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CMA1D

Assignments

NHL/MIWB

CMA1 Dynamic Behavior of Vessels 2012 Assignments

Class 4Marof: nautical, offshore & dredging

NBO: 1/30/2012

Page 1 of 9

Marof

......................8 Checklist....................... 4 Assignment 7: Heave period.................... 6 Assignment 13: accelerations on deck load.............................................. 4 2................................................................................................................. ..................................................... ........................................................................................1 Heave defined............ ............................................................ 7 NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 2 of 9 Marof ........................................... 8 5.................................................... 6 4 Pitch............................ 6 Assignment 12: Added mass and ROG.. 8 5........................................................................................................................................ 8 5........................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. 9 6 Literature.......................................................... ...........5 Tables..................................... 4 2..........................................................2 Language................................... 7 Assignment 16: Slamming...................... ................................................................................... 4 2............................. ................................ .................CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB Contents........................................................... 6 Assignment 10: Angular acceleration.................................................. 4 Assignment 6: Added mass........................................2 Added mass........................... .....................................6 Illustrations............................................................................ .................. 6 Assignment 14: Natural pitching period. ......................................................................................................................... ....... .......................... ................................................................... 8 5......... 5 Assignment 8: Maximum acceleration... 1 Getting started with Octopus-Office.................................................................................4 Graphs............................................................ 3 Assignment 4: Using a Hydrodynamic database...... 8 5............................... 9 Assignments Assignment 1: Project................. ....................................................3 Formulae.................... ........................7 Originality.... 5 Assignment 9: Righting moment......................................... 6 Assignment 11: Radius of gyration (ROG).......... 8 5......................... ........... 4 Assignment 5: Heave as a restorative motion............................................... ................. 3 Assignment 3: Creating a Hydrodynamic database........3 Heave period.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 5.. 8 5................................................. 7 5 Rules for the Assignments....................................................................................... 7 Assignment 15: Pitching in head seas............................................................1 Report......................................................................... 3 2 Heave. ................................. 3 Assignment 2: Vessel specifications.............................................................. ............................................. 5 3 Rolling......................................... ................................................................................

Create a project in Octopus-Office.chdb.1. Assignment 3: Creating a Hydrodynamic database. Create a “Compiled Hydrodynamic Database” (CHDB) of your vessel. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 3 of 9 Marof . Hint: in the menu Create CHDB-file you are asked to browse for a CHDB-file at the bottom of the page. Define your vessel in the 2D Hull Modeller. You will be asked to define different drafts.g. test. a.CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB 1 Getting started with Octopus-Office. The software used is version 6. e. a. During these assignments you will use an existing vessel. This vessel should be a container vessel. Assignment 1: Project. based on available information. Assignment 2: Vessel specifications.6. Here you can give in a dummy file. The CHDB uses the so called “strip theory”. For the assignments you will use the office version of the Octopus software developed by Amarcon. Find a suitable vessel and state the specifications of your vessel in an annex. Explain in your own words the essence of the “strip theory” and why it is used? c. Figure 1: Input of CHDB-dummy file. the manual is dated September 2010. Use an existing hull from the database and resize the vessel dimensions to your vessel. b. b. Use the following project name: CMA1D_2012_yourname. Explain which drafts you chose. You should include a technical drawing of your vessel in which you can measure distances.

Retrieve your CHDB. b. Be aware that the manual wants you to “add” a CHDB. A ship has a natural heave period. and the first restorative motion you will deal with. c. What is the specific DE for the heave motion and explain the coefficients. which has a general form: a ⋅ x + b ⋅ x + c ⋅ x = d ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) . a. In the assignment below you will look into the effect of added mass in the Heave motion. . b. What is the beam to draft ratio of your vessel? What is the meaning of this number in practice? What is “virtual mass”? Calculate the “virtual mass” for this situation. Before the accelerations caused by the heave motion can be calculated. 2. The aim of this assignment is to retrieve your database and find general information of your vessel. a.CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB Assignment 4: Using a Hydrodynamic database. What is “added mass”? b. Basically heave is a translation which can be described with a differential equation.1 Heave defined.. 2. Once you have entered all your vessels specifications you should be able to retrieve the hydrodynamic database for all kinds of calculations. g. a. Assignment 5: Heave as a restorative motion. Which variables determine this period and why? Restorative motions are often compared with a “mass-damper-spring (MDS) system”. What changes in this DE if there is no dampening? Explain why. 2 Heave. Make clear what variables you use and why. Calculate the displacement of your vessel for this specific situation and check the results with your vessel specifications. e. d. f. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 4 of 9 Marof . Explain why heave is a restorative motion. a description of the heave motion is necessary. Calculate the access buoyancy of your vessel for a downward displacement of 1 m . Assignment 6: Added mass. Ship movements can be divided in translations and rotations. c. c. Heave is a translation. The vertical movement of your vessel creates a so called “added mass”. Check the geometry of your vessel. The equation is a so called Differential Equation (DE).2 Added mass. See the manual for details. which you can do by “right clicking” the at the top of the project tree. What is the effect of the “added mass” on these forces. d. The heave motion generates forces on your cargo.

