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COST Action C11

Green structure
and urban planning
Final report
41CG61_Pages_lim 02-08-2005 07:44 Pagina 1
Green structure
and urban planning
Final report
Edited by
Ann Caroll Werquin, Bernard Duhem, Gunilla Lindholm,
Bettina Oppermann, Stephan Pauleit, Sybrand Tjallingii
Authors:
K. Attwell, A. Beer, J. Bendl, K. Bjornberg, M. Buizer, J. M. Chapa,
C. Costanzi, B. Duhem, U. Ellefsen, E. Erhart, M. Eronen, P. Grahn, G. Grundt,
S. Guldager, J. M. Halleux, P. Hanocq, I. Hanouskova, C. Harrison, K. Jorgensen,
E. Kaliszuk, T. Kucera, K. Lapintie, G. Lindholm, O. Maijala, B. Malbert, L. Martincigh,
M. Meriggi, S. Nyhuus, B. Oppermann, S. Pauleit, U. Reeh, G. Scudo,
S. Schöbel, A. Ståhle, R. Stiles, B. Szulczewska, S. Tjallingii, I. Vähä-Piikkiö,
A. Van Herzele, M. Vesely, K. Wagner, A. C. Werquin, K. Zaleckis
COST
European cooperation in the field of
scientific and technical research
2005 EUR 21731 EN
COST Action C11
41CG61_Pages_lim 02-08-2005 07:44 Pagina 2
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5
COST C11
GREEN STRUCTURE AND URBAN PLANNING
PARTICIPANTS
Austria : Hermann KNOFLACHER (hermann.knofacher¸tuwien.ac.at),
Eva ERHART (eva.erhart¸univie.ac.at),
Klaus WAGNER (klaus.wagner¸awi.bmlIuw.gv.at),
Belgium : Philippe HANOCQ (P.Hanocq¸ulg.ac.be),
Ann VAN HERZELE (ann.vanherzele¸vub.ac.be)
Jean-Marie HALLEUX (Jean-Marie.Halleux¸ulg.ac.be)
Czech Republic : Irena HANOUSKOVA (irenaha¸uek.cas.cz)
Denmark : Karen ATTWELL (kaa¸by-og-byg.dk),
Ulrik REEH (reeh¸adslhome.dk)
Suzanne GULDAGER (sgu¸kvl.dk)
Finland : Matti ERONEN (matti.eronen¸ksv.hel.f),
Kimmo LAPINTIE (kimmo.lapintie¸hut.f),
Olli MAIJALA (olli.maijala¸hut.f),
Inkeri VÄHÄ-PIIKIÖ (inkeri.vaha-piikkio¸hel.f),
France : Bernard DUHEM, chairman
(Bernard.Duhem¸equipement.gouv.Ir)
Ann Caroll WERQUIN (wthales@club-internet.fr)
Germany :
Bettina OPPERMANN, chairwoman WG policies
(bettina.oppermann¸iIps.uni-hannover.de),
Stephan PAULEIT (sp@kvl.dk), chaiman WG ecology
Italy : Maurizio MERIGGI (grecomeriggi¸tiscalinet.it),
Lucia MARTINCIGH (martinci¸arch.uniroma3.it),
Giovanni SCUDO (gianni.scudo¸polimi.it)
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Lithuania : Kestutis ZALECKIS (kzalecki¸takas.lt)
The Netherlands : Peter SCHILDWACHT (peter¸schildwacht.nl)
Marleen BUIZER (marleen.buizer¸wur.nl)
Sybrand TJALLINGII (s.p.tjallingii¸bk.tudelIt.nl)
Carmen AALBERS (c.b.e.m.aalbers¸alterra.wag-ur.nl)
Jan P.M. TATENHOVE (J.P.M.vantatenhove¸uva.nl)
Norway : Unn ELLEFSEN (ue¸md.dep.no), vice chairwoman
Karsten JORGENSEN (karsten.jorgensen¸ilp.nlh.no)
Erik PLATHE (Erik.plathe¸Asplanviak.no)
Ms. Signe NYHUUS (signe.nyhuus¸radhuset.oslo.kommune.no)
Poland : Barbara SZULCZEWSKA (barbaras¸zd.com.pl)
Eva KALISZUK (ewakaliszuk¸yahoo.com)
Spain : Jorge Martinez CHAPA (jmchapa¸mIom.es)
Sweden : Kristina BJORNBERG, co-chairwoman WG Human issues
(kristina.bjornberg¸Iormas.se)
Bjorn MALBERT (malbert¸arch.chalmers.se)
Gunilla LINDHOLM, co-chairwoman WG Human issues
(gunilla.lindholm@lpal.slu.se)
Alexander STAHLE (alexanderstahle¸yahoo.se)
United Kingdom : Anne BEER (anne.beer¸btinternet.com)
Carolyn HARRISON (drcmharrison¸hotmail.com)
Penny DRAPER (padraper¸btinternet.com)
COST : Jacques LARAVOIRE (jacques.laravoire@club-internet.fr)
Jan SPOUSTA (jspousta¸cost.esI.org)
Isabel SILVA (isilva¸cost.esI.org)
websites : http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11
http://cost.cordis.lu
