.x and ArcGIS 9. and create sophisticated spatial models using ModelBuilder. and more. and thus can be used for other models not requiring the Spatial Analyst functions.4 Introduction To Model Builder ModelBuilder is a tool for creating and managing automated and self-documenting spatial models. derive new information from existing data. it is provided as a common tool with ArcGIS.x Spatial Analyst. It is available in both ArcView 3. query. Users can easily 11 . or polygon) to grids Create raster buffers based on distance from any raster or vector feature Create density maps of point features Perform Boolean queries and algebraic calculations on multiple grid themes simultaneously Do neighborhood and zone analysis Display and reclassify grid data 2. Spatial Analyst enables desktop GIS users to create. line. neighborhood and zone analysis. Modelbuilder enables users to create processflow diagrams and scenarios to automate the modeling process. For the Land Suitability Analysis. fully integrate cell-based raster data with traditional vector data sources.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2. grid classification and display. Additional capabilities available through the standard user interface include queries on multiple grid themes. While ModelBuilder is an extension with ArcView 3. summary histograms. query.3 Introduction to Spatial Analyst The ESRI Spatial Analyst extension enables the user to create.
In the case of Land Suitability Analysis. Users can run a model with a variety of parameters to assess data sensitivity or to evaluate geographically different but structurally similar data sets. the land suitability model combines and classifies multiple GIS layers to produce a land suitability map as illustrated in the figure below.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide change the data sets used by the model. Figure 2-7 – ArcView 3. and the models may be re-run to evaluate the new results. ModelBuilder is ideal for this task because it allows users to overlay multiple layers. include a weight for each layer. Users can copy portions of their models within a model and smaller models can be combined to build larger models. rank order categories within each layer. the layer weights can be easily changed. ModelBuilder creates a process-flow diagram that displays the layers and operations. perform complex analysis functions. For example. and sum using map algebra.xModel Builder Example 12 . Data derived from one model can be used as input for another model. modify the influence of each data set on the model. and generate maps that illustrate the results of analysis.
if you want to install the programs on your K: drive. the NOAA Coastal Services Center as well as numerous municipalities and counties in the coastal region.5 or higher).0 or higher). being sure to specify the . but an amount approaching 256 seems more practical for good performance. however.x. IBM RS/6000 (AIX version 4.apr file in WORDPAD or another editing software and replace C:/ with K:/ (replace all) then save as a text file.x GIS software with the Spatial Analyst extension. If the C: drive is not available. Windows 95/98. ArcGIS 9.x minimum requirements exceed those of ArcView 3.x is supported on Windows 2000.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2.apr extension for the saved file so ArcView will recognize it as a project file. 13 . Documentation with ArcView 3. SGI (IRIX version 6. For example. CGIA implemented the land suitability model on a laptop personal computer operating on Microsoft Windows 2000 with 256 Megabytes of Random Access Memory. copy the county folder from the workshop CD to the C: drive of your PC at the root. a Pentium III 850 Megahertz processor. Sun (Solaris 2.0 or higher).x land suitability model for a county.5 Computer Requirements and Getting Started The LSA project model is provided in both ArcView 3. Windows NT. and a 20 Gigabyte hard disk. Hewlett-Packard 700 and 800 series (HP-UX version 10. CGIA.1.4.apr files to change the path.x and ArcGIS 9.x and the Spatial Analyst extension suggests that the minimum computer requirements include 32 MB of RAM. however ArcView was chosen because of its intensive use in the Division of Coastal Management. Spatial Analyst for ArcView 3. you will need to edit the . suggested minimum requirements are not provided here.20 or higher). Other software products are available. Digital UNIX (4.2 or higher). open the first . To install the ArcView 3.
please see the text file found on the CD.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide To install the ArcGIS 9.x land suitability model for a county. 14 . For more information. copy the county folder from the workshop CD to the C: drive of your PC at the root. Relative paths have been stored.
Overlays. Vector to Raster Conversions. Define Criteria Land Suitability Criteria Steps in GIS Analysis Define Data Needs List of Data Determine GIS Operations I. Buffers.e.0 Land Suitability Model Figure 3-1 illustrates the steps necessary for performing a land suitability analysis. Each step is described in further detail below. Map Algebra Operations Process Data As Needed Input Data for Model Create Model Execute Model Modify Model Model Results No Evaluate Results Acceptable Results? Yes 15 Land Suitability Map .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 3.
within a half-mile to a mile have medium suitability. areas greater than one mile outside of primary roads have low suitability • Within a half-mile of Developed Land have high suitability.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 3. slight limitations have high development suitability • • • • • • • • • • • Within 100-year Flood Zones have low development suitability Within HQW/ORW Watersheds have low suitability Within Water Supply Watersheds have low suitability Within 500 feet of a Significant Natural Heritage Area have low suitability Within 500 feet of a Hazardous Substance Disposal Site have low suitability Within 500 feet of an NPDES Site have low suitability Within 500 feet of a Wastewater Treatment Plant have low suitability Within 500 feet of a Municipal Sewage Discharge Point have low suitability Within 500 feet of a Land Application Site have low suitability Within 500 feet of an Airport have low suitability Within a half-mile of Primary Roads have high suitability. and least suitable) were identified as follows: Areas… • • • Within Beneficial Non-Coastal Wetlands have low suitability Within Storm Surge Areas have low suitability With Severe Septic Limitations (based on soils data) have low suitability moderate limitations have medium suitability. areas further than one mile away from developed land have low suitability 16 . areas within a half-mile to a mile have medium suitability. medium.1 Define the Criteria The project team defined criteria for the Land Suitability Analysis based on the CAMA Guidelines and modified criteria according to available datasets. The criteria for suitability for development (high. low.
