# Chapter 6 Transformation of Stress & Strain

(9 hrs ) hrs.)
Materials for this chapter are Originally taken from : Ferdinand P. Beer, E Russell Johnston, Jr, John T. Dewolf and David Mazurek: Mechanics of Materials, 5th Edition in SI Unit FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Introduction
• The most general state of stress at a point may be represented by 6 components, p y p ,
σ x ,σ y ,σ z
normal stresses (Note : τ xy = τ yx , τ yz = τ zy , τ zx = τ xz )

τ xy , τ yz , τ zx shearing stresses y y

• S Same state of stress i represented by a f is db different set of components if axes are rotated. • The first part of the chapter is concerned with how the components of stress are transformed under a rotation of the coordinate axes. The second part of the chapter is devoted to a similar analysis of the transformation of the components of strain.

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7.4 .e. τ xy and σ z = τ zx = τ zy = 0.Introduction • Plane Stress .state of stress in which two faces of the cubic element are free of stress.3 Transformation of Plane Stress • Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a p prismatic element with faces p p perpendicular to the x. • State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface of a structural element or machine component. ∑ Fx′ = 0 = σ x′ΔA − σ x (ΔA cosθ ) cosθ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ )sin θ y − σ y (ΔA sin θ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA sin θ ) cosθ ∑ Fy ′ = 0 = τ x′y ′ΔA + σ x (ΔA cosθ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ ) cosθ − σ y (ΔA sin θ ) cosθ + τ xy (ΔA sin θ )sin θ • The equations may be rewritten to yield h i b i i ld σ x′ = σ y′ = σ x +σ y 2 σ x +σ y 2 + − σ x −σ y 2 σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ τ x′y′ = − σ x −σ y 2 sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 7. i.. at any point of the surface not subjected to an external force force. the state of stress is defined by σ x . and x’ axes. σ y . For the h bi l f f h illustrated example. • State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected to forces acting in the midplane of the plate. y.

Principal Stresses • The previous equations are combined to y yield p parametric equations for a circle.min = tan 2θ p = σ x +σ y 2 2τ xy ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy ± ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 σ x −σ y Note : defines two angles separated by 90o g p y 7. 2 (σ x′ − σ ave )2 + τ x′y′ = R 2 where σ ave = σ x +σ y 2 ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy R= ⎜ y ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 • Principal stresses occur on the principal planes of stress with zero shearing stresses.6 . q .5 Maximum Shearing Stress Maximum shearing stress occurs for ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy τ max = R = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ σ x −σ y tan 2θ s = − 2τ xy Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and offset from θ p by 45o y 2 σ x′ = σ ave σ ′ = σ ave = σ x +σ y 2 7. σ max.

min = i σx +σ y 2 ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy ± ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 = 20 ± (30)2 + (40)2 σ max = 70 MPa σ min = −30 MPa Fig. 116.Example 6. 233. ⎠ ⎝ σ max.14 7. 7. • Calculate the maximum shearing stress with (b) the principal stresses.333 σ x − σ y 50 − (− 10 ) Fig.13 2θ p = 53.7 Example 6.min = σx +σ y ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy ± ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 σ′ = σx +σ y 2 7. shown determine (a) the principal planes.6° • D t Determine the principal stresses from i th i i l t f σ max.1°. 7.6°.1° σ x = +50 MPa σ x = −10 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ p = 26.1 SOLUTION: • Fi d th element orientation for the principal Find the l t i t ti f th i i l stresses from 2τ xy 2(+ 40 ) y = tan 2θ p = = 1. (c) the 2 ⎛σ x − σ y ⎞ maximum shearing stress and the 2 ⎟ + τ xy τ max = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 corresponding normal stress. 7.1 SOLUTION: • Fi d th element orientation for the principal Find the l t i t ti f th i i l stresses from 2τ xy tan t 2θ p = σ x −σ y • Determine the principal stresses from p p Fig.13 2 For the state of plane stress shown.8 .

7. 7. D Determine i the direct and shear stress acting on the plane P-P.10 .9 Example 6.2 A plane stress system is as shown in h diagram b l i the di below.4°.928 MPa σx −σ y 7.16 7. 71.1 • Calculate the maximum shearing stress with ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy τ max = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = Fig.196 MPa ( compressive ) σx +σy σx −σ y τ =− sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 10 + 2 =− sin 2 ( 75o ) + ( −8 ) cos 2 ( 75o ) 2 = 4.13 2 (30)2 + (40)2 τ max = 50 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ s = θ p − 45 σ x = +50 MPa σ x = −10 MPa θ s = −18. PP SOLUTION: for direct and shear stress: σN = cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ i 2 2 10 − 2 10 + 2 = + cos 2 ( 75o ) + ( −8 ) sin 2 ( 75o ) 2 2 + = −5.6° • Th corresponding normal stress is The di l t i σ x + σ y 50 − 10 = σ ′ = σ ave = 2 2 σ ′ = 20 MPa Fig.Example 6.

min = σ ave ± R tan 2θ p = 2τ xy σ x −σ y The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is the same as CX to CA.σ y .Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress • With the physical significance of Mohr’s circle p . respect to the xy axes.11 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress • With Mohr’s circle uniquely defined. • Normal and shear stresses are obtained from the coordinates X’Y’. • For a known state of plane stress σ x . • For the state of stress at an angle θ with p y . 7. σ max. it may be applied with simple geometric considerations. y pp for plane stress established.τ xy p plot the p points X and Y and construct the circle centered at C. XY 7.12 . construct a new diameter X’Y’ at an angle 2θ with respect to XY. the state of stress at other axes orientations may be f h i i b depicted. Critical values are estimated graphically or calculated. σ ave = σ x +σ y 2 ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ xy R= ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 • The principal stresses are obtained at A and B.

