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Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

Faruk Yildiz

Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems convert random motions, including ocean waves, into useful electrical energy that can be used by oceanographic monitoring wireless sensor nodes for autonomous surveillance. Ambient energy sources are classified as energy reservoirs, power distribution methods, or powerscavenging methods, which may enable portable or wireless systems to be completely battery independent and self sustaining. The students from different disciplines, such as industrial technology, construction, design and development and electronics, investigated the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. After an extensive literature review, students summarized each potential ambient energy source and explained future energyharvesting systems to generate or produce electrical energy as a support to conventional energy storage devices. This article investigates recent studies about potential ambient energy-harvesting sources and systems.

Today, sustaining the power requirement for autonomous wireless and portable devices is an important issue. In the recent past, energy storage has improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and wireless technology applications. For example, in wireless sensor networks, battery-powered sensors and modules are expected to last for a long period of time. However, conducting battery maintenance for a large-scale network consisting of hundreds or even thousands of sensor nodes may be difficult, if not impossible. Ambient power sources, as a replacement for batteries, come into consideration to minimize the maintenance and the cost of operation. Power scavenging may enable wireless and portable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining, so that battery maintenance can be eventually removed. Researchers have performed many studies in alternative energy sources that could provide small amounts of electricity to electronic devices, and this will be explained in another section of this article. Energy harvesting can be obtained from different energy sources, such as mechanical vibrations, electromagnetic sources, light, acoustic, airflow, heat, and temperature variations. Energy harvesting, in general, is the conversion of ambient energy into usable electrical energy. When compared with energy stored in common storage elements, such as batteries, capacitors, and the like, the environment represents a relatively infinite source of available energy. Systems continue to become smaller, yet less energy is available on board, leading to a short run-time for a device or battery life. Researchers continue to build high-energy density batteries, but the amount of energy available in the batteries is not only finite but also low, which limits the life time of the systems. Extended life of the electronic devices is very important; it also has more advantages in systems with limited accessibility, such as those used in monitoring a machine or an instrument in a manufacturing plant used to organize a chemical process in a hazardous environment. The critical long-term solution should therefore be independent of the limited energy available during the functioning or operating of such devices. Table 1 compares the estimated power and challenges of various ambient

energy sources in a recent study by Yildiz, Zhu, Pecen, and Guo (2007). Values in the table were derived from a combination of published studies, experiments performed by the authors, theory, and information that is commonly available in textbooks. The source of information for each technique is given in the third column of the table. Though this comparison is not comprehensive, it does provide a broad range of potential methods to scavenge and store energy from a variety of ambient energy sources. Light, for instance, can be a significant source of energy, but it is highly dependent on the application and the experience to which the device is subjected. Thermal energy, in contrast, is limited because temperature differences across a chip are typically low. Vibration energy is a moderate source, but again, it is dependent on the particular application, as cited by Torres and Rincon-Mora (2005). Table 1. Comparison of Power Density of Energy Harvesting Methods Energy Source Power Density & Performance Source of Information 0.003 μW/cm3 @ 75Db (Rabaey, Ammer, Da Silva Jr, Acoustic Noise 0.96 μW/cm3 @ 100Db Patel, & Roundy, 2000) (Roundy, Steingart, Fréchette, Temperature Variation 10 μW/cm3 Wright, Rabaey, 2004) Ambient Radio Frequency 1 μW/cm2 (Yeatman, 2004) 100 mW/cm2 (direct sun) Ambient Light Available 100 _W/cm2 (illuminated office) Thermoelectric 60 _W/cm2 (Stevens, 1999) 4 _W/cm3 (human motion—Hz) Vibration (Mitcheson, Green, Yeatman, (micro generator) & Holmes, 2004) 800 _W/cm3 (machines—kHz) Vibrations (Piezoelectric) 200 μW/cm3 (Roundy, Wright, & Pister, 2002) Airflow 1 μW/cm2 (Holmes, 2004) Push buttons 50 _J/N (Paradiso & Feldmeier, 2001) Shoe Inserts 330 μW/cm2 (Shenck & Paradiso, 2001) Hand generators 30 W/kg (Starner & Paradiso, 2004) (Yaglioglu, 2002) Heel strike 7 W/cm2 (Shenck & Paradiso, 2001) Ambient Energy Sources Ambient energy harvesting, also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, is the process where energy is obtained and converted from the environment and stored for use in electronics applications. Usually this term is applied to energy harvesting for low power and small autonomous devices, such as wireless sensor networks, and portable electronic equipments. A variety of sources are available for energy scavenging, including solar power, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions (active/passive human power). For example, some systems convert random motions, including ocean waves, into useful electrical energy that can be used by oceanographic monitoring wireless sensor nodes for autonomous surveillance. The literature review shows that no single power source is sufficient for all applications, and that the selection of energy sources must be considered according to the application characteristics. Before going into details, a general overview of ambient energy sources are presented, and summarized the resources according to their characteristics: • • Human Body: Mechanical and thermal (heat variations) energy can be generated from a human or animal body by actions such as walking and running; Natural Energy: Wind, water flow, ocean waves, and solar energy can provide limitless energy availability from the environment;

A broad review of the literature of potential energyscavenging methods has been carried out by the authors.• • • • Mechanical Energy: Vibrations from machines. and waste rotations can be captured and used as ambient mechanical energy sources. and transformers can be considered as ambient energy sources. The research efforts are employed by the above listed sources to explore in general how practical devices that extract power from ambient energy sources are. and Electromagnetic Energy: Inductors. Additionally. depending on how much energy is needed for the application. The first row shows the energy-harvesting sources. and follows in the next few sections of this paper. manufacturing machines. Light energy can be captured via photo sensors. Thermal Energy: Waste heat energy variations from furnaces. chemical and biological sources and radiation can be considered ambient energy sources. Figure 1 shows a block diagram of general ambient energy-harvesting systems. The result of this literature review is categorized for each source. and friction sources. strain from highpressure motors. Light Energy: This source can be divided into two categories of energy: indoor room light and outdoor sunlight energy. Actual implementation and tools are employed to harvest the energy from the source are illustrated in the second row. The third row shows the energy-harvesting techniques from each source. heaters. Figure 1. and solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. photo diodes. coils. mechanical stress. Ambient Energy Systems .

