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Aporias of Security Author(s): Anthony Burke Reviewed work(s): Source: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Jan.

-Mar. 2002), pp. 1-27 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/11/2011 00:29
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27 Alternatives (2002), 1-27

Burke* Anthony
whatwe are,butto is Maybethe [task]nowadays notto discover "doublewhat are.Wehaveto ... getridofthepolitical we refuse and individualization totalizabind,"whichis the simultaneous . tionof modernpowerstructures.. . The political, ethical,soto cial, philosophical problemof our daysis not to try liberate fromthe stateand fromthe state'sinstitutions, the individual the of the butto liberate bothfrom stateand from type indius which linkedto thestate. is vidualisation - MichelFoucault, "The Subjectand Power"

Whatdoes it mean to be secure?Should we even need to ask? is We we Surely know. knowthatsecurity one of the mostfundaof and mentalhumanneeds: an irrefutable guarantee safety welland order;of and possibility, economicassurance sociability being, is That security a unifearor hardship. without a lifelivedfreely citizens versalgood availableto all, and a solemnpledge between is and their leaders,to whomtheirpeople's security "the political and first theoverriding ofdomestic international policy goal duty," As pathbetween making. suchit has been able to tracea powerful a to subjectand world,stateand citizen, promisesimultaneously of life and insecurities everyday and to solution theinchoatefears the enormousspatial,cultural, economic,and geopoliticalcomone of moderIn remains ofgovernment. short, security plexities dreams. and moststubborn enduring nity's I However, believe that,more than ever,we do need to ask ¿5 whatsecuritywe whatitis to be secure.Surely no longerknow after end of the morethantenyears in thatPlatonicsense.Surely of Doctrine and thedestruction the after Clinton the theCold War, in disasters Indochina, humanitarian policy and after TwinTowers, and the East America, after Africa, Timor, MiddleEast,and Central has questioned and ofhumanist critical a growing scholarship body
of St. Scienceand International *SchoolofPolitical Studies, UniversityQueensland, E-mail: Lucia,QLD 4076,Australia.


as and of sowhichreachesfromthe mostprivate cial.we should focuson security a pervasive complexsystem political. makeit conform a new humanist ideal however laudable we need to challengesecurity as a claimto truth. and secondly.spaces. institutional forms thatimagine. [to] incitecriticalrein violencesand injuriessurreptitiously imsponsesto unnecessary lifebytheinsistence prevailing that forms natural. ways being.and economiccirculation ing forms power. no longer a wholeness. and cannotbe dismissed of hand.and flows direct. tologically completedand secureddoes presenta hurdleforthe kindof "ontopolitical" that really we need.they to is call us and theirexistencepresents important an William to words.2 critique The answer notto seekto closeout theseaporias. Instead..are suchclaimsalways ternational security pernicious. Nor. and conflicts geopolitics of and spaces of being to the vastflows economiccirculation. perhapsunthelogocentric of the realist discourses wittingly. are posed upon universal necessary. in certain not value but as a ways to see security as an essential Thisis to movefrom essenceto genealogy: gea political technology. political security's unity.2 AporiasSecurity of discursive and sestructure. namesa common ofneeds. and animatesweepsality Theyunderpin of force. is to see security an interlocking It as global of and system knowledges.also arguesthatifthepowerand sweepof are and its security to be understood challenged. and economicpower. "open us up to nealogy Connolly's the play of possibility the present.. Theyhave a valuablemoraland political forcethatundermines. implications. Whilethisarticle that has arguesstrongly security no essential it ontological integrity. set its "meaning" to aside.1 article This curity possesses credible begins from premise the thatsecurity's claimsto universality wholeand nessfounder a destructive on seriesofaporias."3 or rational. thataims. presuppositions Yeta commonassumption thatsecurity be oncan they question. claimsto univermustbe takenseriously. and act upon bodies. This articleexploresthe aporiasof security. subjectivity. thenbegins And thework itsgenealogy a genealogy security's of of and conceptual . from moralrelativism lies at the centerof the that dominant of that to (realist)discourses security pretend universalbut that"our"security rests the insecurity on and ity insist always of suffering an-other.means. the handsof some out humanist writerswhohavesought think to humanand gendersein to curity radicalcounterpoint realist imagesof nationaland in. Rather thanseekto resecure to to security. whichderive firstly from growing the sensethat no has security longer a stablereferent nor set or of object. practices.

and metaphor in the hope that struggle. arguedthat"national security insepeconomic success and social hararable frompoliticalstability.altered." 1995. itscrucialpointsofformaat discursive drama of tion. is to ask: Is theresomething beyondor "outside" its and be? Whatmight possibilities dangers curity? Two Kinds of Aporia In bothitsrealist and humanist takestheform and security guises.US President Clinton prefaced that"protecting se1997 NationalSecurity the Strategy saying by and of curity our nation our people. define thatmodernaccountsof security Walkerlikewise argues as "theconditions underwhich havebeen constructed subjects we subjectto subjection. thinking nal (and therefore optional) conditionof lifeand freedombut anotherwordforlifeand freedom. first duty. J. to the security gued of his country."8 .the order of knowledge lyingbeneath security's violence.Burke 3 Anthony rootsthataimsto uncover. notjust an exter.theEuropeanpolitical is the ultimate overriding and humanvalue.5 and international gional R."6 More critically. In Australian Labor leader Paul Keatingarmony. thisorderof knowledge can in turnbe challenged. of a metaphysical discourse:an overarching politicalgoal promise that and practice thatguarantees existence itself. the personal security individuals of the nationitself.thebasic consecurity is value for dition lifeand freedom: for "Security the paramount individuals . of and R." security of of linkstheunity and prosperity the nationto ideal systems reorder."7 B. life is my foremost mission constitutional and duty. curity goal along of and families withthe uum.and It serethought. self-conscious. our territory our wayof Dr." Mahathir has is of Mohamad. the simply the critical scholar MichaelDillonrecognizes samedrive: "Security as condition [es] thought a self-evident impress itself upon political forthevery existence life bothindividual social. continuum betweennationaland regional "resilience. rational. and ithas taken onlygreater urgency theturmoil In Indonesia'sdoctrinal thataccompanied retreat his from power. Malaysia. . makesthepossiBill of the bility theworldpossible. theorist N.4 Indonesia. Berkiarguesthat Indeed. Theytellus whowe a fundaIn was security mentalsocietaldiscourse duringtheentiretenureof the Soharto on in NewOrder." while his successorKim Beazley declared the and and central valuesas "security opportunity" elevated separty's a seamless continto an overarching thatlinked.former that"a primeminister's his is duty. technology.

thereremained coma monassumption security universal. to of structuraland ecologicalviolence. important laterbyWalker. thecritiques and Tickner. justice.and normative contradictory cal dispersal. Firstly. Walker. of as Thiscreates someseriousproblems a moreradicaland inclusive for languageof secuhowever itsdesirefor This was recognized rity. aporiais an event that a metaphysiconcept prevents cal discourse from its unity nota contradiction fulfilling promised . minesthe illusory of a bodypoliticthatwouldsubsumeall unity differences beneath common a of the imagination home. othershavebeen developedby of enormouspoliticalvalue and have implicitly contestedboth their ownand realist thatsecurity universal. J. was This assumptions occurred two in in arguments humansecurity for there ways. as whether the termitself can be stretched accommodatesuch reinterpretato tions.Inescapably.4 AporiasSecurity of to Even a positionadmirably antithetical thatof Berkiand in otherrealists. earlier Similarly B. Walker's (1988) OneWorld.SimonDalbyarguesthat security."11 as a concept. ManyWorlds arguedfor"a clearersenseofwhat itmeansto havesecurity all people rather for thanthenational sethatnow renderseveryone insecure. arguedin 1997that"demands broaderacwho for countsof security inducingepistemological Inrisk overload."12 the political Thushumanist of uncover aporiawithin an the critiques security An ofsecurity.. However. muchsocialas that activates call fordifference simultaneously a that underdistress. acceptsthat"theachievement security has always of been central thenormative to concerns international relations scholars. setout by AnnTickner her 1992book Gender as J. and thestillhegemonic claimsof realism. was a radicalshift the natureof the subjectto be protected in from highly the abstract of the nation-state the imto imaginary of mediate. of patriarchy and capitalism thesources[rather are thanthevulnerable objects] ofinsecurity is so different to call intoquestion ."9 R. in International of Relations. forceof such critiques claimto be a founding shattered realism's and comprehensive accountofsecurity." Her workseeksto realizea "truly comprehensivesecurity" adds the removal "genderrelations domithat of of nationand subordination" "theelimination physical. Whatwas revealedherewas not a universality a but field conflict.Secondly.corporealdistress the human. no longer deed. that is should not be quicklyeffaced. may be viable: "Thatthe politicalstructures modernity.a humanthat. its methscattering objects. putsinto questionthe utility the termin it of discourse after Cold War. 1988Walker.."10 Whatcurity increasingly evertheimportant differences between the Tickner.these differences Whilethecommonmetaphysical a assumption presents problem. aimsintoan often and antithetiods.

