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Practice Test Questions

Multiple Choice 1. Some cognitive processes can be called “higher” because they ___a. begin higher in the spinal cord than do other cognitive processes. ___b. require and use (manipulate) more basic cognitive process. ___c. involve language and the “lower” cognitive processes do not. ___d. use algorithm instead of heuristics. 2. A prototypic concept is one that ___a. is also referred to as a “fuzzy” concept. ___b. has been experienced before other members of the same category. ___c. tends to have more members than most others because we experience them more often/ ___d. best represents members of the category or class of concepts. 3. When we say that we are faced with a problem, what are we MOST LIKELY to be missing? ___a. an awareness that a problem exists ___b. a goal or an objective to be reached ___c. a sense of how to get from where we are to where we want to be ___d. an appreciation of the current situation and the resources that are available 4. More than anything else, what makes a problem “well-defined” as opposed to “illdefined”? ___a. the ability to know with certainty when an adequate solution has been found ___b. the extent to which we realize that we are faced with a problem that needs to be solved ___c. the adequacy of problem representation ___d. the choice of an adequate problem-solving strategy 5. Which provides the best example of a well-defined problem? ___a. How can Israeli-Palestinian differences be peacefully resolved? ___b. Which country in North America has the longest coastline? ___c. What would be required to establish a psychology laboratory in a new college? ___d. What is the best way to organize a surprise party for a co-worker? 6. When we say that problem solving begins with problem representation, we are suggesting that one needs to ___a. put the problem in numerical, or mathematical form. ___b. examine all possible problem-solving strategies before deciding on one. ___c. decide if the problem even has a solution. ___d. make the problem meaningful.


___d. incubation. 14. correct or incorrect. Functional fixedness is essentially a type of ___a. a cognitive process. If the solution to a problem is going to occur to you. fewer and fewer hypotheses. Problem representation typically is easiest when ___a. a comprehensive search of all possibilities. rule-governed. a heuristic strategy. arbitrariness. phonemics. ___c. 11. ___b. creativity. balanced. When we say that language allows us to communicate about things that are not present. it actually works to solve the problem at hand. problem representation. means-ends analysis 9. ___d. working backward ___c. it is convergent or divergent. it is artistic. concern of ___a. ___d. Which strategy is relatively inefficient. both cognitive and social. ___c. the problem is well-defined. The social context in which language is produced and understood is the most central. ___c. The ultimate test of a creative solution to a problem is whether ___a. ___b. ___b. using an algorithm ___b. 2 . hill-climbing ___d. the problem deals with familiar information. ___b. As more and more solutions and routes to problem solutions become available. verification. Which is LEAST descriptive of language? Language is ___a. 12. ___c. we are saying that language demonstrates ___a. ___b. an algorithmic approach. anyone else has ever thought of it before. ___d. ___b. the problem is ill-defined. 15. preparation. ___c. neither here nor now. creative. ___d. ___d. ___c. or important. 13. ___c. 8. or beautiful. displacement. heuristic strategy. but guarantees a solution if a solution is possible? ___a. ___d. behavior that follows rules. or generative. pragmatics.7. it will probably occur in the subprocess identified by Wallas (1926) as ___a. the more sensible it is to use ___a. semantics. there is only one way in which the problem can be solved. ___b. 10. ___b. illumination. syntax. ___c. ___d. mental set.

16. When Binet and Simon wrote their first test of intelligence. ___d. semantics 17. intelligence will soon be measured by physiological means. If a psychological test is reliable. syntax. A view of human intelligence proposed by Howard Gardner argues that ___a. ___d. ___c. study the long-term consequences of being judged to be mentally gifted as a child. there are at least eight very different ways in which to demonstrate intelligence. introspecting about their own intellectual skills. that which is measured by the revised edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. ___c. intellectual capacity is inherited and therefore related to one’s race or ethnic origins. ___d. 21. the accumulation of information over one’s lifetime. morphemic rules. making up their own tests of intelligence. measure whatever it measures with consistency. determine how much of one’s intelligence is inherited and how much reflects the environment. the functions. 3 . ___b. Which of these is the most appropriate operational definition of intelligence? Intelligence is ___a. ___b. the relationships between general and specific abilities. ___b. ___c. pragmatics. yield scores that can be interpreted easily. it will ___a. Sternberg’s Triarchic Model of Intelligence focuses on ___a. ___d. ___b. intellectual skills in practice. The rules that govern the ways in which morphemes and words can be combined to form sentences are ___a. humans are no more intelligent than any other organisms. Spearman and Thurstone devised their theories of intelligence by ___a. or use of. ___d. ___c. interviewing many people of differing intellectual abilities. ___b. ___d. or IQ. 20. a careful description of over 100 intelligent behaviors. their major concern was to ___a. the sum of those cognitive abilities that allow us to adapt to the environment. 19. 22. have a very large and representative norm group. measure what it claims to be measuring and nothing else. making sure that there is a test for each aspect of intelligence. 18. examining the correlations among tests for different abilities. ___b. ___b. ___c. the ultimate problem-solving skill. ___c.