The total energy captured using an energy-harvesting system was bigger than 3mW. each of these parameters is limited by the size constraints of the microchip as well as its material properties. Mechanical acceleration is produced by vibrations that. 1998). such as the ultra low power RF transmitter and microcontroller. Tetsuro. Wright.2mW energy to operate.Mechanical Energy Harvesting An example of electric power generation using rotational movement is the self-powered.1cm2 surface area were attainable. to produce electric energy. which was enough for the wireless mouse operations in a transmit range of one meter. Mechanical Vibrations Indoor operating environments may have reliable and constant mechanical vibration sources for ambient energy scavenging. or strain on a piezoelectric material. The induced voltage is inherently small and therefore must be increased to become a viable source of energy. These energy conversion schemes can be extended and explained under the three listed subjects because the nature of the conversion types differs even if the energy source is vibration. increasing the number of turns of the coil. & Park. producing an electric field and consequently a . The electric generator is powered through exploiting rolling energy by dragging the mouse. cordless wheel computer mouse cited by Mikami. Baert. For example. cause the mass component to move and oscillate. The system was designed uniquely to capture rotational movements by the help of the mouse ball to generate and harvest electric power. The coil travels through a varying amount of magnetic flux. indoor machinery sensors may have plentiful mechanical vibration energy that can be monitored and used reliably. and Rabaey (2004) reported that energy withdrawal from vibrations could be based on the movement of a spring-mounted mass relative to its support frame. and it showed that power generation capabilities up to 50μw for a 0. A general multi domain model was built and analyzed in the same study. 2005). Another example of mechanical energy harvesting is an electrets-based electrostatic micro generator. The energy-harvesting system was intended to power the electronic system of a mouse device. in turn. A coil attached to the oscillating mass is made to pass through a magnetic field. However. The system is called Soc and is designed as an ultra low power wireless interface for short-range data communication as a wireless battery-less mouse. which is established by a stationary magnet. however. (Kulah & Najafi. magnetic field (electromagnetic). In the section below. Strain or deformation of a piezoelectric material causes charge separation across the device. Puers. Vibration energyharvesting devices can be either electromechanical or piezoelectric. 2004). Fiorini. Electromagnetic This technique uses a magnetic field to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy (Amirtharajah & Chandrakasan. Roundy. Inman. are more commonly researched and used. the main differences of the three sources are discussed. and Borghs (2003). This relative dislocation causes opposing frictional and damping forces to be applied against the mass. thereby reducing and eventually extinguishing the oscillations. a micro machined electrostatic converter consisted of a vibration sensitive variable capacitor polarized by an electret. In this system. inducing a voltage according to Faraday's law. which was proposed by Sterken. battery-less. or increasing the permanent magnetic field (Torres & Rincón-Mora. Hiroko (2005). The damping force energy can be converted into electrical energy via an electric field (electrostatic). Electromechanical harvesting devices. 2004). Masahiko. Piezoelectric This method alters mechanical energy into electrical energy by straining a piezoelectric material (Sodano. The experimental results of the study showed that the mouse only needed 2. Techniques to increase the induced voltage include using a transformer.

A varactor. which is initially charged. as reported by Disalvo (1999) and Rowe (1999). For example. which provides higher strain for a given input force (Roundy & Wright. (Meninger. effectively producing an irregular AC signal on the average. pushing the button causes a spring-loaded hammer to hit a piezoelectric crystal. or variable capacitor. In this system. mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy.8 mJ cm-3 35. portable sparkers used to light gas grills. and piezoelectric) were investigated and compared according to their complexity. Table 2. Following the same idea. Electrostatic (Capacitive) This method depends on the variable capacitance of vibration-dependent varactors. & Crouch. in this way.voltage drop proportional to the stress applied. Amirtharajah. gas stoves.4 mJ cm-3 Current size Integrated Macro Macro Very high voltage and need Very low output Low output Problems voltages voltages of adding charge source Thermal (Thermoelectric) Energy Harvesting Thermal gradients in the environment are directly converted to electrical energy through the Seebeck (thermoelectric) effect. In a study conducted to test the feasibility and reliability of the different ambient vibration energy sources by Marzencki (2005). Mur-Miranda. size. given that MEMS (Micro-electromechanical system) variable capacitors are fabricated through relatively well-known silicon micro-machining techniques. Comparison of Vibration Energy-Harvesting Techniques Electrostatic Electromagnetic Piezoelectric Complexity of process flow Low Very High High Energy density 4 mJ cm-3 24. This process takes the form of separation of electric charge within a crystal lattice. The voltage produced varies with time and strain. with moderate power density. Holler. high-energy carriers diffuse from high to low concentration regions. electromagnetic. Moreover. If the piezoelectric material is not short circuited. The oscillating system is typically a cantilever beam structure with a mass at the unattached end of the lever. and a variety of gas burners have built-in piezoelectric based ignition systems. Chandrakasan. There are many applications based on piezoelectric materials. 2006). the plates split and the capacitance is reduced. and the voltage that is produced injects the gas slowly as the current jumps across a small spark gap. the voltage across a variable capacitor is kept steady as its capacitance alters after a primary charge. energy density. Piezoelectric energy conversion produces relatively higher voltage and power density levels than the electromagnetic system. Constant voltage or constant current achieves the conversion through two different mechanisms. allowing heat flow to carry the . This scheme produces higher and more practical output voltage levels than the electromagnetic method. 2004). piezoelectricity has the ability of some elements. one of which is the electric cigarette lighter. & Lang. to generate an electric potential from a mechanical stress (Skoog. three different vibration energy sources (electrostatic. The study is summarized in Table 2. the applied mechanical stress induces a voltage across the material. 2001). and encountered problems.and p-type materials electrically joined at the high-temperature junction are therefore constructed. As a result. will separate its plates by vibrations. until the charge is driven out of the device. The driven energy then can be stored in an energy pool or used to charge a battery. such as crystals and some types of ceramics. The most striking feature of this method is its ICcompatible nature. Thermopiles consisting of n. Temperature changes between opposite segments of a conducting material result in heat flow and consequently charge flow since mobile. generating the needed voltage source.