Calculate the period of the DE: m ⋅ x + k ⋅ x = 0 . Which variables cause higher accelerations due to heave movement? You should be able to calculate the accelerations in a simple way. It is not possible to measure ω . d. It can be proved that the maximum acceleration is equal to: x = A ⋅ ω 2 = A ⋅ Assignment 7: Heave period. Calculate the vertical acceleration due to heave for your vessel in a realistic situation. . The acceleration of the vessel causes forces on the ship’s cargo. A good understanding of what causes higher accelerations is necessary for deck officers. c. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 5 of 9 Marof . . m a. h.... k . you could define the movement as: A solution for this DE can be found to look at the vertical movement of the heave. One way to calculate the acceleration is by using: x = A ⋅ ω 2 b. b. in order to validate calculations by computers... What is the meaning of the variables A and ω ? c.3 Heave period. What is the formula for the natural heave period? Explain the influence of the variables. What can you measure instead? Explain how you calculate ω . a. .. which is in fact a sinusoid: x = A ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) • • • x = A ⋅ ω ⋅ cos(ω ⋅ t ) x = − A ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) . . Assignment 8: Maximum acceleration. e. . Which variables determine the period in the DE. In the MDS-system with zero dampening. Explain how you determine A if you are at sea. f = m ⋅ a = m ⋅ x− k ⋅ x ⇔ m ⋅ x+ k ⋅ x = 0 . Calculate the heave period of your vessel.CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB 2. and explain how these two variables influence the heave period? Based on this DE for a MDS-system it is possible to determine a formula for the natural heave period for a vessel.

a. A cylinder rolling in the water experiences almost no resistance. Calculate the rolling radius of gyration allowing for 25% added mass. Assignment 10: Angular acceleration. 2 ⎝ R ⎠ c. b. For this assignment you take a specific loading condition of your vessel. Prove that the angular acceleration is equal to: ϕ = − ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ϕ . 1 of the loaded mass. c. Calculate the ROG of your vessel for a specific load condition. The Center of rotation is equal to the rolling axis of the cylinder approximating your vessel. Choose a specific deck load (on deck).. Explain what causes the righting moment for rolling. Explain the variables in the DE. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 6 of 9 Marof . Assignment 9: Righting moment. . which is as far as possible outward from the roll axis. Calculate the natural roll period based on this ROG. Make a drawing of the situation. What is the ratio for hull and b. Hint: use the ROG of assignment 11: ROG. . What is the distance (range) from the rolling axis to the COG of the deck load? d. a. a. . a. What happens to the angular acceleration if GM increases? d. What is the influence of the Radius of Gyration on the angular acceleration? e. Assignment 13: accelerations on deck load. Assignment 12: Added mass and ROG. c.. The radius of gyration of a cylinder approaches the ROG of a vessel. Calculate the accelerations on this deck load for a roll angle of 6 degrees. The cargo can be describes a solid cylinder and the ship’s hull as a hollow cylinder with a thin hull. Explain your 8 steps. Explain why a rolling box-shaped hull with a beam to draft ratio of 2:1 experiences almost no added mass? As a rule of thumb increasing the solid mass ROG by 25% gives a good approximation for the added mass effect in a normal shaped hull. Calculate the natural roll period. Rolling is a restorative motion (rotation) in which the righting moment is approximately proportional to the inclined angle to the waterline for small angles. A box-shaped vessel though does experience resistance due to it’s shape. How can you change your Radius of Gyration in order to diminish your angular acceleration? Assignment 11: Radius of gyration (ROG). A vessel with cargo can be approximated with two cylinders. What is the combined ROG of ship and cargo? d. 35 ⋅ B . Why is the righting moment approximately equal to the ship’s inclined angle for small angles? Rotations can be described by the following DE: I ⋅ ϕ + N ⋅ ϕ + Δ ⋅ GM ⋅ ϕ = M0 ⋅ sin(ω ⋅ t ) . ⎛ g ⋅ GM ⎞ b.CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB 3 Rolling. a. b. Assume that the hull is about 4 cargo masses? c. b. Prove that the ROG of a cylinder is equal to: R = B2 = 0.

