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Drug Addiction among Teenagers

A Research Paper Presented to: The Class of Mrs. Rebecca DP. Sheikh Commonwealth High School


Rose Ann T. Reonal IV-Argon February 8, 2012

Table of Contents

I. Title Page II. Table of Contents III. Acknowledgement IV. Dedication V. Outline VI. Introduction VII. Body Teen Drug Abuse Substances that can lead to drug abuse and addiction Treating the substance abuse of teenagers VIII. Conclusion IX. Bibliography

Page Number i ii iii iiii iiiii 1-2 3-7 8-17 18-20 21 22

patience and dedication for the complementation of this book. Lastly. therefore the author would like to thank: First of all. the author would like to thank her family. and morally. . the author would like to thank her teachers who guide and share their knowledge unconditionally. spiritually. God. especially her parents for supporting her financially. And to all her classmates and friends who shares their ideas upon accomplishing this book. Without their support the author could not finish book. who gave knowledge. Secondly.Acknowledgement The author could not finish this book without the support from the following.

especially if they are secretive about the new peer group.Dedication This book is dedicated to all teenagers. And the parents should be very concerned when teens dump one group of friends for another. We should not underestimate the risk of dependence associated with drug experimentation. there are negative effects that are a result of this use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. it will let us know that Drug Addiction or Drug Abuse is not the answer or the way to escape our problems and it also gives us knowledge on what are the causes and effects of using drugs and how can it be prevented or treated. and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops into a true addiction. parents and students. By this book. If most teens don't start using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem. . Very few addicts recognize when they have crossed the line from casual use to addiction.

6. Teen Drug Abuse A. Alcohol B. I. Detoxification B. Treating the substance abuse of teenagers A. Marijuana C. B. Aftercare / Continuing Care V. Favorable parental attitudes toward adolescent alcohol and drug use. Residential Rehabilitation C. Lack of communication and interaction between parents and kids. Poorly defined and poorly communicated rules and expectations against drug use. Methamphetamines IV. 4.Drug Addiction among Teenagers Thesis or Main Idea: One of the causes of teenage addiction most commonly cited by health specialists is the tendency of young people to underestimate the risk of dependence associated with drug experimentation. Insufficient parental supervision and monitoring. Individual Risk Factors C. Substances that can lead to drug abuse and addiction A. The factors that affect the teenagers to use drugs 1. Cocaine E. When to Seek Help III. Intensive Outpatient Program D. Heroin G. Conclusion . Family conflict. Ecstasy F. Inconsistently and severe discipline. Inhalants H. 2. Introduction II. 5. Cigarettes D. 3.

or depression your teen might have a problem with substance abuse. and unpredictable mood swings that seem to be about more than just teen hormones. as teens begin to move away from old friends who don't approve of their drug use and begin to associate with fellow drug users who will encourage and support one other's drug use. and other pressures of growing up. experienced memory loss. Most teens don't start using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem. lying about after school or weekend activities. problems at home. lose motivation. there are negative effects that are a result of this use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. the sooner you can seek help. Most teens that are addicted won't see a problem with their behavior or their drug use. and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun. changes in friends. develop health problems. Addiction treatment programs specializing in teens can help your child build a strong foundation for long-term recovery. The sooner you can recognize that your child or your friend is abusing alcohol or other drugs. Teens might tell themselves they will only try a drug once. especially if they are secretive about the new peer group. Drugs make them feel good. but many teens find themselves under continual peer pressure to continue to experiment drugs and join the party. talk to them about it and encourage them to get help. Abuse of drugs and alcohol can also change friendships. and simply use drugs or alcohol to have a good time and be more like their friends. If you notice changes in behavior. disagreements with friends. Most teens don't think that they will become addicted. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops into a true addiction. If you are a parent who is concerned about your teen. If you or someone you care about has a drug problem. Parents should be very concerned when teens dump one group of friends for another. When teens become addicted they lose friends. Very few addicts recognize when they have crossed the line from casual use to addiction. the signs to look for are declining interest in activities your teen once enjoyed.Introduction There is a high likelihood that your teen will be exposed to drugs and alcohol. and are a way to relieve the stress of school. changes in mood. . changes in school performance. Teens as young as 13 have often already tried drugs as powerful as cocaine. start to fail in school. and alienate their family and friends with their negative behaviors and often unpredictable emotional swings. and according to drug statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse there is a good chance that your teen will try drugs.

