You are on page 1of 20

Coordination: Meaning and Definition permeate

Coordination as a function of management refers to the task of integrating the activities of separate units of an organization to accomplish the goals efficiently. It permeates all levels and all departments of management. Hence, it is regarded as the essence of management. According to Henri Fayol, ³Coordination harmonizes, synchronizes and unifies individual efforts for better action and for the achievement of the business objectives.´

According to Mooney and Railey, ³Coordination is the achievement of orderly group efforts and unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose.´

According to Mcfarland, ³Coordination is ³as the process whereby an executive develops an orderly pattern of group efforts among his subordinates and secures unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose.´

According to George Terry, ³the orderly synchronization of efforts to provide the proper amount, timing, and directing of execution resulting in harmonious and unified actions to stated objective.´

Nature of Coordination (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) It is a managerial activity. It is an orderly arrangement of group efforts. Its purpose is to secure unity of action towards common objectives. It is a continuous process. Coordination is needed at all levels of management. It is to be achieved by all managers. (6) Coordination is the essence of managing. Each of the functions of management is an exercise in managing.

Features of coordination
The foregoing description reveals the following features of coordination: (i) Coordination is not a distinct function but the very essence of management. (ii) Coordination is the basic responsibility of every manager and it can be achieved through the managerial functions. No manager can evade or avoid this responsibility. Coordination is essential whenever people work together to achieve some common objective.

(iii) Coordination does not arise spontaneously or by force. It is the result of conscious and concerted action by management. (iv)The heart of coordination is the unity of effort and action which involves fixing the time and manner of performing various activities so that individual efforts are blended into a productive team. (v) Coordination is a continuous, never ending or on-going process. It is also a dynamic process. Some amount of coordination exists in every organisation though it may not be adequate. (vi) Coordination is required in group efforts not in individual effort. It involves the orderly arrangement of group efforts. There is no need for coordination when an individual works in isolation without affecting anyone's functioning. Coordination becomes essential when people form organizations. (vii) The object of coordination is to lend unity of purpose to group efforts. Unity of effort requires an understanding of common purpose by all the members of the group. (viii) Coordination has a common purpose of getting organizational objectives accomplished. (ix) Balancing, timing and integrating are the three elements of coordination. Balancing is ensuring that enough of one thing is available to support or counter-balance the other. It implies creating a balance between the resources of different departments and individuals Timing means bringing together different activities under a common time schedule so that they support and reinforce each other. Integrating involves unification of diverse interests under the common purpose.

Meaning and definition of co-ordination: Although Henri Fayol, James Mooney, Ordway Tead, Lyndall F. Urwick, Luther Gullick and Louis A. Allen, all consider co-ordination as a separate function of management, it seems more accurate to treat co-ordination as the essence of managing because the achievement of harmony of individual efforts towards the accomplishment of group goals is the very purpose of management. Co-ordination is inherent in all managerial functions. Each of the managerial functions is an exercise in co-ordination. A manager achieves co-ordination through the management process and co-ordination is the outcome of managerial functions. In fact, coordination makes planning more purposeful, organization better-knit and control more regulative, it is the key to the process of management. Co-ordination is the result of the process of management. Co-ordination implies an orderly pattern or arrangement of group efforts to ensure unity of action in pursuit of common objectives. It involves and orderly synchronization of the efforts of individual components of an enterprise to provide the proper timing, amount, quality, place and sequence of efforts so that the stated objectives may be achieved with minimum of friction. Coordination requires unification of diverse and specialized activities. It is the task of blending the activities of individual and group efforts in order to maximize contribution towards the accomplishment of common goals. According to Henri Fayol, ³To co-ordinate is to harmonize all the activities of a concern so as to facilitate its working and its success. In a well-co-ordinate enterprise, each department or division works in harmony with others and is fully informed of its role in the organization. The working schedules of the various departments are constantly attuned to circumstances.´ The purpose of co-ordination is to secure harmony of action or team-work and concurrence of purpose.