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Table of contents"
Chapter 1 : Introduction 11
· Introduction, B. Duhem 13
· Green structure and urban planning, general outcomes
oI Cost C11, S. Tjallingii 15
Chapter 2 : Main challenges through contemporary examples 39
· The green structure oI Sheffield, A. Beer 40
· Contrasting green clothes in Marseilles city, A.C. Werquin 52
· The Breda experience, the role oI green structure in
urban planning, S. Tjallingii 62
· The green structure oI Munich, the need Ior
and risk oI regional cooperation, B. Oppermann, S. Pauleit 72
· Milan and the Regional green structure oI Lombardy, M. Meriggi 80
· Warsaw, problems oI green structure planning and
management, E. Kaliszuk, B. Szulczewska 90
· Rome case study, strategies Ior green structure planning
and maintenance, L. Martincigh 103
· Oslo, a vision Ior a sustainable Iuture, S. Nyhuus, G. Grundt 115
· Green structures oI Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, I. Hanouskova 122
Chapter 3 : An ecological approach to green structure planning 133
1. Introduction, S. Pauleit 135
2. Green structure patterns, S. Pauleit and E. Kaliszuk 137
3. Biodiversity, I. Vähä-Piikkiö and O. Maijala 141
4. Green structure and water, S. Tjallingii 146
5. Climate and green structure planning, E. Kaliszuk and S. Pauleit 149
6. Green structure, Iarming and organic matter, E. Erhart 154
7. Pests and diseases, I. Hanouskova 155
Case studies : 156
8. Ceske Budejovjice, I. Hanouskova 156
9. Helsinki, I. Vähä-Piikkiö, O. Maijala 163
10. Herning, S. Guldager, U. Reeh, 170
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11. Munich, S. Pauleit 177
12. Oslo, S. Nyhuus, 184
13. Utrecht, S. Tjallingii 192
14. Vienna, E. Erhart 200
15. Warsaw, E. Kaliszuk 206

Chapter 4 : Human issues, 217
Introduction, G. Lindholm 218
· The origins oI urban green structures, K. Jorgensen 223
· The bird and the beast, philosophical concepts
and dichotomies in planning oI the urban green, K. Lapintie 232
· Eight experienced qualities in urban open spaces, P. Grahn, 240
· Role oI the urban green in creation oI preIerred
urban environment, K. Zaleckis 249
· Leisure activities and natural spaces (Marseilles), A.C. Werquin 256
· Environmental comIort in green urban spaces : design
tools, G. Scudo 259
· Valuing green structure, the use oI hedonic models, J.M. Halleux 267
· Qualities oI agricultural land, evaluation oI the
multiIunctionality, K. Wagner 274
· The greenery in some French new towns, B. Duhem, A.C. Werquin 279
· Urban planning Ior a quality dense green structure,
Stockholm map and park programme, A. Stahle 287
· A green-network, green structure and non motorized
transport, L. Martincigh 294
· Practices in planning and design oI urban green areas
in Belgium, P. Hanocq 302
· 'Green structure¨ the term discussion, E. Kaliszuk,
B. Szulczewska 309
Conclusion, G. Lindholm 312
8 9
Chapter 5 : Policies for green structure and urban planning 317
Introduction, B. Oppermann 318
Case studies :
· Interregional, regional or inter-municipal level and scale oI
green structure arrangements in Italy, the Park oI river Ticino
valley, M. Meriggi 326
· The integration oI urban Iorest discourse in spatial planning,
Belgium, The Ghent Park Forest` case study, A. Van Herzele 332
· Green structure planning in Madrid city and
metropolitan Area, J.M. Chapa 339
· Green Planning as a prerequisite. Aarhus, Denmark,
K. Attwell 345
· The green Iingers oI Helsinki in Finland, M. Eronen 352