existing development. values for layers are quantitatively scored according to suitability for development. An area that is close to existing infrastructure (roads.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide • Within a quarter-mile of Water Pipes have high suitability. In this case. etc. Additionally. Also. to account for proximity of features to cells on the boundaries of the study area (county). but keep in mind the advantage of keeping the factors relatively uncomplicated for presentation and explanation in public meetings. The final map will be clipped to the county boundary (not buffered). areas within a quarter-mile to a half-mile of water pipes have medium suitability. areas receive a score of +2 (positive two). Note that the proximity concept is represented by a buffer in the model. areas within a quarter-mile to a half-mile of sewer pipes have medium suitability.) has high suitability for development. the smallest buffer is 500 feet and a cell has a width of 209 feet. areas further than a half-mile away from water pipes have low suitability • Within a quarter-mile of Sewer Pipes have high suitability. For example. sewer lines. with 3 being very important. These 17 . These areas receive a score of –2 (negative 2). In the criteria spreadsheet developed by the project team (Table 1). A buffer should not be smaller than the distance of one side of a cell. most the data layers are ranked according to how important they are to the overall analysis. areas further that a half-mile away from water pipes have low suitability • • • • • Within Coastal Wetlands are LEAST suitable Within Exceptional and Substantial Non-Coastal Wetlands are LEAST suitable Within Federal Lands and State Lands are LEAST suitable Within Protected Lands are LEAST suitable Within Estuarine Waters are LEAST suitable According to these criteria. themes that are subject to buffers are clipped to a polygon of the county plus 2 miles (2-mile buffer of county boundary including the county). an area that is inside a storm surge area or within 500 feet of a Significant Natural Heritage Area has low suitability. users may rank a layer as 1. Other values may be used. 2 or 3.
receive a score of 0. estuarine waters. military areas. 18 . coastal wetlands. These layers will be discussed further below.. etc. They are given scores of 0 or 1. Areas within protected lands. and exceptional and substantial non-coastal wetlands) are treated somewhat differently. Areas outside of these sensitive areas receive a score of 1.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide The least suitable areas (protected lands. coastal wetlands.
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide The following is an example of the criteria used to assign values.5 mi < .5 .1 mi . Note that the first set of layers (green shading) are either least suitable (the value of zero will be multiplied by the results of the layers with white and gray shading for a product of zero) or medium suitability (the value of one will be multiplied by the results of the other sets of layers for a product equal to the score based on those other sets).5 . 0. Medium.5 mi . and weight the layers. 1.25 mi Explanation of Table – Least.25 . Table 1 – Criteria Table Example ----------Criteria and Rating--------Layer Name Least Low Medium High Suitable Suitability Suitability Suitability 0 Coastal Wetlands Exceptional and Substantial Noncoastal Wetlands Estuarine Waters Protected Lands Beneficial Noncoastal Wetlands Storm Surge Areas Soils with septic limitations Flood Zones Water Supply Watersheds Significant Natural Heritage Areas Hazardous Substance Disposal Sites NPDES Sites Wastewater Treatment Plants Municipal Sewer Discharge Points Airports Developed Land Primary Roads Water Pipes Sewer Pipes Total Inside Inside Inside Inside -2 1 Outside Outside Outside Outside 2 Inside Inside Severe Moderate Inside Inside < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' > 1 mi > 1 mi .25 mi > .5 mi .. and +2 respectively.5 mi > .5 mi < .25 . Low. Values are assigned –2. and High Suitability are the four classifications available for this analysis.1 mi Outside Outside Slight Outside Outside > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' < .. 19 .5 mi < .
20 . Note that these numbers change for each county depending on the number of layers that apply. the relative weight in percent for any one layer would be equal to the 100 divided by the number of layers (one equal piece of pie each). Once a ranking is agreed upon. The far right column of the spreadsheet (see Table 2) expresses the relative weights as a ratio (or “multiplier” required for the model. The spreadsheet included on the Land Suitability CD is ready for the user to modify the default weights (see Table 2). below). The calculations are already set in formulas in the spreadsheet. it is the whole pie divided by the number of pieces (yielding the size of a piece). times the number of pieces for that layer.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide The next step is to rank the layers from 1 to 3 with 3 representing the most weight in land suitability. The relative weight for a layer is equal to 100 (percent) divided by the product of the sum of all rankings times the ranking for that layer. In other words. the model requires that the user quantify the ranked layers from an ordinal scale (ranked 1 thru 3) to a percentage of the total (percent weight) to assign relative weights. If all layers were assigned a weight of 1.
04348 0.348 8.696 4.25 mi 21 .5 mi < .348 4.04348 0.04348 0.08696 0.13043 1.348 8..04348 0.348 4.348 4.348 8.04348 0.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Table 2 –Example of Rankings and Percent Weights --------Criteria and Rating----------Layer Name Least Low Medium High Assigned Percent Suitable Suitability Suitability Suitability Weight Weight Multiplier 0 Coastal Wetlands Exceptional and Substantial Noncoastal Wetlands Estuarine Waters Protected Lands Beneficial Noncoastal Wetlands Storm Surge Areas Soils with septic limitations Flood Zones Water Supply Watersheds Significant Natural Heritage Areas Hazardous Substance Disposal Sites NPDES Sites Wastewater Treatment Plants Municipal Sewer Discharge Points Airports Developed Land Primary Roads Water Pipes Sewer Pipes Total Inside Inside Inside Inside -2 1 Outside Outside Outside Outside 2 Inside Inside Severe Moderate Inside Inside < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' < 500' > 1 mi > 1 mi .348 4.08696 0.348 4.25 .08696 0.04348 0.696 4.000 0.04348 0.5 mi < .13043 0.5 mi .043 13.348 8.00000 > .696 4.25 .5 mi 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 23 4.5 .04348 0.08696 0..696 13.1 mi Outside Outside Slight Outside Outside > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' > 500' < .5 mi .043 100.04348 0.5 mi < .25 mi > .1 mi .5 .
North American Datum 1983. or 3) the percent weights in the spreadsheet will be automatically updated. Likewise. map data on several of the Areas of Environmental Concern (AEC) categories. Military Areas. Be sure to use the excel spreadsheet provided which contains all the formulas you need.. 2. The majority of the data in the LSA project are available in GIS format on a statewide basis from the Division of Coastal Management and the Center for Geographic Information and Analysis as part of the North Carolina Corporate Geographic Database. In another example.000. Exceptional and Substantial Non-Coastal Wetlands. these areas are covered by storm surge and velocity zone data. land cover classified as developed is a surrogate used to determine proximity to existing development. the final determination of the factors included in the analysis was influenced by the availability of digital data layers from CGIA or DCM. If you change assigned weights (1. We will apply Boolean logic in the land suitability model (by multiplying the ranked layers by 1 or 0) so we can differentiate the least suitable areas from the rest. English map units. the spreadsheet should be updated as well (i.e. Values are assigned 0 for inside the area and 1 for outside the area. and Protected Lands are treated differently. Appendix 1 provides a detailed description of the data that are used in the project and data considered for inclusion but not used. Estuarine Waters. map data of local land uses are not available and surrogates are used where possible. the number of pie pieces will change). which are readily available from CGIA. Coastal Wetlands. While the criteria follow the CAMA requirements. For example. Most of the data are mapped at the national mapping standard scale of 1:24. If you add or delete layers. such as Inlet Hazard Areas.2 Define the Data The data applied to this land suitability analysis are listed in Appendix 1. The data are projected based on the North Carolina state plane coordinate system. 3. implying accuracy within 40 feet. However. 22 . These are the least suitable areas for development and are differentiated accordingly. are not currently available.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Our criteria are now defined in the form of a table. As noted earlier.
