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updated March 11, 2008

Haryo Dwito Armono, ST, M.Eng, PhD

Phase of Soil

Solid S lid particles Water

Air

65 e= Volume of voids V v V l f id = Volume of solids V s Porosity (n) 65% n= Volume of voids V v = Total volume V Degree of saturation (S) g 65% S= Volume of water V w = Volume of void Vv Vl f id Void ratio – Porosity Relationship Vv Vv n = = = Vs V − Vv V − Vv 1 − n V V Vv V Vv Vs e n= v = = = V Vs + Vv Vs + Vv 1 + e Vs Vs e= Vv V Typical Values e= n 1− n e n= 1+ e (Lambe and Whitman. 1979) .Volumetric Ratios Vv = Volume of void Va = Volume of Air Vw = Volume of water Vs = Volume of solid Void ratio (e) 0.

65 . Dilate Volume change tendency Strength change Link: the strength of rock joint i Shear strength = σ n tan(φ + i) Engineering Applications (e) Hydraulic conductivity Which packing (SC or CT) has higher hydraulic conductivity? g y y SC e = 0. 0 91 Contract C Cubic-tetrahedral (CT).91 The fluid (water) can flow more easily through the soil with higher hydraulic conductivity CT e = 0. e = 0.Engineering Applications (e) Simple bi (SC) Si l cubic (SC).65.91. e = 0.

Engineering Applications (e) Filter SC e = 0 91 0. Engineering applications: Slope stability Underground excavation . Capillary action is responsible for moving groundwater from wet areas of the soil to dry areas.91 Clogging The finer particle cannot pass through the void CT e = 0.65 Critical state soil mechanics Engineering Applications (e) Completely dry soil S = 0 % Completely saturated soil S = 100% Unsaturated soil (partially saturated soil) 0% < S < 100% S= Total volume of voids contains water (Vw ) × 100% Total volume of voids (Vv ) Effects of capillary forces.

g. The value is different at various places (Newton's second law F = ma) • The unit weight is frequently used than the density is (e. the force of gravity acting on a body. Unit weight of Water . Mass Volume Weight Mass ⋅ g γ = = Volume Volume ρ= for example : Density of water . Unit weight . ff t d b th f t (Au. 2001) Density and Unit Weight • Mass is a measure of a body's body s inertia.8 m m3 m3 sec 2 . or its "quantity of matter". in g calculating the overburden pressure).Engineering Applications (e) Most of landslides are due to erosion and “loss in suction” The slope stability is significantly affected by the surface water. Mass is not changed at different places places. Density. • Weight is force.8 m3 • 9. ρ w =1000 kg γ w = ρw • g = 1000 kg = 9 8 kN 9.

33 988. up to 500 % or quick clays w>100% clays. Wet.04 958.0 50. Unsaturated) ρ = M + Mw Mass of soil sample = s Total volume of soil sample V M + Mw Mass of soil solids + water = s Total T t l volume of soil sample l f il l V c. Temperature °C Density (at 1 atm) kg/m³ 999.0 4.10 998. Submerged density (Buoyant density) g y( y y) ρ' = ρsat − ρ w .0 ρ w = 1 g / cm3 = 1000 kg / m = 1 Mg / m 3 3 37.37 Density of water (slightly varied with temperatures) 0.0 100.Weight Relationship Water Content w (100%) w= Mass of water ( M w ) ⋅100% Mass of soil solids ( M s ) for some organic soils w>100%. Dry density ρd = M Mass of soil solids = s Total volume of soil sample V b.20 997.0 25. or Moist density (0%<S<100%. Total.0 20.0 15.98 999.84 999.05 993. Va =0) ρ sat = d.0 Density of Soil a. Saturated density (S=100%.

plays a critical role to their engineering properties (discussed in the next topic) topic). water g . • For example. 1993) . It will behave like a viscous fluid after it is fully disturbed.Weight Relationship Submerged unit weight: g g Consider the buoyant force y acting on the soil solids: γ ' = γ sat − γ w Ws − Vs ⋅ γ w Ws − (V − Vw ) ⋅ γ w = V V W − V ⋅ γ w + Ww = s V W + Ww − V ⋅ γ w = s V = γ sat − γ w ( S = 100%) Archimedes Archimedes’ principle: The buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object. 1997 Engineering Applications • For fine-grained soils. Cartoon by Ken Otter. disturbed Clay particle Water (Mitchell. The quick clay usually has a water content w greater than 100 % and a card house structure.

Other Relationship Proof: (1) Specific gravity S ⋅ e = w ⋅ Gs S ⋅e = Vw Vv Vw ⋅ = Vv Vs Vs M w ρs M w Vs Vw ⋅ = ⋅ = M s ρw M s M w Vs Vw Ms Gs = ρs γ s = ρw γ w (2) ρw ⋅ S ⋅ e = w ⋅ ρs S ⋅ e = w ⋅ Gs w ⋅ Gs = Gs typical values (Lambe and Whitman. 1989) . 1979) (Goodman.

Often use ρwSe=wρs. 3 A ith 1 1 t i 4.Remember the following simple rules g p 1. 1 Remember the basic definitions of w e ρs. S etc w. Se = wGs (Holtz and Kovacs. 2. 3. S. Draw a phase diagram. if not given. etc. e. 1981): Example . Assume either Vs=1 or V = 1.

S = 100%. Find the void ratio. A saturated clay has a water content of 35% and a dry unit weight y y g 3.γd 1.6 kN/m3.6 kN) = 4.76)/1.4852 m3 Vv = 1. γ = (13.35)(13.6 + 4.5148)(9. Then Ws = 13.36 kN/m3 . e = 0.6 kN/m weight You have three ratios. Ww = ( (0.00.Vv=1 .0. Gs = 13 6/((0 5148)(9 81)) = 2 69 13.6/((0.0 = 18.5148 m3.0 = 18. w = 35% and γd = 13.81 kN/m3 = 0.6 kN.0 Vw = 0. 1.4852/0. Assume a value say V = 1 00 value.36/1.4852 = 0.76 kN/9.69.81)) 2.4852 m3 Vs = V .945.5148 = 0.76 kN )( ) Vw = 4. the specific gravity and total unit of 13.

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