It is the result of conscious and concerted action by management. namely the common purpose of the enterprise. Co-ordination does not arise spontaneously or by force. ³Co-ordination is the orderly synchronisation of efforts of the subordinates to provide the proper amount. The heart of co-ordination is the unity of purpose which involves fixing the time and manner of performing various activities. ³A manager in managing must co-ordinate the work for which he is accountable by balancing. Need and importance of co-ordination: Co-ordination offers the following advantages. It is inherent in the managerial job. Integration of . No manager can evade or avoid this responsibility. Balancing is ensuring that enough of one thing is available to support or counterbalance the other. Timing means adjusting the time schedules of different activities so that they support and reinforce each other.´ Thus. Co-ordination has a common purpose of getting organizational objectives accomplished. timing and integrating are the three elements of co-ordination. balancing. Efficiency and effectiveness: Co-ordination helps to improve the efficiency of operations by avoiding the overlapping of efforts and duplication of work. Co-ordination is the basic responsibility of management and it can be achieved through managerial functions. It involves the orderly pattern of group efforts.´ Nature and characteristics of co-ordination: The fore-going reveals the following features of co-ordination. timing and integrating. to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose. y Co-ordination is not a distinct function. but the very essence of management.´ Mooney and Reiley have defined co-ordination as ³the arrangement of group effort.In the words of Haimann. There is no need for co-ordination when an individual works in isolation without affecting anyone¶s functioning. It implies creating a balance between the resources of different departments and individuals. Co-ordination is a continuous or on-going process. It is also a dynamic process. timing and quality of execution so that their unified efforts lead to the stated objective. Co-ordination is required in group efforts not in individual effort. 1. Co-ordination is the responsibility of each and every manager. y y y y y y y According to Allen. Integrating involves unification of the diverse interests under the common purpose.

The quality of co-ordination determines the effectiveness of organised efforts. Committees help to promote unity of purpose and uniformity of action. ³The first test of effective administration should be whether you have a business with all its parts so coordinated. Clear-cut objectives. 2. The line of authority and responsibility from top to the bottom of the organisation structure should be clearly defined. Personal or face-to-face contacts are the most effective means of communication and coordination. co-ordination is known as the first principle of organisation. Committees are helpful in integrating the activities of different departments. Therefore. Planning is the ideal stage for coordination. Quintessence of management: Co-ordination is an all-inclusive concept and the end result of management process. Simplified organization: A simple and sound organization is an important means of coordination. Clear-cut authority relationships help to reduce conflicts and to hold people responsible. Sound planning: Unity of purpose is the first essential condition of coordination. but a functional whole or integrated unit. so interlocking that they make a working unit that is not a congenis of separate pieces. so moving together in their closely knit and adjusting activities. 3. Coordination becomes easier when different functional groups are represented in the decision-making process. In a well-co-ordinated organisation. According to Mary Parker Follett. It provides unity of action and helps to avoid conflicts between line and staff elements. Related activities should be grouped together and jobs should properly inter-related. This is called synergy. Standard procedures and rules create uniformity in repetitive operations. rearrangement of departments may be necessary to chief coordination of thought and action. Unity of direction: Co-ordination helps to ensure unity of action in the face of disruptive forces and by welding different work groups it facilitates the stability and growth of an organisation. 4. Effective techniques of coordination The main-techniques of effective coordination are as follows: 1. Human relations: Co-ordination helps to improve team spirit and morale of employees. co-ordination helps in the accomplishment of organisational goals.individual efforts leads to teamwork. Co-ordination makes a productive enterprise out of diverse activities and produces the total result which is greater than the sum of individual contributions. . Well-drawn organization charts. Effective inter-change of opinions and information helps in resolving differences and in creating mutual understanding. Various plans should be integrated properly. organizational manuals and proper allocation of work make for uniform action. Effective communication: Open and regular communication is they to coordination. In some cases. Precise policies and comprehensive programmers facilitate coordination of activities and individuals. the goals of the organization and goals of its units must be clearly defined. They provide an opportunity for free and frank exchange of views. Every member of the organization must understand fully how his job contributes to the overall objectives. organisational goals and personal goals of people are reconciled and as a result employees derive a sense of security and job satisfaction. 3.´ Thus. harmonized policies and integrated procedures ensure uniformity of action. 2. Therefore. Clear-cut definition of authority and responsibility of ach department and individual helps to avoid conflicts.