If you are a parent or friend of a teen who has a substance abuse problem. Health experts agree that there are many overlapping causes. parents are probably the last people you want to ask for help. talk to them about their problem and encourage them to get help. Proposed solutions also run the gamut from public health campaigns and education programs to twelve-step programs to drug testing of children by parents. ranging from underestimation of the risks by young people to the influence of parents and other adults. The sooner you or someone you love gets help. the more likely they are to achieve successful recovery Identifying the causes of teen substance use and dependence plays an important role in the prevention of addiction among teenagers. but they can but they can help you to find the treatment program that will support and guide you through recovery. . Teen Addiction: Current Controversies examines the causes of and proposed solutions to teenage drug use and addiction.If you are a teen concerned about your own drug use.

Monitoring means keeping track of your adolescent. use of alcohol and drugs and involvement in antisocial activities. coupled with parental warmth and support. parents need to be involved in their children's lives. when their teens strive to gain greater freedom and independence.II. To be effective. What is he or she doing? 4. Problematic parentchild relationships are characterized by low levels of parental acceptance and control. parents need to be especially concerned during adolescence. Teen Drug Abuse The Factors that Affect the Teenagers to use Drugs Insufficient parental supervision and monitoring. One of the factors contributing to the delinquency of teens is insufficient monitoring by parents. poor academic outcomes. . Parental monitoring of adolescent behavior has been repeatedly identified as important predictors of risky behaviors in youth. When will he or she be home? As soon as this practice becomes habit. Research has shown that an effective parenting style employs a reasonable amount of control and consistency. This type of parenting has been associated with positive outcomes in children. Where is he or she? 3. Monitoring refers to those aspects of parenting behavior that involve information-seeking about the youth's daily activities as well as direct supervision and oversight of those activities. Low levels of parental monitoring have been linked to early sexual initiation. Who is your teen with? 2. This practice entails being able to answer these four questions at all times: 1. monitoring can serve as a foundation to build other parenting skills. While this is important at each stage of development.

reports Purdue University. and you should use verbal and nonverbal communication. Good communication between family members aids in a harmonious family environment. Ineffective or negative communication between parents and children lead children to believe they are unimportant.Lack of communication and interaction between parents and kids. Active listening causes others to continue listening and participating in your conversation. Engage yourself in the conversation in a positive way by smiling and leaning toward the speaker. parents have been more influential than peers. lecturing and sarcasm. Communication difficulties between a child and parent can contribute to the child's rebelliousness. Do not be judgmental when talking with your children. Being an active listener will demonstrate your interest in what the other person is saying. and binge drinking reported the lowest prevalence of use of these substances in the past year. the protective influence of strong family sanctions against alcohol use reduced the use of that substance among girls in Hungary. family attitudes and practices are also significant. . more than parental drug use. For example. Avoid preaching. according to Center for Effective Parenting. In one household study in Canada. was the dominant influence of substance use among youth. ignored or misunderstood. it is important to establish an active line of communication. cigarettes. They also see their parents as unhelpful and untrustworthy. Show concern about what the other person is saying. Lack of communication between parents and children leads to problems related to everything from school to dating. Nonverbal cues add to your conversation. When your child rebels. older sibling use drugs. The level of influence seems to extend to siblings. Among Hispanic/Latino youth in particular. an analysis of the 1997 household survey on substance use found that youth ages twelve to seventeen who perceived that their parents would be "very upset" with marijuana. Similarly. Poorly defined and poorly communicated rules and expectations against drug use. Although peer influences are important in explaining substance use among youth.

