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60% that could be classified as youth similar to South Africa who also has a large youth population caught-up in poverty and lack of access to opportunity. While the move to democracy is applauded, a high unemployment rate amongst the youth as well as lack of opportunity to engage meaningfully within their societies creates frustration that leads to instability. South African youth gave themselves poor ratings within the Personal Wellbeing Index. Little doubt exist, as repeatedly confirmed by various recent research studies (Centre for Development and Enterprise, Human Science Research Council, South African Institute of Race Relations, to name a few) that red flags are waving for South Africa on the same challenge. The challenge is to engage young people within economic activity to develop shared ownership there-off as well as to engage them within society. Entrepreneurship represents an approach that enables young people to help themselves. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor found little over six out of every hundred South African adults to be entrepreneurial, which put South Africa in the bottom twenty five percentage points of developing countries. Our country has a great shortage of entrepreneurs with education (according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) as the key factor to change the status quo. Researchers identified entrepreneurship education at school as a core solution to South Africa s unemployment problem, high crime rate and low economic growth. South Africa s youth are the hardest hit by lack of access to meaningful economic participation. The Door Knockers report found in 2005 that 2.6 million out of 4 million young people of employable age of between 16 and 25, to be unemployed. A recent finding from the University of North-West indicated that an additional 1 million young people are added per annum to this number. These indicators combine with Guilen and Amit s core finding towards a solution in that one of the most effective ways to reduce poverty is to encourage entrepreneurship as stated within the World Bank report with the title Entrepreneurship and firm foundations across countries. With reference to Dr Mamphela Ramphele in an article in Sunday Times of 6 March 2011, a 70% to 80% unemployment rate amongst the South African youth is suggested. The main needs perceived by the youth (identified through surveys and direct interviews) in relation to entrepreneurship development and small and micro-enterprise creation is the following: y need to stimulate the awareness of small business ownership as a viable career option in the environment of diminishing paid employment opportunities need to increase motivation and self-confidence to initiate a small business enterprise need to obtain necessary business management skills to be able to start and operate successfully the enterprise need to obtain the startup capital in the situation of not owning assets and not being able to secure a sizeable collateral to guarantee the loan need to get access to business information that will allow the business to expand their operations and use the existing and potential opportunities need to have technical assistance and moral support when the business enterprises are initiated to be able to develop capacity to solve the emerging problems of doing business
need to have an opportunity to get together with other youth business owners to share their common problems and develop professionally and personally
Career prospects of many children are not certain even if they secured a good matric certificate, a post matric certificate, a diploma or even a degree. Recent statistics indicate that less than 10 out of every 100 school leavers are able to secure employment in the formal sector and civil service. Young people therefore need to be empowered to become the creators of their own jobs rather than to become job seekers. The Entrepreneurship Education (EE) programme represents a pro-active approach through empowering the youth through enterprise for them to be able to create their own futures - prior to leaving school. 1.1.1 South African schools intended for EWET s entrepreneurship education. Province No. Districts / No. Secondary No. Learners Regions Schools Eastern Cape 23 Districts 869 Schools 416 488 Free State 5 Districts 291 Schools 212 106 Gauteng 15 Districts 589 Schools 630 782 KwaZulu Natal 4 Regions, 12 1 587 Schools 940 569 Districts Limpopo 5 Districts 1 359 Schools 667 795 Mpumalanga 5 Regions 493 Schools 340 915 Northern Cape 5 Districts 137 Schools 74 903 North West 5 Regions, 19 515 Schools 264 502 Districts Western Cape 8 Districts 275 Schools 256 352
No. Educators 15 651 8 331 22 976 32 400 24 643 12 348 2 807 9 867 9 181
Source: Education Statistics in SA 2009 published in November 2010 by the Department: Basic Education.