For instance. Chain of Command: Authority is the supreme coordinating power in an organization. A good leader can continuously guide the activities of his subordinates in the right direction and can inspire them to pull together for the accomplishment of common objectives. Informal contacts with subordinates help to create climate of mutual trust and cooperation which is the foundation of coordination. 9. Chain of command brings together the different parts of an organization and relates them to a central authority. He can resolve inter-positional and intergroup conflicts. liaison officers may be employed. a centralized pool of staff experts is used for coordination. Liaison officers act as 'linking pins' in organization and compensate for lack of face-to-face contacts. A common staff group serves as the clearing house of information and specialized advice to all the departments of the enterprise. Effective leadership reduces the dependence on such formal means of coordination as authority. profit. General staff: In large organizations. Similarly. For instance. The hierarchical structure may impair communication and decisionmaking.haring is helpful in promoting team-spirit and cooperation between employers and workers. Effective leadership and supervision: Effective leadership ensures coordination of efforts both at the planning and the execution stage. Liaison departments: Where frequent contact between different organizational units is necessary. Such general staff is very helpful in achieving inter-departmental or horizontal coordination. Voluntary coordination: .Committee decisions are collective decisions and such group decisions themselves provide coordination among different departments or functions in the enterprise. Special coordinators may be appointed in certain asses. Coordination is a human task and a manager can accomplish it through interpersonal relations. incentives may be used to rebate mutuality of interest and to reduce conflicts. According to Chris Argyrols. a liaison department may ensure that the production department is meeting the delivery dates and specifications promised by the ales department. 5. However. rules and procedures. Luther Gallic has called coordinating by ideas to describe the use of leadership in coordination. Personal supervision is an important method of resolving differences of opinion. Exercise of authority through the chain of command or hierarchy is the traditional means of coordination. Coordination between interdependent units can be secured by putting them under one boss. It helps to ensure that work proceeds as planned. 6. no technique of coordination can replace effective leadership. 7. In fact.' 8. It is inconsistent with the needs of mature personality. Such mutuality of interest reduces strife and insures better coordination. Informal communication can also be utilized for the purpose of coordination. Indoctrination and incentives: Indoctrinating organizational members with the goals and mission of the organization can transform a neutral body into a committed body. a project coordinator is appointed to coordinate the activities of various functionaries in a project which is to be completed it in a specified period of time. 4. Personal or face-to-face communication may be supplemented by written communication. a superior has the authority to issue orders and instructions to subordinates. the hierarchy technique of coordination makes individuals dependent upon and passive towards the leader. behavioral scientists have warned against over-dependence on chain of command. Because of his organizational position. For instance. Sound leadership can persuade subordinates to have identity of interests arid to adopt a common outlook.

