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Digital Modulation – Lecture 01

Review of Analogue Modulation Introduction to Digital Modulation Techniques © Richard Harris

Objectives
• You will be able to:
– Classify the various approaches to Analogue Modulation – Discuss the basic methodologies involved in Digital Modulation
• Amplitude Modulation • Frequency Modulation • Phase Modulation

– Describe the concepts behind binary modulated bandpass signalling

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

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Presentation Outline
• Review of Analogue Modulation Techniques • Introduction to Digital Modulation methods
– Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling
• Unipolar and Bipolar • Examples of OOK etc

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

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Communication Systems 143.332 .332 .Digital Modulation Slide 6 2 . Communication Systems 143. voice and video signals.Digital Modulation Slide 5 Analogue Modulation • Analogue modulation combines a higher frequency sinusoidal carrier with a lower frequency signal carrying the message. frequency and phase modulation are referred to as angle modulation. at the transmitter one signal (the modulating signal) modifies a property of another signal (the carrier signal) so that a composite wave (the modulated wave) is formed. the high frequency waves travel over greater distances than could be achieved with the original message / waveform unaided. – Since they can be tied more efficiently to the communication medium.2 • Demodulation – At the receiver. • Phase modulation – Note that collectively.Review of Analogue Modulation .1 • We have found that – Placing baseband signals on high frequency carriers using the process of modulation facilitates the long distance transmission of data.Digital Modulation Slide 4 Review of Analogue Modulation . • Such carriers can be modulated in three distinct ways – Amplitude A can be varied in sympathy with the message • Amplitude Modulation – Frequency f can be varied according to the message signal • Frequency Modulation – Phase φ can also be varied with the message signal. The bandwidth of the modulated wave is equal to. • The maximum symbol rate is determined by the passband of the bearer and associated equipment. the modulating signal is recovered from the modulated wave (demodulation). • Since the modulated wave has a higher frequency it can be launched from: – Practical sized antennas – Moderate sized cables or waveguides • Each symbol represents a specific sequence of bits and the symbol set covers all possible bit combinations.332 . Communication Systems 143. or greater than the bandwidth of the modulating signal. • Modulation: – The signal processing technique where.

QPSK Vector signals AM. FM Scalar signals Required Measurement Capability Communication Systems 143.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 9 3 . • Industry trends: Signal/System Complexity TDMA.Digital Modulation Slide 7 Why Digital Modulation .1 • Most communication systems can be classified into one of three different categories: – Bandwidth efficient • Ability of system to accommodate data within a prescribed bandwidth – Power efficient • Reliable sending of data with minimal power requirements – Cost efficient • System needs to be affordable in the context of its use Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 8 Why Digital Modulation .2 • Move from Analogue (AM) to Digital (DM) since it provides better information capacity. FSK. we can modulate the wave in sympathy with the digital data stream in three basic ways: – Amplitude A can be varied in sympathy with the message • Amplitude Modulation – Frequency f can be varied according to the message signal • Frequency Modulation – Phase φ can also be varied with the message signal. • As for Amplitude Modulation.What is Digital Modulation? • Digital Modulation combines a high frequency sinusoidal carrier signal and a digital data stream to create a modulated wave that assumes a limited number of states. • Phase modulation Communication Systems 143.332 . higher data security. better quality communications. CDMA Time variant signals QAM.332 .

• These are two different ways to add diversity to signals allowing different signals to be separated from one another.332 .magnitude and phase represented together • A simple way to view amplitude and phase is with the polar diagram.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 12 4 . • Two principal types of multiplexing (or “multiple access”) are – TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and – CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Communication Systems 143. Communication Systems 143. – Usually the carrier in most communication systems.3 • Another layer of complexity in many new systems is multiplexing.Digital Modulation Slide 11 Polar Display . Any reliably detectable change in signal characteristics can carry information. • At the receiver the signal modifications or changes are detected and demodulated. • The signal can be expressed in polar form as a magnitude and a phase. • The carrier becomes a frequency and phase reference and the signal is interpreted relative to the carrier. • The phase is relative to a reference signal.Why Digital Modulation .Digital Modulation Slide 10 Transmitting Information • A pure carrier is generated at the transmitter.1 Polar display . Modulation Modify a signal Demodulation Detect the modifications Communication Systems 143.332 . • The carrier is modulated with the information to be transmitted.