& Rabaey. and assume no losses in the conversion of power to electricity.5 cm2 in area and a few millimeters thick (Pescovitz. Wright. establishing in the process a voltage difference across the base electrodes. One of the main advantages that pyroelectric energy harvesting has over thermoelectric energy harvesting is that most of the pyroelectric materials or elements are stable up to 1200 °C or more. Moreover. The body of the TEG consisted of reliable and stable components that provided maintenance free. or skin to air interfaces. One of the latest designs of thermoelectric energy harvester is the thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed and introduced by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2007). 2002). temperature differences greater than 10°C are rare in a micro system. situations in which there is a static 10 °C temperature difference within 1 cm3 are. Pryroelectric energy-harvesting applications require inputs with time variances which results in small power outputs in energy-scavenging applications. biomedicine. As a result of the temperature change. positive and negative charges move to opposite ends through migration (polarized) and thus. 2005). water to air. This thermoelectric generator is capable of producing 40mw of power from 5 °C temperature variations using a device that is 0. This thermoelectric energy harvester includes an assembly of very small and thin thermocouples in a unique configuration that can exploit very small (>2°C) temperature variations that are occurring naturally in the environment of the application such as ground to air. low-power applications. Light Energy (Solar Energy) Harvesting . Stordeur and Stark (1997) have demonstrated a thermoelectric micro device. with the improvement of thermoelectric research. an electrical potential is established. depending on the nature of the application. could eventually result in more than 15 _W/cm3. In addition to PNNL’s patent-pending thermoelectric generator. Moreover. and wilderness and agricultural management. This new thermoelectric generator is used to convert environmental (ambient) thermal energy into electric power for a variety of applications that necessitates low power use. homeland and military security surveillance. Stability allows energy harvesting even from high temperature sources with increasing thermodynamic efficiency. continuous power for the lifetime of the application claimed by the manufacturer. 2004). This device generates about 1V output voltage. the TEG’s electrical output can be changed from a few microwatts to hundreds of milliwatts and more by modifying the design. Applications of this energy-harvesting design are diverse.power electronic applications. which is capable of converting 15 _W/cm3 from 10 °C temperature gradients. It is also documented that the thermoelectric energy harvester may be appropriate for many other stand-alone.dominant charge carriers of each material to the low temperature end. 2007). however. Pyroelectricity is the capability of certain materials to generate an electrical potential when they are either heated or cooled. Clark and Clark (2005). so consequently such systems generate low voltage and power levels. naturally occurring temperature variations also can provide a means by which energy can be scavenged from the environment with high temperature. very rare. Large thermal gradients are essential to produce practical voltage and power levels (Roundy. Applied Digital Solutions Corporation has developed and presented a thermoelectric generator as a commercial product (PNNL. Although this is promising and. Pyroelectricity Energy Harvesting The “pyroelectric effect” converts temperature changes into electrical voltage or current (Lang. including automotive performance monitoring. The generated voltage and power is relative to the temperature differential and the Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric materials. which can be enough for low. Depending on the temperature range. However. the thermal-expansion-actuated piezoelectric generator has also been proposed as a method to convert power from ambient temperature gradients to electricity by Thomas.

Acoustic Noise Acoustic noise is the result of the pressure waves produced by a vibration source. and pulling (Starner & Paradiso. Underwood. For example. Manwell.056. 1 Hz equals 1 cycle. The Bel and decibel are logarithmic values that are better suited to represent a wide range of measurements than linear values (Rogers. the reference is the hearing threshold of the human ear. shaking. Nevertheless.A photovoltaic cell has the capability of converting light energy into electrical energy (Kasap. when compared with the other energy-harvesting mechanisms. The spring system drives a magnetic generator and efficiently produces enough power for about an hour of play. cranking. a research team at the University of Florida examined acoustic energy conversion. Generally a sinusoidal wave is referred to as a tone. or one vibration.184. 2000). varying light intensity. Hirschman. Human Power Researchers have been working on many projects to generate electricity from active/passive human power. Jenkins. Hertz (Hz) is the unit of sound frequency. The human ear can perceive frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 000 Hz. For instance. For example some types of flashlights were powered with wind-up generators in the early 20th century (US patent 1. & Fauchet. squeezing. . Harris. Raffaelle. establishing an open circuit voltage. Later versions of these devices. 2004). Gadeken. which is taken as 20 microPa. except for very rare environments with extremely high noise levels. Each cell consists of a reverse biased pn+ junction. a three-dimensional diode structure constructed on absorbent silicon substrate helps increase efficiency by significantly increasing the exposed internal surface area of the device (Sun. accumulating electrons and holes in the n+ and p regions. Freeplay’s (a commercial company) wind-up radios make 60 turns in one minute of cranking. Hepp. its power output is strongly dependent on environmental conditions. in which the light crosses with the heavily conservative and narrow n+ region. Acoustic power and acoustic pressure are types of acoustic noise. Overall. 2005). et al. respectively. spinning. a combination of several tones is called a sound. & Wilt. 2001. 1916). Lim. became available in the commercial market. have been conducted so far have demonstrated that photovoltaic cells can produce sufficient power to maintain a micro system. such as exploiting. The built-in electric field of the junction immediately separates each pair. Kherani. 2002). The unit of measure used to express these relative sound levels is the Bel or decibel (1 Bel equals 10 decibels). Acoustic power is the total amount of sound energy radiated by a sound source over a given period of time. and it is usually expressed in Watts. 2002). pushing. With a load connected. which allows storing of 500 Joules of energy in a spring. 2002). generating electron-hole pairs. to transfer it into electrical energy. For acoustic pressure. accumulated electrons travel through the load and recombine with holes at the p-side. per second. & Wright. The output of a vibrating PZT piezoceramic beam is connected to an AC to DC flyback converter. which is estimated to provide greater than 80 percent conversion efficiency at an input power of 1 mW and 75% efficiency at an input power of 200 μW (Kasyap. pumping. Cowen. Scheiman. Photons where the light energy exists are absorbed within the depletion region. photovoltaic energy conversion is a well-known integrated circuit compatible technology that offers higher power output levels. It was finalized that there is far too insufficient amount of power available from acoustic noise to be of use in the scenario being investigated. They reported analysis of strain energy conversion using a flyback converter circuit (Horowitz et al. Several research efforts. generating a photocurrent that is directly proportional to the light intensity and independent of the cell voltage. Rare research attempts have been made of harvesting acoustic noise from an environment where the noise level is high and continuous. and an irregular vibration is referred to as noise. in other words. Moreover. such as wind-up cell phone chargers and radios. A human ear detects and translates pressure waves into electrical signals.