Principle of Effective Communication Co-ordination will be successful only in the presence of an effective communication. and the goal of the enterprise cannot be successfully obtained without it. It must not be a one-time activity. This overall helps in coordination. Principle of Direct Contact According to this principle. The managers must respect the feelings and emotions of the employees. the decisions and actions of one person or department will affect all other persons and departments in the organisation. It takes the efforts of the leader or the manager to bring about coordination. Without mutual respect. This will result in making the best plans and implementing these plans with success. It must start during the planning stage. within employees themselves and even between managers and their subordinates. Principle of Mutual Respect Coordination will be successful only if there exist a mutual respect throughout the organisation. Coordination will be successful only if this principle is followed properly. coordination must be a continuous process. Principle of Early Stage 2. This is because direct contact helps to avoid misunderstandings. According to this principle. Managers cannot rely on self-coordination as these conditions are not always fulfilled. These four principles of co-ordination are called are Follett's Principles of Coordination. 1. there is self-coordination." Principles of Coordination Mary Parker Follett gave four main Principles of Coordination. Thus by initiating proper coordination the organisation will achieve all its objectives easily and quickly. and the motivation to do something on their own. members of an organization voluntarily adjust their behavior according to the needs of the situation. In the words of Harman. Self-coordination cannot be a substitute for coordination from above. . This is called the Principle of Reciprocal Relations. directing and controlling. adequate information concerning the specific problem of coordination. Under self-coordination. Self-coordination is the voluntary efforts of independent units or subunits of an organization to achieve the harmonious performance of their respective responsibilities. Similarly. But self-coordination requires that individuals have sufficient knowledge of organizational goals. coordination must start at an early stage in the management process.When every organizational unit appreciates the working of related units and modifies its own functioning to suit them.e of all managers and employees) and departments of the organisation are inter-related. before taking any decision or action all managers must first find out the effect of that decision or action on other persons and departments in the organisation. It results from mutual consultation and team-spirit among the members of the organization. Principle of Continuity According to this principle. misinterpretations and disputes between managers and subordinates. 3. All managers working at different levels (top. Managers have to make deliberate efforts to bring unity of purpose in the activities of subordinates. coordination may not survive. There must also exist a feeling of brotherly hood among managers and employees. On the other hand. Therefore. Principle of Reciprocal Relations The decisions and actions of all the people (i. These four principles must be followed to make co-ordination effective. Coordination must be done continuously during the management process. middle or lower) must respect each other. Good communication must be present between all departments. So. and it will eventually fail. all managers must have a Direct Contact with their subordinates. It must be done during planning. 6. This will result in good relations between the manager and their subordinates. 4. organising. "neither the principle of self-coordination nor the concept of self-adjustment is a substitute for coordination. The process of coordination must begin when the organisation starts. all employees must show a friendly attitude and should respect each other during interactions. employees too must understand and acknowledge their bosses. 5. Good communication helps to avoid misunderstandings in the organisation. It enables the managers to coordinate all the different activities of their subordinates effectively and efficiently. It arises when every member of the group takes cognizance of the effects of his actions on others. Self-coordination or voluntary coordination is possible in a climate of dedication and mutual cooperation. and it must continue until the organisation exists. If coordination is started early only then all the management functions will be performed successfully. All communication barriers and gaps must be avoided and fixed.

The Scalar Chain is shown by a double ladder A to G and A to Q. 7.Co-ordination will be successful only if the organisation has set its clear objectives. He must also know who is his subordinate. if quick action is necessary. B and L are the next level. A is the head of the organisation. This line joins all the members (managers and employees) from top to bottom. Everyone in the organisation must know the objectives very clearly. Scalar Chain must not be broken in norm circumstances. Scalar Chain is necessary for good communication. and so on. . No one must have any doubts about the objectives of the organisation. Principle of Clarity of Objectives 8. Now F and P can contact each other directly but they should inform E and O about their decisions. If quick action is necessary. Principle of Scalar Chain Scalar Chain is a line of authority. Every member must know who is his superior. However. Scalar Chain is shown in diagram below with Gang plank as dotted line FP. This is done using "Gang Plank" / "Bridge" / "Direct Contact". then this chain can be broken. Clear objectives can be achieved easily and quickly. then a "Gang Plank" "FP" is made.

Self-discipline is the best discipline. 2.Fayol's 14 Principles of Management Henri Fayol. and specialisation increases efficiency. if there is no self-discipline. he gave the 14 Principles of Management. This is because a division of work leads to specialisation. then discipline should be enforced through penalties. 1. all managers must follow these 14 principles. According to Henri Fayol. or it may be Enforced discipline. Discipline Discipline means a respect for the rules and regulation of the organisation. These 14 principles of management are universally accepted and used even today. In year 1916 Fayol wrote a book entitled "Industrial and General Administration". However. Division of Work The full work of the organisation should be divided among individuals and departments. Authority and responsibility . is now recognised as the Father of Modern Management. Henri Fayol's 14 Principles of Management are briefly explained below. etc. In this book. fines. Discipline may be Self-discipline. a French industrialist. 3. and efficiency improves the productivity and profitability of the organisation. No organisation can survive without discipline.