After all. As they mature. we do hope they grow up and move out at some point. so when we are ready to impose discipline. it is often the case that interaction with their peer group is a strong priority for your children. it can really drive a wedge between parents and teenagers. As parents. Grounding can be an effective disciplinary technique if it is applied at the right time. in many cases.Inconsistently and severe discipline Sometimes the parents get frustrated with their teenagers when they violate basic family rule--like curfews--and grounding them becomes a natural reaction. Gradually connecting more and more with those outside the family is an important part of that transition to adulthood and independence. Fear of being grounded will often keep a teenager in line. there are few things a teen values more. And. it will usually backfire. it is a natural course of events for them to branch out from family and familiar faces and connect with others of their own age. taking those associations away from them for a time seems to be a logical punishment. So. what does a father need to do to successfully use this disciplinary tool to get a real change in behavior from his child? . Or it may drive a serious wedge between your teenager and you. it is. But if the consequence of grounding is used inappropriately. in the right circumstances and for the right length of time. But if not. Particularly with teens. It may just result in a teen getting more sneaky and deceptive to get what he wants without parents finding out. we intuitively know that these associations are important to our teens.

a new study by Murdoch Childrens Research Institute has found. Sometimes conflict can occur when people misunderstand each other and jump to the wrong conclusion. Favorable Parental Attitudes toward Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use Favorable peer and parental attitudes towards using drugs are influencing Victorian students to drink alcohol in early adolescence. while 36 per cent of year seven males and 31 per cent of year seven females surveyed had drank alcohol in the past month. This usually means that everyone agrees to a compromise or agrees to disagree. It is normal to disagree with each other from time to time. Peer recognition for substance use.Family conflict Conflict can happen when family members have different views or beliefs that clash. However. Communicating in a positive way can help reduce conflict so that family members can reach a peaceful resolution. Over half of year nine male and female students surveyed in Victoria had drank alcohol in the past month. Issues of conflict that are not resolved peacefully can lead to arguments and resentment. favorable attitudes by peers and parents towards drinking and community norms favorable to alcohol and other drug use were shown to be higher risk factors in Victoria. The study asked Victorian and Washington State students in Years 7 and 9 about their drinking behavior. substance use and the factors that influence alcohol. ongoing conflict can be stressful and damaging to relationships. Occasional conflict is part of family life. aggressive or even violent. Some people find it difficult to manage their feelings and become intentionally hurtful. The study also found teenagers in Victoria are twice as likely to drink alcohol as their counterparts in America. tobacco and marijuana use. .

or fatigue Change in friendships or extreme influence by peers Hostility. eating. This. halted breathing from sedatives. If a parent believes his or her child may be drinking or using drugs. y The younger a person is when they begin using drugs the more likely they are to develop a substance-abuse problem and the more likely they are to relapse into drug abuse when trying to quit. rape commission or victimization. acne and infections.Individual Risk Factors y Drugs of any kind decreases teens' ability to pay attention. sex with a stranger. y Anabolic steroids have been associated with impotence in boys and men. or hallucinations (for example. particularly of the little details that make up a teen's life. y Depending on how the body takes in and processes each kind of drug. When to Seek Help The earlier one seeks help for their teens behavioral or drug problems. Overall signs of dramatic change in appearance. Any of these problems can result in death. or physical health may be signs of trouble. a parent must be a good and careful observer. mood swings. clitoral enlargement in girls and women. runny nose. here are some things to watch for: y y y y y y y y Physical evidence of drugs and drug paraphernalia Behavior problems and poor grades in school Emotional distancing. friends. heart attack or stroke from stimulants. y Substance use can cause or mask other emotional problems. liver disease. depression. How is a parent to know if their teen is experimenting with or moving more deeply into the drug culture? Above all. frequent sore throats. stunted growth. or sleeping patterns y Dizziness and memory problems . puts them at risk for pregnancy. like anxiety. strokes. as well as to engage in sexual activity at all. cancer. rapid weight loss y Changes in mood. heart attacks. substances of abuse can affect virtually every one of the body's systems. as well as baldness. y Juveniles who use drugs are more likely to have unprotected sex. and for sexually transmitted diseases. the better. hearing or seeing things). or change in level of cooperation around the house Lying or increased evasiveness about after school or weekend whereabouts Decrease in interest in personal appearance Physical changes such as bloodshot eyes. depression. irritability. Either of those illnesses can result in death by suicide or homicide. isolation. in turn. including HIV/AIDS in both sexes. Examples of this include permanent brain damage associated with inhalants.