afterwe have givenup onlybecome humansor anything to or our humanity. however. expericonfined.they that. of the threshold to the pointof annihilating renperience beall indeterminate thedistinctive ofa prioridentity. an untotalizable problem the out its heartoftheconcept. of ness. and actionsremain ence. they help epistemological but of the mark merely failure concepts a newpotential not Aporias This and imaginetheim-possible. the greatergood of citizenship.. land: yettheaporeticstranger of the crossing threshold a foreign exthe but crossa giventhreshold" "affects very "does not simply or . This articleremainsfocused on the aporias that lie at the thanpushinginto the spaces thatlie berather heartof security. hope of of and downthe hegemony assumptions powerful politibreaking and economic and to cal concepts. cal and life-affirming potential is of discourses security concernwithhumanist Myparticular leavein place (and possibly critical their whatever value."14 the to open up and focuson aporias:they bring possibility. resolved at but of intotheunity theconcept. clearer. "interminable to to if "must remain one wants think. think createnewsocial."16 .Burke 5 Anthony and smoothed intothedialectic.openingout its closure. that be brought can over. worldsecurity little into the heartof modernpolitics:we can written contradictions else. This is to abjurea powerful approach our questionthe verycategoriesin whichour thinking.ethical..In and itsclaimto embody pose: or of threat security/insecurity the particular. emptying itsfulldisrupting trajectory. structures politicaland of outsidetheiroppressive relationships newpaths. accountof secuWhatis stillrequiredis a properly genealogical accountof callsa "constitutive whatWalker to ability provide rity's the political":as Walkersays. ontology security/ disthe whichforms basic conditionof the real formainstream in coursesof international powerfully place.namesand language."13 like Derrida seestheaporiaas something a stranger Asan event. is wherethecritito experience can ofgenealogy come intoplay."claimsabout common security. signs dering home withthe veryborderthatdelineateda legitimate ginning Thus it is important and assuredlineage. anyotherattachments. and policy remains conditionof humanexas broaderfunction a defining security's invisible unexamand life perienceand modernpolitical remains thatis able to critical ined. of feature the elite strategy a theyopstrengthen) keystructural of truth fixthecontours thereal.Derridawrites aporia being an an a expe"impasse." paththatcannotbe traveled. come or to let come anyeventofdecisionor responsibility.15 of The contours thisprojectare already becoming yond. do morethanfudgethe or collective security. us to think order in short. make rience"that.

its derives enormous cultural its Security powerfrom place at . aporia occursbecause This their to universality. beforewe can effectively security. policy making. realist structures secuof despite presumption havealways thatthesecurity theself(theindividual. to theimagination "progressive" and of forms of modern and economic as Foucault political subjectivity. which opened up as an impasse is within itsbasic conceptualstructure. In manity" a secureidentity by needs to be placed alongsidea rangeof otherecoshort. theutilitarian and Bentham. and forms statepower. our available imagesofpolitical. in whowrote hisSecurity Society. to trace the emergenceof throughthe idea of Walker is hints.6 AporiasSecurity of rewrite we Thus. Just sought. security and scientific develnomic. It is in thisconstitutive accountofthepolitical that findthe we secondaporiaofsecurity. philosophic. Berki.they always versus restof thehumanrace. Hegel. thisis a moralimpassethat Sadly. statecould purchaseits security the expense of at . he argued.This. also possessesa malignfunctionality. logical separation and to a certain are down. as he even expressed did so muchto entrench nationalsecurity theapex of modern at of Withtheadvent thenuclearage. it is mylife. security's tutive account thepolitical" of a of through reading Hobbes.its enablingrelationto a broaderculturaland thecenter a thought thecenter modern of of political thought after establishing founding first the of that. of rity argued thenation. the "way life")mustbe purchased theexpense or of at of another. of simultaneously totalizing individualizing I wouldarguethat a key at security occupies enabling position their The remainder thisarticle of elucidates "constijunction. somequalmsaboutsuchan imageofsecurity.and ecorelationships. myths modern political has further to think juridicalbasisand function the society. whenthechipsare down."17 the freedom. security my Ur-theorist realism of Hans Morgenthau. they thesame thing. Thiswasstarkly out bytheEuropeanpolitical laid theorist N. as constitutive events our modernity. . possibilities our degree.Locke. of opments one ofthecentral and it remains one ofitsessential underpinnings. surprisingly enough. . and social. nomicorder. either or existential . have to understand security written .howithas shaped how has us properly and limited very our the for our possibility.. technological. sought of the state. also to explore intriguingly theaporeticdistance thatmodernity establishes between our "huand boundedand defined thestate. and after "Seeking for for security oneselfand beinga cause of insecurity othersare notjust closely are with chanceof no related.usingFouphilosopher Jeremy cault'swritings governmental on reasonas a loose template.

by multaneously and "Government" Security Foucaulttracedthe emergence In his "Governmentality" lecture. enabled. .thatthe of UnitedStateswould have to "to devisea pattern relationships our of us will which permit to retain position [economic]disparity . whomsecurity imply sacrifice in theother. short. structured. policymakers the postof thisviewwhenhe arguedin 1995 lined the continuing power for notions"of self-determination East Timor that"sentimental national to werea threat Australia's and Bougainville (a security seon thatfortwodecades had been premised close relations curity Sohartoregime). 1948. a Yet ticofselfand other. first. during velopments: derives its whose from power partly Securityformsa politicaltechnology . herewe also encounter disturbing irony.. and its between A structure. raising the living standards. two Western ofsecurity within through linkeddethought political and thesixteenth seventeenth centuries. that olence and repression is so often do I am seriousin arguingthatthe aporiasof security create and its room to move. ability different name very have an almostuniversal arrangeappeal yet for of ments orderand possibility different groupsofpeople.Burke 7 Anthony secure. This It to and is why is pointless try stabilize it ontology. slipperiness security's power to its of its of its significations. We should to without positive cease to talkaboutvague and fortheFar East unrealobjectives and of the such as humanrights. diplomacy and of was thisinsight loston a generation latertheorists policy of the wouldinevitably for disrupt claim to universality important dialecthat to imagine newpossibilities escape itsrepressive truth.generalized society opposition aporetic of fearto construct othershas workedas an effective technology of whileillusions and ethnicidentity. is betsecurity's and discursive tactical to track ter powerthoughitsdesecurity's accountof thepolitical one thatis sias a constitutive velopment and fissured itsaporias. RichardWoolcott. ConsiderGeorgeKennan'sargument."19 of Australia's underof Vietnamera. of and police forms national for as worked a smokescreen havesimultaneously universal security of the that a realpolitik purchases security the selfat the expense lies in thevery In of theother.20 withthe murderous and military cooperation the an This highlights urgentneed to interrogate imagesof self and and otherthatanimate(in)secureidentities. démostsenior and influential One mocratisation. ironicstructure meaning. detriment our nationalsecurity. to expose thevireliedon to police them.18 must seekto makeall nationsequally However.