Another similar architecture. 1982). such as walking or running. the piezoelectric shoe insert offers a good solution. Researchers have proposed and conducted several studies to capture power from the human body. Students involved in this paper learned different ambient energy-harvesting. Active human power. The generated power was enough to run a digital encoder and radio that was able to transmit over 50 feet. For example Starner has researched and investigated some of these energy. and as mentioned previously. 2001). Materials used for this device were off-the-shelf components. The system consisted of a set of buttons that hit aluminum material to produce ultrasound. and these can provide new energy resources to portable or wireless electronics devices within the energy-harvesting systems. several currently developed. & Spracklen. 1996). Freeplay has self-powered products that are powered by a constant-force spring that the user must wind up to operate the device (FreePlay Energy. and it produced about 1mJ at 3V per 15N push. For an RFID (Radio frequency identification) tag or other wireless device worn on the shoe. 2003). Desmares. The design. conversion. where the power is generated. Students agreed to start a new research identify various ambient energy sources and design unique energy-harvesting systems. called “Space Commander”. is common and may be referred to separately as active human-powered systems (Roundy. and storage systems. Ambient energy harvesting can also provide an extended lifespan and support to conventional electronics systems. The possibility of overall dependence on ambient energy resources may remove some constraints required by the limited reliability of standard batteries. and overlooked ideas and options exist. the application space for such devices is extremely limited.A battery-free wireless remote control for Zenith televisions was another human-powered device. . The produced ultrasound energy was decoded at the television to turn it on.harvesting techniques to power wearable electronics (Starner. developed by Paradiso and Feldmeier (2001) is a piezoelectric element. Another group of power generators can be classified as active human-powered energy scavengers. Power dissipation occurs in the average human body either actively or passively in daily life motions. Adler’s “Space Commander” design was then replaced by the active infrared remote controls and is being used in many current remote control systems. they are not very applicable to some of the low-powered devices. was introduced by Robert Adler in 1956. which requires the user to perform a specific power-generating motion. 2007). These types of products are very useful because of their battery-free systems. This system was actuated when hit by a button. which is equal to about 121W of power dissipation.5 MJ every day. This research initiated the development of piezoelectric shoe inserts capable of producing an average of 330 μW/cm2 while an average person is walking. These types of generators require the human to perform an action that is not part of the normal human performance. The ongoing research efforts mostly focused on how to get power from the shoe. change channels and mute the volume (Adler. An average human body burns approximately 10. making the human body and motions an attractive ambient energy source. which enabled placing compact digital controllers independently without any battery or wire maintenance. which was comprised of a resonantly matched transformer and conditioning electronics. to the point of interest or application. Conclusion In conclusion. The first application of shoe inserts was to power a low power wireless transceiver mounted to the shoe soles. such as wireless sensor networks. MIT researchers considered these studies and suggested that the most reliable and exploitable energy source occurs at the foot during heel strikes when running or walking (Shenck & Paradiso. However. Such sources of power are considered as passive power sources in that the person is not required to put extra effort to generate power because power generation occurs while the person is doing regular daily activities. For instance.

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O. (2005). W. N. The general categories of robot systems are: • • • • • • Controller Body Mobility Power Sensors Tools Controller The controller is the robot's brain and controls the robot's movements.. & Clark. Department of Electrical Eng. F. London.. AC 2007-2254: Yeatman.M. Proceedings of International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks. Gadeken. Yaglioglu. data algorithms. J. Rincón-Mora. (2007).. Guo. Energy scavenging for wireless sensor nodes with a focus on rotation to electricity conversion. Thomas. J. W. Kherani. SW7 2BT. J. It's usually a computer of some type which is used to store information about the robot and the work environment and to store and execute programs which operate the robot... L. D. The type of job the robot does dictates what system elements it needs. L. E. Advanced Materials. Energy-harvesting chips and the quest for everlasting life. (2005). A.. Modeling and design considerations for a micro-hydraulic piezoelectric power generator. 20–21. E. P. Master’s thesis. MIT. (2002). Hirschman. Clark. (2005).Sun. logic analysis and various other processing activities which enable the robot to perform. R. W. K. & Pecen. Yildiz. University of Pittsburgh. . 17.. The control system contains programs. Imperial College. Torres.. and Computer Science. Exhibition Road. IEEE Georgia Tech Analog and Power IC Design Lab. O. P. Robot Systems Robots are comprised of several systems working together as a whole. 1536-1268. Harvesting energy from piezoelectric material. & Fauchet. Zhu.. Advances in power sources for wireless sensor nodes. (2004).M. 1230-1233. G. W. L. A threedimensional porous silicon p-n diode for betavoltaics and photovoltaics. American Society of Engineering Education.. IEEE CS.

A continous path servo is appropriate when a robot must proceed on a specified path in a smooth. the robot relays information to the operator about the remote environment and the operator then sends the . and data storage (i.The picture above is an AARM Motion control system. power conditioning.. Mobile robots can operate by remote control or autonomously. the CPU). The control boards for Sojourner are shown below. More sophisticated robots have more sophisticated control systems. The stop switch sends a signal back to the controller which starts the next motion. A non-servo robot usually moves parts from one area to another and is called a "pick and place" robot.e. The brain of the Mars Sojourner rover was made of two electronics boards that were interconnected to each other with Flex cables. constant motion. power distribution and control. One board was called the "CPU" board and the other the "Power" board and each contained items responsible for power generation. In a direct remote control situation. The non-servo robot motion is started by the controller and stopped by a mechanical stop switch. A point-to-point servo moves to exact points so only the stops in the path are programmed. point-to-point servos or continuous path servos.e.. visit Rover Control and Navigation at JPL. memory). Industrial controllers are either non-servos. analog and digital I/O control and processing. A remote control robot receives instructions from a human operator. computing (i. AARM stands for Advanced Architecture Robot and Machine Motion and it's a commercial product from American Robot for industrial machine motion control. For more info.

