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Va-1 INTRODUCTION Heterogeneous deformation results from mechanical instabilities (folding and boudinage) within an heterogeneous material or from strain localization in an homogeneous material (shear bands).

Folding and boudinage µ0 µ1 µ2 µ3 µ4

µ0=µ1<µ2<µ3<µ4 Viscosity Competence

Folding

Boudinage

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Morphology

Fold axes Hinge The hinge line joins the points of maximum curvature on a folded surface. The axial surface contains the hinge lines of many folded surfaces. This surface is not necessarily planar

A

B C

Limb

B // Hinge A hinge and // axial surface C axial surface Cylindrical folds have straight hinge lines (straight B axis). π circle T T

B axis

In cylindrical fold π poles are oriented at 90º of the B axis

π diagram On a stereonet, the distribution of π poles gives information about the geometry of folds.

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Morphology

β facet

B axis

β diagram

**Construction of the axial surface
**

It is not possible to determine the attitude of the axial surface from π or β diagram alone. For this, we need to plot the axial trace (trace of the axial surface on the ground surface). The B axis and the axial trace are two lines that belong the axial surface. Axial trace Ground surface

Axial surface

B axis

B axis

Axial trace

This construction assumes that the B axis and the axial trace are not parallel to each other.

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Classification

hinge t t Concentric younging Isopach t e t t t t Similar

e

e

e

Open

Tight Isoclinal

Crest horizontal

Axial surface

Inclined fold

Overturned fold

Trough

hinge

Recumbent fold

Plunging fold

Vertical fold

Reclined fold

Kink fold

Ptygmatic fold

Rootless

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Associated linear and planar microstructures

Crenulation cleavage: The development of fine scale microfolding can produce systematic realignment of pre-existing layering.

Parasitic fold

S1

So

Cleavage refraction

So

1m

S1

1 cm

Fracture cleavage

Cleavage fan

S1: A xial plane cleavage (λ1λ2 plane)

10 cm

Intersection lineation

So

Fold rodding lineation or crenulation lineation

S1

Quartzite

Phyllite

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Kinematic models of folding

The geometry of folds largely depends on the way they are formed. There are a limited number of kinematic models... Flexural folding produces isopach folds. This mode of folding can be achieved through three mechanisms: Orthogonal Flexure, Shear Flexure or Volume-loss Flexure.

Orthogonal flexure Flexural shear folding Volume loss flexure

Neutral surface

Outer arc lengthens

shear planes

Inner arc shortens Extrado fractures Shear // to limbs Intrado stylolites

Dissolution

hinge

Neutral surface

Neutral surface

Passive shear folding produces similar folds. This mode of folding is achieved through heterogeneous simple shear. Folds develop with their axial surfaces parallel to the shearing planes.

Shear planes

Symmetric fold Asymmetric fold

Axial surface Shear zone Shear zone

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Kinematic models of folding

Formation of kink and chevron folds. Folds with straight limbs and sharp hinge are chevron folds if they area symmetric and kink folds if they are asymmetric. They develop in strongly layered or laminated sequences that have a strong planar mechanical anisotropy.

Development of chevron folds by kinking.

Axial surface γ

Geometry of a kink band and terminology.

Kink band

κ = kink angle

**Development of kink folds.
**

Kink band γ

Folds may develop in close association with and as the result of faulting. The first example (sketches on the left) illustrates the development of a faut-bend fold in association with a fault ramp. The second example (sketches on the right) illustrates the development of a fault-propagation fold above the tip of a propagating thrust. Fault-bend fold

Fault ramp

Fault-propagation fold

Anticlinal stacks Fault tip

Finally, folds also develop has a consequences of extensional tectonics. The sketch on the rigth illustrate a rollover anticline in association with an extensional detachment fault.

Detachment

Rollover anticline

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Kinematic models of folding Progressive flatenning

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Kinematic models of folding

Drag Folds. When rocks are subjected to shear, layers in the rock commonly form asymmetric folds whose sense of asymmetry reflects the sense of shear. Such folds are called drag folds and are the result of velocity gradient in the shear zone. Drag folds are noncylindrical and asymmetric. Their axial planar surface tends to be parallel to the shearing plane.

Sheath folds are a particular class of drag fold. They are tube-shaped fold with an elliptic or even a circular section. They develop with their a axis parallel to the direction of shearing.