and hearing. Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain. intoxication can make someone very friendly and talkative or very aggressive and angry. People who have overused alcohol may stagger. In very small amounts. Substances that can lead to drug abuse and addiction Alcohol Just about everyone knows that the legal drinking age throughout the United States is 21. Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. lose their coordination. emotions. including how it affects your body. They will probably be confused and disoriented. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items everything from cheese to medications. which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain. Alcohol is created when grains. vision. This alters a person's perceptions.III. an antiseptic. . so you can make an educated choice. fruits. movement. Deciding whether to drink is a personal decision that we each eventually have to make. But according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. almost 80% of high school students have tried alcohol. or a sedative. Reaction times are slowed dramatically which is why people are told not to drink and drive. or vegetables are fermented. and slur their speech. Alcohol has different forms and can be used as a cleaner. This article provides some information on alcohol. People who are intoxicated may think they're moving properly when they're not. Alcohol is a depressant. They may act totally out of character. Depending on the person. alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed or less anxious. resulting in intoxication.

. difficulty in thinking and problem-solving. indicating a genetic basis for their sensations. and panic attacks. THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the high that users experience when they smoke marijuana. This idea that marijuana is harmless is a very common misconception among teens. such as crack. often in combination with another drug. In recent years." "gangster. Teens use marijuana because it is a great way to relax and just chill out with friends. distorted perception. In 1988. which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana. A recent study demonstrated that identical male twins were more likely than non-identical male twins to report similar responses to marijuana use. The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. The short term effects of marijuana use include problems with memory and learning. loss of coordination. and increased heart rate." It is usually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or in a pipe or bong. Identical twins share all of their genes. Scientists have found that whether an individual has positive or negative sensations after smoking marijuana can be influenced by heredity. anxiety. Teens may think that marijuana isn t dangerous because it s not a hard drug like cocaine or heroin. Marijuana is a green or gray mixture of dried." and "chronic." "Mary Jane." "weed. marijuana has appeared in blunts. Some users also mix marijuana into foods or use it to brew tea.Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most popular drugs among teenagers because most teens don t consider it to be harmful." "boom. Once securely in place. it was discovered that the membranes of certain nerve cells contain protein receptors that bind THC. but what they don t know is that marijuana has its own set of dangers. but most teens aren t aware of the risks associated with marijuana use. There are over 200 slang terms for marijuana including "pot. and fraternal twins share about half." "herb.

By smoking they can act on those feelings. . Because it is so forbidden it becomes more alluring to teens. they want to quit. The other teens look at them in all kinds of ways and the adults get upset and don t know what to do. The idea that they are breaking the law or going against their parents and schools is an addiction within itself. Why do they smoke when we have seen billions of dollars spent on antismoking campaigns? The American Lung Association estimates that every minute four thousand eight hundred teens will take their first drag off a cigarette. The use of other drugs is part of the peer pressure that our children have to face. yet many continue to smoke. The earlier that our youth begin using tobacco. Kids like to get attention. The problem is that when they take that first puff. about two thousand will go on to be chain smokers. Others are quite content to keep on puffing because they think they enjoy it so much. Teens like to act as if they are someone special or dangerous. They crave attention and by smoking they get big attention. the more likely they will continue using into adulthood. One of the few legal substances available in stores that can injure or kill when used as intended. Research shows that teens between 13 and 17 years of age who smoke daily are more likely to use other drug substances. The differences between subjective feelings of those who smoke and those who don t are shown in behavioral changes that are more apparent in teens than adults. over the counter drugs known to modern man. Some smokers know. deep in their hearts. Teens seem to be more abrasive when smoking or they feel like they are older and wiser when they smoke. The fact that teen smoking rates are steadily increasing is disturbing.Cigarettes Cigarettes are one of the most addictive and destructive. it does not matter if it s good attention or bad attention. We are finding out that about 80% of adult smokers started smoking as teenagers. they can become addicted. Most rational people know this as a fact. Nicotine is considered the number one entrance drug into other substance abuse problems. Of those four thousand eight hundred.

