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1) Geology is traditionally divided into two broad areas. Name and describe these two subdivisions.

Geology sets out to pursue the understanding of the Earth. There are two broad areas called physical geology which examines Earth’s composed materials and the process in which they operate on the surface and below. Historical geology aims to understand Earth’s origins and its developments chronologically. 3) How did the proponents of catastrophism perceive the age of Earth ? Catastrophists held the idea that Earth’s landscapes were formed by great catastrophes. It was perceived that canyons and mountains were formed by nature’s unexplainable disasters, thus changing the face of the earth. 4) Describe the doctrine of uniformitarianism. How did the advocates of this idea view the age of Earth? Uniformitarianism proposed that the physical, chemical and biological laws that are in operation today have also operated in the geologic force. This would mean that these geological forces have been going on for a long time and that through this we can understand by using our present-day process to account for ancient rocks. 5) About how old is the Earth ? The Earth is approximately 4.55 billion years old. 7) How is a scientific hypothesis different from a scientific theory? A hypothesis is a constructive tentative explanation based off the way things happen in the manner observed. A theory is a widely accepted and well-tested view in the scientific community that comes to the agreement of certain observable facts. 12) What are the two sources of energy for the Earth system? The two sources of energy for the Earth system are the sun and the wind both of which that have an impact on Earth’s interior.

They all contain Precambrian-age rocks that are approximately 1 billion years old. It is a soft and more weak layer of the earth. gas and dust nebula began to collapse with duration of ten billion years. Pressure and density increased as well as the rotation of the nebula. Stable platforms are another type of flat area that contains highly deformed rocks like those found in the shields. . The lithosphere contains the entire crust and uppermost mantle that forms the earths rigid outer shell. 15) Contrast the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The asthenosphere is below the lithosphere to the depth of 410 kilometers. They are covered by a thin veneer of sedimentary rocks. It is approximately 100 kilometers in thickness. 14) List and briefly describe Earth’s compositional divisions.13) Briefly describe the events that led to the formation of the solar system. Shields are flat and expansive regions that contain deformed crystalline rock. Starting about five billion years ago. The lithosphere is able to move without co-dependency upon the athenosphere because of the lithosphere’s stronger layer. Grains in our galaxy later condensed and collided to form planets. 17) Distinguish between shields and stable platforms. The collection of mass from the explosion of the supernova as well as magnetic fields began creating densities for stars.