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Imagery of Preludes In T. S. Eliot’s poem Preludes he portrays the alienation of the individual from society.

His imagery is sharp and clear and he uses many techniques to achieve this. A clear description of what something is, can be pictured in the mind by his precise use of imagery. For example, the words, “…withered leaves”(7) gives a clear image, as does, ”…dingy shades”(22). The effect is achieved through descriptions of the human influence, word choice, syntax, and rhythm. Eliot uses descriptions like, “the faint smell of beer”(15). This definitely brings a smell to your mind. The first stanza begins with a familiar setting, a “… winter evening”(1). This is associated with a lack of growth and a loss of vitality. It also describes death and desolation. This does not last long when we are confronted,” with smells of steaks in passageways”(2) paints a picture of a polluted and mundane environment. The precise use of descriptive words composes this mood of decline and despair. As seen when you read ” …the burnt-out ends of smoky days”(4). The mood is vital to understanding Eliot’s vision of anguish and despair of the individual that is alienated from society. These moods are expressed throughout with the careful use of imagery, diction and repetition. His distinctive syntax and use of rhythm also enhance the effects of his poetry. Only in stanza III does he actually describe a person and not a body part, as Ratza 2 he does in the stanzas before and after. Example of this is “withered leaves about your feet”(7), and “one thinks of all the hands”(21). He also uses the human presence to describe them in the poem, an example of this is, “the smell of steaks”(2) and “to early coffee-stands”(18). He makes inanimate objects the topic of his sentence and more important then the people, for example “ The winter evening settles down/ With smell of steaks in passageways.”(1-2). He makes the winter evening the topic of the sentence, not the human presence. In “of withered leaves about your feet/ and newspapers from vacant lots…”(7-8), he makes the non-living, unimportant objects, the focuses of his sentences. Most of the poem is described outside, ”the winter evening…”(1) where it is cold and desolate. In stanza III we go inside, where it proves that it is no cleaner, “or clasped the yellow soles of feet/ In the palms of both soiled hands”(37-38), than outside. Eliot writes of how the world is suffering and how nothing was done by them to deserve this with “wipe your hand across your mouth and laugh;/ The worlds revolve like ancient women/ gathering fuel in vacant lots”(52-54). Eliot has created a world of ugliness, dirt, and darkness. He uses many forms of imagery to convey this scene to the reader. He uses word choice, literal imagery, description of human extremities and presence, and rhythm. T.S. Eliot writes about a world of suffering and hopelessness and creates a physically powerful emotion with his readers that they feel the desperation of the world, through his imagery. The Damaged Psyche of Humanity Like many modernist writers, Eliot wanted his poetry to express the fragile psychological state of humanity in the twentieth century. The passing of Victorian ideals and the trauma of World War I challenged cultural notions of masculine identity, causing artists to question the romantic literary ideal of a visionary-poet capable of changing the world through verse. Modernist writers wanted to capture their transformed world, which they perceived as fractured, alienated, and denigrated. Europe lost an entire generation of young men to the horrors of the so-called Great War, causing a general crisis of masculinity as survivors struggled to find their place in a radically altered society. As for England, the aftershocks of World War I directly contributed to the dissolution of the British Empire. Eliot saw society as paralyzed and wounded, and he imagined that culture was crumbling and dissolving. “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” (1917) demonstrates this sense of indecisive paralysis as the titular speaker wonders whether he should eat a piece of fruit, make a radical change, or if he has the fortitude to keep living. Humanity’s collectively damaged psyche prevented people

and scholarlyexegeses. further transformed society.from communicating with one another. Critics read the following line from The Waste Land as a statement of Eliot’s poetic project: “These . World War I. due to his male and female genitalia. In the repressiveVictorian era of the nineteenth century. images. humanity’s psyche had been shattered by World War I and by the collapse of the British Empire. Collaging bits and pieces of dialogue. The latter portrays rape. thereby enlightening readers. including “A Game of Chess” (the second part of The Waste Land) and “The Hollow Men. prostitution. English women began agitating in earnest for the right to vote in 1918. with its barrage of sensory perceptions. women were confined to the domestic sphere. and he packed his work full of allusions. watches women wander in and out of a room. Nevertheless. With Tiresias. unable to make a decision. as if all of literature constituted a stream in which each new writer must enter and swim.” an essay first published in1919. foreign words. “talking of Michelangelo” (14). Eliot also argued that the literary past must be integrated into contemporary poetry. and the flappers of the Jazz Age began smoking and drinking alcohol in public. “The Love Song of J. Eliot simultaneously lauded the