or with such active drugs as procaine (a chemically-related local anesthetic) or with such other stimulants as amphetamines. The freebase form of cocaine is smokable. because of its extensive popularity and use during this period. and/or sugar. crystalline powder." Street dealers generally dilute it with such inert substances as cornstarch. Cocaine has been labeled the drug of the 1980s and '90s. it is one of the oldest known drugs. such as a local anesthetic for some eye. white. The pure chemical." "snow. In the early 1900s. Freebase refers to a compound that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. or powdered form of cocaine. have been ingested for thousands of years. when abused." The hydrochloride salt. and coca leaves. can be taken intravenously (by vein) or intranasally (in the nose). Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush. dissolves in water and. Cocaine is generally sold on the street as a fine. talcum powder. In fact. ear. . the source of cocaine. it became the main stimulant drug used in most of the tonics/elixirs that were developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses. Today.Cocaine Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. There are basically two chemical forms of cocaine: the hydrochloride salt and the "freebase. and throat surgeries." "flake. but can be administered by a doctor for legitimate medical uses. However. known as "coke. cocaine is not a new drug." "C." or "blow. cocaine hydrochloride. cocaine is a Schedule II drug. in the mid-19th century. meaning that it has high potential for abuse. has been an abused substance for more than 100 years. which grows primarily in Peru and Bolivia.

if they continue to use the drug. in primates. severe anxiety. y Physical symptoms such as muscle tension.during and sometimes weeks after taking MDMA. One study. specifically the ones that deal with serotonin. sexual activity. Sometimes it's in a powder form. faintness. sleep. Research links MDMA use to long-term damage to those parts of the brain critical to thought and memory. including liver damage. affecting neurons that use the chemical serotonin to communicate with other neurons. This drug may also damage the neurotransmitter dopamine. drug craving. This can cause motor problems similar to Parkinson's disease. a chemical that regulates emotions. a special risk for people with circulatory or heart disease. showed that exposure to MDMA for 4 days caused brain damage that was evident 6 to 7 years later. This drug is also called MDMA. and paranoia . including confusion. there is evidence that people who develop a rash that looks like acne after using MDMA may be risking severe side effects. involuntary teeth clenching. Brain imaging research in humans indicates that MDMA causes injury to the brain. and can eventually result in paralysis. sleep. y Increases in heart rate and blood pressure. It also creates an amphetamine-like effect. blurred vision. pain and other functions. Symptoms begin with lack of coordination and tremors. The drug may permanently damage brain cells called neurons. aggression. memory. usually with some sort of symbol on it. rapid eye movement. and chills or sweating. rock concerts and dance parties called raves. or a calming sensation. used mostly by teens at clubs. Ecstasy may lower inhibitions and enhance feelings of love and affection. Adam and XTC. The serotonin system plays a direct role in regulating mood. The drug looks like a tablet or capsule.Ecstasy Ecstasy is a psychoactive (mind-altering) drug that can cause hallucinations. sleep problems. depression. and sensitivity to pain. . nausea. Many of the risks users face with MDMA use are similar to those found with the use of cocaine and amphetamines: y Psychological difficulties. Ecstasy is classified as a club drug. y Also.

smoked. abscesses. which include heroin craving. because variations in color result from the presence of impurities. or smoked. All heroin users--not just those who inject the drug--risk becoming addicted. Both new and experienced users risk overdosing on heroin because it is impossible for them to know the purity of the heroin they are using.Heroin Heroin is a highly addictive and rapidly acting opiate (a drug that is derived from opium). known as black tar.) In the western United States. and liver and kidney disease . hepatitis B and C. Heroin is injected. the purer the heroin the whiter the color. may be sticky (like tar) or hard to the touch. In the eastern United States. most of the heroin available is a solid substance that is black in color. and other bloodborne viruses. younger users begin by snorting or smoking heroin because they wish to avoid the social stigma attached to injection drug use. (Generally. heroin generally is sold as a powder that is white (or off-white) in color. snorted. and even death.) Heroin overdoses-which can result whether the drug is snorted. Heroin users who inject the drug expose themselves to additional risks. An added risk results when heroin is mixed with poisons such as strychnine. Specifically. tuberculosis. Individuals who abuse heroin over time develop a tolerance for the drug. convulsions. including contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). or quinine. (Heroin sold on the street often is mixed with other substances such as sugar. This type of heroin. Powdered heroin that is a dirty brown color also is sold in the western United States. coma. Opium is a naturally occurring substance that is extracted from the seedpod of the opium poppy. pneumonia. restlessness. infection of the heart lining and valves. which is a principal component of opium. and vomiting. starch. heroin is produced from morphine. Users who snort or smoke heroin at times graduate to injection because as their bodies become conditioned to the drug. Addicted individuals who stop using the drug may experience withdrawal symptoms. Many new. These users often mistakenly believe that snorting or smoking heroin will not lead to addiction. these users must continue taking the drug simply to feel normal. meaning that they must use increasingly larger doses to achieve the same intensity or effect they experienced when they first began using the drug. Chronic users who inject heroin also risk scarred or collapsed veins. or injected--can cause slow and shallow breathing. They then turn to injection--a more efficient means of administering the drug--to try to attain the more intense effects they experienced when they began using the drug. instead. muscle and bone pain. Heroin ceases to produce feelings of pleasure in users who develop tolerance. The appearance of heroin can vary dramatically. the effects it produces are less intense.