Sprint Aercam is a sphere to minimize damage if it were to bump into the shuttle or an astronaut. You probably saw the Jason AUV at work when pictures of the Titanic discovery were broadcast. submersible robots are used in science and industry throughout the oceans of the world. or a ballon. The free-flying rover. Space robots have many different body shapes such as a sphere. Some autonomous robots are able to "learn" from their past encounters. depending on it's job. This activity takes place in the robot controller. When evaluating what body type is right for a robot. a platform with wheels or legs. Autonomous robots are programmed to understand their environment and take independent action based on the knowledge they posess.robot instructions based on the information received. Industrial robots often take the shape of a bodyless arm since it's job requires it to remain stationary relative to its task. Some planetary rovers have solar platforms driven by wheels to traverse terrestrial environments. On Land: Land based rovers can move around on legs. In most cases Dante II has at least one frame (four legs) touching the ground. To get around. make maps and acquire samples at the Chornobyl Nuclear Reactor . automated underwater vehicles (AUV's) use propellers and rudders to control their direction of travel. In the Water: Conventional unmanned. Mobility How do robots move? It all depends on the job they have to do and the environment they operate in. One area of research suggests that an underwater robot like RoboTuna could propel itself as a fish does using it's natural undulatory motion. An example of a track driven robot is Pioneer. It's thought that robots that move like fish would be quieter. a robot developed to clear rubble. This sequence can occur immediately (real-time) or with a time delay. Body The body of a robot is related to the job it must perform. process actions which have produced successful/unsuccessful results and modify their behavior to optimize success. This means they can identify a situation. The frames are separated by a track along which the frames slide relative to each other. Dante II is a frame walking robot that is able to descend into volcano craters by rapelling down the crater. four legs on each of two frames. more maneuverable and more energy efficient. remember that form follows function. Aerobot bodies are balloons that will float through the atmosphere of other worlds collecting data. tracks or wheels. Dante has eight legs.

or ionizing. Movement and positioning is accomplished by either firing small thrusters or by applying a force to speed up or slow down one or more of three "reaction wheels. and hence its course. The ion engine works by giving an electrical charge." The thrusters and reaction wheels orient the spacecraft in three axes which are maintained with great precision. The wheels are 13 centimeters (5 inches) in diameter and made of aluminum. Many robots use wheels for locomotion. uneven surfaces. Deep Space 1 is an experimental spacecraft of the future sent into deep space to analyze comets and demonstrate new technologies in space. Pioneer is track-driven like a small bulldozer which makes it suitable for driving over and through rubble. Two other Lunar Roving Vehicles (LRV) also went to the moon on Apollo 16 and 17. these rovers were designed to seat two astronauts and be driven like a dune buggy. Cassini will be propelled on its way by two "gravity assist" flybys of Venus. The wide track footprint gives good stability and platform capacity to deploy payloads. The ion propulsion system requires a source of energy and for DS1 the energy comes from electrical power generated by it's solar arrays. The propulsion system carries approximately 3000 kilograms (6600 lbs) of propellant that is used by the main rocket engine to change the spacecraft's velocity. one side of Sojourner could tip as much as 45 degrees as it climbed over a rock without tipping over. The Sojourner rover's wheels and suspension use a rocker-bogie system that is unique in that it does not use springs. they push the spacecraft in the opposite direction. One of the first US roving vehicles used for space exploration went to the moon on Apollo 15 (July 30. In the Air/Space: Robots that operate in the air use engines and thrusters to get around. One of it's new technologies is a solar electric (ion) propulsion engine that provides about 10 times the specific impulse of chemical propulsion. But unlike Sojourner. For example. The xenon is electrically accelerated to the speed of about 30 km/second. an orbiter on it's way to Saturn. its joints rotate and conform to the contour of the ground. which helps it traverse rocky. Stainless steel treads and cleats on the wheels provide traction and each wheel can move up and down independently of all the others. In addition. Irwin. a gas called xenon. A total velocity change of over 2000 meters per second (6560 ft/s) is possible. 1971) and was driven by astronauts David When the xenon ions are emitted at such a high speed as exhaust from the spacecraft. One example is the Cassini. and three dozen of Saturn's moon Titan. Scott and James B. one each of Earth and Jupiter. These rovers were battery powered and had radios and antenna's just like the Mars Pathfinder rover Sojourner. These planetary flybys will provide twenty times the propulsion provided by the main engine. Rather. . Six-wheeled vehicles can overcome obstacles three times larger than those crossable by four-wheeled vehicles.

a range of detection and the ability to detect objects while operating in real or near-real time within it's power and size limits. lead-acid. For most any environmental situation. Sensors provide the raw information or signals that must be processed through the robot's computer brain to provide meaningful information. temperature. The Big Signal robot NOMAD uses sensing instruments like a camera. Additionally. lithium-ion. or altitude. strain. For example. a two amp hour battery can supply 2 amps of current for one hour. a robot might have an acoustic sensor to detect sound. fittings and hoses that connect the components and distribute the energy. The high resolution video camera can . a spectrometer and a metal-detector. Electric motors are efficient. large and heavier than the other power sources. A robot can also monitor itself with sensors. RTGs have been used on 25 space missions including Cassini. a robot can be equipped with an appropriate sensor. Solar cells are also used as a power source to recharge batteries. pressure. rotation. Sensors Sensors are the perceptual system of a robot and measure physical quantities like contact. nickel-cadmium. magnetism. Hydraulic robots use oil under pressure and generally perform heavy duty jobs. There are lots of types of batteries like carbonzinc. distance. which use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate direct current electricity. The lifespan of batteries is exceeded at these distances also. Deep space probes must use alternate power sources because beyond Mars existing solar arrays would have to be so large as to be infeasible. inclination.Power Power for industrial robots can be electric. contact sensors. Power for deep space probes is traditionally generated by radioisotope thermoelectric generators or RTGs. motion or location. and aren't very noisy. pneumatic or hydraulic. smell. If you hook enough solar cells together in a solar panel you can generate enough power to run a robot. Pneumatic and hydraulic robots require maintenance of the tubes. Solar cells make electrical power from sunlight. require little maintenance. Pneumatic robots use compressed air and come in a wide variety of sizes. Galileo. propane or gasoline to provide the compressed air. A hydraulic robot also needs another source of energy to move the fluids through its components. This power type is noisy. Two important sources of electric power for mobile robots are solar cells and batteries. Battery power is measured in amp-hours which is the current (amp) multiplied by the time in hours that current is flowing from the battery. sound. Sensors can permit a robot to have an adequate field of view. A pneumatic robot requires another source of energy such as electricity. tactile sensors to give a sense of touch. light. and Ulysses. silver zinc and alkaline to name a few. or optical/vision sensors. nickel-hydrogen. infrared sensors to detect heat sources. Robots are equipped with sensors so they can have an understanding of their surrounding environment and make changes in their behavior based on the information they have gathered.