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide
3.3 Determine the GIS Operations
Based on the established criteria and data, the next step is to define what operations need to be performed in order to determine land suitability. Many layers will have to be converted from vector to raster. Once in raster format, each layer’s values need to be reclassified into either the 1’s and 0’s scoring system, or the –2 thru +2 scoring system. Buffering will have to be done on many layers to determine what values should be assigned inside/outside the extent of the feature and it’s buffer. For example, airports are buffered by 500 feet. Any areas within that buffer are assigned a value of –2; areas outside are assigned a value of +2. Operations used in this analysis: • • • • • • Raster to Vector Conversion Buffer Reclassification Map Algebra – multiply by a constant (absolute weight) Map Algebra – add multiple layers Map Algebra – multiply layers
Vector to Raster Conversion:
Layers must be converted from vector to raster to be used in the model. Some layers are converted within the model itself. Others have already been converted outside of the model.
Many criteria specify that areas within a specific feature have suitability; outside have high suitability (and vice-versa). Example: Areas within 500 feet of a Hazardous Substance Disposal Site have low suitability.
2 2 2 HSDS => 500' buffer => 2 2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide
Some layers need to be reclassified. For example, the ‘Soils With Septic Limitations’ layer has a ‘septic’ attribute that contains values, Severe, Moderate, or Slight. These values are reclassified to –2, 1, and +2 respectively.
Mod Mod Mod
Sev Mod Mod
Sev Slight Mod Sev Mod Mod
-2 1 1 1 1 +2
-2 -2 1 1 -2 1
-2 -2 +2 1 -2 -2
+2 1 +2 +2 1 -2
1 1 +2 +2 +2 +2
Mod Slight Slight Slight Mod Sev Mod Slight Slight Sev Sev Mod Slight Sev Slight
-> Reclassify ->
1 +2 +2 +2
Slight Mod Slight Mod
Slight Slight Mod
Map Algebra – Multiply by a constant:
The weighted layers will each be multiplied by their respective absolute weight. For example, all the values in the Storm Surge Areas will be multiplied by 0.08696 assuming the criteria listed in section 3.2.
1 1 1 +2 +2 +2
-2 1 1 1 1 +2
-2 -2 1 1 -2 1
-2 -2 +2 1 -2 -2
+2 1 +2 +2 1 -2
1 1 +2 +2 +2 +2 X 0.08696 =
0.17 0.09 0.09 0.09
0.09 0.09 -0.2
0.09 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 -0.2 -0.2 0.09 0.17 -0.2 0.17
0.17 0.17 0.09 -0.2
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide
Map Algebra – Add Multiple Layers:
After all weighted layers are multiplied by their respective constants, they will be added together to get a suitability rating. The following example shows only two of the layers being added (allow for rounding in addition). When all layers are added, the resultant layer has values from – 2 to +2.
0.09 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.17 0.09 0.09 0.09 -0.2 -0.2 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 -0.2 -0.2 0.09 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 -0.2 -0.2 0.17 + -0.1 -0.1 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.09 0.09 0.09 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.09 0.09 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.09 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 = 0 0 0 0.09 0.09 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 0.26 0.17 0 0 0 0 -0.3 -0.1 0.17 0.17 0 0 0.09 0.26 0.26 0 0.09 0.26 0 0.09
-0.3 -0.3 0
-0.3 -0.3 0.09
Map Algebra – Multiply Layers:
Layers that have features to be scored least suitable are classified with 0’s and 1’s, then the layers multiplied together. The resulting layer shows all areas least suitable for development. Military Areas
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
x models. these processes are included and viewable within the ArcGIS 9. creating subsets of data such as coastal wetlands versus all wetlands. clipping the land suitability map. Reclassify the county boundary.4 Data Preparation After the GIS operations are determined. County Boundary 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 1 2 3 5 5 LSA Map 2 1 2 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 1 2 3 = Clipped LSA 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 2 1 3.x models. Gray represents ‘No Data’.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide This type of operation is also used to clip the final model output to the county boundary.e.x models regarding this step. The ArcGIS 9. the changing of weights) only sections of the model effected by those changes need to be re-run. 26 . the data must be prepared for the Model.x models is described in Appendix 2 (in contrast.x and ArcGIS 9. The preparation for each layer for the ArcView 3. The No Data values will drop out. There is much difference in the ArcView 3. the majority of the processes were included since when model modifications are made (i. and even converting some data to raster format before it is added to the model. Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty ->Reclass-> Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty Cnty 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Multiply the reclassified county boundary with the land suitability. the decision to run some processes outside of the model was based on the amount of time those processes took to run. This includes clipping the data to the correct boundary.x models). In the ArcView 3.x models include most of the data preparation steps while the ArcView 3. In the ArcGIS 9.x models do not.
you should see an Analysis menu as well as a Model menu. A new window will open.mxd) are provided for the ArcGIS 9x models. Note the values entered for classes for the various themes and overlays included the weighted overlays for which the spreadsheet multipliers are essential. click Model-> Start ModelBuilder. You may add layers and change weights to the layers as you see fit. Open the ArcView project with the necessary data.5 Using ModelBuilder The next steps involve more work with ModelBuilder. This is the Model Builder interface.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 3. In the View window.6 Running the Land Suitability Model Land Suitability models have already been created for you. The following screen captures display the Model Builder interface for both ArcView 3. go to File -> Extensions. Do not change the ratings for the layers (-2 thru +2 values). This is the Model Builder interface. 27 . To run or make edits to the model – double click the Toolbox function and right click the model and select Edit. Map document files (. 3. To open ModelBuilder.x relating to reclassification and overlay functions.x and ArcGIS 9. Make sure Spatial Analyst and ModelBuilder extensions are enabled. and check the Spatial Analyst and ModelBuilder extensions. These were customized for each county depending on the availability of data in that county. If these extensions are not enabled. as this may yield unreasonable results. A new window will open. The model is located in a new Toolbox in ArcToolbox (LSA Model and Environmental Composite Model).