· Protecting Mediterranean urban Iorms in Marseilles,
France, A.C. Werquin 359
· The Vistula valley case in Warsaw, Poland, B. Szulczewska 365
· Redesign oI the river Isar in Munich, Germany,
B. Oppermann 372
· Local participation in urban planning in Sweden, B. Malbert 379
· A partnership approach to regenerating public greenspace in
SheIIield: the role oI the SheIIield WildliIe Trust, C. Harrison 385
· OI green` policies and practices in the urbanized region,
Biesland, Randstad, the Netherlands, M. Buizer 393
Chapter 6 : Epilog 399
· Our policies Ior green structures in urban planning, J. Bendl 400
· Green areas and the quality oI liIe oI elderly people , C. Costanzi 407
· Green structures : reIuges oI habitat diversity in cities, T. Kucera 413
· Explicit green systems and implicit green structures, S. Schöbel 418
· Networking urban green space in European cities past,
present and Iuture, R. Stiles 423
· Community planning Ior Iunctional green public spaces, M.Vesely 430
· Green structure and urban development, issues oI the
debate session, S. Tjallingii 437

10 11
Farmland structuring the urban plan in Breda (The Netherlands), the green structure strategy Ior Aarhus
(Denmark), urban park (Issy-les-Moulineaux, France), small urban green space (Amsterdam), project
area Ior the Akerselva basin, Oslo, the Via Appia Antica`, historical and ecological corridor, Rome
(Italy).
10 11

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
General outcomes of Cost C11
12 13
12 13
Introduction
Bernard Duhem, Chairman
The ' Green structure and urban planning ' Cost action was approved by the
European Commission in February 2000 and a practical start was made on the work
that September. FiIteen countries were involved in the Iour-year programme : Austria,
Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania,
the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In all,
some 40 experts (Irom universities, governement departments, municipalities and
consultant bodies) participated in the work.
During the 1990`s, the necessity to exchange knowledge and experience about green
structure` and urban planning had become increasingly apparent to members oI an
inIormal network concerned with sustainable urban development, within the Irame-
work oI UN/ECE research activities sparked by the Rio conIerence. In this general
context, contradictions between the beneIits oI urban densiIication and the necessity
Ior green` environments were much debated. In applying Ior this Cost Action, it was
decided to Iocus upon the role played by planning, design and management in dealing
with interactions between green` and built-up areas. The principal starting questions
were : do we have enough inIormation about such interactions, or about the need Ior,
and uses oI, such green areas ? How is such knowledge used in the planning, design
and management process ?
Green structure` is not a Iamiliar term in all countries ; indeed, it is even diIIicult to
translate properly into some languages. The underlying idea is : we need to consider
the green aspects oI planning as a physical structure Iorming an integral part oI the
city (e.g. green belts or green corridors), as a network oI green` elements, as a physi-
cal inIrastructure playing a role in water management, in the urban micro-climate
and in biodiversity, and also as a social inIrastructure Ior leisure, relaxation, human
interaction and other social activities. ThereIore, green structure is not equivalent to
green areas.