aerosols. it's estimated that 11. Inhalant abuse can cause death even when used for the first time. and are easy to obtain. They can also cause sudden death. vegetable oil cooking sprays. and butyl nitrite. Some examples are paint thinners and removers. bleach and spray paint are among the most popular drugs. cleaning fluid. mostly because they are easily available. they're called "poppers" or "snappers. There are four main types of inhalants: volatile solvents. On the street. Inhalants such as nail polish remover.Inhalants The peak age for using inhalants is 14-15. Volatile solvents. whipped cream dispensers that contain nitrous oxide. correction fluid. y Aerosol sprays are some of the most prevalent inhalants in the home and include spray paint. But that doesn't make them safer. y Gases include medical gases (ether. they can be deadlier than street drugs. It is now as common as marijuana with young people. and the other things they're meant to do. propane tanks. Nitrites are believed to create sexual stimulation and enhancement. household products are safe for cleaning. gasoline. can be purchased legally. . and static cling sprays. but they can be habit-forming and have serious effects on brain functioning. gases. glues. amyl nitrite. deodorant and hairsprays. nitrous oxide) and household or commercial products (butane lighters. But as inhalants. and aerosols can alter moods and create a high. gases. Hundreds of household products are used. By 12th grade. Here is what else you need to know about the types of inhalants: y Volatile solvents are liquids that become a gas at room temperature. gasoline. and nitrites. and refrigerants). Inhalants might seem like an alternative to other mood-altering drugs because they are cheap. with children as young as 5 or 6 years of age abusing household substances to get high. Many teenagers think these chemicals won't harm them. painting.1 percent of students have used inhalants." They're found in some room deodorizers and capsules that release vapors when opened. When used as directed. y Nitrites include cyclohexyl nitrite. according to University of Michigan's annual Monitoring the Future study. Kids either sniff it directly from an open container or by breathing in the chemical from a soaked rag. and felt-tip marker fluids.

some are absorbed by parts of the brain and nervous system. similar to the effects of drinking alcohol. including sniffing. Instead of slowing down the brain and the spinal cord. loses inhibitions. increasing the amount of dangerous chemicals entering and damaging the body. This puts them at risk for these health problems: y brain damage (toxic chemicals may make people become slow or clumsy. has trouble speaking clearly or walking well. and may get agitated. snorting. It can sometimes take up to 2 weeks for the chemical to completely pass from the body. putting it into a bag or other container and then inhaling from there. suffer from memory loss. Other short-term effects of inhaling chemicals include: y increased heart rate y hallucinations or delusions y losing feeling or consciousness y nausea and vomiting y loss of coordination y slurred speech Because inhalants are found in most homes. some people may inhale over and over again for long periods of time to maintain the high. Once the vapors enter the body. All of the inhalants (except nitrites) slow down the body's functions. Because the high from inhalants only lasts a few minutes. putting the vapor onto a rag. have trouble solving problems or planning ahead. gets dizzy. Inhalants can cause many changes in the body. people don't realize they are incredibly addictive. At first someone gets excited. People who become addicted to using inhalants are likely to become long-term users. or inhaling nitrous oxide from balloons. but then gets tired. they increase the size of blood vessels and relax the muscles. or become unable to learn new things) y muscle weakness y depression y headaches and nosebleeds y loss of sense of smell or hearing Nitrites work differently. or spraying the inhalant directly into the nose or mouth.Effects on the Body People inhale chemical vapors in several ways. .