ernment a "complex menand things" wouldincorporate of of that intoa setof economicrelations." involved seriesofshifts. on his and Foucaulthighlighted keyfeatures Machiavelli's two of study." the taskof the to and ing artof government to establish was themwithin continuum a that worked"in both an upwardsand a downwards direction.which"transmits individual ofthefamily sameprinciples thegood government the as running ofthestate. "subjects hisrule. butwiththislastunderstood to mean the objective not ensemble of itssubjects and territory. rather thantheuncertain relation betweenthe princeand his realm. forms knowledge whichsoughtspecific of of whoseobjectwasthestateitself. The first was thatits centralproblematic.The upwas to wardline meantthe applicationof principles self-government of and familial to the conductof the state'saffairs. sovereignty preservation.and in a disputed length area. of and "scistatistics."22 geographical An analogous development the extensionof the idea of was and itsintroduction a generalpolitical into "economy" practice theinvention "political of as we nowunderstand This it." The downward to behaviour and the line."21 The artof government of impliedboth the "government" individuals and social institutions the designation newtechand of of wouldemerge within problem the niquesand objects powerthat of "governing stateas a whole. territory.8 AporiasSecurity of of theadministrative governmental and of apparatuses theterritorial monarchies.and second. rather Prince'srelation but the with whathe owns. mercantilism. from a first as for economy a principle the ofthefamily one forthegeneral to of government organization soand thenofsovereignty a ruleoverterritory thegovfrom to ciety. theCameralists' ence ofpolice". a "purely synthetic thuseternally vulnerableto both externalenemies and fragile. from from who haveno a priori reasonto accept within. economy.thisimpliedthattheobjective theexerciseof of and the powerwas "to reinforce. strengthen protect principality. subjects." Betweenthese realmswas the the forms governof posed an essential continuity: morediscrete werestill"internal thestateor society."and prince."Second.23 ." at thistimebeginning be calledpolice.Reason state of implieda ratioof government could ensurethatthe state"must that hold nality out foran indefinite of historical time. Thus an important new territory ofpolitics object emerged: population. we government can also locateitin theemergence whatFoucaultelsewhere of discussedas reason state. what calledan "anti-Machiavellian of he literature" sought formulate "artofgovernment" that to an against that narrower focus theprince. link betweenthe the his and was one.

"24 manage of out he Political economy. increasthe from eighteenth on. defense. ." disciof is Whatforms a triangle rationalities linking sovereignty."25 technical and omy. and thatpopulationhad analogouseconomiceffects The was and its customs. as itsessential here not Colin Gordon argues thatFoucault treatssecurity as objectof politicalpowerbut "as a specific merely a self-evident alikefrom those distinct and practice. health. TheSocialContract."26 in as Hobbes and Locke established security a keysignifier the of myth the emergenceof the modernstateform(the commonindiswealth)fromthe stateof nature. calculations has of which as itstarform power." with camenewobjects medicine. and fulensemble"formed theinstitutions. Foucault. wouldargue. century "tends security. to in of ulatedin theterms Rousseau'sattempt. linking is and law. welfare. allowsroomboth of which divine"a generalprinciple government and of for juridical a through principle sovereignty fortheelements can whichan art of government be definedand characterised. activities. as a fundamental to recast "an element as in instrument itsgovernment. of method principle political modesof and and oflaw.the of linkeddevelopment the human sciencesand the social techof disciplinethatenabled a more detailedand flexible nologies or moreimportant was of "Discipline never production subjectivity: to whenit becomeimportant morevalorized thanat the moment a population. and wealth. albeitcomplex this very specific form knowledge of as politicaleconget population." can see here the convergence We with the phenomenon Foucault has elsewheredescribed.a poweris governmentality which together pline. analyses by procedures. . of and territory wealth"and out of the development new techI that.and thusmakessecurity These and of pensableto modernpractices liberalism sovereignty."arises oftheperception new between relations and networks continuous multiple of population. allowthe exerciseof that and tactics the reflections. itsprincipal of meansapparatuses security. family thus through movements. of to component moderngovernmeningly becomethedominant or not we talrationality: livetoday so muchin a Rechtsstaatdiscipliof as nary society in a society security.becomebythe twentiniquesof intervention the a eth century fieldencompassing whole taskof government: commueconomics. immigration.Burke 9 Anthony thatpopulationhad itsownmeasurStatistics discovered now of that it able "regularities.and government. capable ofvarious diand practices within withtheseotherprinciples combination for He versegovernmental configurations." goes on to arguethat.Sovereignty thenrearticscience. labor. and internal population. said.sovereignty discipline.

which and thusnotwhole authors their of ownor thesovereign's actions. that be tion useofthecommodities may imported sea..continuali of Andthelife man. but of and fulcrum our can see security's function the threshold at enablesnot thebirth theArtificial of Man.In parand in so doingachieveda morepowerful limits thecitizenas a form for laid out the discursive ticular. short. Building no Knowledge no account Time. moretheatrical. whichare not onlyto provide meansof protection Here we to individuals to enablea newkindofsociety flourish." and subjectbut theirabsolute nerable link betweensovereign of fusionand identity. Navigacertain." sovereignty exthis countered problem of work Hobbesand Lockehad already a actlyin the termsposed by Rousseau (of reconciling juridical of model of sovereignty the newrationalities "government") with of fusion both.second. and brutish. Hobbes's accountis particularly revealing of he arguesthatin thecondition warthatis thestateofnature is becausethefruit thereof unthere no placefor is Industry..10 AporiasSecurity of of relation governmentality feedintothattriangular wouldin turn of thestateas a regime of thataimedforthegeneralgovernment of If the problematization prosperity.27 nor by no of no .Leviathan. anddanger violent of death. Arts. Letters. Society. of a the Thispassageis highly important. .In this metaphor no vullem of Machiavelli's princeresolved: longera "synthetic. both WhileHobbes's accountis considerably its thinkers found modern politicalsocietyon the same myth: the from stateofnaturethrough exchangeoffreethe emergence when dom forsecurity. they ofsubjectivity bound it to thestateas an essential and figure.Foucaultemphasized intense the of the within emergence an "artof government. a chilling in of prophecy Hegel's merging thesubject with unity theOne. poor. no of no and consequently Culture theEarth. unreason. modernity: of the of forms governmental merely development moreefficient in reasonbut new industrial and cultural possibilities whichthe civilizationofthemodernitself idea ofa greatand progressive ofthebodypolitic theprobwas can the division security cannotbe the in Foolesand Mad-men" "Children. pression as an essential rulereasonand inrealmofconflict wherepassions betweenreasonand is perpetual. providing linkfrom myth and objectives of the stateof natureto the fundamental promise for a thestate.. the of and this Already imageoftheOne reposedon therejection rein of theother:first theidea of thestateof natureitself. .. is of and no feare. solitary. which worst all.

modernity) in Labour Here Locke made a far-reaching formulation. yet a formulated relation had already police science (or Cameralism) and between powerthathad as itsobjectotalizing individualizing FoucaultseesAdamSmith'sTheWealth tivea generalprosperity.28 we as the can see. no less necessary.thatitsorigin by through out state nain hisownperson"(which brought ofthe is of "property of ture the"Labour hisbody")and thatthepreservation of through the "chiefend" of "men'sunitinginto Comwas itself Property Thus and monwealths. ostensibly. cannotitself government. then. from reasonof statein a hand"marked shift Smith's "invisible in intervention conon to thatitsought place limits governmental trast an earlieremphasison its expansion. and third."29 politico-epistemic open and unstable complicated. to the established thelaw. idea of subjectivity realizationupon whatLocke also achieved whichHegel wouldbase a philosophy. in Fromhere condition subjectivity work. surethe courseof naturaland necessary . for wasa newontological . the division(so important a between colonialand postcolonial savageand civilized. but "notto impedethe courseof things. thepublicgood.and modernity an inexorable historical as proeconomy political gression becamethinkable." was thustheprimeobjectof security. and finally. of nothe out as Nations thenmarking thepointat which Cameralists' tion of an equivalencebetweenstate and economywas placed that becomesa knowledge is "lateral Political understress. reasonwithin newly a is and its "effect to resituate governmental configuration. writes for Foucault. economy constitute but to" the artof governing. which conforms reasonand embodies by to in willof the people.This in turnfedintoa was chainof reasoning whicha claimto property onlysecured by wasin a man's land's exploitation labor. artofgovernment. to enwas an injunction to modes of regulation. Laissez-faire. in embryo. politlinkages While ical economy weremoreproblematic. which as the formed ontological basisof property theproductive (which in on use of land) pivoted an imageofwasteand impoverishment to "theIndian's"failure exploittheearth.and conceivedthe to as economy an autonomousrealmwithitsownlawsthatworked.Burke 11 Anthony in between criminal society. thedivision strictly subjects. and the Future Bentham: Security could be said to stradBentham's of CivilCode Principles the Jeremy of a wherethecentrality within context dle thishistorical moment. in raisond'étatwas giving wayto a formof liberalism whichthe and the between reasonofstate.

