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Unit-1 Introduction

An organization is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon - as we know `organ` - and it means a compartment for a particular job.

An Old Standard Definition of OD
The nature and needs of organizations are changing dramatically. Correspondingly, the profession of organization development (OD) has been changing to meet the changing needs of organizations. Therefore, it may be most useful to consider several definitions of organization development. Here's a standard definition. The next section gives some contrasting definitions. For many years, the following definition was perhaps the standard definition for OD. The following definition was developed in 1969 at a time when an organization was considered to be much like a stable machine comprised of interlocking parts. “Organization Development is an effort planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes,' using behavioral-science knowledge.” -- Beckhard, “Organization development: Strategies and Models”, Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1969, p. 9.

New Definitions of OD
Today's organizations operate in a rapidly changing environment. Consequently, one of the most important assets for an organization is the ability to manage change -- and for people to remain healthy and authentic. Consider the following definition of OD: “Organization Development is the attempt to influence the members of an organization to expand their candidness with each other about their views of the organization and their experience in it, and to take greater responsibility for their own actions as organization members. The assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these objectives simultaneously, they are likely to discover new ways of working together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own and their shared (organizational) goals. And that when this does not happen, such activity helps them to understand why and to make meaningful choices about what to do in light of this understanding.” -- Neilsen, “Becoming an OD Practitioner”, Englewood Cliffs, CA: Prentice-Hall, 1984, pp. 2-3. Experts might agree that the following definitions of OD represent the major focus and thrust of many of today's OD practitioners. "Organization development is a system-wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organization's effectiveness." -- Cummings and Worley, "Organization Development and Change", Sixth Edition, SouthWestern Publishing, 1997, p.2. "Organization Development is a body of knowledge and practice that enhances organizational performance and individual development, viewing the organization as a complex system of systems that exist within a larger system, each of which has its own attributes and degrees of

change management. and authority to carry out defined tasks. an organization in its simplest form is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall. Values All organizations operate according to overall values. (Or) Basically. and subdivides and delegates roles. Understanding organizations Weisbord presents a six-box model for understanding organization: . or culture. responsibilities. "Organization Development and Change". OD interventions in these systems are inclusive methodologies and approaches to strategic planning. organization design. Business organizations can range in size from one person to tens of thousands. structures. and processes for improving an organization's effectiveness. common goal or set of goals. Mission An organization operates according to an overall purpose. These features are explicit (deliberate and recognized) or implicit (operating unrecognized. systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. MM & Associates. of the organization. These values are the personality. or goals. Organizations are open systems in that they affect and are affected by the environment beyond their boundaries. and work/life balance.Matt Minahan. coaching. performance management. (Or) Organization development is a system-wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies. Silver Spring. Ideally.Cummings and Worley. as they work toward their mission. Strategies Organizations usually follow several overall general approaches to reach their goals. how it should appear when things are going well. or priorities in the nature of how they carry out their activities. usually during the strategic planning process. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions. Vision Members of the organization often have some image in their minds about how the organization should be working. diversity. "behind the scenes"). Strategic Goals Organizational members often work to achieve several overall accomplishments.alignment. Maryland (Or) A social unit of people. There are several important aspects to consider about the goal of the business organization." -." -. these features are carefully considered and established. leadership development. or mission.

all 6 of which must be met if the organization is to possess this Desired Organizational Characteristic [DOC]. Their interdependencies are recognized and understood. and The organization has the will and means for maintaining Clarity of Direction. throughout the organization. 6. 1. Mackenzie's The Practitioner's Guide to Organizing Organizations There are six desired organizational characteristics for an efficiently adaptable organization in the holonomic organization model. 5. Leadership: Is to watch for blips among the other boxes and maintain balance among them. The Organizational Logic and the Organizational Architecture are congruent. Helpful mechanism: Is a helpful organization that must attend to in order to survive which as planning. Rewards: The consultant should diagnose the similarities between what the organization formally rewarded or punished members for. between units or departments that perform different tasks. 4. control. and between the people and requirements of their jobs. and that Every Associate. Purposes: The organization members are clear about the organization’s mission and purpose and goal agreements. unit and the organization as a whole knows what must be done and how to get it done. Clarity of Measurement Means that. Clarity of Structures Means that: • • • • • The many organizational tasks and their Technological Support Systems are understood. Clarity of Direction Means that the organization has a: • • • Clearly defined Strategic Direction.1. 2. there are: . Kenneth D. whether people support the organization’ purpose. Relationship: Between individuals. budgeting. and other information systems that help organization member accomplish. 3. Each is described in terms of a set of conditions. There is position clarity throughout the organization. 3. and The organization has the will and the means to maintain Clarity of Structures. 2. Structure: How is the organization’s work divided up? The question is whether there is an adequate fit between the purpose and the internal structure.[9] Characteristic of organisation from Dr.