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Fold systems Scale independent microtectonic laws Fold asymmetry, bedding-cleavage relationships, stratigraphy up direction, and vergence.

Bedding A xial plane cleavage (λ1λ2 plane)

Stratigraphy up

100 m

Z fold

M fold

S fold

Z fold

S fold

Vergence is a term used to indicate the direction of movement and rotation that occured during deformation.

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Fold systems Scale independent microtectonic laws

2 3

4

1

200 m

3

bedding-cleavage

1

Stratigraphy up direction

fold asymmetry

2

The determination of two of these criteria lead to the determination of the two others.

4

Vergence of displacement

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Fold systems Scale independent microtectonic laws

S1 So

Vergence of the fold ?

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-1 FOLDS-Fold systems Scale independent microtectonic laws

Vergence of the fold ?

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-2 BOUDIN AND BOUDINAGE Pinch-and-swell structures

Neck Boudin

Boudin lines Neck fold

Neck lines Symmetric boudinage Crystallization in pressure shadow

Asymmetric boudinage, asymmetric pressure shadows

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-3 DUCTILE SHEAR ZONES Inhomogeneous progressive simple shear

θ

raj e 1t S

ct

Shear zone

Orientation and magnitude of finites strain ellipses and trajectories of S1 across a ductile shear zone resulting from inhomogeneous progressive simple shear.

SIMPLE SHEAR

or

ies

γ

λ0

ψ

θ

γ = tg ψ

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-3 DUCTILE SHEAR ZONES Inhomogeneous progressive pure shear

Shear zone

Orientation and magnitude of finites strain ellipses and trajectories of S1 across a ductile shear zone resulting from inhomogeneous progressive pure shear.

PURE SHEAR

α = λ1/λο

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-2 STRUCTURES Va-2-3 DUCTILE SHEAR ZONES: The kinematic reference frame

**(a, L), (b, M), (c, N) : kinematic axes Movement plane c, N Shear plane b, M a, L c, N b, M a, L
**

Y

Shear direction

Mylonitic zone

Z X Y

Z, λ3

X, λ1

Y, λ2

protolith

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-3 ORIENTATION OF THE AXES OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID Va-3-1 FOLDS AND BOUNDINS λ3

λ1

A' B' A Surfaces of non-deformation B C D D' 2D C'

λ1

3D

λ3 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1

A'

B'

C'

D'

λ3

λ3

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-3 ORIENTATION OF THE AXES OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID Va-3-1 FOLDS AND BOUDINS

λ1 λ3 λ3 λ2 λ2 λ1

λ1 λ3 λ2 λ1

Constriction

λ1

Flattening

λ3 λ2

λ2

λ3

λ1

λ2 λ3 λ3 λ3

Plane strain

λ2

λ1

λ2

λ1

Plane strain

λ1 λ3 λ2 λ1

λ3 λ2

λ3

λ1 λ3 λ2

Constriction

λ1

Flattening

λ3

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-3 ORIENTATION OF THE AXES OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID Va-3-1 FOLDS AND BOUDINS

Development of cleavage during progressive flatenning

λ1 λ2 λ3

λ3

S1//λ1λ2 λ2

λ1

Axial plane cleavage is parallel to the flattening plane (λ1λ2) of the F.S.E.

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-3 ORIENTATION OF THE AXES OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID Va-3-2 DUCTILE SHEAR ZONES Usually, shear zones wrap around less deformed domains. The geometry of the shear zones net changes with the characteristics of the regional finite strain ellipsoid.

**Characteristic structure of reactivated basement
**

λ2 λ3 λ1 λ2 λ3 λ1

Plane strain: M // λ2 N close to λ3 L close to λ1

λ1

**Flattening : N close to λ3 ML close to λ1λ2
**

λ3 λ2

Contriction: L // λ1 N close to λ3 M close to λ2

Lineation λ1 = Gliding line

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-4 CHARACTERISATION OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID (K) Va-4-1 FOLDS AND BOUDINS Two directions of stretching => pan-cacke shape ellipsoid Two directions of shortening => cigar shape ellipsoid One invariant direction (direction of non-deformation)=> plane strain ellipsoid

2

λ1 λ2

Ln (λ1/λ2)