Bentham began Principlesof theCivil Code by asserting that the principal object of the legislator ought to be the "happiness of the body politic. when prohibited by the laws.31 In a prophetic convergence of Enlightenment thought with economic liberalism. receive the character of crimes. claustrophobic formula lay the basis of a whole system of order. may be regarded for a moment only. Furthermore." This happiness consists of four objects subsistence. military intervention. and a form of "regulation of natural regulation" that takes as its focus infrastructure.of which security was the most imdance. The sensibility the individual is prolonged throughall of the links of this chain. Securityis thereforethe principal object." Eithersecurity crime: or within this brief. Bentham argued that security protects Man's expectation the future: through expectation of we are enabled to forma general plan of conduct. contained them. the subis security the only one which necessarilyembraces future: sistence.withrespect to all the benefitsto which it is applied. portant. . labor and foreign-investment law. Expectation is a chain which unites our present and our future existence. Nor should we forget that Western governments. government now took on a temporal dimension: the future was now a thinkable space in political discourse. most notably that of the United States. and a general progressive movement could be imagined as an essential condition of human society.but security implies extension in point of time.12 AporiasofSecurity make regulations which permit natural regulation to operate. . and designated acts and persons dangerous to them: "Actions hurtful to security. abunand security. cost structures. Security guaranteed all the others. ."30 In twentieth-century foreign economic policy. and passes beyond ourselves to the generationswhich follow us. Bentham made the crucial and far-reaching argument that. we can then see the combination of two modes: a kind of soft mercantilism wherein governments use aid programs and diplomacy to promote trade and contracts for the corporations domiciled within their state. and sponsored coups in order to improve the business climate in many states. Bentham's Civil Code appeared in the space Smith carved out. and trade regimes that have a more general effect on business activity and profits. equality. equality. entrenching security as a fundamental societal objective within the openness and uncertainty of this new political configuration. abundance. as a guarantee of all the objects of government. have used diplomatic pressure.32 .

always increasing always This in turneffected new modes of government thatlinked with with discipline individualizing totalizing population." apparatus lawwith the of "thegentleliberty choice".he argued. Benthamsaid. wereto be Subjects subservient theexerciseof sovereign to but werealso power. thesovereign. the"incompatibility between non-totalisable the which multiplicity characterises ofinterest. ofsecurity. discipline. "dissonance This said a of rationalities" between juridicalform government the of implied by and and of sovereignty the morediffuse accidentalreconciliation in individual and societalinterests liberalism. of as and ing the construction subjectivity interest desirewiththe in increase prosperity modern that economics callsgrowth: general Theactive desire adding ourhappiness. thetotalizing and ofthejusubjects unity ridicalsovereign. a rhetoric which. power a powerthat. agents after raised first ofcorn. of he whenanimated hope. ."34 labor. said. under safeof to the will."36 engendered drive This a rationality . newefforts newacafter guard incessantly produce Wants enjoyments.Liberalism as an artofgovernment whenitcould formulate began.Benthamconof trasted "thedoleful motive punishment" the"gentle of with motive ofreward.33 granaries abundance. security guarin as also forming antees "political of of liberty" against"theinjustice the members thegovernment. Thus. also distanced it themfrom it. also nowas an indispensable but elementofgovernmental itself. they assumedto be freeand autonomous economicactors.Elsewhere." economicform liberalindividualism of generatedwhatFoucaulthas called "thesubject interest" introof and duced a contradiction governmental into reason:whileit made individuals moreaccessibleto power. seemingly als as subjectsof theirown desirewhileintegrating theminto a much broader system regulation." introduced. morefully thisuncertain he argued. and those quisitions.Burke 13 Anthony Aboveall.recognizing that thatno sovereignty fully can comprehend the totality the economyor regulateeveryact thatmay of have an economiceffect must seek do so. without could produceindividucoercion. of is not "liberty registered onlyas a right individuals legitimately to oppose . grasp "so easyand so light by This "uncoerced."35 This generated politicalproblem: discover form gova to a of ernment .as expectation future an economic the linkwas principle. bydegrees the ears will the erect having of and full. universal insociety. Foucault. . It was at the apstill to of thisproblem thatFoucaultsitedthejunctionof secupearance and population a mixof rationalities might that rity.

war. and as declared.It seemsno accident its and at of that bothBentham Smith wrote theheight theEuropean of within whichthediscursive imagination thetwenimperialisms. that secureand rigidimagesoffearand otherness simultaneously domestic space of liberalism In the had engenof dered a prophetic paranoia: the themeof a new productivity reachesinto the heartof the politicalpowerthatsimultaneously citizenand multiplies ownspatialreach. mustadd geopolitics the formof powerthat combinedtheserationalities thevastlustsof modernimperiwith had alism. in To to populations. . the other economy. powerfully spatial.Notthe fascist of the 1930s.we could thus withstanding imperialisms as of characterize geopolitics a liberalphilosophy globalintervenissues economic of which links tion. hence. ify theinterrelation political of and nationalism. vigilance: Bentham in enemies. tiethcentury global trade. The Strategic Imagination In describing productivity.whichhas been security puts from relation a stateand citizen to central itsextension to between a principle theactionsof thebodypoliticin theinternational for This arena.38 we as these. . The technology intoactionhere. a perpetualfeedbackand combination. imaginationis primarily butnotexclusively becoming so.14 AporiasSecurity of forflexibility. Foucaultemphasizedthe simultathis and of neous individualization totalization governmental power addressed and to biopower discipline desireaddressed individuals.through interdepenpetually dangerous and dentproduction domestic transnational of political space."37 short."Econmobility.I havechosento call the strategic defendit againsthis constantly reviving saries. of becomecentral security a vector to as and rationality power.and technological progress wasborn. poweralways aclegislator.geopolitics. geopolitics becomethe of security excellence a spatializing of rationality practice par and thatsoughtthe controlof territories populations(as power a botheconomicresources and strategic possessions)within perthe and contested arena. . "requires the omyhas ." and. increasingly global management acrossthewholeof government. global influence As becomesconceivable. many in and sustained.however. and and theraising armies of with icy. vigilance continually crowdof advertion.39 themid-twentieth By century. withdomestic policyformations a The domestic international and becomefusedspacesthrough seriesofinterlinked ofdomestic foreign and economic polprocesses: transnational business trade.