The knowledge gathered Irom September 2000 to December 2004 through this Cost
Action was obtained by two main working methods :
· Field visits and local seminars, organised during the nine meetings held in SheIIield
(UK), Marseilles (France), Breda (the Netherlands), Munich (Germany), Milan
(Italy), Warsaw (Poland), Rome (Italy), Oslo (Norway) and Ceske Budejovice
(Czech Republik) ;
· Research and case studies gathered or conducted through three working groups on
ecological issues, human issues and policies.
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Additional knowledge was provided by a research project (Greenscom) Iunded
through the European FiIth Framework Programme (Action : 'The city oI tomor-
row¨), dealing with communication strategies related to green structure` in urban
development. Members oI Cost C 11 Irom Iive countries : Denmark, France, Finland,
the Netherlands and Sweden, were involved with that project.
Perhaps the most surprising thing to emerge Irom these Iour years oI networking
is the overlap between similarities and diIIerences : similarities oI questions posed
about urban Iorm (sprawl, mobility, etc) ; diIIerences in culture and geographical
context -not only between countries but also within each country- hence diIIerences,
too, in experiences oI urban planning. That is what makes European networking so
useIul : being conIronted by the best practises and understanding the conditions and
limitations oI their transIerability.
This Iinal scientiIic report starts with an overview oI the global outcomes oI this
Action (Chapter One). We then seek to give an idea oI the speciIic issues and expe-
riences we encountered in the nine cities that hosted our meetings (Chapter 2). The
Iindings oI the three working groups Iollow : ecological issues, human issues and
policies. Although some oI these papers have been shortened Ior the purposes oI the
present publication, Iurther material is available on our website :
http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11
By this means, we hope that work and networking may continue on a topic which, we
are sure, will not cease to grow in importance.
We should like to express our thanks to COST Ior supporting this Action, both Iinan-
cially and through the help oI Science oIIicers, to all the municipalities and ministries
that made such interesting meetings and local seminars possible, and, last but not
least, to our partners oI the Czech Republic that hosted our Iinal meeting at Ceske
Budejovice.
Finally, I wish to express my thanks Ior the editing work oI this fnal report to our
three chairpersons, G. Lindholm, B. Oppermann and S. Pauleit, to S. Tjallingii who
played a strong role at the beginning and at the end oI the Action, to A. Beer and P.
Draper who helped a lot Ior the English and with the website, and last but not least,
to my colleague Ann Caroll Werquin. AIter helping me during Iour years in chairing
this Action, she had the hardest work to give a printable Iorm to this book. Thanks
to the French Ministflre de lEquipement (PUCA, Plan Urbanisme, Construction et
Architecture) Ior supporting her Ior all this work. I am sure this book will be very
useIul to students, researchers, practitioners and that all participants have extend a lot
their knowledge in the feld, Ior the fnal beneft oI European cities.

Green Structure and Urban Planning,
general outcomes of Cost C11
Sybrand Tjallingii
in co-operation with the editing group: Anne Beer, Bernard Duhem, Gunilla Lindholm,
Bettina Oppermann, Stephan Pauleit, Ann-Caroll Werquin
The storv of cities and nature is both a love-storv and a battle and in both, green
structure mav be a useful concept. Structuring the scattered archipelago of green
areas means foining forces in a battle to defend vulnerable green spaces against
increased pressure from busv traffic, construction works and other dvnamic urban
activities. But green structure mav also describe a policv to create conditions for the
love-storv between urban citi:ens and their parks and plavgrounds. Both the rich and
poor benefit from the presence of a green network, a green structure that links small
gardens and neighbourhood greens to the green fingers and green belts of the urban
landscape. Moreover, bringing landscape to the heart of the citv, green structure
planning strengthens the attractive green image of the citv and creates a link with the
identitv of the historic landscape in which the citv has developed. The COST action
Green Structure and Urban Planning focussed on the know-how of green structure
planning and maintenance and created a platform for the exchange of experiences.