end of the Victorian era and expressed concern about the freedoms inherent in the modern age. bare arms. gender roles and sexuality became increasingly flexible. and tones within one poetic work was a way for Eliot to represent humanity’s damaged psyche and the modern world. Only the very best new work will subtly shift the stream’s current and thus improve the literary tradition. A disdain for unchecked sexuality appears in both “Sweeney Among the Nightingales” (1918) andThe Waste Land. But the poet must guard against excessive academic knowledge and distill only the most essential bits of the past into a poem. In “The Tradition and the Individual Talent. The effect of this poetic collage is both a reinterpretation of canonical texts and a historical context for his examination of society and humanity. Women were allowed to attend school. from 1914to 1918. Motifs Fragmentation Eliot used fragmentation in his poetry both to demonstrate the chaotic state of modern existence and to juxtapose literary texts against one another. footnotes. and women who could afford it continued their education at those universities that began accepting women in the early twentieth century.” Eliot maintained great reverence for myth and the Western literarycanon. sexuality was not discussed or publicly explored. formal styles. Alfred Prufrock” reflects the feelings of emasculation experienced by many men as they returned home from World War I to find women empowered by their new role as wage earners. In Eliot’s view. which lasted until 1910. and a puritanical atmosphere dictated most social interactions. now called the Edwardian Age. in some sense. and Eliot reflected those changes in his work. the poem’s central character. Eliot praises the literary tradition and states that the best writers are those who write with a sense of continuity with those writers who came before. The Waste Land juxtaposes fragments of various elements of literary and mythic traditions with scenes and sounds from modern life. quotations. Tiresias. and other incidences of nonreproductive sexuality. Eliot creates a character that embodies wholeness. as people felt both increasingly alienated from one another and empowered to break social mores. is a hermaphrodite—and his powers of prophesy and transformation are. scholarly ideas. an idea that Eliot explored in many works. and elsewhere admires their downy. represented by the two genders coming together in one body. The Changing Nature of Gender Roles Over the course of Eliot’s life. Prufrock. Queen Victoria’s death in 1901 helped usher in a new era of excess and forthrightness. Modernist writers created gay and lesbian characters and re-imagined masculinity and femininity as characteristics people could assume or shrug off rather than as absolute identities dictated by society. a conversation about abortion.

ritual fails as the tool for healing the wasteland. water provides solace. These echoes and references are fragments themselves. in which a knight quests to find the grail.e. Eliot’s characters wait for water to quench their thirst. a wounded figure who could be healed through the sacrifice of an effigy. watch rivers overflow their banks. he realizes that a malicious intent lies behind the sweet voices: the poem concludes “we drown” (131). He drew heavily from ancient fertility rituals. The Fisher King is. and the figure of Jesus Christ.c. He filled his poems with references to both the obscure and the well known. Practically every line in The Waste Land echoes an academic work or canonical literary text. Tiresias represents confused or ambiguous sexuality. as in the case of Phlebas the sailor from The Waste Land. including Hindu chants.” the speaker discusses the dead land. Infertility Eliot envisioned the modern world as a wasteland. and pagan ceremonies. even as Eliot presents alternative religious possibilities. Prufrock hears the seductive calls of mermaids as he walks along the shore in “The Love Song of J. to perceive accurately. it can also lead to drowning and death. Corpses salute the stars with their upraised hands. decimated plant life. in which neither the land nor the people could conceive. water can imply baptism. now filled with stone and cacti. the only object capable of healing the land. Although water has the regenerative possibility of restoring life and fertility. unable to cope with either reproductive or nonreproductive sexuality: the Fisher King represents damaged sexuality (according to myth.” the fourth part of Four Quartets. Christianity. Alfred Prufrock. and the women chattering in “A Game of Chess” represent an out-of-control sexuality.).fragments I have shored against my ruins” (431). leaving behind detritus and carnage. and Eliot draws upon these traditional meanings: water cleanses. Trying to process the destruction has caused the speaker’s mind to become infertile: his head has been filled with straw. since Eliot includes only parts. Mythic and Religious Ritual Eliot’s tremendous knowledge of myth. the two primary methods by which the war was fought. Buddhist speeches. Trench warfare and chemical weapons. and water brings relief elsewhere inThe Waste Land and in “Little Gidding. Ultimately. Later poems take their images almost exclusively from Christianity.” but. In The Waste Land. 800 b. various characters are sexually frustrated or dysfunctional. In “The Hollow Men. water symbolizes both life and death. as well as to place his ideas about the contemporary state of humanity along the spectrum of history. Eliot explains the crucial role played by religious symbols