or or or recalsafe. developeda formal thatwould attempt reconcileliberalpoliticaleconomy to witha In we strong imageof the nation-state. of politicalenand The strategic lightenment. and itscultivation exploitation industry. economy. socialinstitutions. theessential In he modelfordiscourses thought. culturaland economicprogress.aboveall. a political sense. In thePhenomenology the ofSpirit. is intoa preexisting imagination notso muchan entry space as the ofa newone bya detailedpolitical that production technology seeks to makeitmeaningful itorders as and partitions intothevehicle. political.whatis ourcapacity actionwithin geopolitical psychic for its and contours? as Hegel: Security Realization The work Hegel.whichcreatesexciting new possibilities and horizons. it also engendersuncertainty loss: havingsunYet and dered its foundations and "the immediacy faith"and having of . and commerce. particular.itsspace is never ticand unchanging. Hegel liftedliberal ideas of freedomand rightinto a universalism powerfully that illuminates ontologithe philosophical cal structure modernnationalisms. of refined suchliberalismbydeveloping philosophy self-consciously a that understood the future an entry theradically temporal as into new spaceofthemodern. thistransition. strategic the thusseeksto engender imagination and usefularrangements bodies. arena of an industrial. ofwar.Burke 15 Anthony linkedwithtemporal discourses racialsuperiority. productive citrant? Whatare itsflows and boundaries? And. thissense. work His in Enintervened. forms subjectivity of the of they and role for (and negative) oftheother their engender. and by agriculture. of its Through itsdefensebyactsand means appropriation through sovereignty. can see the double-bind" theinterplay totalizing individualizof and "political . Thus itsrepresentation is crucial:is thisspace threatening or familiar alien.takeon a powerful form one linking future-dinew a ingpower rected modeofself-belief conduct and with nationalist and grander in civilizational narratives a mutually reinforcing exchange. itself a history: but has in technology changes introduce and permeability.closein timeto Bentham's. it and and cultural effect.masculine feminine. themapping and traversing thisspace thepointwhere rationalism theliberal and of colightenment problem government incide. changesin itsextent changesin political doctrinechange itsmeaningand in turnaffect onlythe not economic and socialpossibilities individuals their of inbut psychic teriors. modern appearsas a constant breakwiththe past.comof economically politically and In stamunities.

the for intoa principle citizenship. the that lematic Smith of and Bentham. ofan irruption.It was again security. thewakeofthe haveonly consider to George of attacks NewYorkand Washington September 2001." task life. secure and Bentham formed a man and economic . ofitsreconciliation being. disavowed) powapproach We and erfulin dominant approachesto strategy policymaking. overarching bodypolitic. wouldprovide framework and It forthisdifficult calibration.16 AporiasSecu of rity that of and the gone "beyond satisfaction security thecertainty conthe with essential sciousness thenhad. not our "this willdefine times. and cognition.42 Costas to via the correctmethod. would be in the harnessing wouldcoincide: and that of uncertainty security spirit management spirit security manageschangeand peers into the cloudyfuture. and itis a desirestill to theVietnam War.itprovided central. This our and certitude.that on 11."Philosophy's thenwas to rehad "lostitsessential spirit cover "through agencythatlost sense of solid and essential its thatHegel soughtto limitthisprobHabermassuggests being. .Bush'sassertion. as the jectionofuncertainty discourse's of whoseimagination thefuture In themidst a modernity of parathe and unpredictability. bysynchronising of as the foundation both a dangerous modernity contemporary minds)feel by empiricism whichpolicymakers(stablecognitive and with verifiable accesa can thatpolicy be made to correspond of and to be thefoundation a continual sibleexternal proreality of owncondition possibility. retaining vision stability orderinwhich and "rational" but not takestheform. of the and strengthen resolve the its strives illuminate promise to to present moveon. a space of darkness doxically opens up and as a formal procedural Cartesian modelhashad a potent appeal in McNamara's(now visible Robert Thiswasparticularly solution. ariesof the subject'sownexistence As truths."41 ofdisruption theaid ofteleological with to liberalism conservatism. in W. a measured the refracted through liberalprobdesign. security."43 enters safety. closeoff future a source of constructions history."40 as the "to the lemthrough idea ofprogress. in visible earlier of Hegel heredevelopeda thematic certitude Cartesian to thathas becomecentral modernstatecraft. be defined them. with As ifto reconcile Hegel sought whilecontrolof the liberate restless energies modernsubjectivity of and a progress lingthem. stableand universal works as "securitization a discursive Constantinou practice argues. Locke. Descartes than less thought posits a worldthatis stablepriorto itscognition it to as one thatbegins disordered: obtaintruth wasfirst necessary to postulateabsolutedoubt and uncertainty beyondthe boundthento move."44 by country for was as Just subjectivity a keyachievement Hobbes.

. and Bentham. society by allowing thediffusion nodesand mechanisms powerconceived the "artof of of by to seizesubjectivityitsvery at center. shouldwe be surprised PierreClastres that was drivento say that the "spirituality ethnocideis the ethic of of humanism. present their introducing thatwouldconstitute itself subjectivity and mergeitwiththe restin lesslaboroftheage.. fully This racismis starkly clear in the Lectures the on Philosophy of in which Hegel sought to show the progressof spirit History." sought through in itseffacement the greater of of identity the One.a backward in Hobbes.47 with to In thefaceof this.46 of the "wantof Hegel spoke and in submissiveness. Unsurprisingly. to secueconomicprosperity. potentially by in division immanent liberalism between state and civil dangerous . In thisway. coalesce.washerecontrolled a system for that."49 in At . In Hegel intensified thelogocentric closureof thesystem in visible Hobbes and Locke." "inferiorityall respects" spirit...Burke 17 Anthony for He the principle Hegel's thought. comprehend there nothing is harmonious humanitybe found."48 This "progressive" ethnocentrism turnprovided apologia in an forimperialism. government. landswhichare deficient thegoods it has overproduced. Locke. world this forward movethrough history. a centralorganizing and racismpowerrity. In particular. and the of forprosperity. replayed levelsofsubjectivity in them intoa temporal movement work. Membership thestatewas not optional rather fullethicaldevelopment the of the individual on itsabsolutepsychological immersion depended in the "universal life"of the state.and negation . to pushbeyonditsownlimits and seek markets in other . practical mentofspirit which of wasat themostadvancedstages (in Europe worldhistory America and "theland of thefuture") turned the on of to muchas it did other. declared. must asideall thought reverence morality We of and lay all that call feeling ifwewouldrightly we him. The he exhibits natural the manin hiscompletely and untamed wild state. opposition ." African.45 thisway. forprogress general. thePhilosophy this of Right culmination subjectivity made hostageto itsimmersion the of in was The greateridentity represented the nation-state. He clarified intensified necessity theotherforsecurity. was natHegel arguedthatimperialism an entirely uralresolution "theinnerdialectic civilsociety of of drives [which] it . and in it incorporating intoa restricted in which other always the was subsumed wholly economy a of within return the higherunity the same." "crouching ofthe "native Americans.

In heressay Politic. Mostsignifiof theeconomy actionthatdominates making. thePhilosophyRight the of . classes.rather. the criminal. and. sense. . Genderis a crucialelementof this"geopolitical" analyzed its liberalism. cal economy of the nation-state and management for principle theproduction an within the directed policiesofstates to one thatsimultaneously themodThe ¿nter-national gap system."50 the the children. working women. of modernarchitectonic security. in from bodypoliticin earlieraccounts.then. arguing image a man"who byestablishing commasculineideal. ontodrewtheir and modesof imperialism geopolitics underlying accountof the political from constitutive the logicalframeworks particular. who havehistorically bearson boththesubjects This problem directedstateactions(mostoftenmen) and the kindsof actions and deemed legitimate effective (those thathave tendedto conA and drive certitude sameness).18 Aporias ofSecu rity and betweenthe artof government politithispointthe relation a made theleap from and security came intoitsown. slaves. foreigners.In a similar to that relevance way Hegel is ofparticular and the savagehad to be excluded whichthe mad. an important and Gender Security has It wouldbe fairto conclude.nowbecamepossible. Whether "realist" "liberal" forms.thata securemodernity itand characterized constituted various selfbeen fundamentally by these in or modesofimperialism. imagesof selfand other.thatthisbodypolitic difbut the same" because this "anything accommodating ficulty difto a is imageofsameness securedthrough refusal acknowledge is difference producedas otherness as ference such. spatial security's affecting of and economicorganization bodiesand work." in/andtheBody Representation "Corporeal as MoiraGatenschallengesHobbes's accountof the Leviathan a thatit is an implicitly of thepolitical neutral body. puts power in here. historic had been bridged.the "artificial but from necessary difficult the himself "frees monwealth dealings in She argues. . crucial for form a "masculine" to that and the"private" has the between "public" hereis that division and thathelps organize been centralto so muchliberalthought modesof and between individualizing totalizing the theinterplay thatsecurity intoaction. through the kinds of theexclusion "different ofbeingsfrom pact. conquered." way has I to in which havesought arguehere. policy it has also been a repressedorganizing principleforthe cantly. a similar to that with bothwomenand nature.