Material Order refers to "a place for everything and everything in its place. When he becomes efficient. The individual interest should be given less importance. Order for people is called Social Order. He must use only one plan for all the marketing activities. in decentralisation. . Money. This policy should give maximum satisfaction to both employer and employees. 11. If the authority is more than responsibility then chances are that a manager may misuse it. 7. all marketing activities such as advertising. Unity of Direction All activities which have the same objective must be directed by one manager. If not. Therefore. he should be made permanent..According to Henri Fayol. Authority must be equal to Responsibility. Esprit De Corps Esprit de Corps means "Team Spirit". If responsibility is more than authority then he may feel frustrated. Materials. Similarly. pricing policy. the authority is distributed to all the levels of management. he should be given time to become efficient. 12. Equity creates loyalty and devotion in the employees. Therefore. That is. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest In an organisation.. This is because an initiative gives satisfaction to the employees and brings success to the organisation." Social Order refers to the selection of the "right man in the right place". This is called Unity of Direction. 10. Misplacement will lead to misuse and disorder. 4. and the general interest of the organisation. viz. 9. If an organisation wants efficient employees and best performance. Remuneration Remuneration is the price for services received. If there is complete centralisation. However. the employees should have job security. Order There should be an Order for Things and People in the organisation. Equity is a combination of kindness and justice. It should include both financial and non-financial incentives. sales promotion. there should be a balance between Authority (Power) and Responsibility (Duties). then the superior will have no authority to control the organisation. the authority is concentrated only in few hands. the management should create unity. No organisation can be completely centralised or decentralised. Initiative Management should encourage initiative. They should avoid the divide and rule policy. Order for things is called Material Order. they should encourage the employees to make their own plans and to execute these plans. Equity The managers should use the equity while dealing with the employees. etc. 5. etc. the individual interest of the employees. must be directed by only one manager. there are two types of interest. 6. Stability of Tenure An employee needs time to learn his job and to become efficient. There must be orderly placement of the resources such as Men and Women. then it should have a good remuneration policy. then the subordinates will have no authority (power) to carry out their responsibility (duties). In other words. there should be a balance between centralisation and decentralisation. while the general interest should be given most importance. 8. Centralisation In centralisation. co-operation and team-spirit among the employees. For example. Therefore. if there is complete decentralisation. the organisation will collapse. and he must use one plan.

if one subordinate receives orders from more than one superior then there will be disorder. Scalar Chain is necessary for good communication. In other words. According to Fayol. This line joins all the members (managers and employees) from top to bottom. B and L are the next level. a subordinate must report to only one superior. and so on. 14.Reeves and Woodward . a subordinate (employee) must have only one superior (boss or manager). if quick action is necessary. then a "Gang Plank" "FP" is made. . Unity of Command is a very important principle of management. Scalar Chain must not be broken in norm circumstances. and if necessary. Every member must know who is his superior. Scalar Chain Scalar Chain is a line of authority." Controlling Definition "Control refers to the task of ensuring that activities are producing the desired results. Now F and P can contact each other directly but they should inform E and O about their decisions. reviewing feedback information about this outcome. A is the head of the organisation. This principle is based on the rule "Too many cooks spoil the soup. efficiency. Scalar Chain is shown in diagram below with Gang plank as dotted line FP.13. The Scalar Chain is shown by a double ladder A to G and A to Q. Control in this case is limited to monitoring the outcome of activities. He must also know who is his subordinate. If quick action is necessary. Unity of Command According to this principle. This is done using "Gang Plank" / "Bridge" / "Direct Contact". However. then this chain can be broken. A subordinate must receive orders from only one superior. taking corrective actions". productivity and profitability of the organisation. This will affect the discipline.