The eyes of Cassini are the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) which can take pictures in the visible range. robots have defined job duties and carry all the tools they need to accomplish their tasks onboard their bodies. There are many examples of robot tools that you will discover as you examine the literature associated with this site. creating a carrot-shaped track up to 200 times its own length.scientists will use these tracks to find the tiny particles. These hand devices make it possible for a robot manipulator to grasp and manipulate objects that are not designed to be robotically compatible. a gripping device. Many robots carry their tools at the end of a manipulator. Very complex robots like Cassini have full sets of sensing equipment much like human senses. When a particle hits the aerogel. It consists of a forearm which houses the motors and drive electronics. An endeffector can be a sensor. etc. This slows it down and brings the sample to a relatively gradual stop. which measures four inches in diameter at its base and is approximately eight inches long. Since aerogel is mostly transparent . It's skeleton must be light and sturdy. The manipulator contains a series of segments. Nomad uses a laser range finder to measure the distance to objects and a metal detector to help determine the composition of the objects if finds. sponge-like structure in which 99. two good examples are listed below. Tools are unique to the task the robot must perform. While several grippers have been designed for space use and some even tested in space. able to withstand extreme temperatures and monitor those temperatures.identify dark objects (rocks. the nearultraviolet and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Robonaut has one of the many ground breaking dexterous robot hands developed over the past two decades. a drill. 12 separate circuit boards. The variations in color and shade allow the robot to tell the difference between dark grey rocks and shadows. a two degree of freedom wrist. an arc welding device. meterorites) against the white background of the Antarctic snow. The goal of the robot mission Stardust is to capture both cometary samples and interstellar dust.with a distinctive smoky blue cast . no dexterous robotic hand has been flown in Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) conditions. To get you going. it buries itself in the material. wrist and endeffector. jointed or sliding relative to one another for the purpose of moving objects. a paint gun. houses all fourteen motors.8 percent of the volume is empty space. a siliconbased solid with a porous. It often encompasses a motor or a driven mechanical device. The trick is to capture the high velocity comet and dust particles without physically changing them. . and all of the wiring for the hand. twelve degree of freedom hand. The manipulator includes the arm. The forearm. Tools As working machines. and a five finger. Cassini determines it's location by using three hemisperical resonant gyroscopes or HRG's which measures quartz crystal vibrations. An end-effector is a tool or gripping mechanism attached to the end of a robot arm to accomplish some task. Scientists developed aerogel. The Robonaut Hand has a total of fourteen degrees of freedom. The Robonaut Hand is one of the first under development for space EVA use and the closest in size and capability to a suited astronaut's hand.

like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks. For example.). wireless autonomous devices.1 Accumulating energy 1. wind energy. and stored for small.6 Thermoelectrics 3.5 Pyroelectric energy harvesting 3. and kinetic energy). Energy harvesters provide a very small amount of power for low-energy electronics.Energy harvesting From Wikipedia. captured. there is a large amount of electromagnetic energy in the environment because of radio and television broadcasting.8 Magnetostatic energy harvesting 3. the free encyclopedia Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.4 Piezoelectric energy harvesting 3.. the energy source for energy harvesters is present as ambient background and is free.7 Electrostatic (capacitive) energy harvesting 3. coal. temperature gradients exist from the operation of a combustion engine and in urban areas. solar power. Contents [hide] • 1 Operation ○ ○ ○ • • 1.3 Use of the power 2 Motivation 3 Devices ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 3.1 Ambient-radiation sources 3. While the input fuel to some large-scale generation costs money (oil.3 Photovoltaic harvesting 3. thermal energy.2 Biomechanical harvesting 3. salinity gradients[citation needed].10 Tree metabolic energy harvesting 3. etc.g.2 Storage of power 1.9 Blood sugar energy harvesting 3.11 Future directions • • 4 See also 5 References .

[9] The power is usually used in a sensor application and the data stored or is transmitted possibly through a wireless method. One driving force behind the search for new energy harvesting devices is the desire to power sensor . etc. Vestfold University College. Georgia Tech.[1] AdaptivEnergy. [edit] Use of the power Current interest in low power energy harvesting is for independent sensor networks.[7] Most energy scavenging devices for wearable electronics generate very little power. radio communication equipment. In these applications an energy harvesting scheme puts power stored into a capacitor then boosted/regulated to a second storage capacitor or battery for the use in the microprocessor.[4] NiPS Laboratory at the University of Perugia.[6] Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona and USN & Renewable Energy Lab at the University of Ulsan (Ulsan. ARVENI. All of these devices must be sufficiently robust to endure long-term exposure to hostile environments and have a broad range of dynamic sensitivity to exploit the entire spectrum of wave motions. University of Bristol. or battery. Batteries leak less energy and are therefore used when the device needs to provide a steady flow of energy. In general. People have searched for ways to store the energy from heat and vibrations for many decades. including the Control and Power Group and Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group at Imperial College London. [edit] Accumulating energy Energy can also be harvested to power small autonomous sensors such as those developed using MEMS technology. Capacitors are used when the application needs to provide huge energy spikes. Several academic and commercial groups have been involved in the analysis and development of vibration-powered energy harvesting technology. typical values are a few µW/cm³ for human body powered applications and hundreds of µW/cm³ for generators powered from machinery. National University of Singapore. where energy harvesting devices can power or recharge cellphones.[8][verification needed] [edit] Storage of power In general. These systems are often very small and require little power. Future applications may include high power output devices (or arrays of such devices) deployed at remote locations to serve as reliable power stations for large systems. IMEC and the partnering Holst Centre. Southampton University. energy can be stored in a capacitor. MIT Boston. South Korea).[5] Columbia University. for motion powered devices. Scavenging energy from ambient vibrations. Another application is in wearable electronics. mobile computers. Typical power densities available from energy harvesting devices are highly dependent upon the specific application (affecting the generator's size) and the design itself of the harvesting generator. LLC. wind. heat or light could enable smart sensors to be functional indefinitely. [10] [edit] Motivation The history of energy harvesting dates back to the windmill and the waterwheel.[2] Nanyang Technological University.[3] PMG Perpetuum. Some systems convert motion. such as that of ocean waves. super capacitor. UC Berkeley. but their applications are limited by the reliance on battery power.• 6 External Links [edit] Operation Energy harvesting devices converting ambient energy into electrical energy have attracted much interest in both the military and commercial sectors. into electricity to be used by oceanographic monitoring sensors for autonomous operation.