and myths. such as the echoes of the Lord’s Prayer in “The Hollow Men” and the retelling of the story of the wise men in “Journey of the Magi” (1927). World War I not only eradicated an entire generation of young men in Europe but also ruined the land. academic works. or to conceive of images or thoughts. for what looks innocuous might turn out to be very dangerous. rather than whole texts from the canon. like Odysseus in Homer’sOdyssey (ca. The Fisher King . Eliot tries to highlight recurrent themes and images in the literary tradition. and many lines also have long footnotes written by Eliot as an attempt to explain his references and to encourage his readers to educate themselves by delving deeper into his sources. and key books in the literary tradition informs every aspect of his poetry. In his notes to The Waste Land. cry for rain to quench the dry earth. Traditionally. and he is now unable to think properly. his impotence causes the land to wither and dry up). Eliot thus cautions us to beware of simple solutions or cures. Using these fragments. stiffened from rigor mortis. Symbols Water In Eliot’s poetry. religious ritual. in which the fertility of the land was linked to the health of the Fisher King. thereby teaching his readers as he writes. in turn. linked to the Holy Grail legends. and pass by fetid pools of standing water.

for many of his symbols and images. including art.S. Traditionally. much as the chorus functions in Greek tragedies. “There are no eyes here/In this valley of dying stars/In this hollow valley/This broken jaw of our lost kingdoms” (53-56). dark cellar and is associated with violence and darkness “Violent souls. He believed that high culture. was in decline while popular culture was on the rise. American ragtime. Music and Singing Like most modernist writers. Weston. I have had several family members die around me but this particular poem doesn’t really make me feel anything about them. ever looming closer in everything you do. each part presenting a different point of view or idea of death. One could view this as the shadow of death. Eliot’s “The Hollow Men” to me represents several interpretations of death or “the end”. The poem is split into five parts. We imagine a desert setting. “(75-78). Eliot drew on From Ritual to Romance.” and “The Love Song of J. which he symbolized using music. with various lines repeated as refrains. The poem ends with “This is the way the world ends/This is the way the world ends/This is the way the world ends/ Not with a bang but with a whimper. Eliot blended high culture with low culture by juxtaposing lyrics from an opera by Richard Wagner with songs from pubs. and drama. Eliot splices nursery rhymes with phrases from the Lord’s Prayer in “The Hollow Men. dying of thirst. Death is something that has always been around me in my life. but not only…” (16). not just for one. Part V is presents a more broad view of the end. I like the idea of death as various landscapes. But the Fisher King also stands in for Christ and other religious figures associated with divine resurrection and rebirth. Eliot was interested in the divide between high and low culture. Part I’s presents a dank. Weston’s book examined the connections between ancient fertility rites and Christianity. Hollow Men T. but for all. Part III presents “dead land” “cactus land”. comparing souls to fading stars. including following the evolution of the Fisher King into early representations of Jesus Christ as a fish. a 1920 book about the legend of the Holy Grail by Miss Jessie L. It describes several emotions and actions that everyone takes within their life. There are several “kingdoms” of death presented in the various parts. Eliot saw the Fisher King as symbolic of humanity. dying stars.”(43-44). Part II’s presents death’s “dream kingdom” and shows a more beautiful side of death. intertwining within eachother throughout. and Australian troops. the impotence or death of the Fisher King brought unhappiness and famine. I view each part as representing a different member of the hollow men looking at the different “kingdoms” of death. implies a song. Elsewhere Eliot uses lyrics as a kind of chorus.The Fisher King is the central character in The Waste Land. inbetween each “falls the shadow”. The speaker of “What the Thunder Said” fishes from the banks of the Thames toward the end of the poem as the thunder sounds Hindu chants into the air. seconding and echoing the action of the poem. The speaker talks of eyes or the lack thereof in a valley of once again. Alfred Prufrock” is. Music thus becomes another way in which Eliot collages and references books from past literary traditions. something about that sounds strangely appealing despite the . It makes me think more about what will happen when I die. That poem ends with the song of mermaids luring humans to their deaths by drowning—a scene that echoes Odysseus’s interactions with the Sirens in the Odyssey. opera. when everyone dies. In The Waste Land. Part IV takes place within death’s twilight kingdom that is talked about in part II. While writing his long poem. robbed of its sexual potency in the modern world and connected to the meaninglessness of urban existence. as the title. praying for life. The poem provides a bleak view of death but also has a strange beauty about it. “The supplication of a dead man’s hand/Under the twinkle of a fading star. Eliot’s scene echoes the scene in the Bible in which Christ performs one of his miracles: Christ manages to feed his multitude of followers by the Sea of Galilee with just a small amount of fish.