if necessary. µManagement control is the process by which managers assure that resources are obtained and used effectively and efficiently in the accomplishment of an organization¶s objectives.´ . ³Controlling is a systematic exercise which is called as a process of checking actual performance against the standards or plans with a view to ensure adequate progress and also recording such experience as is gained as a contribution to possible future needs. if necessary.that is. evaluating the performance and. Terry. discovers the causes of such deviations and helps in taking corrective actions According to Brech. µControlling is determining what is being accomplished. instructions issued and principles established. Controlling : Meaning and Definition Controlling is the process through which managers assure that actual activities conform to the planned activities. Controlling measures the deviation of actual performance from the standard performance."Controlling is determining what is being accomplished . that is. evealuating performance and. applying corrected measures so that the performance takes place according to plans. It is employed to make things happen in accordance with the plans and programmes and rules and procedures laid down.´ According to H. ³Managerial control implies measurement of accomplishment against the standard and the correction of deviations to assure attainment of objectives according to plans. Terry and Franklin.¶ According to Robert N. Anthony. ³Controlling is the measuring and correcting of activities of subordinates to ensure that events conform to plans.¶ According to Koontz O¶Donnel. Koontz and O¶Donnell.´ Controlling consists of verifying whether everything occurs in confirmities with the plans adopted. According to George R. Controlling ensures that there is effective and efficient utilization of organizational resources so as to achieve the planned goals. applying corrective measures so that performance takes place according to plans".

According to Donnell. or objectives in order to determine whether performance is in line with these standards and presumably in order to take any remedial action required to see that human and other corporate resources are being used in the most effective and efficient way possible in achieving corporate objectives Henri Fayol Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted. staffing and directing. According to modern concepts.which means it is performed by managers at all levels and in all type of concerns. and the principles which have been laid down. Controlling always looks to future so that follow-up can be made whenever required. 2. Controlling is a dynamic process.A function which comes once the performances are made in conformities with plans.because effective control is not possible without past being controlled. measuring actual performance and taking corrective action Robert J. so should a business manager continually take reading to assure himself that his enterprise is on right course. plans. Mockler Management control can be defined as a systematic effort by business management to compare performance to predetermined standards. Control in management means setting standards. ³Just as a navigator continually takes reading to ensure whether he is relative to a planned action. changes have to be made wherever possible. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring. Features of Controlling Function Following are the characteristics of controlling function of management1.´ Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning. . organizing. Controlling is a pervasive function. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. Controlling is forward looking. 3. Controlling is an end function. control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected.since controlling requires taking reveal methods. 4. the orders which have been given.

For example.The second major step in controlling is to measure the performance. Performance of a manager cannot be measured in quantities. Establishment of standards. It can be measured only by- . Analyzing deviations.5. profit. Measurement of tangible standards is easy as it can be expressed in units. Finding out deviations becomes easy through measuring the actual performance. They can also be called as the criterions for judging the performance. Controlling is related with planning. Measurement of performance. Correcting deviations. Without planning. Performance levels are sometimes easy to measure and sometimes difficult. controlling is a meaningless exercise and without controlling.performance of a manager. Controlling as a management function involves following steps: 1. their attitudes towards a concern. money terms. Planning presupposes controlling and controlling succeeds planning. Measurement of actual performance. b. They can be in form of cost. Controlling becomes easy through establishment of these standards because controlling is exercised on the basis of these standards. deviation of workers.Planning and Controlling are two inseparable functions of management. Characteristics of Control y y y y y y Control is a continuous process Control is a management process Control is embedded in each level of organizational hierarchy Control is forward looking Control is closely linked with planning Control is a tool for achieving organizational activities Process of Controlling y y y y y Setting performance standards. Comparing actual performance with standards. time.Standards are the plans or the targets which have to be achieved in the course of business function. Quantitative measurement becomes difficult when performance of manager has to be measured. Measurable or tangible . expenditure. These are called as intangible standards.Those standards which can be measured and expressed are called as measurable standards. etc. etc. 2.There are standards which cannot be measured monetarily. cost. Standards generally are classified into twoa. Non-measurable or intangible. planning is useless. output.