Results Oriented Problem Solving is working at the unit-level and for individuals. and 3. Deciding what must be done. and 7.• • • • Clearly defined performance standards which are defined by and linked to the work itself and Supported by an Organizational Rewards System that is linked to the work itself and the Technological Support Systems that Motivate each Associate and unit to achieve these standards and those of the entire organization and The organization has the will and the means for maintaining this Clarity of Measurement. the following conditions are met throughout the organization: • • Associates are a continuing source of results as the organization evolves Associates continually contribute knowledge. Making sure that it gets done successfully. given the Strategic Direction. These three criteria are essential: 1. Decisions are made at the lowest possible level at which the work or problem occurs 2. Results Oriented Problem Solving is working for the organization as a whole 2. The rewards for successful problem solving and for positive results are clearly defined. given the Strategic Direction. the means and will exist for ensuring that this process for Successful Goal Achievement is operating throughout the organization. These resources are utilized in problem solving 4. Associates Are Assets and Resources Means that. The will and means exist to ensure Results Oriented Problem Solving And the final organizational characteristic. the following three-step process is followed throughout the organization: 1. information and energy to solve the organization's problems and enable it to seize opportunities as it adapts to its dynamically complex environments. then 2. Results Oriented Problem Solving Means that the following seven-step process is followed throughout the organization: 1. and then 3. Furthermore. . 6. 5. The best available resources are brought to bear on the problem solving tasks 3. The result of problem solving is an implementable best decision. There is clear identification of the accountable decision maker and those Associates who are in support 5. Successful Goal Achievement Means that. Determining how to get it done. The problem solving process is healthy and nonpolitical 6. 4.

 The 'hard' issues for OD are strategies and policies. improvement. an authority on organizational development and change management. structures and systems. and managed from the top. and theories of motivation. job enrichment. These six Desired Organizational Characteristics of the efficiently adaptive organization need to be characteristic of the entire organization and not just of senior management. The 'softer' issues are developing appropriate skills. defined organizational development as "an effort. psychology. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK AND HISTORY OF ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Presented By Preeti . In the 1990s and 2000s organizational development continued to grow and evolve and its influences could be seen in theories and strategies such as total quality management (TQM). It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology. team building.  Both the 'harder' and 'softer' issues of OD need to be addressed to avoid conflict between goals and needs. planned. and reinforcement of the strategies . behaviours and attitudes to achieve optimum performance. education. Organizational development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. and reengineering. and personality. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s organizational development became a more established field with courses and programs being offered in business. organization-wide. using behavioral-science knowledge" (Beckhard 1969). Richard Beckhard. . learning. but was relatively unknown as a theory of practice and had no common definition among its practitioners. and administration curricula.• The means and will exist for ensuring that Associates are treated as assets and resources throughout the organization.K DEFINITION Organization development is a system wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development . HISTORY Introduction Organizational development is an ongoing. structure and process that lead to organization effectiveness  It involves both 'hard' and 'soft' issues. to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's processes.S . systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT In the late 1960s organizational development was implemented in organizations via consultants.

when Kurt Levin was asked for help in research on training community leaders  A workshop was developed and the community leaders were brought together  At the end of each session the researchers discussed the behaviors they had observed  Thus the first T-group was formed in which people reacted to data about their own behavior The researchers drew two conclusion about this first experiment ➢ Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience ➢ The process of “group building” had potential for learning that could be transferred to “back home” situations Applying T-group techniques to organizations gradually became known as team building Action Research and Survey Feedback Background  The action research contribution began in 1940  The research needed to be closely linked to the actions  A collaborative effort was made.HISTORY OF ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT Laboratory Training Background  Laboratory training began in 1946. to collect the organizational data  To analyze the cause of the problem and then to device and implement a solution .