so she has no self-confidence .He is also under the effect of Rosemary.He tries to draw her attraction on the enamel box and succeeds it.A.we have no implication whether they love each other for money or not – and everything goes well in their lives. Before this . there is a girl who meets Rosemary in a street by asking for money to have a cup of tea then is picked up by her to have a cup of tea at her home and begins to be directed by her. A.Halliday’s discipline. And we have one more character having a part in the story :the shopman. Everyone in a society admires Rosemary not maybe for her beauty but for her remarkable features such as being interested in current movements from every aspects.” I don’t believe we are nearly as significant as we believe. which ironically reveals her ex-behaviours to Philip even she supposes that Philip is not aware of the truth. The end.ANALYSIS .she is a little bit credulous. at the last scene. She asks directly-having no hidden meaning in her words. it will simply be that. In the light of M. B. we come across with a rich couple named Rosemary and Philip leading an untroubled. That is similar to how I have always viewed death. I will try to analyse a piece of literary text written by Katherina Mansfield in the format of a short story titled “A CUP OF TEA” and try to criticise the text objectively in relation to its grammatical (functional) features . not neccessarily as a big experience. We infer this from the fact that whenever Rosemary wants her to enter the scene she is there but when. the girl is easily disappearad without giving no sign for us to follow the reason of her disappearance. you just cease to be.apparent lonliness of the hollow men.Halliday is one of the text linguists who sees ‘grammar’ as a network of systems of relationships which account for all the semantically relevant choices in language. Not only we encounter with her weakness in her dialogue with the shopman but also in her being jealous of Miss Smith when he utters lovely words for this girl and behaves as it is predicted by Philip who knows directing her and makes her behave as he desires taking advantage of her faulty character successfully.K. reading the modern books.K.Philip is not as bright as Rosemary but he makes himself realize as soon as he enters the story towards the end. they are just… there.‘Am I PRETTY?’. Written by ASUMAN BİRDAL STYLISTIC ANALYSIS : “A CUP OF TEA” by K. No one seems to be in pain or very sad.INFORMATION ABOUT THE STORY Scanning the story first.Mansfield The common view that a literary text is likely to be comprehended better if it is studied in parallel with stylistic analysis which emphasizes the crucial role of the linguistic features of the text contributes much to the development of literary criticism. we can understand this from his polite behaviours which are made obvious in the text with circumstantial features.Rosemary spends money without getting into trouble and giving no reason or excuse to her husband in doing this. Rosemary is jealous of her. she has the power of money and gets whatever she desires without acconting for anything to anybody. But he is the person also who utilizes by the weakness of her. desirable life and they seem to love each other since. Apart from the couple. I’d like to give a brief information about the content of the story. when it all ends. he promises her to keep the box for her because he knows her and he knows that she will come to buy it. seeming as an intelligent young woman.In that sense Philip is an intelligent man and effective on Rosemary who is also obviously the symbol of possessive female by being jealous of the girl she has met in the street. M. This is exemplified in the final lines of the poem “This is the way the world ends/Not with a whimper but with a bang. which is the standpoint of the stylistic analysis as well.A.