Signs of Inhalant Abuse y mood swings y extreme anger. y Choking a user can choke on his or her vomit. and irritability y exhaustion y loss of appetite y frequent vomiting y hallucinations and illusions y facial rashes and blisters y frequent runny nose and cough y dilated pupils y glazed or watery eyes y extremely bad breath Of course. they might try to drive under the influence or do something irrational. not necessarily inhalant use. agitation. If you're worried about a friend or loved one. the bag can block air from entering the lungs. This can happen even the first time a person tries an inhalant and is experimenting.How Inhalants Kill Like most street drugs. The heart beats quickly and irregularly. such as jump off a roof. and then suddenly stops (cardiac arrest). talk to a parent. y Suicide some people become depressed when their high wears off. school counselor. inhalants can be deadly. y Asphyxia Toxic fumes replace oxygen in the lungs so that a person stops breathing. y Suffocation when vapors are inhaled from a plastic bag placed over the head. . They could also get burned or start explosions if a spark ignites flammable inhalants. Someone can die from abusing inhalants after trying it only once. or your doctor or school nurse. y Injuries since people high on inhalants often make poor decisions. some of these things are signs of other health problems. Causes of death include: y "Sudden Sniffing Death" this is the most common cause of death from inhalant use.

or rock candy. although distribution remained limited to retail amounts in just a few regions of the country. mainland. and the effects may last anywhere from 8 to 24 hours." there is typically a state of high agitation that in some individuals can lead to violent behavior. Sometimes called the "poor man's cocaine". along with a variety of adverse reactions. After the initial "rush. chalk. "Ice" is a large crystal form of high-purity methamphetamine hydrochloride. and chunks. After the effects of methamphetamine wears off.S. Methamphetamines stimulate the central nervous system. Koreans served as the principal supply source for ice that was smuggled from Asia directly to Hawaii and the U. It was not until 1988 that ice became widespread in Hawaii. clear crystals that resemble chunks of ice. mainland. or zip. crank.S. bitter tasting crystalline powder that can be easily dissolved in water or alcohol. it is a powerful "upper" that produces alertness and elation. capsules. In the early 1990s. odorless. A white. shabu. shards of broken glass. It can be mixed with water for injection or sprinkled on tobacco or marijuana and smoked. ice. batu. . Intelligence data indicates that traffickers from Mexico are supplying Asian organizations/gangs on the West Coast and in Hawaii with methamphetamine for conversion to ice. speed. glass. By 1990. it can cause severe withdrawal that is more intense and longer lasting than both speed and cocaine. Like cocaine. methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant of the amphetamine family. powder. Ice derives its name from its appearance: large. ice spread to the U.Methamphetamines Methamphetamines are synthetic stimulants that are produced and sold illegally in pill form. crystal. Since methamphetamine will vaporize rapidly. some heat the drug and inhale the fumes that are released. Methamphetamines may be known as meth.

Treating the substance abuse of teenagers Detoxification The goal of drug detoxification is to rid the body of toxins accumulated by drug use. Most drug detoxification centers simply provide treatment to avoid physical withdrawal to alcohol & other drugs. The first step of drug detoxification is drug withdrawal. a trained detoxification facility will incorporate counseling and therapy during detoxification to help with the psychological distress that the individual may experience as well. drug residues can remain in one s body and cause cravings for years after drug use has ceased. Drug detoxification is performed in many different ways depending on where you decide to receive treatment. Detoxification helps diminish the craving for drugs. It is very common to see individuals in drug detox that use alcohol and cocaine. The removal of drug residuals is a key goal in drug detoxification. Detoxification should cover all aspects of the individual's withdrawal and purification from drugs. Without this process." Once an individual has discontinued using drugs.IV. or alcohol and prescription medications for example. physical and behavioral withdrawal symptoms may follow. These days there are few people who use one drug exclusively. Drug detox is a process that applies to any individual who is addicted to drugs. The nature and severity of the withdrawal symptoms vary greatly depending on the particular drug or drugs that were being used as well as the frequency of use. The definition of detoxification is "a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances". A vital step in a successful drug detoxification as well as drug rehabilitation is flushing out these accumulated toxic residues so that the individual no longer experiences unwanted adverse effects from the drugs they have taken. and the physiological and mental readjustment that accompanies such discontinuation. . Ideally. The definition of withdrawal is "Discontinuation of the use of an addictive substance.