332 .2 • Magnitude is represented as the distance from the centre and phase is represented as the angle. Amplitude modulation (AM) changes only the magnitude of the signal. the I axis lies on the zero degree phase reference. rather than relative phase. • The signal vector’s projection onto the I axis is its “I” component and the projection onto the Q axis is its “Q” component.Digital Modulation Slide 13 I/Q Formats • In digital communications. though frequency is the controlled parameter. • Signals that are at 90o are said to be orthogonal to each other – or in quadrature. Amplitude and phase modulation can be used together. modulation is often expressed in terms of I and Q. I and Q signals are mixed with the same local oscillator. • This is a rectangular representation of the polar diagram. Communication Systems 143. Communication Systems 143.332 . • • • Communication Systems 143.Polar Display .332 . Phase modulation (PM) changes only the phase of the signal. A 90o phase shifter is placed on one of the paths.Digital Modulation Slide 15 5 . and the Q axis is rotated by 90 degrees. Frequency modulation (FM) looks similar to phase modulation.Digital Modulation Slide 14 I and Q in Transmitter • I/Q diagrams are useful since they mirror the way in which digital communication signals are created using an I/Q modulator. • On a polar diagram. • In the transmitter.

332 .Digital Modulation Slide 17 Why use I/Q? • Digital Modulation is easy to accomplish with I/Q modulators.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 18 6 . the combined signals are easily separated out Communication Systems 143.Transmitter Side Q 90o Phase Shift Σ Composite output signal Local Oscillator I • Signals that are in quadrature are independent and do not interfere with each other.332 . • Simplifies digital radios and similar devices Communication Systems 143. – Difficult to achieve in conventional phase modulators. • Most modulators map data onto a number of discrete points on the I-Q plane. • Points are known as constellation points. Communication Systems 143. • As the signal moves from one point to another.Digital Modulation Slide 16 Receiver Side Quadrature component 90o Phase Shift Composite input signal Local Oscillator In-phase component • On the receiver side. simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation usually takes place.

paging. 16 VSB 8PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM Application GSM and CDPD Deep space telemetry. modems. MSK encodes each bit as a half sinusoid.332 . the bandpass signals are also given by – Binary line codes or – Multi-level line codes Communication Systems 143.332 . Digital video (USA) Communication Systems 143. TETRA.org/wiki/Minimum-shift_keying" Communication Systems 143. • Similarly to OQPSK.wikipedia. which uses Gaussian instead of sinusoidal pulse shapes. DVB-C. aircraft Microwave digital radio. satellite DECT. set top boxes MMDS Modems. However.Application Areas Modulation Format MSK. CDMA. with the Q component delayed by half a bit period. DVB-T Terrestrial microwave. • Retrieved from – "http://en.332 . instead of square pulses as OQPSK uses. NADC.Digital Modulation Slide 21 7 . • The resulting signal is represented by the formula • – where aI(t) and aQ(t) are the square pulses as shown in QPSK. which reduces problems caused by non-linear distortion. MSK is encoded with bits alternating between quarternary components. This results in a constant-modulus signal. LMDS CDMA. land mobile and public safety North American digital TV Satellite. GFSK 8. cable modems Satellite. RAM mobile data. PHS. PDC.Digital Modulation Slide 19 MSK and GMSK • Minimum-shift keying (MSK) is a type of continuous phase frequency-shift keying.Digital Modulation Slide 20 Digital Modulation • The modulating signal m(t) is a digital signal given by – Binary line codes or – Multi-level line codes • Correspondingly. AMPS. GMSK BPSK QPSK and ¼p DQPSK OQPSK FSK. • A similar modulation scheme is Gaussian minimum shift keying. DVB-T DVB-C modems. CT2.

Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 1 • We shall illustrate a number of binary signal formats in the following sequence of slides. Unipolar (Non Return to Zero) Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 23 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 3 • With Non Return to Zero operation: – Long sequences of 0s produce periods where there is no current generated – Long sequences of 1s produce periods where positive current is generated – When the 1s and 0s are equally likely. • Each of the above conditions can cause problems for an electronic receiver.332 .332 . – Unipolar • A 1 is represented by a current of 2A signal units and a 0 is represented by a current of zero signal units. viz: – When a constant current or no current flows there is no timing information and synchronisation is difficult. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 22 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 2 • Unipolar actually can occur in two forms. then the power in this case is ½ x 2A2 = A2 signal watts. • Consider the sequence 101100111000 and view the following diagrams to compare the two cases. power is ½ (2A2) or 2A2 signal watts – Return to zero (RZ) • Currents are maintained for a fraction of the time slot.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 24 8 . Communication Systems 143. If we assume that the current is maintained for ½ the time slot and the symbols are equally likely. the mean value is A signal units. viz: – Non return to zero (NRZ) • Current maintained for entire bit period (time slot) • In a long sequence with equally likely 1s and 0s.

once again: – Non Return to Zero • Currents maintained for entire time slot • Power needed for equally likely symbols is A2 signal watts – Return to Zero • Currents maintained for fraction of time slot • Power needed for equally likely symbols is A2/2 signal watts Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 26 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 6 Bipolar Non Return to Zero Bipolar Return to Zero Communication Systems 143.Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 4 • With Return to Zero operation: – Long sequences of 0s produce periods where there is no current generated – Long sequences of 1s produce periods where positive current is generated for a fraction of the time and hence a change can be detected by the receiver. but not the problem of long term level shifts.Digital Modulation Slide 25 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 5 • Bipolar operation: – A 1 is represented by a current of +A signal units – A 0 is represented by a current of –A signal units • Two modes of operation.332 . Communication Systems 143. the mean value is A/2 signal units. – When the 1s and 0s are equally likely and the pulses are ½ T wide. • So RZ eliminates the timing problem.332 .332 .Digital Modulation Slide 27 9 .

The change-over occurs at the midpoint of the timeslot. Communication Systems 143.Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 7 • Long strings of 1s or 0s produce constant currents in NRZ bipolar and these represent a problem for electronic circuits once again. – With a pulse shape that is approximately the same as a raised cosine. – Since the polarity alternates. Communication Systems 143.332 . 0s are represented by the absence of current pulses. – This type of coding is used between equipment that operates at a high speed and requires close synchronisation.Digital Modulation Slide 28 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 8 • Biphase (or Manchester) – A 1 is a positive current of amplitude A signal units that changes to a negative current pulse of equal magnitude and a 0 is a negative pulse that changes to a positive current pulse of equal magnitude.Digital Modulation Slide 30 10 . almost all the power is contained within a bandwidth equal to the bit rate expressed in Hz. Communication Systems 143. the mean signal value is just zero.332 . – Power requirements are A2/4 which is half of RZ bipolar and one eighth of NRZ bipolar.332 . these problems are basically eliminated because the receiver detects the return to zero in each pulse period.Digital Modulation Slide 29 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 9 • Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) – 1s are represented by return to zero current pulses of equal magnitude A that alternate between positive and negative. • For RZ bipolar. AMI is used extensively in the USA T1 carrier systems. • When 1s and 0s are equally likely.

Since the frequency power density spectrums of 2B1Q. Communication Systems 143. 101100111000 Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 32 11 . Of each pair. one quaternary (2B1Q) – Four signal levels (±3 and ±1) each represent a pair of bits. For long sequences of 1s and 0s. AMI and Raised Cosine are lower. Manchester is used in LANs and other applications where precise synchronisation is important and bandwidth is available. they are employed in bandwidth limited environments such as telephone connections. -1.332 . +1. and 0 = -ve).Digital Modulation Slide 31 Comments on 2B1Q Signalling amplitude 11 10 01 00 Usually described as “distance 2”: -3. or alternating 1s and 0s (ie 1010101010…) 2B1Q signalling produces constant currents and synchronisation is impossible. +3 time • • • • 2B1Q signalling is used for BISDN basic rate services (at 160kbps) and ISDN digital subscriber loop services.Binary Modulated Bandpass Signalling Examples – 10 • Two binary.332 . the first bit determines whether the level is positive or negative (1 = +ve.