” The writer of the text here uses metaphorical phrases while describing Rosemary’s hat.” Here ‘I’ .. exquisitely well dressed. what their mental processes are.” This time what she desires to be made by her is something good as a concept . 1)Rosemary as a participant *Relational processes: In many ways she is presented us very active . amazingly well read in the newest of the new books . dragging her big chair up to the fire. To give more examples: “And ‘there!’ cried Rosemary again .. in other words it is vital to handle it here to maintain the entirety of the text. To do this I will follow M.A. ‘Interpersonal’. I’d like to examine the processes of him in order to display the currents of events as a whole.When we count all the sentences describing her or the ones in which she takes place we realize her dominancy at once. and so on. To please me. as they reached her beatiful big bedroom with the curtains drawn.she does this . what about the circumstantial features.” And the circumstantial features where the actor is Rosemary gives clues for her rich . “I only want to make you warm. however it is not clear whether she makes it to be seen like that or she is really the one known in a society . in describing her appearance. We may infer that Rosemary is dominant and makes others do whatever she wants to.comfortable life style.. but even it is good for Miss Smith. Infact it is to reflect the prominence that is given for her. “Her hat. IDEATIONAL FUNCTIONS In order to relate the cognitive realities of the text with its language and give the accurate meaning it is essential to deal with the ideational functions of language of it.K..participants . “Come and sit down. takes part as an actor whereas ‘you’. it is directed by Rosemary and shows her power on her by regarding Miss Smith as a helpless creature which is to be pitied and looked after. the fire leaping on her wonderful lacquer furniture. Halliday’s process in which ‘Ideational’.circumstantial functions we realize that main participant is ‘ Rosemary’ and most of the processes are acted by her.. the language of the text is direct but here . brilliant . her gold cushions and the primrose and blue rugs. The other participants I’d like to analyse on this text -apart from ‘Rosemary’.Miss Smith. hung from a branch.he is the efficient figure in the sequences of events in the story-.” .” Even the words describing her are beatifully chosen ones and there is nothing which makes her inferior-as it is obviously seen -she is not a woman adored for her goddess beauty but she is an active figure in a society with her doings. really no bigger than a geranium petal. extremely modern. is the goal and ‘want’ is the process which is stated by Rosemary. Infact the writer doesn’t generally use such things .By this way we will have a deep knowledge of how these characters are seen as . ‘Textual’ Functions of language are daelt with in order to support all my commentations on Katherine Mansfield’s work..are the girl.Miss Smith.”in this comfy chair.” she cried. and Philip. *Material processes: She is mostly ‘the actor’ where the girl is the goal or sometimes the beneficiary recipient: “I want you to. Rosemary.There are descriptions both for her physical appearance and for her characteristic features and interests: “She was young .When we look at the story from the point of ‘transitivity functions’ included in the stylistic analysis which tell us about the language and its reflection on processes . Even though Philip hasn’t got as many turns as Rosemary and Miss Smith.

” 2)The girl as a participant *Relational processes: Physical descriptions are used to introduce her and these descriptions sometimes tell us about the life style of her and mostly show us inferiority of her when compared with ‘Rosemary’ basically: “.poor little thing....To please me.” “.birdlike shoulders.she seemed dazed. she loved it.” “She saw alittle battered creature with enormous eyes. “Rosemary drew the other into the hall.” “she seemed to stagger like a child..” “I hate lilac.burst into tears” “the girl gazed back at her..” “.’ (She is accustomed to speking freely in a society thanks to the power of the money .... no older than herself.” “She wanted to spare this poor little thing.Rosemary turned.... we realize that she can mention about what she likes or dislikes and reveals her ideas directly and freely... frail creature with tangled hair.” “Rosemary gave no sign.” “She applied the poor little creature with . *Mental processes: Although her acts are mostly led by Rosemary.” “She wanted to spare this poor little thing from being stared at by the servants.” “She decided.” “she felt how simple and kind her smile was.” “... dark lips. we have implications about her feelings as follows: “The girl almost cried out .. someone quite young .a light .“She turned impulsively.everything. the girl is aware of this and she is the recipient again..”: And here she is the beneficiary recipient.. she will act the process...” 3)Philip as a participant *Relational Processes: .” “Rosemary admired the flowers....” “Rosemary laughed out. deep lighted eyes. she liked it very much.” “.” *Material processes: She is ‘the goal’ where Rosemary is the actor: Rosemary says: “I simply took her with me... Even the girl says (accepting her power): “You are not taking me to police station..” ‘the other’is the girl.”: Here the actor is again Rosemary even the sentence is uttered by the other .” “I want you to. She saw a little battered creature with enormous eyes . we have lots of verbs telling us about her cognition and affection: “Yes..) *Mental processes: Looking at how she sees the world around her..thin ..” And we have implications about her manner which are presented us from the eyes of the writer: “.