The camaraderie that develops inside a residential rehab facility helps individuals open up and begin to address their problems.Residential Rehabilitation Residential rehabilitation is for teens that cannot stop using drugs without 24 hour supervision. Teens in residential rehab are individuals who have continued to use despite knowledge of the risks and consequences. but inside the residential rehab. as well as social settings that they will encounter when they return to the real world as sober individuals. Residential programs may include individual and group therapy. What is Residential Rehab? Residential rehab (or residential treatment) is a unique rehab program designed to help individuals end the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse. 12-step programs. The staff at a residential rehab facility . these teens can learn and practice new skills that will help them in recovery. The second benefit provided by residential rehab is the ability to live closely alongside other individuals who are going through the same difficult time as the patient. The drug or alcohol infested world that brought the user so much pain is left behind for an environment totally free of illicit substances. The benefits of residential rehab The first benefit residential rehab provides in one of safe haven. the time inside the residential facility is the first time in many years that they have gone without using any controlled substances. or have continued to use despite previous attempts to stop. Residential rehab uses a group setting to help patients work themselves back into their peer group. The staff at the residential drug rehab also plays a crucial role. In a residential rehab program. Simply put. everyone is in the same boat. residential rehab removes the temptations and opportunities to use drugs or alcohol that keep so many individuals from achieving recovery. people are likely to have a wide variety of negative or inappropriate reactions to the recovering addict. For many addicts. A well trained staff is available around the clock to comfort and guide the recovering addict through some of the most difficult times they will ever face. The residential rehab also functions as a testing ground for what life will be like without drugs and alcohol. In the outside world. This is where the rebuilding occurs -as the individual learns to do every day things without using. and relapse prevention.

or alumni support groups of people who have also completed a treatment program to provide support for the adolescent in recovery. but need treatment after school to prevent use and promote recovery. Getting real results from residential rehab Finally. but feel that they need further support in the transition back into daily life. These programs usually rely on support from friends and family. These programs usually include family support groups. Several key studies have shown that those who complete a residential program have lower incidences of continued drug or alcohol abuse and criminal behavior after they leave the facility. Residential rehab treatment at Michael s House helps those with alcohol or drug addiction make it through this difficult time. These programs can also include adolescents who have already completed residential treatment. Intensive Outpatient Program Intensive outpatient programs are for teens who have committed to staying drug free. and the depth of their problem. and get on with their lives in a meaningful. drug-free way. Aftercare/continuing care These programs are a very important part of recovery. and help adolescents to maintain a drug free lifestyle. Some run for about a month. residential rehab gets results. The time spent in a residential rehab varies according to facility. while others ask their patients to stay for almost a full year.has seen almost everything. the individual. . Residential programs vary in length.and uses that knowledge to help the people who are in a fragile state.

Many teenagers discover the risks of substance use only after suffering the adverse effects of addiction. Statistics have shown that instances of teen drug addiction run in long chains from parents to children. money.Conclusion I conclude that. The best reasons to get a help for teens while they are still teenagers. and drug use may seem adult to youths who are not mature enough to understand that such behavior poses a threat to their health and well-being. This is why now is the time to either break the chain of teen drug addiction or stop it from forming. is the consequences of inaction upon future generations. No amount of hard work. beyond being a very formidable time in a child life. sacrifice is worth more than breaking a chain of substance abuse or preventing one from forming. insufficient parental guidance and influences to use drugs. And one of the causes of teenage addiction most commonly cited by health specialists is the tendency of young people to underestimate the risk of dependence associated with drug experimentation. drinking. argue the specialists. the teenagers that use drugs became younger and the root cause of it was mostly about their family. According to these experts. . Smoking. teenagers on the verge of adulthood are naturally prone to engage in risky behavior.

Other Drugs and Tobacco Bountry Books: Encyclopedia of Questions and Answers The Human Body: Maintaining Health www.kidshealth. 193 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: Biology Alcohol. 765-773 .prevent-drug-abuse.Bibliography www. 225 The Human Body: Lungs and Breathing www.