K=1

λ3 λ3 λ1 λ2

λ1

λ3

λ2

λ3

1

λ2

λ3

λ1

λ2

K=

0

λ1

λ2

λ3

8

λ3

λ3

λ1

K=0

0

λ1

1

Ln (λ2/λ3)

2

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-4 CHARACTERISATION OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID (K) Va-4-2 PRESSURE SHADOWS

Constriction

Plane strain

Flattening

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-4 CHARACTERISATION OF THE FINITE STRAIN ELLIPSOID (K) Va-4-3 DUCTILE SHEAR ZONES Two directions of stretching => pan-cacke like ellipsoid Two directions of shortening => cigar like ellipsoid One invariant direction (direction of non-deformation)=> plane strain ellipsoid

2

Uniaxial prolate

λ1

λ1

λ1

K=1

λ2

λ3

λ1

Ln (X/Y) Ln (λ1/λ2)

λ3

1

λ2

λ2

K=

0

8

λ3

K=0

0 1 2

Ln (Y/Z)

Ln (λ2/λ3)

Uniaxial oblate

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-1 DEFORMED VEINS Line of non-deformation during progressive pure shear λ3 Incremental extended domain λ1

Initial state

Non-deformation line λ3 Incremental strain ellipse λ1

λ3

The shortened domain increases during progressive pure shear.

λ1

Material lines rotate more rapidly than the non-deformation lines.

λ3

Finite extended domain λ1

Finite strain ellipse

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-1 DEFORMED VEINS Line of non-deformation during progressive simple shear λ3 Incremental shortened domain

Initial state

Incremental extended domain λ1

Non-deformation line λ1

λ3 Incremental strain ellipse

During simple shear the shearing plane is a plane of non-deformation, therefore there is only one area in which lines will be shortened then stretched.

λ3

λ1

On the field, one looks for directions along which veins have been shortened then stretched. If those veins are within one quadrant then we conclude for the non-coxiality of the deformation.

Finite extended domain

Finite strain ellipse

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-2 Anastomosed ductile shear zones Coaxial deformation

λ2 λ3 λ1

λ3

λ3

λ3

λ1

λ1

λ1

M

N

L

**Non-coaxial deformation
**

λ2 λ3 λ1

λ3

λ3 λ1 λ1

λ3 λ1

M

N

L

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-3 C/S, C/S/C' fabrics S planes: Schistosity

λ1 average trajectory

C planes: shear planes

C planes

θ

The number of C planes increase toward the mylonite. S planes C/S fabrics

C' planes

C' shear planes are extensional shear bands which tend to reduce the thickness of the ductile shear zone.

λ3 λ3 λ1 λ1 λ3 λ1

C/S/C' fabrics C/S planes

M

N

L

Asymetric boudinage of a mylonitic zone

C' planes

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-4 PRESSURE SHADOWS Pressure shadows and crystallization tails during simple shear σ pressure shadows

δ pressure shadows

C plane

WSW

czo

ENE

grt omp ky

S pl

ane

a/

phg

1mm

Tiling structure

WSW

czo omp

ENE

phg grt

b/

1mm

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-4 PRESSURE SHADOWS Face-controlled, deformable fibres formed and deformed in progresssive simple shear Quartz fibres

Pyrite grain

Pressure shadows and crystallization tails during pure shear

ψ pressure shadows

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-5 MICRO-SHEARS

Crystal slip

Mica fish

**CHAPTER Va : CONTINUOUS HETEROGENEOUS DEFORMATION
**

Va-5 STRAIN REGIME Va-5-6 CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC FABRICS Ductile deformation by dislocation creep produces characteristic preferred orientations of mineral crystallographic axes. The pattern of CPO depends on: ->the slip systems that are actived (depends on temperature and stress) ->the geometry and the magnitude of the deformation Coaxial deformation -> fabrics symmetric to the principal axes of finite strain Noncoaxial deformation -> asymmetric fabric Preferred crystallographic orientation by dislocation glide Macroscopic pure shear c axis c axis λ1 Slip plane λ1 c axis λ1

C axis fabrics Symmetric

λ3

**Macroscopic simple shear c axis c axis λ1 Slip plane c axis λ1
**

C axis fabrics Asymmetric

λ3

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