” She also uses imperatives against ‘Philip’: “Be nice to her.In Rosemary’s statements ...Mansfield’s story from the point of the language use between the participants.exclamations and so on. *Mental Processes: As soon as he takes a part in the story.It is also the indicator of bewilderment of Rosemary against the girl’s behaviour..unlike Rosemary’s statements... requests. and stopped and stared. still looking at that listless figure..there are generally recipients and goals(In short there are objects) affected by the process.” “Come and sit down.. he behaves like an observor as it is understood from the sentences below: “.She insisted on going.” .) .” INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS Looking at K..(‘You’= ‘Rosemary’) “He came in..he said curiously..” “.” “.. But we can only guess something by means of the sentences as follows: “Philip smiled his charming smile. he is ‘the actor’ in the sentences where Rosemary is ‘the goal’: “I wanted you come.she will..” “Philip smiled.” So..I wanted you to come. “Philip jumped her on his knee. “But what an earth are you going to do with her?cried Philip.authentic usage by means of questions. we come across with variability making the text closer to real.”(She says to Philip as if it was said by Miss Smith .. looking at its hands and boots.” “Do stop crying. To begin with turn-takings between Rosemary and Miss Smith.” “Don’t cry.. cried Philip.. “Do you like me?” And sometimes Rosemary gives answers instead of the girl.come upstairs..herself. answers. *Material Processes: Even though he enters at the last scene .” The we can say that he has charming smile that makes effect on Rosenary.” This is the statement in which Rosemary is the recipient whereas Philip is the actor. he accounts for something and she behaves in line with Philip’s desires. imperatives.. there are some intransitive verbs.” Here the events are acted by him but this time .’ Here Rosemary is the goal. “Would you let me have the price of a cup tea?” “A cup of tea ?Then have you no money at all?” ....he said.” “Come .which proves that she does and gets whatever she wants from helpless people : “Come along. it is seen that there are lots of questions and answers: “May I speak to you a moment?” “Speak to me?” (And this also presents us a part from an authentic language use by shortening the statement. She does most of the talking: “Of course .” “.There is no sign for his physical appearance and no utterance for his personality also .) There are imperatives uttered by Rosemary again .

she shows it through the actions.” “. and the .” However Miss Smith uses polite requests such as: “May I speak to you a moment?” “ Would you let me have the price of a cup of tea.and most correctly when its functional features are studied in detail and one can enjoy the passage even after its linguistic features are dealt with.) Sometimes to demonstrate: “There!” TEXTUAL FUNCTIONS Both the narrative statements directly by the writer and the dialogues between the participants are involved in the story. her short story The Duchess and the Jeweller is a study about how everyone and everything is connected.” But Philip also gives commands to her: “Explain” “Look again. dialogue and very existence of the characters. Furthermore. have also seen that a literary text can be interpreted effectively.Mansfield is like an observor describes the characters . words. the body to the soul.I shall go off .speech acts are presented via a lot of dialogues in the ligthtly and strangely: ‘I’m very sorry. Ideas of the characters and their acts are told by the writer of the text as a narrator whereas the chain of particular events .) Exclamations are used by Rosemary sometimes to express her ideas: “Charming!” “How extraordinary!” sometimes to present her while thinking to herself: “How thoughtless I am!” “Pretty!” “Lovely!”(By repeating Philip’s utterances angrily. By means of this stylistic analysis ..myself. if I don’t have something.The Duchess and the Jeweller Like Virginia Woolf’s critically acclaimed Mrs.CONCLUSION Having analysed this literary text by not commenting on it with my superficial impressions but examinig it in detail considering into the linguistic features of it.madam. She is writing close to the point of view of Oliver Bacon.scientifically. For instance. the past to the present. I can’t bear no more” (Totally free in revealing her ideas and feelings not by consulting to politeness.. are repeated. the poor to the rich. She does not simply explain that these things are true. C. I. I have obtained more objective criticism. man to animal.which is supposed to make the meaning and charming beauty of the work of art loss. In the first paragraph.“Kiss me. madam. Dalloway.the events and gives us clues about what the characters are thinking to themselves. mostly material objects possessed only by the wealthy. the jeweller. Virginia Woolf. it has proved that our impressions supposed to be uttered intuitively and unconsciously has hidden conscious in itself and kept hidden unless it emerges by studying it with its grammatical features which helped me to analyse the short story of Katherine Mansfield more empirically. but I’m going to faint.’” (It is not in an exact polite request form but said child. so that the reader will never be presented with irrefutable evidence of her relative theory. Rosemary is made to think and speak to herself after being jealous of the girl and we can follow her plans which is going to occur.) “I can’t go on no longer like this.