4 . discover if intelligence was one unitary “g” factor. ___d. Group A has a higher socioeconomic level than Group B. what did he bring to IQ testing? ___a. socioeconomic level 27. the average score earned on the test by all of those who have taken it ___c. ___b. what is a “standard score?” ___a. Group B has been educationally deprived.___c. ___b. Group A is more intelligent that Group B as indicated by IQ scores. ___c. ___c. or “g” ___d. is taken to be synonymous with intelligence. In the context of intelligence testing. Using the classic approach to IQ as an intelligent quotient. What do IQ tests predict best? ___a. the number of items correct minus the number of items incorrect 26. ___d. of intelligence. the concept of IQ ___a. When David Wechsler first published his tests. we would then have evidence that ___a. the presence or absence of psychological disorders ___c. ___d. 28. If we discover that the difference between the IQ scores for Group A and Group B is significant—greater than we could expect by chance—where Group A’s scores are higher than those of Group B. ___c. 23. or several specific “s” factors combined. In psychology today. academic achievement ___d. the actual number of items for which the subject is given credit ___b. 70. success on the job (in terms of happiness and money earned) ___b. is considered to be but one indicator. a separate score for nonverbal performance items 25. her IQ is ___a. 100. 24. a way to assess general intelligence. has been discredited to the point that psychologists hardly ever use the term. Group A is genetically smarter than Group B. is taken to be one’s mental age multiplied by one’s chronological age and divided by 100. but only for children and adolescents. 80. individually administered testing ___b. if 10-year-old Sally demonstrates the intellectual functioning typical of an average 8-year-old. ___d 125. or measure. tests that were more valid for children than for adults ___c. ___b. identify those children who needed to be placed in remedial or special education classes. a score that indicates a person’s placement relative to similar persons in the norm group ___d.

___c. ____True ____False The concept of a language acquisition device. 6. ____True ____False Computers cannot use algorithms to solve problems effectively. spatial relations ___d. Thurstone proposed that what we call intelligence is made up of seven primary mental abilities. Down syndrome ___a. 5 . ___d. They have brighter-than-average children. 8. while convergent thinking involves reducing the number of possibilities in problem solving. The long-term study of the mentally gifted begun by Terman tells us that which observation about the mentally gifted is FALSE? ___a. can be treated by changes in diet—if the disorder is caught at birth. ___b. They experience more divorces than average. ____True ____False Failing to find evidence for any general (g) factor of intelligence. ____True ____False A mental set can be helpful in a problem-solving situation. 2. ____True ____False Divergent thinking involves generating as many potential solutions as possible. is useful in accounting for the biological or instinctive nature of the language acquisition process. ___b. only humans can.29. generally contain more words than morphemes. general information 30. 7. ____True ____False Problems can be (and often are) solved without the use of memory. ____True ____False Taking data and inputs and observations from many different areas and putting them together to reach one conclusion (or a small number of conclusions). 5. represents deductive reasoning. develops as a result of a chromosomal abnormality. 31. arithmetic computation ___b. True/False 1. children are invariably either severely or profoundly mentally retarded. 4. or LAD. verbal reasoning ___c. 3. For which intellectual skill do males tend to score higher than do females? ___a. ___d. including English. They earn more money than average. ____True ____False Languages. They are physically healthier than average. is usually caused by alcohol or drug use by the mother during pregnancy. ___c.

____True ____False There are no differences between the average IQ scores for men and the average IQ scores for women. 11. must then be due to genetic factors. ____True ____False The current version of the Stanford Binet test yields just one score — a measure of general intelligence. ____True ____False We stand a better chance of preventing mental retardation than we do of adequately treating it. “g.9. 6 . ____True ____False Racial differences in IQ scores that cannot be accounted for on the basis of environmental factors. 12.” 10.