Writers vancesofwomenintopubliclife.Burke 19 Anthony evena "European"state)to (within Hegel denied fullsubjectivity Thisreproduces gendered a division of one-half thepopulation. and through relation various of the international masculinity policy. thebody realms values subjective passion. . disruptive. speaksfrom she can say. hersubstantive destiny thefamily. ontology bothformale bodies and male modesof "male" preserved tially adthe whileacknowledging partial suchas Gatens. . still in the the moments publiclife.51 of tobe imbued family isherethical with piety schemaof realizaa dialectical for Thus he preserves. between action)based on thedichotomy that a Thisgenerates chainofanalogousoppositions alignmaleness and and with with truth.she stilllives from bodyofanother. . . liberal and whoseculminating be and struggle. woman reason.If she livesbythisreasonand thisethic. being. fully whichwould in turnbe crucialfor betweenpublic and private. themind. subjectivity. always essenwill of labor. his to he fights way self-subsistent with unity himself.production. passivity. . of modernpractices security: in and substantial in thestate. state. learning. By then aligningthesewithtwo othercrucial dichotomies beand and tween savageand civilized. frame mind. well inactual as as that out himself that isonly ofhisdiremption so it world with and . of and on tionthat reposes thenegation supersession theother. and and truth. an imageof "hegeis Tickner by arguesthatstatecraft dominated its to that monicmasculinity" is "sustained through opposition varsuch as homosexuand ious subordinated devaluedmasculinities In to devaluedfeminities. and as constructed perpetually backward. thecommonwealth thestateof life movenature thischainofoppositions gives to theprogressive of to mentof being central a post-Enlightenment politics security." . life Manhashisactual and with labor struggle theexternal so forth. in and has on theother hand. objective activity. characteristics hegemonic of whosesuccessas interonto thebehaviour states "areprojected and in of actors measured terms their is national powercapabilities and for capacity self-help autonomy.."52 the conto havedirectrelevance the international These insights has arguedthatthereis a perniof states. threatening. Christine duct Sylvester international while of cious "normativitysex"structuring relations.stillargue thatthe bodypolitic remainsdominatedby masculinelanguagesand modes of exisin thisbody. is limited what she tence:"Ifwoman. its ality ."53 of of is achieves a wholeseries exclusions Whatthis (and norms masculine and feminine. Woman.

goal. of political. figure mindand bodyhas underpinned method thedivision and between liberal order:itsobsession with of characteristics themodern many and equilibrium). idealsexistin a relation us ridareminds thatall suchmetaphysical or termthey claimto supersede of dependenceto a subordinated to abis no different."can neverescape it: it mustconin of tinueto produceimages "insecurity" orderto retain meaning.Lloydalso drawsout the linksbetweenCartesianmethod Malewith of and Hegel'sassociation maleattainments universality.54 accountof whosephilosophical A pivotal hereis Descartes.Security the signifier an and cultural ideal political.Hegemonic geopolitical based the universalizing liberal mode of economic subjectivity of and aroundthesubjugation.often at (at rity . that activatesthe exinto a political technology Deployed has and this the changebetween "individual" the "total.20 Aporias Security of and In the liberalchain thatlinkssubjectivity. thelevelof theindividual. security everexists relation "insecuonly thatinto it thusoperatesaccording the Hegelianeconomy rity": movement poses that into thisdichotomy a "dialectical" corporates whichbecomesan the second termas the anathemaof the first. whichone aspiresin a movement ideal state. based and economicprogress theories technological. geopolitical . one fortheconduct of the statein managingsubjectpopulationsand constructing has masculinity also been crucialto space. toward or away of thenbecomesa powerful from second. in and of theparticipation individuals society. sizes how the separationof mind and bodywas essentialto his of that visionofa "unitary purethought" securedthefoundations it fromthe rest modern science. principle on genderis simultaneously politics. geofor a a work theself. certitude and epistemological (stability political in and of thevision nature economics. Security in to soluteself-presence. exploitation nature with of theimplicit exclusion otherpossiblemodesof economiclife. forms powerAt in fulmechanism subjectivity whichimagesof fearand insecuof all or level either personal. control. a societal. of on themanipulation control nature. order. economy. opposed to "others" breaksdown or Yet as inferior threatening. it dentrelation with"insecurity. from attribute achieved breaking nessbecomesa technical away by and thusanalogousto modern thenatureassociated with woman." economy it a twopotent effects.yet simultaneously separated of life. Whilebetraying pretensions expel. economic. itspromise designated is because "security" bound intoa depenwhenwe considerthat.55 and and aboutthestructure opThisopensup significant questions disavow Derhowever muchthey eration security a concept: of as it. thecontrol implicit modern Geneviève of and production international Lloydemphaspace.

might themintothevastspacesand flows geopolitics.nineteenth-century and movements colonization theCold Warbattles of to overtheThirdWorld and the turn-of-the-millennium to manageand accelerate efforts suchintegrated of globalization. and As once) can be used to manipulate MichaelDillonsuggests. this sense. characteristics are often that attributed women. safety.As Ticknernotes. askhowan orderof fearforms people. provoking feelings allegiance."nonwhites industrializing countries often are emotional and unstable. and submission: the activating exchangebetweenpublicand pritendto feminize citizenry the whilereserving masfull vate.The arguof mentthatwomenare unsuitableforcombathas servedboth to the legitimate exclusionof womenfrom public lifeand to make men'sparticipation warthevehicleofa more"total" in enactment ofsubjectivity. is "a recognised ment that bearer military strength of political takeon meaning. Abraham. images raceand genderhavebeen central theconstruction an architectonic to of modeofsecurity and order one that.Burke 21 Anthony individuals populations. this of In integrate . analogous thetaming woman and nature. modernmenithas of for too often been lifein battle.they in culineparticipation thedefense thestateformen.. the of through operations thestrategic imaginareachsimultaneously thedepths thesubject into of and tion. depictedas irrational. also as deinsecurity works a metaphor boththe inherent natureof theinternational and scribing system an ideal mode of stateaction.57 Atthelevelofthetotal. jective such a Cartesian does a statemechanism. "Don'taskwhata people is ."59 to in becomes to of Order. they ofbotha male economy action(too often effects of miliordering and and masculine (the tary repressive) to theultimate metasubject and tropical state). often unstable threatThusfeminized demonized.Fromthe eighteenth.. For it beingthatone can makethe appropriate wasthe"corporeal sacrifice" hisforeskin. ethnocentrism coalesceto generate modernpoliticothe founding economicthematic order one thatimagines of certain economic modes(indigenous agriculture-based) forms identification or and of and and also and (substate local) as backward.Thus we have the realistassertion thattheinternational is anarchic thattheoband system essentially of states shouldbe to order usingforceas a fundamental it.58 fact." an Enlightenment and a hegemonicmasculinity."56 a Such imagesportray stateas the and of patriarchal protective. Carr's. progressivism. MoiraGatens believes thatthisderives from conthe dition(datingfrom Greeksor even "theoriginal the covenant between God and Abraham") fulladmission thepolitical for to body forfeit. onlywithin metaphysic likeE. thisdiscourse In in a values. H. and are madesubject the to ening.