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x: Arithmetic overlay for “least suitable” layers 28 .
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.x: Arithmetic overlay for “least suitable” layers 29 .
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x: Setting a 500-foot buffer for some of the weighted layers 30 .
x: Setting a 500-foot buffer for some of the weighted layers AND Reclassification 31 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.
280-foot (1-mile) buffer for some of the weighted layers 32 .640-foot (0.x: Setting a 2.5-mile) and 5.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.
640-foot (0.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.x: Setting a 2.280-foot (1-mile) buffer for some of the weighted layers AND Reclassification 33 .5-mile) and 5.
25-mile) and 2.5 mile) buffer for some weighted layers 34 .320-foot (0.x: Setting a 1.640-foot (0.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.
x: Setting a 1.5 mile) buffer for some weighted layers AND Reclassification 35 .640-foot (0.320-foot (0.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.25-mile) and 2.
x: Overlay of the weighted layers using multipliers from the criteria spreadsheet 36 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.
x: Overlay of the weighted layers using multipliers from the criteria spreadsheet 37 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.
x: Adding a constant (+3) to the suitability ratings 38 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.
x: Adding a constant (+3) to the suitability ratings 39 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x: Setting up the overlay of the “least suitable” (excluded) layers and the weighted layers 40 .
x: Setting up the overlay of the “least suitable” (excluded) layers and the weighted layers 41 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x: Setting the last overlay that clips the results by the county boundaries 42 .
x: Setting the last overlay that clips the results by the county boundaries 43 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcGIS 9.
• • • • • Natural breaks are best for comparing relative suitability of resources within specific planning area within a county Equal intervals may mask subtle differences between suitability of locations within the planning area Equal interval may mean that some areas have few or no areas suitable for development Significant research may be required to determine ranges or the ranges would be more arbitrary than natural breaks Natural breaks appear to be more statistically valid than equal intervals In order to classify by natural breaks in ArcView 3. convert the grid to points and classify the new point theme. Note the breaks. Turn on the Spatial Tools extension (under File -> Extensions).x. equal intervals. Next. The land suitability pattern should be related to vector layers visually. ArcView 3.7 Evaluating the Results ArcMap permits the classification of results by natural breaks. Classify the new points theme by natural breaks using the Grid_code item as the classification field.x ModelBuilder only has a default classification of the results: equal intervals. Go back to the grid result theme and enter the noted breaks in the legend editor. though of course the model has computed the spatial relationships in a way that the vector layers cannot.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 3. etc. 44 . Natural breaks is a better classification of the results. Verify the results by viewing the newly classified grid underneath the vector layers. convert the grid theme to a point shapefile (Transformation -> Grid to Point).
Start ModelBuilder: Model -> Start ModelBuilder 4.8 Modifying the Land Suitability Model Users may modify the Land Suitability Model in two ways: (a) adding data layers not included in the original model that add value to the analysis and (b) changing weights in the model to better reflect land use planning priorities and perspectives in a particular jurisdiction. Make active the view to which you will be adding data and be sure the full extent of the study area is showing in the view 3.apr Add a new shapefile and vector-to-raster conversion process: 1. Open the County project in ArcView (<county name>_lsa. The following exercises illustrate ways to modify the model.x) Adding an exclusive dataset: If necessary.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 3.apr) 2. Open Vector Conversion wizard: Add Process -> Data Conversion -> Vector to Grid… Vector Conversion Wizard 45 . open the LSA model for the County ArcView project: 1. In both cases. Exercise A1: Modifying the Land Suitability Model by Adding Data and Processes (ArcView 3. Open the County LSA model: • File -> Open… • Navigate to <county name>\lsaModel • Double-click on lsaModel. the user may start by saving the model to a new file.
Note: this screen only appears when the input field is a character or integer.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2. This sets the value of all cells inside the shapefile’s features to ‘0’. and it must be in the current ArcView project. Click ‘Next ->’ 10. Note: the values of the input field are used to determine the output theme cell values. Note: the value entered represents one side of the grid cell and must be the same units as the view map units (in our case the map unit is feet). Example of Vector to Grid Conversion Process 46 . Name the theme and file. Set the new class value and label = 0. Click ‘Next ->’ 7. Click ‘Next >’ 3.7 feet– rounded to 209 feet—per side which equals 43. Select StFips as the input field (this is a common field that will need to be added to the shapefile database prior to this step…after adding field.560 square feet). The type of field chosen also determines the type of grid theme created (continuous or discrete). 4. Thus the grid resolution is 1 acre. Click ‘Next ->’ 8. you can normally calculate all values to equal 37). line or polygon). Click ‘Next >’ 5. Choose cty_buffer as the extent theme. Use the default color setting. Click ‘Next ->’ 9. Click ‘Finish’. Note: a theme must be a feature theme (point. Choose Categories as the type of data (categorized values represent a type instead of a measurement). Note: this screen only appears when the input field is an integer. Choose This cell size: and type 209 (if necessary). Select a shapefile as the input theme. Click ‘Next ->’ 6. Each cell in the output grid represents one acre (208.
when adding a nonexcluded factor/theme (those themes where weighting factors apply – soils. but the other least suitable themes are multiplying by 0 or 1) • Change the Value for No Data to 1 • Click ‘OK’ • Save the model 3. Run the model: Click the Run button Note: adding a “least suitable”/excluded theme will not affect the weighted layers. This sets the value of all cells outside of the shapefile’s features to ‘1’. Set the ‘no data’ value = 1. 47 . etc. sewer lines. However.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Enter function into the model process 1.). weights will need to be modified accordingly. thus there is no need to alter the assigned weights. significant natural heritage areas. Drop (add) a connection from the new function to the Arithmetic Overlay function for the excluded themes: • Click the Add Connection Button • Click and drag the connection from the new derived data block to the “least suitable” themes’ Arithmetic Overlay function (top) Example of process connection 2. • Double-click the Arithmetic Overlay function to open its Properties dialog box • Scroll to the newly derived shapefile and change the operator to multiplication (note: the first theme has to be addition for a base.