1 Introduction
Reasons for COST C11
At the turn oI the twenty Iirst century, urban citizens seem to like their green areas as
never beIore, but the growth oI cities creates a growing concern about both the size
and the quality oI green spaces in the urban landscape. Gardens are as old as cities
but, today, the gardener and the builder Iind themselves in the company oI a host oI
specialists concerned with planning, design and maintenance oI green areas in urban
regions. The reason Ior bringing these specialists together in a COST C11 action was
twoIold.
Although some European cities are stable or even shrinking, the growth oI cities is
typical in many parts oI the continent and urban sprawl is turning many landscapes
upside down. From urban islands in a sea oI green the situation changes into an urban
landscape with green Iragments. Although increasing wealth is one oI the driving
Iorces oI the change, many citizens, both urbanites and rural people, are concerned
about the loss oI green landscapes and about the poor maintenance oI the remain-
ing green spaces. In the European context, these concerns have been the reasons Ior
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setting up the COST C11 action in order to deepen and expand existing networks oI
researchers, planners and practitioners.
On the other hand, these specialists Iind it increasingly diIIicult to understand each
other`s language and co-operate. For centuries, the gardener and the builder may
have had a simple selI-evident common language to discuss their work. Today`s dis-
cussions oIten demonstrate a Babylonian conIusion that is only partly related to the
complexity oI contemporary urban and rural development. Serious language barriers
also result Irom an increased specialisation oI scientiIic disciplines and an increased
division oI responsibility and competence between administrative sectors. ThereIore,
the COST C11 action was also motivated by the need to develop elements oI a com-
mon language to discuss the role oI green spaces in urban development. As a Iirst
step, the COST C11 action was named Green structure and urban planning.
Green structure
Although the concept oI green structure is deep-rooted in history, the term as such
dates Irom the 1980s. In the beginning, as happens with relatively new terms - per-
haps even more so when it is intended to create a common language - there was a
lot oI conIusion about the many possible meanings oI green structure. Gradually,
however, the COST C11 participants grew towards a shared understanding oI the
concept that embodies both a view on the present urban landscape and an idea about
the desired Iuture.
Green structure links town and country. In a spatial perspective, green structure is
more than the sum oI green spaces. Speaking oI green structure implies drawing
attention to the spatial network that links open spaces, public and private gardens,
public parks, sports Iields, allotment gardens and recreation grounds within the city to
the networks oI woodlands and river Iloodplains in the surrounding countryside. Thus
green structure highlights the role oI greenways Ior walkers and cyclists and stresses
the importance oI ecological corridors Ior wildliIe.
Green structure links the past to the Iuture. From a time perspective, green structure
expresses a long history and a long-term planning policy to make the spatial struc-
ture oI green spaces a basis Ior sustainable urban development. Sometimes, as in
the British Midlands and the German Ruhrgebiet, green structure is brought back to
chaotically developed old industrial areas in order to restore the disrupted system oI
green valleys. As a result the natural and cultural heritage become visible in a new
green identity oI the urban landscape.
Green structure requires the co-operation oI stakeholders. From a decision-mak-
ing perspective, green structure reIers to a green inIrastructure that is planned and
maintained as a carrier oI multiIunctional urban development and cannot be claimed
by one group oI green stakeholders. Green structure is colourIul. Green zones along
rivers, Ior example, may perIorm a multitude oI roles, such as: routes Ior walkers
and cyclists, Iloodplains Ior water management, ecological corridors Ior wildliIe and
attractive edges Ior residential development.
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Shared understanding through field visits
Typically, cities have their own characteristic green structure but share common
issues in planning, maintenance and use. The COST participants became aware oI
this through combined seminars and Iield visits to nine European cities. More than
anything else, the exchange oI experiences and on-site discussions with local experts
and stakeholders contributed to a shared understanding oI the green structure issues.