he “disassembles” himself back to the alley rat he once was. the prestige. a glass of champagne. but she uses imagery to show that their essences are inexorably intertwined through and through: “And as a wave breaks. is nothing more than a servant himself. “the daughter of a hundred earls” and in a sense. as “With each tick the clock handed him—so it seemed—pâté de foie gras. The duchess. blacker truffle under the ground further off. but earns And here Virginia Woolf is at her most cunning. the pride of all the Dukes and Duchesses swollen in one wave. but it soon becomes more evident that it is a story indeed. filling the door. they will always be a scolded child. he now has prestige. And so he signs the check because Virginia Woolf loves to harp on the fact that no matter how far a human being travels through harsh time from a dark alleyway to a coveted flat in central London. no matter how much a person thinks that they have changed. and created a tremulous history between he and the duchess. he assumes. spreading and splashing and falling over Oliver Bacon. Diana‘s sole attention. a nose that is so long it quivers and the quivering reaches deep inside. that will be filled with leisurely hours with time serving him the one thing he desires the most. for she carries them with her: “Then she loomed up. Woolf goes on to show that Oliver Bacon has a physical characteristic who is linked to the very essence of his ambition. filling the room with the aroma. perhaps unconsciously saying the words over and over in his head (“…chairs jutted out…chairs at right angles…windows. He begins to write the check without testing the pearls. like “a giant hog in a pasture rich with truffles [that] smells a bigger. and so reaped the rewards. making the same mortal mistakes. like a gentle murder. the man who has the Daughter of a Hundred Earls waiting on him while Time itself is his servant. but stops. The reader now knows the name of the most precious jewel that the most prestigious jeweller has ever laid eyes upon. a cigar costing one guinea…” so that time does not cost him money. and since then he refrained from anything that would cause destruction to him and his career. but she stops him with a query. the clock is ticking. He is uncertain about the validity of the pearls and the story she is trying to sell him. for as Oliver Bacon closes the door. the envy of jewellers worldwide. time also waits on him.” However. dignity and the power to makes a duchess wait on him. when he was caught doing something he wasn’t supposed to be doing. the arrogance. the pomp. he is very aware of them. because she uses words not just to explain that they have an emotional connection “they were friends. and finishes the stroke by mentioning what a long weekend it will be. keeping everything within him dissatisfied. is where the reader finds that Oliver Bacon. as he reaches for the bell to summon a servant to fetch his testing kit. He has come a long way because of one moment in time. the great jeweller… This. of course. and has him at the end of a knife. pushes the blade ever further as she uses his first name. and though time has worn Bacon’s hands. the self-made man.” While she is waiting. a weekend. He has come a long way from selling stolen dogs to rich women in alleyways. very aware of his mother’s chiding voice as he . who knows him inside and out. they were enemies”. one that only she knows could stop a man of such untouchable stature: “ ‘You will come down tomorrow…The Prime Minister—His Royal Highness… ” She stopped. As the world’s most sought-after jeweller. as she sat down. she broke. and something inside of him is still not entirely assured that these things truly belong to him. three long windows…by a manservant: the manservant would…“) because he did not always possess these things. all of those earls are waiting as well. another of fine brandy. Oliver Bacon is not just a ground-truffling hog.repetitive words are the way a man who once was very poor would look at his room. no matter how many successes have paved the road to a glorious career. “And Diana… ” ’ And that is when the coveted truffle that Bacon the hog smells in the distance is discovered.