Deviation can be defined as the gap between actual performance and the planned targets. c.Comparison of actual performance with the planned targets is very important. It is here the controlling process comes to an end. Attitude of the workers. etc. if stationery charges increase by a minor 5 to 10%. The manager has to find out two things hereextent of deviation and cause of deviation. Hence in here all the past performance is measured for taking corrective actions for future periods. Erroneous planning.Once the causes and extent of deviations are known. the manager can revise the targets. The development in the attitudes regarding the physical environment. 3. The managers have to exercise control by exception. The causes can bea. the manager has to detect those errors and take remedial measures for it. Taking remedial actions. yearly reports. quarterly. Once the deviation is identified. It is also sometimes done through various reports like weekly. Therefore it is said. he ends up controlling nothing. and Supervision and communication is ineffective. On the other hand. Co-ordination loosens. Implementation of plans is defective. b. He has to find out those deviations which are critical and important for business.´ For example. d. and b. Follow up is an important step because it is only through taking corrective measures. Comparison of actual and standard performance. rate of profits. After taking the corrective measures. Major deviations like replacement of machinery. d. and Their communication with the superiors. Taking corrective measures for deviations which have occurred.a. should be looked upon consciously. Minor deviations have to be ignored. a manager has to think about various cause which has led to deviation. Their morale to work. it can be called as a minor deviation. it is called as major deviation. Features of Controlling y One can control future happenings but not the happened. a manager can exercise controlling. ³ If a manager controls everything. if the actual performance is not in conformity with plans. b. appointment of workers. quality of raw material. Extent of deviation means that the manager has to find out whether the deviation is positive or negative or whether the actual performance is in conformity with the planned performance. . 4. if monthly production decreases continuously. c. monthly. There are two alternatives herea. etc.

Control is a continuous process. Importance of Controlling y y y y y Control system acts as an adjustment in organizational operations. When Proper system exists the organization effectively achieves its objectives. it follow a definite pattern and time-table. Cost control decreases the cost of the products. The control may be quality control. . the organisation can supply good quality products at lower prices. Advantages of controlling 1. Therefore. Exercising some authority and forming superior-subordinate relationship throughout the organization can be established through controlling. Control system ensures the organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Control improves Goodwill Quality control improves the quality of the products. This increases the goodwill of the organisation. production control. With the presence of authority or control the individuals will work properly and exhibit better performance to reach the targets set for them. Policies and other planning elements set by the managers become the basis and reason for control. Through control it is monitored whether the individuals adhere to those frameworks or not so that organization and management can verify the quality of various policies. inventory control. It mainly checks whether plans are being observed and suitable progress towards the objectives is being made or not. and if necessary any action to control the deviations. month after month and year after year on a continuous basis. or even administrative control.y y Every manager in an organization has to perform the control function.

Control minimizes Wastage Control helps to reduce the wastage of human. It guides all the operations of the organisation in the right direction. material and financial resources. Control helps to fix responsibility Control helps to fix responsibility of a particular job on a particular person or a particular department. This motivates the employees to work hard. This also increases the profit of the organisation. Control minimises deviations . 5. if there are any mistakes then a particular person or a particular department will be held responsible for it. Control guides operations Control fixes certain standards. 7. So control.Advantages of Controlling. cash prizes. So. and it also improves their morale. This increases the profits of the organisation. All the work has to be done according to these standards.Image Credits © Gaelsapori . 2. Control motivates employees In control. 3. 4. 6. the employees' performances are evaluated regularly. acts like a traffic signal. Those who show good performances are rewarded by giving them promotions. etc. Control ensures optimum utilisation of resources Control helps the organisation to make optimum utilisation of the available resources.