discursive terrains dissent ofa suddenappearwhere of of all forces domination seemedinvincible.. subjection. security appearsas whatit has too often machine. the largerstructures being. they and thatin turn contribute collective to efforts transform to them. Bydoing so. whilechallenging waytheseinstitutions the deploy intotheir consensual web.he We "fragmentation. to takeup Foucault's of It is challenge." must."62 previously tactics thatcan work many at Pushing beyond security requires levels that individuals recognize larger to the social. can critique machinic the frameWe of works possibility economic represented law.notto discover whoor what are so much we as to refuse we are.the efare many fort createa productive critical to is welladvanced. Colin Gordonargues.and powerthatsustain of As this (and havebeen sustained theseforms.61 as security what rulessubjectivitybotha as Just and individualizing blackmail it and promise..22 Aporias Security of been: a stifling disvision." and "thinness. Roland Bleiker formulates idea ofagency an thatshifts from lone the away the (male) hero overthrowing social orderin a decisiveact of rebellionto one thatunderstands of boththethickness socialpower and its " languageto drawindividual subjects Thissuggests. of tural.. is at these totalizing levelsthatwe can intervene. at a dual strategy. leastprovisionally. framed a reversal theliberalprogressive of as movement being of we haveseen in Hegel." "observe howan individual be able to escape thediscursays. by policy.culempower and economicimplications theeveryday of forms desire. Derridasuggests. and diplomacy. thesensethatit assumes tive whenitis absorbedas truth. and social transformation sense of seriousness can be temperedwiththe knowledgethat toolsare already available and wherethey not. As space Foucaultthought thatthevery of was possibility governing conditionalon it beingcredibleto the governed wellas the governas This throws onto thequestionof howsecurity works ing. consented and desired which to createsan important forrefusal. regulation.60 weight as a technology subjectivity. as countless struggles for freedom. to challenge and rewrite and discipline encounter. new sensibility There is also a crucialpoliticalopeningwithin liberalprobthe in lematic thatpoweris mosteffecitself. in challenging the both available possibilities forbeing and theirlargersocioeconomicimplications. first The asserts spaceforagency.a justice. have proved. How could it everbe escaped? ciplinary RefusingSecurity It is perhaps but easyto becomedespondent. by) . may siveorderand influence shifting its boundaries.

David Campbell. (Manchester 1993). without Enemies Smith and St. Paul Hendrikson.Nietzsche."TheValueof Security: Hobbes.. 1999: www.1986). an Interdependent World. MichaelC.eds.virginia." 2000): 152-164. Threats ed.edU/pmc/current. 2 (1998): 231-232. GraemeCheesemanand St. OnSecurity York: UP. a "debateand engagement unknown a thatinvolves other'slaw and the other'sethics" an encounter Thus whilethe thantheother. GraemeCheesemanand RobertBruce. "Security. refused:at the simultaneous kind itwouldentailanother and macroeconomic order. James Gibson. (Sydney: Gary ed. Critical Security (Minneapolis: of and of Minnesota 1997).and Anthony Knopf.1996). Walker.. "Identity thePolitics SecuRelations no.Marx." DavidCampbell UP. society.Burke 23 Anthony and thattransgress call into is to open up aporeticpossibilities and of theboundaries theself." Culture. Discourses Dangerand Dread Frontiers: Defence of Allen8cUnwin. Strobe no. Williams. Ron4.Furtherimportant discussedthroughout writings and Der Derian. 1992). 1996). 4. possibility." European "Security! Relations no. It wouldbe to and whatitsshimmering askifthereis a worldafter possisecurity.3burke. Militarism Pluto. Doctrine. On theClinton Talbott. (Sydney: and thePolitics Identity United States (Manchester UP. TheNewAustralian 1992).JohnKettle. the imagito nationof an otherthatneverreturns the same. Pluto. P.JohnKettle.. Thus writers Diprose. Do What YouMean?FromConceptto ThickSignifier. the Challengeof WorldPolitics. Postmodern Reason on The Shoals of Vietnam.1990.issue/9.Writing Security: jectofViolence and R. The Baudrillard. the international question and police.63 of transformation the selfrather it also be be must acknowledged. Foreign Policy..ThePerfect Technowar VietThe nam(Boston:Atlantic Press. of ofworkon "ourselves" a politicalrefusal the One. 118 (spring in War: see William on Vietnam. Policy of Foreign Australian and Security eds. seeksto imagine thatsecurity of based on a critique The secondseeksnewethicalprinciples has that of forms identity security heretotherigidand repressive such as Rosalyn foreoffered. James Political Subin and MichaelDillon.1990). eds. J. bilities might Notes in "Self-determination see 1. Living Monthly 'Violenceand andthe Dead (NewYork: Burke. KeithKrause Thinking theColdWar(Sydney: after Studies U and MichaelC. 2 (1998): 204-225. be. (New Huysmans." European Columbia 1995).Jef nieLipshutz.WilliamCona to and MoiraGatenshavesought imagine newethicalrelanolly. fournal International of . on is and literature security referenced Muchof thevaluablecritical include this article.. Williams. B. not thatthinks difference on thebasisofthesamebuton tionship allowspaceforthe the thebasisofa dialoguewith otherthat might withthe for and unfamiliar. Canberra:ANU Peace ResearchCentre. fournalofInternational rity. ed.. May iath. must sweepand powerofsecurity social levels of individualidentity. Sovereignty."working paper 87.

" the Indonesian1995 DefenceWhitePaper ThePolicy theState and of Defence known Wawasan as Nusantara geopolitical concept (archipelagic principle) "thestrengtheningnational of which theintegration is resilience. 34." of Alternatives no. Walker.. Mike Smith. 4. requires ofall forms resilience of in economic. also in see incorporates Centre Strategic International for and Studies. which argues that the primary of tralia NationalSecurity theTwenty-First ys into DirecCentury: Rethinking Strategic Continental Thought (London:Routledge." Alternatives no.JacquesDerrida. 1-9. see E. sociocultural. Michael Dillon. R.Keating Strategic Defence is quoted in the Sydney Dec. an 12. 3 (2000): 292. tionalstability. R. Order. 71. and This resilience aimed at guaranteeing is nasecurity defencefields. 13. a continuous. . 22-23.24 AporiasofSecurity of 2. Dewi Fortuna Anwar. tics (London:Dent. 10. Berki." MichaelC. Stanford 1993). 7. 1995. 12. (New Security York: 10. 66. Williams in and KeithKrause. Constantinou. FortheIndonesian of and see concepts "resilience" "security. Fora discussion thetermontopolitical. note8. 11. 16. Politicsoj Security: towardsa PoliticalPhilosophy oj Security theRepublicofIndonesia. us the Costas exceeding challenges to out-live modern": M. note8. UP. p. (Sydney: work this in direction been carried byCostasConhas out 2001).pp. R. contain dangerous demands and expectations within them.who critically interrogates limits by to . Studies of eds. 13. 20. Critical Security (Minneapolis: University Minnesota Press. idem. William Connolly. Morning 1998national Party. Ann Tickner. See Anthony outsideSecurity. J. Walker. 12-35. which thestability all thesefields". 16. Simon Dalby."in Keith Krause and Security MichaelC. J. Dillon.. Critical Security (Minneapolis: University ofMinnesota Press. "Poetry 3 (2000): 307-321.pp.Walker. Berki. urgesus to see security as "a rescuefrom dangerbuta freedom from care of danger. onAchieving Global ColumbiaUP. B. are Austion and Studies Centre. pp. (Canberra: ANU. 1992).Australian Labor Herald. note6.p.. Contesting EssentialConcept: Reading the Dilemmasin Contemporary Discourse. 25.p.1986). 8.pp.note7. 5. p. seafaring "the set agon. Clintonand Mahathir cited in Brig.p. (Minneapolis:University that needs 1995).Walker. 25. One World.pp. TheEthosofPluralization of MinnesotaPress. 1997).1997). 1997)..Gen. Williams.. security our modern political imagination byshowing itself thoselimits. "The Subjectof Security."and MichaelDillon.. Ibid.p. Security Society: and on and PoliReflections Law. 32-33. N. p. . 20. J.Indonesiaand theSecurity Southeast Asia (Jakarta: of 6.p.Gender International in Relations: Feminist Perspectives Peace(Boulder:Lynne Rienner.In FearofSecurity PlutoAustralia." 3. 16. B.p. 1988).. Burke. howsecurity.p.and. 71. Ibid. Connolly suggests "ontopolitical interpretation" to critically revisit founding the claimsof modern (and often disavowed) "aboutthenecessities possibilities humanbeing"to quesand of politics tionhowmany "common of presumptions our time. 1992). (Stanford: Aporias 14. platform.. the spiritual. 1996). 1-5. Valuable who not stantinou. Studies eds. existing thepolitical. 17. "Poetics Security. . Many Worlds: Struggles a fust World for 9. 15.