repression and denial of affection and reward becomes so unbearable that he rides his rocking horse so madly that he gets sick and collapses as his chosen horse is about to win a famous race. and she was again of love. H. has deep roots in Lawrence's own childhood. though the duchess is already out the door with twenty thousand pounds in her hands. He thinks that he can divine winning horses in races by riding his own toy rocking horse. Paul decides to resolve the financial crisis through luck. fate and gambling on horses. In "The Rocking-Horse Winner. and the driven quality of his determination to succeed . “it is to be a long week–end.. The child. the rocking horse itself become metaphors for the child's ambition. .at all costs.. Lawrence wrote the story in omniscient third-person point of view..”’ Literary analysis: Metaphors in The Rocking Horse Winner. Point of View . it is the last sigh. the breath of release as he lets go of a small fortune. H. loyalty. Though the check is already written. Paul. Paul actually starts to win money and hopes it will make his mother happy. The strain of duty. highlights another form of ambition. Other strong metaphors include the race horses and the idea of gambling in general. guilt. despite his efforts." short story by D H Lawrence. All her attention seems concentrated on a husband who. in all of its relevant to the story too. Horses in general. and she did not succeed. by D. a child gets the feeling that circumstances in his family are deteriorating financially and feels utterly powerless to improve the situation. The horse metaphors suggest the themes of ambition in life turning to a blinkered disregard for the costs and consequences in a narrow given area. Either by luck or by judgement. and to understand the metaphor we must look more closely at the story itself.. can never provide enough for her insatiable appetite for material things. Paul's mother only made several hundreds.discovers that the pearls are fake. He sees the bitterness of his mother's discontent and tries to improve her lot. although she seems to pay him little regard. decides that there will never be means to support his family unless he assumes some sort of control himself. but also of control .. but a jeweller of his caliber with his reputable position would’ve most likely already known that. enabling him to reveal the thoughts of the characters. The need for money just balloons out of control and family members start to put pressure on him. knowing exactly what it is that he is paying for: ‘“For.” he murmured. that of her hopes and dreams for a gifted young son in avoiding the pit life and aiming for something arguably higher and more academic.D. poetic elegance that is the final stroke of the signature on the check. D H Lawrence's own relationship with his mother . though he bemoans the “rotten truffle” (the fake pearls) it is the last sentence. She so wanted to be first in something. a drive bordering on obsession. The image of a boy rocking himself to illness and death on a toy horse suggests a powerful and upsetting metaphor for a child's burning ambition and distress. What he doesn't realise is that she is the sort of person whose appetite will simply grow and whose discontent is of her own making.. even in making sketches for drapery advertisements. Paul echoes the need of the young Lawrence to please his own mother . In his drive to succeed. responsibility. laying the palms of his hands together.and of course.. chance. Lawrence A literary analysis of 'The Rocking Horse Winner' by D H Lawrence cannot fail to mention the strong metaphor of the toy rocking horse itself. The underlined words in the following sentences are examples of passages that present the thoughts of characters. gambling on their races and in particular. The horse metaphor it seems.

. not for himself.. Consequently.. luck. that consumes all of her attention." Obsession ... Whenever money becomes available. Sometimes.. Nevertheless.Lust for material objects. he encourages him and asks for tips on winning horses. His winnings will free his mother from a great monster.. And hurriedly she felt she must cover up some fault in herself." Climax .. yet she felt they had been thrust upon her. Hester's spending and indebtedness create anxiety that haunts the house and personifies itself by repeatedly whispering the phrase: "There must be more money.. and she could not love them. they seem to regard them as objects for display. Oscar runs off "in spite of himself" and places a bet on the horse at fourteen to one odds. Having luck and money will make him lovable to his mother. he becomes obsessed with winning more. outwardly she pretends to love them.. When Paul lies deathly ill muttering the name of his pick for the Derby. the narrator says Hester does not love her children. she will be able to turn her attention to Paul and give him the greatest prize of all: love. His mania ultimately kills him. He seeks a great prize. and people say.Oscar Creswell acknowledges that Paul's wagering makes him nervous...... like the furnishings in the home.. Faulty Sense of Values . Though she and her husband rear their children in a "pleasant house" with servants and a nurse.. he apparently believes. Paul—stagnate. and know he was safe. "She is a good mother... She wanted to rush to him at once. She adores her children. Deceit . she spends beyond her means.In her preoccupation with material things. her relationship with her husband and the care and nurture of her children—in particular. When he discovers that the five thousand pounds he sets aside for her is not enough to achieve his goals. But rather than take steps to stop Paul. Opportunism . They looked at her coldly.. for half an hour. and silence the house voices. Hester neglects to provide Paul the love he needs to develop into a normal...Paul rides his rocking horse like a knight on a quest.... Themes Neglect . Once free. and money so obsesses Paul's mother that she neglects Paul and his sisters. She had bonny children...In the first paragraph of the story.. that will enable him to win money wagering on horses.. But he wants to win money for his mother.Hester makes stylish living the chief goal of her marriage. she would feel a sudden anxiety about him that was almost anguish. stylish living.... in order to prove that he has the luck that his father lacks.. Paul then "inherits" her obsession. as if they were finding fault with her. mentally stable child.. Quest ..His mother had sudden strange seizures of uneasiness about him.. indebtedness.

.... Tragic Irony . The fortune he had amassed. eighty thousand pounds (the equivalent of millions of dollars today).. ..Paul picks the winning horse in the Epsom Derby but loses his life... thus became his misfortune.The climax occurs when Paul falls off his rocking horse after suffering a seizure that leads to his death......