These can be utilized to capture mW. which results in some induced emf on the coils. Some wristwatches are already powered by kinetic energy (called kinetic watches).networks and mobile devices without batteries. Micro wind turbine are used to harvest wind energy readily available in the environment in the form of kinetic energy to power the low power electronic devices such as wireless sensor nodes. When air flows across the blades of the turbine. and even the human body. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material. The concept is simply related to Faraday's Law. Typical performance is 100-200 μV/K per junction. This will result in a lift force generated which in turn rotate the blades. They are typically coupled with heat sinks to improve temperature gradient. The arm movement causes the magnet in the electromagnetic generator to move. as can the heel of a shoe.s of energy from industrial equipment. • • • • . This is known as the aerodynamic effect. Energy harvesting is also motivated by a desire to address the issue of climate change and global warming. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) consist of the junction of two dissimilar materials and the presence of a thermal gradient. Photovoltaics is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation (both indoors and outdoors) into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. [edit] Devices Energy harvesting system based on "APA" amplified piezoelectric actuator There are many small-scale energy sources that generally cannot be scaled up to industrial size: • Piezoelectric crystals or fibers generate a small voltage whenever they are mechanically deformed. Large voltage outputs are possible by connecting many junctions electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The motion provides a rate of change of flux. in this case movement of the arm. structures. a net pressure difference is developed between the wind speeds above and below the blades. Vibration from engines can stimulate piezoelectric materials.

One idea is to deliberately broadcast RF energy to power remote devices: This is now commonplace in passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems.• Special antennae can collect energy from stray radio waves theoretically even light (EM radiation).[citation needed] [11] or [edit] Ambient-radiation sources A possible source of energy comes from ubiquitous radio transmitters. Human motion.[12] Devices as this allow the generation of 2. . Historically. Electrons released on impact escape to the layer of TiO2 and from there diffuse. and acoustic noise are everyday examples. The dyes absorbs light much like chlorophyll does in plants. One current model is the biomechanical energy harvester of Max Donelan which straps around the knee. either a large collection area or close proximity to the radiating wireless energy source is needed to get useful power levels from this source. In recent years new PV technologies have come to the forefront in Energy Harvesting such as Dye Sensitized Solar Cells DSSC. This is enough to power some 5 cell phones. [edit] Photovoltaic harvesting Photovoltaic [PV] energy harvesting wireless technology offers significant advantages over wired or solely battery-powered sensor solutions: virtually inexhaustible sources of power with little or no adverse environmental effects. through the electrolyte. The nantenna is one proposed development which would overcome this limitation by making use of the abundant natural radiation (such as solar radiation). [edit] Biomechanical harvesting Biomechanical energy harvesters are also being created.5 watts of power per knee. Except in rare instances the piezoelectric effect operates in AC requiring time-varying inputs at mechanical resonance to be efficient. TV batteryless remote control from Arveni for Philips [edit] Piezoelectric energy harvesting The piezoelectric effect converts mechanical strain into electric current or voltage. but the Safety and US Federal Communications Commission (and equivalent bodies worldwide) limit the maximum power that can be transmitted this way to civilian use. At 200 lux DSSC can provide over 15 micro watts per cm2. as the dye can be tuned to the visible spectrum much higher power can be produced. This strain can come from many different sources. low-frequency seismic vibrations. Indoor PV harvesting solutions have to date been powered by specially tuned amorphous silicon (aSi)a technology most used in Solar Calculators.

and the proportionality constant is known . too small for system application. shoe impacts. DARPA has funded efforts to harness energy from leg and arm motion. As piezo energy harvesting has been investigated only since the late '90s. and recently. depending on the direction of the current. The Vibration Energy Scavenging Project[15] is another project that is set up to try to scavenge electrical energy from environmental vibrations and movements. There is a pyroelectric scavenging device that was recently introduced which doesn't require time-varying inputs. One proposal is that they are used for micro-scale devices. but enough for hand-held devices such as some commercially available self-winding wristwatches. stages of the novel pyroelectric heat engine can be cascaded in order to improve the Carnot efficiency. One key advantage of pyroelectrics over thermoelectrics is that many pyroelectric materials are stable up to 1200 C or more. In 1834. Moreover. It is analogous to the piezoelectric effect. The heat absorbed or produced is proportional to the current. Piezoelectric systems can convert motion from the human body into electrical power. Piezoelectric materials have the ability to transform mechanical strain energy into electrical charge. In 2006. Careful design is needed to minimise user discomfort. These energy harvesting sources by association have an impact on the body.[22] [edit] Thermoelectrics In 1821. In this device.[16]Finally. Other industrial applications appeared between 2000 and 2005. Nevertheless some interesting improvements were made with the selfpowered electronic switch at INSA school of engineering. this results in the diffusion of charge carriers. or to harvest energy from shock. and blood pressure for low level power to implantable or wearable sensors. such as in a device harvesting micro-hydraulic energy.Most piezoelectric electricity sources produce power on the order of milliwatts. The flow of charge carriers between the hot and cold regions in turn creates a voltage difference. the proof of concept of a battery-less wireless doorbell push button was created. implemented by the spin-off Arveni. a millimeter-scale piezoelectric energy harvester has also already been created. Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that a thermal gradient formed between two dissimilar conductors produces a voltage. it remains an emerging technology. pyroelectricity requires time-varying inputs and suffers from small power outputs in energy harvesting applications. enabling energy harvesting from high temperature sources and thus increasing thermodynamic efficiency. cause it to act as a heater or cooler. Piezo elements are being embedded in walkways[18][19][20] to recover the "people energy" of footsteps. Jean Charles Athanase Peltier discovered that running an electric current through the junction of two dissimilar conductors could. which is another type of ferroelectric behavior. The energy-harvesting device uses the edge-depolarizing electric field of a heated pyroelectric to convert heat energy into mechanical energy instead of drawing electric current off two plates attached to the crystal-faces. They can also be embedded in shoes[21] to recover "walking energy". a demonstrator showed that classical TV infra-red remote control can be powered by a piezo harvester. At the heart of the thermoelectric effect is the fact that a temperature gradient in a conducting material results in heat flow. Xudong Wang's microbelt can be used to gather electricity from respiration.[14] They can be integrated into clothing.[17] The use of piezoelectric materials to harvest power has already become popular. the flow of pressurized hydraulic fluid drives a reciprocating piston supported by three piezoelectric elements which convert the pressure fluctuations into an alternating current.[13] to harvest energy from vibration and supply sensors for example. [edit] Pyroelectric energy harvesting The pyroelectric effect converts a temperature change into electric current or voltage. The nanobrushes of Dr. Like piezoelectricity. Zhong Lin Wang are another example of a piezoelectric energy harvester.