The participants see this rich experience oI the state-oI-the-art in IiIteen countries as
an important outcome oI the COST C11 action. A Iew highlights oI the Iield visits
may illustrate this point.
Once the power supply oI the early industrial city, today the rivers and valleys are
the green structure oI SheIIield, linking the city`s green spaces to the hills oI the Peak
District. SheIIield shares this change oI a historic hydropower river landscape with
Oslo. Here, the River Akerselva brings together many diIIerent groups oI citizens,
organisations, developers and municipal departments in a joint programme Ior river
restoration, urban renewal and green space development. The River Vistula plays a
key role in the green structure oI Warsaw, where the high escarpment oI the hills along
the river is carrying a chain oI the city`s important parks, reborn aIter the complete
destruction oI the city in the Second World War. Also in Munich, the river is a car-
rying structure oI green spaces and here, too, there is a river restoration programme.
Already in the late eighteenth century the River Isar was used as the basis Ior a
beautiIul park. English landscape architects inspired Ludwig von Sckell in his design
oI the Englische Garten. For his part, Frederick Law Olmsted went to Munich to be
inspired by the Englischer Garten Ior his park designs, like those in New York and
Boston that may be considered as the precursors oI the idea oI green structure. Both
industrial development and the history oI ideas in landscape design have international
dimensions, but the result oI their interaction with local nature and local landscape
contributes to local culture and identity.
The interaction between culture and nature is not only something oI the past. Munich
shares with the Dutch town oI Breda some good examples oI planning and design oI
new residential developments based on the local landscape. Breda pioneered sustain-
able urban development and adopted a local landscape as a carrier oI urban develop-
ment` approach that makes old estates, woodlands and hedges part oI new residential
districts. At the same time the approach leads to technical-ecological projects that use
the potential oI the local landscape Ior creating new wildliIe habitats and Ior rain-
water retention and inIiltration as a part oI Ilood prevention. The link between Ilood
prevention and green structure planning is also Iound in the Czech town oI Ceske
Budejovice and in many other cities. Water supply is more important in cities like
Marseilles. Here the canal de Marseilles, taking water Irom the River Durance, not
only brought drinking water to the city, but also created conditions Ior a new green
structure oI Iarmland and a range oI wealthy houses with gardens (the bastides) built
in the previously dry hills, now watered by the canal.
This illustrates how private gardens may also become part oI the green structure.
Although most oI them are still inaccessible to the public, they play a role in water
17
management, in moderating the urban climate and in creating conditions Ior biodi-
versity.
In many cities the local government takes initiatives to involve private investors in
the management and maintenance oI public green areas. The Oslo Akerselva pro-
gramme, mentioned above, is one example. In Rome, the punta verde initiative is a
promising combined building and investing in green quality` approach that involves
private investors through long-term contracts with the local government. The local
government itselI remains responsible Ior the quality oI the main green structure in
the agglomeration. A good example is the development oI the green Iinger along the
old Via Appia antiqua, leading Irom the countryside in the southeast to the Forum
Romanum.
Almost all cities visited by the COST C11 action are Iacing sprawl, a process oI diI-
Iuse urbanisation, disrupting the agricultural land surrounding the cities. The process
is not only caused by urban pressure but also by a weakening role oI agriculture as
an economic carrier oI the green countryside. Most cities have limited inIluence on
neighbouring municipalities but in many cases regional or national authorities have
set up regional parks as a starting point Ior regional green structures. Good examples
are the Ticino Regional Park near Milan and the Kampinoski National Park near
Warsaw.
Perspectives, dilemmas and recommendations
The COST C11 seminars Iocussed on a number oI questions proposed by the par-
ticipants and related to their background and experience. This led to the setting up
oI three working groups with participants Irom diIIerent backgrounds, which looked
at the issues Irom diIIerent perspectives. The results oI their studies and discussions
will be discussed under the headings: an ecological perspective, a human values
and design` perspective and a planning process perspective. The perspectives are not
mutually exclusive, they look at the same issues Irom diIIerent angles.