or you can use the Add Data or Tools button in the ModelBuilder window. 48 . Elements representing the tool and the derived data the tool will create are added to the display window. If the value set for the variable is of the correct input data type. into the ModelBuilder window.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Exercise A2: Modifying the Land Suitability Model by Adding Data and Processes (ArcGIS 9. Thus. Right-click a model in a toolbox and click Edit.x are generally the same for ArcGIS 9. the process will be colored in. The ModelBuilder window opens so you can add or modify the processes in the model.x (with the primary differences being the interface and terminology). Below is a dialog box for a vector to raster conversion displaying the required inputs. When all required parameter values are set. You can drag input data from the ArcCatalog tree or from the table of contents of any other ArcGIS Desktop application.x) The processes outlined in Exercise A1 regarding ArcView 3. To build processes you add tools into the ModelBuilder window. the variable will connect to the tool. Additional tips for using ArcGIS ModelBuilder are provided in a text file provided with the model CD. The derived data element is a variable that can be connected to other processes in the model. then supply values for the parameters of each tool. Both system tools and custom tools can be dragged into the ModelBuilder window. such as ArcMap. only a few points are noted below. To edit a model.
These areas are unlikely to be developed for reasons of environmental resource value or conservation ownership. This rating scheme avoids zero values (used for the exclusive areas) and results in a reasonable comparison of less and more suitable areas. The default weights were assigned based on the best judgment of the modelers. The user may change weights and modify 49 . 1 or 2. the user may assign variable weights to each layer to represent greater or lesser importance in the model. Open the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet file LSA Weighting Criteria. The layers are rated as -2. with 2 being assigned to the conditions most suitable for development (within the model. first modify the Land Suitability Model Criteria Table. The least suitable areas are represented by the exclusive data sets: these are assigned values of 0 or 1 and are differentiated from the other data within the model logic.xls: Two categories of data—exclusive and weighted—are present in the model. a constant of 3 will be added to each rating so that the results will be positive).Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Exercise B: Modifying the Land Suitability Model by Changing Weights To change relative weights in the model (or to change weights after adding or deleting a weighted layer from the model). In addition to the rating. The weighted data are rated according to their respective suitability for development.
1 Define the Criteria for a more complete explanation of the LSA Criteria Table).Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide the land suitability model accordingly. Change the weight assignment of the layers as follows: • Beneficial Noncoastal Wetlands = 2 • Flood Zones = 3 Note the change in the Percent Weight column each time an Assigned Weight value is changed: 50 . Exercise: 1. (Refer to section 3.
x and Single Output Map Algebra in ArcGIS 9. 51 .x ArcGIS 9.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2.x. Record the new weight percentages in the LSA model: • Double-click on the Arithmetic Overlay in ArcView 3. change the Multiplier value for each layer to reflect the new Multiplier value in the Criteria Table. under the Overlay Table tab. ArcView 3. Double-check the values before clicking ‘OK’.x • In ArcView 3.x process for the weighted data layers.
52 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide • In ArcGIS 9.x.x. in ArcGIS 9. change the Multiplier value for each layer to reflect the new Multiplier value in the Criteria Table. Note. It is suggested that you only re-run those processes effected by your changes. Run the model and note changes in the output. 3. it is not necessary to re-run the entire model.
you need to change the weights in the spreadsheet and in the properties of the weighted layers arithmetic overlay. If the theme is a weighted theme. ArcView 3. In some cases. 53 .x Model Builder changes values to defaults for no apparent reason. This is not an issue with ArcGIS 9.x. Caution: check all classifications and weights before running the model.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Note that you may exclude a theme from the model (for “what if” purposes or if data for that theme are not reliable) by deleting the link from the theme to the next process in ModelBuilder and leaving the theme in the model for reconnection later if desired.
Class I is land that contains only minimal hazards and limitations which can be addressed by commonly accepted land planning and development practices. In the last three sets (November 2003. Class III is land that has serious hazards and limitations. 3. such as water and sewer. Nonetheless.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 4.x models. such as low density residential. The first set of environmental composite models (January 2003) may not hold the intended class values in overlays.1 Description Environmental Composite Map The environmental composite map is also a required component of the CAMA land use plan [15A NCAC 7B . Class II is land that has hazards and limitations for development that can be addressed by restrictions on land uses.x models. special site planning.0702 (c)(2)]. please check the classification values in overlay function boxes in Model Builder before running the model. the environmental composite model was more problematic than the land suitability model because of a bug in Model Builder that resets classifications to default values for no apparent reason. without significant investment in services. November 2004 and December 2005). This map must show the location of three categories of land based on natural features and environmental conditions: 1.0 Environmental Composite Map 4. For the ArcView 3. Land in this class will generally support only the less intensive uses. 54 . Land in this class will generally support very low intensity uses. This bug is not an issue with the ArcGIS 9. 2. or the provision of public services. Class I land will generally support the more intensive types of land uses and development. such as conservation and open space. the environmental composite models were revised to overcome the Model Builder bug.
If a cell intersects a Class II feature (but no Class III) it retains the Class II value without regard to Class I (least sensitive) features.1. if a cell does not meet the criteria for Class III.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide This version of the environmental composite includes some work-around classification schemes. it retains the Class III value no matter what other features also intersect that cell. but qualifies as Class II. For example. If a cell does not qualify for either Class III or Class II. Class I cells do not intersect Class II or Class III features. if a grid cell intersects a Class III feature (the most environmentally sensitive). if a cell is in a coastal wetland (Class III) and in a storm surge area (Class II) and intersects a soil with a slight or moderate septic limitation (Class I). the cell value will be Class III.Environmental Criteria Layer Coastal Wetlands Exceptional or Substantial Non-Coastal Wetlands Beneficial Non-Coastal Wetlands Estuarine Waters Soils with Slight or Moderate Septic Limitations Soils with Severe Septic Limitations Flood Zones Storm Surge Areas HQW/ORW Watersheds Water Supply Watersheds Significant Natural Heritage Areas Protected Lands ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Class I Class II Class III ü ü For a given cell. it has Class II for a value. then it may be Class I or contain no data from the themes identified in the criteria. Conceptually. the computed value of the cell will be determined by the highest class theme that contains the cell. Like the land suitability model. 4. 55 . the environmental composite model uses 1acre grid cells to represent the landscape. In other words.1 Criteria Table 3 .