 This program involved developing a work design which aimed at better integrating technology and people  Participation by unions and management in the work design  The distinguishing characteristics of this program was developing self managing groups  The second phase of QWL continues under the banner of employee involvement  Employee contribution helps in running the organization so that it can be more flexible. productive and competitive Strategic Change Background  This background is a recent influence on OD’s evolution  Strategic change involves improving alignment among an organization's environment. Further data was collected to asses the results Participative Management Background  Participative management is a means of getting employees involved in planning and managing change Four types of management systems  Exploitative authoritative system  Benevolent authoritative systems  Consultative systems  Participative group  Likert applied system 4 to organization using a survey feedback process  Which asked the members about the present and the ideal conditions about the organization  Generated action plans to move the organization towards system 4 condition Productivity and quality of work life background  The contribution of QWL can be explained in two phases  This phase was developed in Europe in 1950 based on the research of Eric Trist. strategy and design  Richard Bechhard used open system planning .

the growth of the school continues at a steady pace. she then undertakes the move from inspiration to conceiving a new organization. Continuous growth creates demands for more resources. Stage Four: Maturing Delegate and Evaluate By this point in the life cycle the school is firmly established. Stage One: Inception Envision and Court Often. No references were provided. The senior leader transitions from an educator-in-chief into a functional manger and often some of her first direct reports transition from managing themselves to managing staff. Basic resources are in place. the founder imagines what could be. Locations are chosen. There is a constant cry for “Cash!” as start-up funding is quickly exhausted. President. organizations are formed when a founder (or a group of founders) recognizes an unmet need and decides to do something about it. and. 7/24 care from their founders: there is intense activity to get the school up and running and many near-disasters to clean up. Stage Two: Start-up and Launch Organizational Infancy Now the organization moves from visioning to planning and implementing the dream. If the founder perceives sufficient support. typically. the school begins to need centralized and unified direction. Energized by a vision of a better world. M. buildings outfitted and the first teaching staff are hired. Stage Six: Renew and Rebuild Typically. They are nimble and adaptive enough to evolve. healthy schools at this stage are systematic enough to understand the reason for their successes and able to replicate them. The founder courts followers by articulating her values and ideas. Stage Three: Go-Go Grounding and Delivery As more paid staff comes on board. They address and solve problems caused by change – and this keeps them young and vital. He described the difference between organizations' demand and the way it responds could be reduced and performance improved stages of contributory stems From R Flicker Ruth Flicker. changing external forces or an implosion of internal forces or unprecedented opportunities. RRF Human Development Consultants Inc. Infant schools require constant. w2rote the following. or a combination of these three dynamics propel the organization into a large-scale .Ed. Stage Five: Specialize and Control Prime In the best scenarios.

Generally.(e. bureaucracy and authoritarian leadership. Democratic: values are assert the sanctity of the individual . that the individual accepts as true.treat people with respect and dignity . dysfunctions and negative consequences.g. definitions : belief: belief is a proposition about how the world works.reason and goodwill are the tools for making progress.truthfulness) and what if undesirable or bad.  The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management.the right of people to be free from arbitrary misues of power . vision and mission.assumption.assume that everyone has intrinsic work. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. value. Value: values are judgemental beliefs that is good or bad . most of the original founders have left or moved on and a new generation of leaders takes on the responsibility of reinventing the organization.dishonesty).g. that they are taken for granted and very rarely questioned or examined. Values. values. Organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and . assumptions and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them.beliefs about what is the desirable or good (e. it is a cognitive fact for the person. gave way to increasing doubts about the organizational practices as theory and research pointed out their limitations. Assumptions: Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as a valuable and correct . Intellectual climate prevalent then. OD values tends to be: Humanistic: values proclaim the importance of the individual. assumptions and beliefs is characteristics of OD. the importance of fair and equitable trewatment for all and the need for justice through the rule of law. Optimistic: values consider that people are basically good .review of its identity.theft.belief in OD presented by meetu dhiman introduction :  A set of values. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs and that rationality. distinguishing OD from other improvement/change strategies.