7. determine (b) the principal planes.13 Example 6. (c) the principal stresses. (d) the maximum shearing stress and the corresponding normal stress. stress SOLUTION: • Construction of Mohr’s circle σ x + σ y (50 ) + (− 10 ) σ ave = = = 20 MPa 2 2 CF = 50 − 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa R = CX = (30)2 + (40)2 = 50 MPa 7. σ y = τ xy = 0 A σ x = σ y = τ xy = P 2A • Mohr’s circle for torsional loading: Mohr s σ x = σ y = 0 τ xy = Tc J σx =σy = Tc τ xy = 0 J 7.3 Fig.13 For the state of plane stress shown.Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress • Mohr’s circle for centric axial loading: σx = P . shown (a) construct Mohr’s circle.14 .

6° τ max = R τ max = 50 MPa σ ′ = σ ave σ ′ = 20 MPa 7.6° 7.16 .15 Example 6.1° θ p = 26.3 • Maximum shear stress θ s = θ p + 45° θ s = 71.3 • Principal planes and stresses σ max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50 σ max = 70 MPa σ min = OB = OC − BC = 20 − 50 σ min = −30 MPa tan 2θ p = FX 40 = CP 30 2θ p = 53.Example 6.

4° σ max = OA = OC + CA = 80 + 52 σ max = OA = OC − BC = 80 − 52 θ p = 33.18 .Sample Problem 6.4 • Principal planes and stresses tan 2θ p = XF 48 = = 2.4 For the state of stress shown. (b) the stress components exerted on the p element obtained by rotating the SOLUTION: given element counterclockwise • Construct Mohr’s circle through 30 degrees.7° clockwise σ max = +132 MPa σ min = +28 MPa 7.17 Sample Problem 6. determine (a) the principal planes d t i ( ) th i i l l and the principal stresses.4 CF 20 2θ p = 67. th h d σ x + σ y 100 + 60 σ ave = = = 80 MPa 2 2 R= (CF )2 + (FX )2 = (20)2 + (48)2 = 52 MPa 7.

6 MPa τ x′y′ = 41.4° = 52.6° σ x′ = OK = OC − KC = 80 − 52 cos 52. the stresses are represented as in figure below.Sample Problem 6.1 1.20 .3 MPa 7.19 Supplementary Problem 6. Find .6° σ y′ = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52 cos 52. 2. For the state of plane stress shown. At a point in the structural member.6° σ x′ = +48. (b) p the stress components exerted on the element obtained by rotating the given element counterclockwise via 30o.4 MPa σ y′ = +111. 7.4 • Stress components after rotation by 30o Points P i t X’ and Y’ on M h ’ circle that d Mohr’s i l th t correspond to stress components on the y g rotated element are obtained by rotating XY counterclockwise through 2θ = 60° φ = 180° − 60° − 67. (a) the magnitude and orientation of the principal stresses and i i l d (b) the magnitude and orientation of the maximum shearing stresses and associated normal stresses.6° τ x′y′ = KX ′ = 52 sin 52. determine (a) the principal planes and the principal stresses.

λz • The requirement ∑ Fn = 0 leads to. σy and τxy for the stress conditions.σ y . determine the principal stresses and their orientations with respect to the x-axis and also the th magnitude of th maximum shearing stress.21 General State of Stress • Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and the transformation of stress from element rotation • State of stress at Q defined by: σ x . it d f the i h i t 7. . y b) By continuing the effect of both stress conditions Q1 (a) and Q2(b). λ y .1 3. A structural member is subjected to two set of loadings. stresses 7.τ yz .Supplementary Problem 6. Each separately produce the j g p yp stress conditions at a point A as shown in Figure Q1(a) and FigureQ1(b).τ xy .22 . a) Determining σx. σ n = σ x λ2 + σ y λ2 + σ z λ2 x y z + 2τ xy λx λ y + 2τ yz λ y λz + 2τ zx λz λx • Form of equation guarantees that an element orientation can be found such that 2 2 σ n = σ a λ2 + σ bλb + σ c λc a These are the principal axes and principal planes and the normal stresses are the principal stresses.τ zx • Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the line QN with direction cosines: λx .σ z .

1 (shearing stress is zero) τ max = σ max − σ min 2 7. then a) the corresponding principal stresses are the maximum and minimum normal stresses for the element b) the maximum shearing stress for the element is equal to the maximum “inplane plane” shearing stress c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at 45o to the principal planes. planes 7. • The three circles represent the normal and shearing stresses for rotation around each principal axis.23 Application of Mohr’s Circle to the ThreeDimensional Analysis of Stress • In the case of plane stress. the axis stress perpendicular to the plane of stress is a p principal axis (shearing stress equal zero). B.24 . • Points A. and C represent the • Radius of the largest circle yields the principal stresses on the principal planes maximum shearing stress. p ( g q ) • If the points A and B (representing the principal planes) are on opposite sides of the origin.Application of Mohr’s Circle to the Three Dimensional Analysis of Stress • Transformation of stress for an element rotated around a principal axis may be represented by Mohr’s circle.