. 33..p.F." Pasquale Pasquino. ofdistributing but the in living thedomainofvalueand utility.p. .Hegel.."thefinalchapterof TheHistory Sexuality. man (London:Routledge. D. 101-102. RichardWoolcott. 36.. Gordon. ThePhilosophical Discourse Modernity (London: of 1987). He characvol.p.. Miller. vol. p. trans. 28.p.pp.Leviathan (London:Penguin. 553-555. 98-102. PeterMiller. 25. Clarendon.HansJ. of Peregrine. 308. The growing assumedbytheactionof thenorm. eds." note21. Politics Nations (NewYork: 1973). Rethinking Geopolitics (London:Routledere. Ibid.p. GearoidO'Tuathail. of in Bentham. UP."Governmental An in Rationality: Introduction. (NewYork: 20. note31. it in echoed in Bentham: population.G. note26. 302. 144. and and the bodyof the species all the opaque processesof public healthand With camea mutation power. 1987). 302.and GearoidO'Tuathailand SimonDalby. Ibid. eds. Kennan. Geopolitics (Minneapolis: University ofMinnesota Press. 40. Colin Gordon.p. 4. For excellent on of writing theproduction space bygeopolitical see Critical reason.p. 1 ( Graham ColinGordon. 23. Politics. and Foucault Burchell.1987). 22.. note26. Foucaultoutlinedbiopowerin "The Rightof Death and Power overLife. 1998). TwoTreatises Government UK: Camof (Cambridge. pp. 1967). 1988).. 305-309. p. p. 1985). Burchell. Gordon. Foucault. ThomasHobbes.p. 35.. 21. MichelFoucault. W. Morgenthau. 24. 38.pp. "Governmentality. Apr. p. 186. 34. 1977). 312. Bentham. 19. 90. of terizes emergence.1995. of added.cited in Noam Chomsky. Phenomenology (Oxford: of Spirit 41. (London:Harvester 1991). emphasis importance theexpenseof thejuridicalsystem thelaw. 304. is no longer a matterof bringing It regulatory deathintoplayin thefieldofsovereignty.22-23. 92.pp. Polity.p. 31. Gordon." JohnBowring. MichelFoucault. The EffectStudies Governmentality in Wheatsheaf. 27. Ibid. 29. MichelFoucault. 1 (NewYork: vol. pp. Ibid. "The Perilsof Freedom. 24."Weekend Australian. Culture. 37. Lawrence KritzPhilosophy. 76-77. 20. among Knopf. 12. emphasis 32. note31.Jeremy "The Principles CivilLife. 30.pp.TheHistory Sexuality. p. 39. 26. note21. a shift to to sovereign's right killtreasonous persons "thecalculated management oflife" focused aroundtwopoles: discipline thebodyas machine. p. 48. Bentham. JürgenHabermas.. pp.. 17.. 1837). bridge note26. p. ed. Marshall. 307. Gordon. 21-23. 20. a power of whose taskis to takechargeof liferequirescontinuous corrective and mechanisms. Ibid. 1. 1996). the Turning Tide:TheUS and LatinAmerica BlackRose. TheWorksJeremy Bentham.Burke 25 Anthony 18. JohnLocke. its from seventeenth the as from the century.. 11-16. ed.p. Ibid.

1978). 156. how 57. W. exampleofthiseconomy actionwas the Indonesianinvasionof East Timorin 1975. citedin Paul Rabinow. tralians theTimorissue. 9. lickner.thegeneralpresenceof in Likewomen economies themilitary. Ibid. 47. Gordon.1966). "Poetics Security. UP. Tickner.womenhaveoften can also and the experienceof combatand injury tors.Australian mentas threat thesecurity theIndonesian to in echoed bySohartothenext PrimeMinister GoughWhitlam. ed.PopularDissent. Sept." of Alternatives no.p. 4b.26 Aporias Security of 42.pp. 151-152. b. Years'Crisis:1919-1939 (New York: Harper 58.AnnTickner citesSandraHarding'sargument thatan African worldview whichtheeconomicbehaviour individuals embedded "in of is in a socialorder. p. Julian no. (2000): 288. 49.others them).p. t. wise. 16. (Lon51. p. Lr. Tickner. 1993). 50. Constantinou.." 60.In 1974. Carr. 3 25. p. GenevièveLloyd. H. 52. Gatens. of exposing and terrifviner consciousness frailtv embodiment.p. Reader 61. note 1. a communal is seen orientation as 'deviant' neoclassiby cal economictheory. Bush. and GlobalPolitics 62. (Cambridge. Hegel. UK: of of 44. UK: UP. 153." Pefanis. ed. 1996). rhetoric state East year. One terrible 59. 91-99.pp. 20. Moira Gatens. note26.. note50. p.w. Address JointSessionofCongress to and the American People.1976): 97. Gatens. themto a traumatic destabilize men'sexperience masculinity. F. 53. G. p. 187-188. 28 (May1988): 53. note50. Dillon. in note9. Power.p. 114. gender destabilizing long-standing of dochad close experience combat(as nurses.p. arguedthatan independent Timorwouldbe "an unviable and potentialthreatto the stability the area": NancyViviani."Ausof 30 and Australian Outlook (Aug. (NewYork: 1984).J. 73. Burke.Human Agency. George W.80-87. 2001. 48. p. 23. Hegel. Indonesia deofa of fended actions which its included series brutal counterinsurgency as the fensives through late 1970sand early1980sthatkilledas many two resistance movethe hundredthousandpeople. Cambridge 2000). p. Ethnocide. It is easyto demonstrate suchformationsare also ruptured multiple ironies. The Twenty 55. 54. Roland Bleiker. 56.see also TobyMiller.note7.The role of womenin the by them armedservices stillhighly is ambiguous(some statesstillbarring from nowincluding combatroles. Hegel. note9. CostasM. (fslew oj 1990). MichelFoucault. 25. and Text. Art Clastres. don: Routledge. Ibid. it is one thatrepresents different of ecoa yet type nomicbehaviour to note9. Cambridge 1991 [1821]). Pierre "On trans. 45. TheMan ofReason: "Male"and "Female" Western in .pp. E. 109. Imaginary and Corporeality Bodies:Ethics. l nernilosopnyHistory York: rrometneus. 43. Elements thePhilosophy Right(Cambridge. portraying Fretilin of state. specific othercultures": Philosophy (London:Routledge.. TheFoucault Pantheon. Descartes:PhilosophicalWritings (Mel- bourne:Nelson. of and &Row. p. Elizabeth Anscombe. 25.and civilians). 48.

1993).Burke 27 Anthony and thePostmodern The Well-Tempered Citizenship. NationalDeconstruction: Identity."Strangers tics. Jus- UP. Rosalyn Ethics. note50. of ticein Bosnia(Minneapolis:MinnesotaUP. 1998). Ethos Pluralisation of and on Press. 2001). cultural and Plural:Journal Transnational Cross 8. and 1994). Jim George. and Anthony Burke. David Campbell. Ethicsand Difwithout Burke. Post-Modernism: Ethics.In FearofSecurity PlutoAustralia. Culture. Thematic."Communal/ between ference and International Relations. 2 24. 1995)." beyondthe Egoism-Anarchy Thinking Politics(MinEthicsand World Michael Shapiro. Forfurther poliresponsibility.p. (Sydney: Bodies Women: 63. . Subject(BaltiSelf: more:JohnsHopkinsUP. William Embodiment. Gatens.see Anthony Strangeness: Australia and the IndonesianNew Order. of Diprose. world writings ethics. Difference of The University Minnesota (Minneapolis: Connolly. neapolis:Minnesota 1999). 2 (Oct. Sexual (London: Routledge. 2000). 27.The E. Moral Spaces: Rethinking Studies no. (1995)."Realist Millennium no. David Campbelland and Violence.