When opening Model Builder.1. In Model Builder.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 4. please check to be sure the number of classes and class values have been retained. edit the values in the Model Builder interface. 56 . If they do not look like the following. the screens should look like the following.2 Setting Classifications in the Model The model uses arbitrary classification values to produce reliable results as shown in the excerpt from a spreadsheet: Classes Class I Class II Class III Outside Polygons 0 0 0 Inside Polygons 1 11 34 Breakpoints 1 11 34 Combinations 0-0-0 1-0-0 11-0-0 34-0-0 1-11-0 1-34-0 11-34-0 1-11-34 Total 0 1 11 34 12 35 45 46 Class 0 Class I Class II Class III Class II Class III Class III Class III The breakpoints are set so that the possible combinations result in appropriate classes assigned to grid cells.
x ArcGIS 9.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x 57 .
x ArcGIS 9.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x 58 .
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide ArcView 3.x 59 .x ArcGIS 9.
60 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Run the model and evaluate the results as described above for the land suitability model. The primary difference is the absence of infrastructure in the Environmental Composite Map that heightens the emphasis on environmental sensitivity and relative land conservation value. The resulting Environmental Composite Map is similar to the Land Suitability Map in that Class III areas are consistent with the Least Suitable category and the Class I areas are related to the Most Suitable areas.
etc. set the file type to jpg.x Extensions The Land Suitability CD contains the Spatial Tools extension for ArcView 3. tiff and gif. In the dialogue box. ArcMap offers a much greater variety of exporting formats. 5. For an image from the view. including pdf. make the desired view active. name the file. warp and analyze grids. bmp. turn on the extension under File > Extensions. Add the file (spatialtools. or tool interface.x cannot convert a grid theme to a polygon theme. assemble. then OK. select File -> Export Map. then select File -> Export. name the file. The majority of tools are implementations of functions available in spatial analyst from avenue programming or awkwardly in the map calculator but not from the menu. button. go to File -> Export and proceed as above.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 5.2 Note on ArcView 3. In the dialogue box. you can set the file type. set the resolution. ArcView 3.x for use in this and other projects.avx) to your ESRI/AV_GIS30/ARCVIEW/EXT32 folder. aggregate.1 Exporting Images For Powerpoint presentations and other digital reporting methods. To do this. jpeg. ArcView can export views or layouts as jpg format images or other selected formats. select the options button and select the highest quality and resolution available. An image processing software may be employed to resize and sharpen jpg images. Images are now ready to insert as pictures in word processing and presentation software.0 Images and Extensions 5. For an image from a layout. and add a border if desired. In ArcView. This is used for converting a grid theme to a point vector theme. The ESRI website describes the tool as follows: Spatial Tools is an ArcView extension that contains a collection of 18 tools that extend the capabilities of Spatial Analyst. 61 . These include functions to clean up. prepare a layout and with the layout window active.
NC 28405 910-762-3577 NOAA Coastal Services Center 2234 South Hobson Avenue Charleston. SC 29405-2413 843-740-1200 www. and Colleen Kiley. Jamie Wharton. The Division of Coastal Management currently provides maintenance and enhancement to the models.nc. and John Vine-Hodge have provided invaluable technical assistance and guidance throughout the project.cgia.csc.us William B. John Thayer. Steve Underwood.gov 62 . Farris. William Farris’ vital work on the conceptual design and criteria kept a sharp focus on land use planning. Nancy Guthrie. CGIA efforts were led by Jeff Brown. Ed Lynch. NC 27699-1638 919-733-2293 http://dcm2.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Acknowledgements and Contacts The work of CGIA and William Farris on this project was funded by the Division of Coastal Management with a grant from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA). 1806 Grace Street Wilmington. Coastal Services Center. NC 27699-0322 919-733-2090 www.enr. Sean McGuire.noaa. Shannon McDonald.us/ Department of Environment and Natural Resources North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis 20322 Mail Service Center Raleigh. Kathy Vinson.state. Inc.nc. Contacts: Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Coastal Management 1638 Mail Service Center Raleigh.state. From the Division.
Flood zones – all 100-year (A) and velocity (V) zones in Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map data (NC Dept. and incidental open space around public facilities. Other areas currently not suitable for development– large holdings of lands not likely to be developed including military lands. Non-coastal wetlands – Wetlands. Water supply watersheds – Among coastal counties. Data used in the draft land suitability map Coastal wetlands – Salt/brackish marshes (wetland type 1 from the Division of Coastal Management’s coastal wetlands data) and freshwater marshes (wetland type 2). Natural heritage areas – Significant natural heritage areas from NC’s Natural Heritage Program. and New Hanover counties only. Pasquotank. does not include military lands. data are classified in DCM’s Coastal Region Evaluation of Wetland Significance (NC CREWS) database. but are still regulated by DCM. excluding coastal wetlands.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide APPENDIX 1—DATA NOTES The following notes describe data (1) used in the draft map and (2) not used in the draft map. the data were queried for “OWR = 1 or OWR = -1”. Soils (septic limitations) – detailed county soil surveys with septic limitation identified by soil type. of Emergency Management – NC Floodplain Mapping Program & FEMA Q3 flood zone data). “SB” or “SC” by the Division of Water Quality. Protected lands – lands managed for conservation and open space (CGIA 2001) include federal. private forests. all hurricane categories. Estuarine waters – Salt waters classified as “SA”. and other public properties not permanently protected as open space. university campuses. HQW/ORW Watersheds – High Quality Water/Outstanding Resource Water watersheds from Division of Water Quality (DWQ). fast moving storm. Non-coastal beneficial wetlands – Using the non-coastal wetlands layer created above. The value 1 represents beneficial wetlands. water supply watersheds apply to Camden. The land suitability model uses water polygons (and intersecting 1-acre grid cells) as a proxy for the concept expressed in the coastal management rules--estuarine waters with a shoreline buffer of 75 feet. local and nonprofit property and easements that permanently preclude private development. that have exceptional or substantial functional significance. 1. from 1993 study. Storm surge areas – hurricane storm surge inundation areas. and -1 represents wetlands that were unable to be rated. state. 63 .