3. 6. with effective.Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Control are interim measures. and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. definition : According to Bennis. He tested the following normative goals: 1. Development of organic rather than mechanical/mechanistic systems. Early statements of ‘od’ values and assumptions : Values are an integral part of OD. “The basic value underlying all OD theory and practice is that of ‘CHOICE’. 3. described several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations. held by OD practitioners. Lewin believed that the motivation to change was strongly related to action: If people are active in decisions affecting .Organizations. 4. in 1969. more particularly. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organs as mechanisms which managers “work on” like purchasing buttons. groups. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods.The basic building blocks of an organization are groups(teams) so the basic units of change are groups and not individuals. which rely mainly on suppression. so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate.A shift in values. People support what they help create.An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. Optimistic. compromise and unprincipled power more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Concerned with social change and. permanent social change. Warren Bennis proposed the OD practitioners(change agent) share a set of normative goals based on their Humanistic/Democratic philosophy.Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Democratic.Development of more effective “Team Management” i.e. it would be action research as it was conceptualized by Kurt Lewin and later elaborated and expanded on by other behavioral scientists. 5. as tested below: 1. and organizations i. 6. capacity for functional groups to work more competently. People effected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in planning and conduct of the change. more choice becomes available and hence better decisions are made.e.Improvement in interpersonal competence. 4. 5. not the basis of managerial strategy.”  Richard Beckhard. 2. Though focused attention.assumptions regarding people. Action research Wendell L French and Cecil Bell defined organization development (OD) at one point as "organization improvement through action research". Humanistic. sub-unit of organizations and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals.[8] If one idea can be said to summarize OD's underlying philosophy. 2. In 1969. Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tension. One goal of healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. mutual trust and confidence between and across levels.

or results.them. phase. feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives. "Rational social management". "Changing": The situation is diagnosed and new models of behavior are explored and tested. action. Data are again gathered from the client system so that progress can be determined and necessary adjustments in learning activities can be made. Included in this stage is action-planning activity carried out jointly by the consultant and members of the client system. adopted. Minor adjustments of this nature can be . Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of change. As shown in Figure 1. In the language of systems theory. he said. or transformation. phase. "Refreezing": Application of new behavior is evaluated.[4] The third stage of action research is the output. this is the input phase. data gathering. and fact-finding about the result of action". in which the client system becomes aware of problems as yet unidentified. and shares with the consultant the process of problem diagnosis. This stage includes actual changes in behavior (if any) resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. The cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent working together. each of which is composed of a circle of planning. and joint action planning. "proceeds in a spiral of steps. feedback of results. The principal elements of this stage include a preliminary diagnosis. they are more likely to adopt new ways. and if reinforcing. realizes it may need outside help to effect changes. This stage includes actions relating to learning processes (perhaps in the form of role analysis) and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization.[12] Figure 1: Systems Model of Action-Research Process Lewin's description of the process of change involves three steps:[12] "Unfreezing": Faced with a dilemma or disconfirmation. Following the workshop or learning sessions. Figure 1 summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change through action research. these action steps are carried out on the job as part of the transformation stage. the individual or group becomes aware of a need to change. The second stage of action research is the action.

[4] . Action research also sets in motion a long-range. and the client and the change agent collaborate in identifying and ranking specific problems.[12] The action stage is a period of changing. stage for basic changes in the program. Scientific method in the form of data gathering. As indicated in the diagram. problem-finding. (There is inevitable overlap between the stages. self-correcting mechanism for maintaining and enhancing the effectiveness of the client's system by leaving the system with practical and useful tools for self-analysis and self-renewal. and action oriented. The results stage is a period of refreezing. cyclical. Action research is problem centered. Major adjustments and reevaluations would return the OD project to the first. active-learning. client centered. trying out new forms of behavior in an effort to understand and cope with the system's problems. in devising methods for finding their real causes.made in learning activities via Feedback Loop B (see Figure 1). that is. or problem awareness. and measuring results. although not pursued as rigorously as in the laboratory. The action-research model shown in Figure 1 closely follows Lewin's repetitive cycle of planning. It also illustrates other aspects of Lewin's general model of change. Data are not simply returned in the form of a written report but instead are fed back in open joint sessions. and measuring results. the planning stage is a period of unfreezing. since the boundaries are not clear-cut and cannot be in a continuous process). is nevertheless an integral part of the process. become a part of the system's repertoire of problemsolving behavior. forming hypotheses. and in developing plans for coping with them realistically and practically. in which new behaviors are tried out on the job and. or planning. action. It involves the client system in a diagnostic. if successful and reinforcing. testing hypotheses. and problem-solving process.