If there is a high return at low cost then there is efficiency and vice-versa. 3. Thus. So. and they can delegate the less important work to their subordinates. In absence of controlling. Whenever. no purpose can be served by. 8.Control minimises the deviations between a planned performance and actual performance. Therefore. According to Billy Goetz. it facilitates delegation. planning becomes a meaningless exercise. yet they are closely related. the superior can concentrate on the very important work. . it increases efficiency Planning and controlling Planning and controlling are two separate functions of management. Planning and controlling are inseparable functions of management. planning and controlling reinforce each other. Therefore. The scopes of activities if both are overlapping to each other. Activities are put on rails by planning and they are kept at right place through controlling. Control increases efficiency Efficiency is the relation between returns and cost. " Relationship between the two can be summarized in the following points 1. Control leads to high returns and low cost. 10. different departments come together to take collective and corrective steps. Control facilitates Delegation Control helps the superiors to evaluate the work of their subordinates. there are any deviations. Without the basis of planning. 9. controlling activities becomes baseless and without controlling. 2. Control facilitates Co-ordination Control facilitates co-ordination between the different departments of the organization. Planning precedes controlling and controlling succeeds planning.

subordinate. In the present day environment. Thus. The authority to delegates authority keeps the power to control with himself. In the present dynamic environment which affects the organization.4. the strong relationship between the two is very critical and important. 5. (ii) Scope It is restricted from one person to It takes place when delegation is made to all the employees at a number of levels. it gives us stimulus to make better plans. another. Thus. The process of planning and controlling works on Systems Approach which is as follows : Planning Results Corrective Action Planning and controlling are integral parts of an organization as both are important for smooth running of an enterprise. Planning and controlling reinforce each other. it is individualistic. Difference between delegation and decentralization Basis (i) Definition Delegation It refers to the of and a his Decentralization It refers to the of entrustment responsibility authority superior from to delegation authority to a lower level in the organization. it is totalistic. (iii) Control The person who Control is exercised in a general manner. Once controlling is done effectively. it is quite likely that planning fails due to some unforeseen events. planning and controlling are inseparable functions of a business enterprise. Each drives the other function of management. There controlling comes to the rescue. control may also be . Therefore.

starts by grabbing a towel and cleaning the tire.): Adequate to accomplish a purpose. however. of test cases executed per hour or per person day". Here is the definition from Dictionary. we could say that he was both effective and efficient.com. so he goes by trial and error and wastes a lot of time doing it. Decentralization is a step towards creation of semi-autonomous units. producing the intended or expected result.e. After 20 minutes he finally manages to fix it. Efficiency is a productivity metrics meaning how fast one can do something. We can say that John is being efficient. As you can see Mark was doing the right thing. but he was doing it poorly. He wants to make the thing shiny before he changes it. And mind you he is very good and fast at cleaning every little detail of the tire.delegated lower levels. because he is cleaning the tire fast and throughly. Here the difference between total bugs and bugs . remember this sentence: ³Being effective is about doing the right things. (iv) Compulsion Delegation compulsory executive if wants is an to to the Decentralization optional. fast) the person is at testing. so he proceeds to lift the car and change the tire. of bugs identified in that feature". He quite doesn¶t know where to position it. Efficient (adj. but not efficient. Now if we had a third person. which I like: Effective (adj. Effective Vs. Suppose that two guys. Management is may get the help of others in getting things not find it necessary to decentralize done. Some dictionaries get it right. are trying to change a flat tire on their cars (each one has his own car). of bugs identified by a tester in a given feature / Total no. on the other hand. This explains how efficient (i.) Performing or functioning in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort. Mark and John.´ Let¶s use a practical example to illustrate the concepts. Efficient: authority. We can say that he was being effective. because cleaning is a step that is not required at all when changing a flat tire. John. Effectiveness is a quality metrics meaning how good a person is at testing. (v) Relationship Delegation establishes superiorsubordinate relationship. Mark starts by taking out the jack and placing it under the car. If you want an easier way to memorize the difference. Peter. Hence Testing efficiency metric can be "No. Hence Testing effectiveness metrics can be "No. who could change the flat tire using the right steps and doing it quickly. while being efficient is about doing the things in the right manner. but he is not being effective. First of all if you look for both terms in most dictionaries you¶ll find very similar definitions (which makes the matter even more confusing).

.identified by the tester could be that some bugs must have been uncovered by the customer since the tester was not able to detect them during testing.