64 . Historic property – State-owned historic sites are available as a selection from state-owned property. county data may be added such as fire stations and fire districts. primary nursery areas. Water pipes – Water pipes from REDC data. and marinas.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Hazardous Substance Disposal Sites – Formerly called Superfund sites. Pamlico and New Hanover counties. railroads. hurricane evacuation routes. community colleges. high intensity plus low intensity developed. public universities. not available in Tyrrell. Discharge points – Wastewater treatment plant discharge points (REDC). hospitals. may overlap with NPDES sites. may overlap with NPDES sites. street centerlines are too dense for analysis. Community facilities and supplemental data – Data were furnished by the Division of Coastal Management (not converted to grids) to be used in conjunction with the land suitability map: public schools. Airports – Airport boundaries from CGIA. Roads – Primary roads from CGIA. Land application sites – Point locations were wastewater is applied to land by a public system from (REDC) data. Developed land – Land cover classified as developed based on percent impervious surface in satellite imagery. NPDES sites – Major and minor NPDES sites from the Division of Water Quality. not available in Tyrrell. 1996 land cover. Wastewater treatment plants – Point locations from public water and sewer data (Rural Economic Development Center (REDC) program in late 1990s). Pamlico and New Hanover counties. Sewer pipes – Sewer pipes from REDC data.
Data considered for land suitability. Wellhead protection areas – Data creation in process by Source Water Assessment Program. but are adequately represented by estuarine waters for the land suitability model.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 2. Historic districts – The only current data in digital format are state-owned historic sites. 65 . Soils with erosion hazards – Available in woodland management and productivity table in detailed soil survey. Ocean hazard areas/ocean erodible areas – Not available in digital format. this area was not included in the model but could be added for Dare County if desired. Mineral resources – Data not available in digital format. Un-vegetated beach area – Coincident with hurricane storm surge inundation areas and velocity zones in floodplain data. of which there is only one in the coastal region: the former US Coast Guard station on Hatteras Island. Shellfish areas – Most areas suitable for commercial harvest are included in HQW/ORW. Inlet hazard areas – Not available in digital format. Areas of Environmental Concern – Site-specific areas that are not mapped in digital format. but not used in draft map Public trust waters – Not mapped in digital format. Archeological sites – Current digital data not available. would require extra processing for those selected soil types. future use possible. Maritime forests – Included in exceptional non-coastal wetlands in CREWS data. requires site-specific consultation. areas are likely covered by other coastal environmental layers in the land suitability model. but the areas are covered by hurricane storm surge inundation areas and velocity zones in the floodplain layer. but the areas are covered by hurricane storm surge inundation areas and velocity zones in the floodplain layer.
but are still regulated by DCM. The value 1 represents beneficial wetlands.x models and are thus outlined here.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide APPENDIX 2—DATA PROCESSING FOR ARCVIEW 3. Protected lands -The Lands Managed for Conservation and Open Space (lmcos. This layer was clipped to the county boundary. Non-coastal wetlands – NC CREWS dataset was clipped to the county boundary and queried for Wetland Type <> 1 or 2 to create a layer of non-coastal wetlands. and in some cases. HQW/ORW watersheds -The Division of Water Quality High Quality Waters and Outstanding Resource Waters watershed layer was clipped to the county boundary. 66 . Converted to grid prior to use in the model. the value 3 represents Exceptional wetlands. Coastal wetlands – NC CREWS dataset was clipped to the county boundary and queried for Wetland Type = 1 or Wetland Type =2.X MODELS Note: these processing steps were performed outside of the ArcView 3. This layer was then queried for “OWR = 3 or OWR = 2”.x models and thus are viewable inside those models. (OWR is the Overall Wetland Rating. old Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Q3 flood data. Soils for environmental composite map – The same soils with septic limitations were used for the environmental composite Flood zones – Flood zones newly furnished by the NC Dept. the data were queried for “OWR = 1 or OWR = -1”. Estuarine waters – The Division of Water Quality (DWQ) hydrography polygon layer was queried for “DWQ_class = SA* or DWQ_class = SB* or DWQ_class = SC*” The asterisk is included because there is often multiply modifiers per classification. Soils with septic limitations – For each county. of Emergency Management – NC Floodplain Mapping Program. any positive integer would work. and 2 represents Significant wetlands. SA NSW. etc. selected 100-year flood zones and velocity zones as the high hazard areas. but 37 was distinct in this context. Most of these processes are included within the ArcGIS 9. and -1 represents wetlands that were unable to be rated.) Non-coastal beneficial wetlands – Using the non-coastal wetlands layer created above.shp) layer was clipped to the county boundary. Added State FIPS field (value = 37) to all layers for a numeric identifier in the model. Data were converted to grid prior to use in the model. Storm surge – Hurricane storm surge inundation areas were clipped to the county boundary and converted to grid prior to use in the model. CGIA created a table of septic limitations by soil type from the published soil survey and joined the table to the detailed soil layer. such as SA ORW.
The water pipes layer was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. 67 . Water pipes . the tiles were then merged to create a layer of high or low intensity land cover that covered the CAMA counties.Municipal sewer discharge points layer was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. Hazardous substance disposal sites – Hazardous substance disposal sites layer was clipped to the 2mile buffered county boundary. A county plus 2-mile buffer was then used to clip the data for each county. Airports – The layer of airport locations was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. Significant Natural Heritage Areas – Significant Natural Heritage Areas layer was clipped to the 2mile buffered county boundary.The sewer pipes layer was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. Sewer discharge points -. Sewer pipes . Wastewater treatment plants – Municipal wastewater treatment plants layer was clipped to the 2mile buffered county boundary.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Water supply watersheds – DWQ’s water supply watersheds layer was clipped to the county boundaries. NPDES – The NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) layer was clipped to the 2mile buffered county boundary. Developed lands – 1996 land cover was used to create a layer of developed lands. Land application sites – Land application sites (point location of application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants) layer was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. The 1996 land cover is available by 1:100. Primary roads – The primary roads layer was clipped to the 2-mile buffered county boundary. Final county boundary .The county boundary was taken from the Corporate Geographic Database “cb100” file which does not include a detailed shoreline. CGIA selected the tiles that covered the CAMA counties and queried the tiles for “Description = high intensity development or Description = low intensity development”.000-scale tiles.