2. and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. An example of a electrostatic energy harvester with embedded energy storage is the M2E Power Kinetic Battery. while on the other end of the the Peltier coefficient. the enzymes would still need to be replaced after a few years. implanted active RFID devices. 3. high electrical conductivity. Standard thermoelectric modules manufactured today consist of P. [30]. Today. and that can conduct electricity well without also conducting heat (something that was until recently thought impossible).).g. Future work in thermoelectrics could be to convert wasted heat. They could be used to power implanted electronic devices (e. Practical examples are the finger-heartratemeter by the Holst Centre and the thermogenerators by the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.[31] . into electricity. large thermocouples are used in nuclear RTG batteries. There is currently a company named Perpetuum that sells magnetostatic vibration energy harvesting devices at 50. The semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. [edit] Electrostatic (capacitive) energy harvesting This type of harvesting is based on the changing capacitance of vibration-dependent varactors. However. coolers and generators (TEGs). Heating and cooling can be reversed. [edit] Magnetostatic energy harvesting This type of energy harvesting is based on changes in magnetic flux through a coil of magnet wire as a magnet moves up and down near the coil on some type of spring or beam. there is the Regenerative shock absorber. implanted biosensors for diabetics.[23][24] Advantages to thermoelectrics: 1. [edit] Blood sugar energy harvesting Another way of energy harvesting is through the oxidation of blood sugars. pacemakers. Ideal thermoelectric materials have a high Seebeck coefficient. Vibrations separate the plates of an initially charged varactor (variable capacitor). thermoelectric materials can be used as heaters. such as in automobile engine combustion. Another example is CSIRO’s Flexible Integrated Energy Device (FIED)[26] Yet another example is the Tremont Electric nPower PEG. the Minteer Group of Saint Louis University has created enzymes that could be used to generate power from blood sugars. One downside to thermoelectric energy conversion is low efficiency (currently less than 10%).100 and 120 Hz frequencies. Thermoelectrics contain no materials that must be replenished. (magnetostatic energy havesting)[28]. Low thermal conductivity is necessary to maintain a high thermal gradient at the junction. Miniature thermocouples have been developed that convert body heat into electricity and generate 40μW at 3V with a 5 degree temperature gradient.60. The development of materials that are able to operate in higher temperature gradients. These energy harvesters are called Biofuel cells. No moving parts allow continuous operation for many years. will result in increased efficiency. At present.. Tellurex Corporation[25] (a thermoelectric production company) claims that thermoelectrics are capable of over 100.[27] Finally. and low thermal conductivity. The ceramic plates add rigidity and electrical insulation to the system. A second reference on magneto-static energy harvesting at high frequencies[29]. etc.000 hours of steady state operation.and N-doped bismuth-telluride semiconductors sandwiched between two metallized ceramic plates. due to knowledge of the Seebeck and Peltier effects.

Noise harvesting NiPS Laboratory in Italy has recently proposed to harvest wide spectrum low scale vibrations via a nonlinear dynamical mechanism that can improve harvester efficiency up to a factor 4 compared to traditional linear harvesters.[34] This article or section appears to contradict itself.[33] As of 2008. and high energy conversion efficiency. Voltree has developed a method for harvesting energy from trees. These energy harvesters are being used to power remote sensors and mesh networks as the basis for a long term deployment system to monitor forest fires and weather in the forest. Please see the talk page for more information. These polymers have a large strain.15 Ultra Wideband (UWB) List of energy resources List of energy topics Peltier Real Time Locating System (RTL) Rectenna Solar charger Thermogenerator Ubiquitous Sensor Network Unmanned aerial vehicles can be powered by energy harvesting Wireless energy transfer Thermoacoustic hot air engine . Nanogenerators. could provide a new way for powering devices without batteries. (September 2011) [edit] See also energy portal • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arveni microgenerators Automotive Thermoelectric Generators EnOcean Future energy development High altitude wind power IEEE 802. Their website says that the useful life of such a device should be limited only by the lifetime of the tree to which it is attached. it only generates some dozen nanowatts.[32] [edit] Future directions Electroactive polymers (EAPs) have been proposed for harvesting energy. They recently deployed a small test network in a US National Park forest. such as the one made by Georgia Tech. The total weight of systems based on EAPs is proposed to be significantly lower than those based on piezoelectric materials. elastic energy density. which is too low for any practical application.[edit] Tree metabolic energy harvesting Tree metabolic energy harvesting is a type of bio-energy harvesting.

Green.^ Knee-Mounted Device Generates Electricity While You Walk. NatuurWetenschap & Techniek January 2008 9. C. ^ Holst Centre Human++ Program 2.^ Zhong Lin Wang's nanobrushes 15.^ "Commuter-generated electricity" 21. S.^ The power within. ^ EnHANTs project at Columbia University 7. Ni-Cd battery chargers.idtechex. ^ ik.^ Fraunhofer Thermogenerator 1 24. 25 August 2007 . D. 12.^ "Japan: Producing Electricity from Train Station Ticket Gates" 19. Holmes" 8.^ [1] 29. ^ Pickin’ up good vibrations to produce green electricity 3.^ energy harvesting industrial realisations 14.^ VIBES Project 16.^ Millimter-scale piezoelectric energy harvester 18.^ Tellurex Corporation 26.^ "Energy Scavenging with Shoe-Mounted Piezoelectrics" 22.^ Electricity from the nose 17. New Scientist. ^ Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Research at NTU 4.^ CSIRO FIED 27. ^ Some Energy Harvesting Research @NUS 5. smoke alarms. M. by Bob Holmes.^ Inventor Joe Tate's Ambient Power Module converts radio frequencies to usable electrical power (albeit only milliwatts) sufficient to operate clocks.^ [2] 30.^ 15mW thermogenerator by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft 25.^ Tremont Electric nPower PEG 28. E.asp 11.^ "Pyroelectric Energy Scavenger" 23. Mitcheson. &c. batterij by Erick Vermeulen. Eliminating Batteries in Wireless Sensors T.^ [3] 31. ^ "Architectures for Vibration-Driven Micropower Generators.^ http://www. P. ^ Noise in Physical Systems Laboratory 6. ^ Energy Harvester Produces Power from Local Environment. By Chad Skelton.^ Powerleap tiles as piezoelectric energy harvesting machines 20. Yeatman. 7 Feb 2008 13. A.• Rechargeable battery [edit] References integrated solrgy[35] 1.

^ "Voltree's Website" 33.^ http://www.32.^ Georgia tech Nanogenerator 34.^ Noise harvesting .