b. a. In this ⎟ ⎠ equation RLv is the dynamic pitching radius of gyration and GML the longitudinal GM. e. Assignment 14: Natural pitching period. In which situations the pitch motion can be quite violent. c. 2 ⎛ RLv The undamped pitching period is equal to: Tp = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ g ⋅ GML ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ in seconds. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 7 of 9 Marof . a. relatively heavy pitching can occur. If your vessel is steaming into head seas. This may lead to damage on the bow. b. Make a table (in Excel) in which you calculate the encountered wave period and height for ship speeds from 4 to maximum sea speed for your vessel. Pitching contributes in a significant way to the accelerations on the bow and stern of a vessel. with the same dimensions as your vessel. Calculate the natural pitching period of your vessel. d. Assume your vessel to be a solid floating box. Calculate the natural pitching period of this floating box. What can be said about the wave period in relation to the ships length if the trim tends to follow quite close behind the wave profile? Explain why. Assignment 15: Pitching in head seas. Comment the differences in pitching time. What is slamming and when does it occur? Assignment 16: Slamming.CMA1D Assignments NHL/MIWB 4 Pitch. In order to calculate the accelerations you need the pitching amplitude and the pitching period of the vessel. although the angular trim angles are relatively small? How do seafarers call this situation? c. Determine the RLv of your vessel. Determine the GML of your vessel.

Graphs should be numbered consecutively and go with a short title and a short description.7 Originality.5 Tables. studentnumber and e-mail adres of the writers.1 Report. It is important that you write you own English. 5. Your report can be checked on writing by other authors. o Date of writing. You have to complete these tasks in order to pass this module. 5. because you will most likely have to write English reports in future jobs. You will have to use them in order to communicate effectively within your company. 5. 5. 5. Calculations and formulae will be made with an equation editor. etc. Your report is subject to a set of rules. o Executive summary. the second number is the number of the picture in that chapter. 1 Use footnotes to refer to the source.4 Graphs. o Name. The report should contain a numbered list with pictures.doc. Your report will be written in English. The first number is the chapter in which the figure can be found. Therefore you should present you final report digitally in *. This is done because you have to learn to work within a certain predefined approach to a problem. Tables should be numbered consecutively and go with a short title and a short description. o Appendices. This report is “hand them over” as a *. Every graph has a description of the units along the axis. Assignments NHL/MIWB These assignments are practical tasks about the DP theory in the lectures.2 Language. number 2”.3 Formulae. You write your assignments in an editor and collect them in a report. 5. You will need this training in writing English. Think thoroughly about the lay-out of your report. Besides that the “look” of a report is increasingly important. It will safe you a lot of time. “Copied text is allowed.CMA1D 5 Rules for the Assignments.pdf file by mail. o Notes and references to professional reading. In your future jobs you will discover that shipping companies have their own style and formats. NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 8 of 9 Marof . o Chapter and paragraph numbering. should be referred to as figures and numbered using “figure number 1.6 Illustrations. 5.pdf and *. but only quoted in cursive font and referring to the source using a footnote” 1 . o Page numbers. o Contents. Drawings. pictures. The report should contain at least: o Short title.

The Nautical Institute. “Ship dynamic for Mariners”. [3] OCTOPUS Office 6 User manual. [1] Clark. Assignments NHL/MIWB Before o o o o you present your report go through the following checklist: Are your answers clear and understandable at a level of a senior DP officer? Is the report written in a logic and friendly lay-out? Did you tackle all points mentioned in the assignments? Did you use the equations editor where maths and calculations are involved? 6 Literature.CMA1D 5.1 from September 2010.C. (2005). ISBN1 870077 68 7 [2] DP Lessons Learned from Transocean: DP Process Control.. [4] NBO: 1/30/2012 Page 9 of 9 Marof . Version 6.0. I.8 Checklist.