polygons coded with county FIPS code.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide APPENDIX 3—DATA DIRECTORY GIS data layers are shown with theme name and descriptive name.html or contact DCM for other data sources not located at this site. CGIA. See the metadata for more detail (http://www. and some Department of Defense files. Wetland significance determined by Division of Coastal Management . Waters identified as having excellent water quality in association with an outstanding resource. Point and non-point source pollution management strategies are applicable to these waters. The file includes sites on the CERCLA Information System (CERCLIS) National Priorities List. Theme Name ap24_100 crews (source for NonCoastal Exceptional & Substantial Wetlands and Non-Coastal Beneficial Wetlands) cty Descriptive Name Airports NC CREWS Definition Location of airports in NC. contains county line features only. Others are converted from vector to grid in the model. 1:24. The boundaries of all types of land in North Carolina owned and managed by the United States government.subsets by type and functional significance. 68 County boundary cty_buffer devland 2-mile county buffer Developed land hy24 (source for Estuarine Waters) flo Hydrography Federally owned land hqworwdwq HQW and ORW watersheds hsds Hazardous substance disposal site . This does not include a depiction of the shoreline. Division of Waste Management. Polygons are assigned High Quality Water (HQW) and Outstanding Resource Water (ORW) designations. or SC) is Estuarine Waters. Locations of uncontrolled and unregulated hazardous waste sites (formerly called Superfund Sites). Superfund Section ID. Areas depicting jurisdictional boundaries of counties in North Carolina. The dataset includes the following attributes: arcs coded with type number. The definition is a brief statement of the file contents. longitude and latitude coordinate.nc.state. Polygons are coded with NC DENR.) Some files are supplied in grid format on the Land Suitability CD. and a site name.us/cgdb/catalog. and population. <county>_cty.000-scale hydrography – subset based on classification (SA. the State Inactive Hazardous Sites list. county name. the Sites Priority List. county abbreviation.cgia. state or federal status. SB. acres.shp with a 2-mile buffer High intensity developed and low intensity developed land cover classifications as a subset of land cover classified from 1994-95 LandSAT TM satellite imagery.
MANAGEMENT = Organization managing the land for conservation or open space purposes. water quality.5minute topographic quadrangle in which the center point of the property falls. RIVER_BASIN = River basin in which the center point of the property falls. manager name and type. representing an integrated depiction of lands that have been permanently protected or designated for open space. whether it counts toward the Million Acre Initiative goal. COUNTY = County in which the center point of the property falls. acres. no. or conditional) ACRES = Land area computed by the GIS. wildlife habitat. HECTARES = Land area in metric units. MANAGER TYPE = Type of organization managing the land. OWNER = Organization that owns the land or holds the easement or development rights to the property. Lands in NC managed for conservation and open space relating to many purposes including recreation. MILLION_QU = Property qualifies toward the goal of one million additional acres of protected land beginning in 1999. DENR_REGION = Department of Environment and Natural Resources region in which the center point of the property falls. OWNER TYPE = Type of organization that owns the land or holds the easement. generated by formula in GIS. Key to field names: LAND_ID = Unique identifier for property based on the state plane coordinates of the center point. PUB_ACCESS = Public access to the property (yes. derived from the water and sewer survey. QUAD_NAME = US Geological Survey 7. and other attributes. Polygons are coded with owner name and type.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Theme Name sdisch lmcos Descriptive Name Municipal discharge points Lands managed for conservation and open space. computed by the GIS. or “protected lands” Definition Location of municipal waste treatment plants. 69 . This is a composite layer from 13 sources. TRANSACTION YEAR = Year of initial transaction for conservation or open space purposes. TRANS_TYPE Type of transaction for conservation or open space purposes. Multiple legends display alternative groupings of properties. AREA NAME = Reference name for the land area. and farmland preservation. COG REGION = Council of Government (lead regional organization) region in which the center point of the property falls. area name. not the deeded acres.
county of discharge.Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Theme Name npdes Descriptive Name Major and minor NPDES dischargers Definition prds Primary roads flood Flood zones slandapp Land application sites snha Significant Natural Heritage areas soc soil spipes State owned complexes Detailed Soils Sewer pipes hss93f Hurricane storm surge fast Surface water discharge locations as recorded on permits issued for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Sites (NPDES). CGIA. Locations where treated wastewater or sludge is applied to be absorbed into the soil. gravity. The Natural Heritage Program (NHP) MUST authorize release of this data. name. to be used as a general-purpose roads layer. outfall. state and interstate route designations and numbers. subbasin number. Interstate routes. name of stream receiving discharge. Polygons are coded with NHP site number. this data becomes out-dated very quickly. Arcs are coded with the following attributes: system id. vacuum). collection). 70 . and selects state routes in NC. construction date. utilization type (interceptor. in writing. of Emergency Management – NC Floodplain Mapping Program. US routes. Boundaries of all types of North Carolina stateowned complexes. NOTE: Due to its dynamic nature. Flood zones newly furnished by the NC Dept. & old Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Q3 digital files. permit expiration date. Arcs are assigned US. and acres. renovation date. access or hardcopy output of this layer. Hurricane storm surge inundation areas. material. including soil types with septic limitations. Points are coded with the following attributes: id. number of discharge pipes. Areas containing ecologically significant natural communities or rare species. Locations of pipelines for wastewater distribution. CGIA. diameter. and renovation date. Detailed soil surveys by county. fast moving storm. construction date. type (pressure. Points are coded with owner of permit. from 1993 study. prior to distribution. and estimated area. technician review date. site latitude and longitude. and map index numbers. NC Division of Emergency Management.
Points are coded with the following attributes: id. permitted flow capacity. treatment plant location descriptor. and diameter. sludge disposal technology. estimated area. and renovation date. 71 .Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide Theme Name streat Descriptive Name Municipal sewer treatment plants Definition wets (source for Coastal Wetlands) wpipes Wetlands Water pipes Locations of facilities used to treat wastewater and the related appurtenant works.subset by type and functional significance. Arcs are coded with the following attributes: system identification number. infiltration/inflow. maximum daily flow. Locations of pipelines for water distribution. average daily flow. renovation year. material. type of treatment technology. installation date. original construction year. Wetlands delineated by Division of Coastal Management .
Land Suitability Analysis – User Guide 72 .
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