The last chapter will discuss three central dilemmas that raise a number oI questions
across the three perspectives.
1. Sprawl versus compact city`. In the 1990s, some cities and countries adopt-
ed a compact city` approach in response to the negative eIIects oI urban sprawl.
The critics Iear a high-density oI buildings that would consume the last green spaces
within the existing city. Do the COST C11 experiences throw light on this matter?
2. Defence or integration. The perceived weak position oI green areas in urban
development has led to deIensive strategies to protect green spaces and contain
urban development. Critics argue that these limited strategies alone will only lead
to a delay oI retreat and propose integrative approaches as an alternative. What are
the experiences oI the COST C11 studies?
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3. Bottom-up or top-down. The regional scale oI green structure and its role in
creating conditions Ior special Iunctions such as biodiversity and water management,
may lead to a top-down technocratic planning approach along sector lines that runs
counter to the wish oI residents to participate in an integrated bottom-up planning
process. What may be learned Irom the experiences oI the cities involved in the COST
action?
The three perspectives and the discussion about dilemmas lead to a number oI recom-
mendations Ior designers, planners and researchers, guiding them to the next steps in
a learning process that may enhance the role oI green structure in urban planning.
2 An ecological perspective
The COST C11 working group ecology and green structure planning was Iormed to
Iind out more about the use oI ecology in urban planning. Ecology, here, is taken to
mean understanding the urban ecosystem as a basic set oI conditions Ior both humans
and other species. The working group analysed a number oI case studies, asking Iour
questions: 1. How have natural and cultural Ieatures inIluenced the development oI
green structure in the urban environment? 2. What does this green structure mean Ior
biodiversity? 3. How does green structure serve other ecological Iunctions? 4. What
role do ecological issues play in green structure planning? The Iollowing sections
discuss some general conclusions.
Origin of green structure patterns in the urban landscape
Each city has its own distinctive green structure. The origin may be described in lay-
ers. Typically the basic layer oI green structure goes back to the pre-urban landscape.
Some natural barriers resist urban development, such as the rivers and Iloodplains oI
Munich, Warsaw, Oslo and Ceske Budejovice. On the other hand these river valleys
create excellent conditions Ior green spaces and in this way needs are turned into
virtues. Following the rivers, green wedges reach into the heart oI the city, even iI
Ilooding is no longer possible, as in Utrecht. In cities such as Oslo and Helsinki green
shorelines structure the green network. A second layer oI green structure has its origin
in the development oI an inIrastructure network. Historic avenues and parkways are
lined with trees and shrubs and, inadvertently, the verges oI railways and motorways
create ecological corridors in the urban landscape. The third layer oI green structure
results Irom deliberately creating parks and gardens, and playing Iields as a part oI
urban occupation. Public green spaces are important but private gardens oIten occupy
more land and play a major role in the ecology oI the city. Sometimes derelict land
resulting Irom Iormer occupation and waiting Ior redevelopment is also an element
oI green structure. The three layers correspond with the ground layer oI natural
conditions`, the inIrastructure or network layer and the occupation layer oI land-use
Iunctions, introduced in the European Spatial Development Perspective (European
Commission, 1999).
19
Green structure and biodiversity
Until recently biologists did not seem to be very interested in the urban environment
as a habitat Ior wildliIe. In recent decades, however, ecological research revealed that
cities could be surprisingly rich in species. In many cities, not only in intensively
Iarmed parts oI Europe but even in Helsinki, the urban area has a higher biodiversity
than the surrounding countryside. A green structure approach saves, improves and
creates ecological corridors that enable plants and animals to move between core
habitat areas and this provides a better chance oI survival Ior vulnerable populations.
But the presence, the surIace and the density oI suitable habitats remain the key con-
ditions and this implies that a diversity oI green spaces is the basis Ior biodiversity.
In some cases such as Oslo and Helsinki, restoration and protection programmes seek
to create better conditions Ior wildliIe. Other cities, Ior instance, Munich and Utrecht,
also create new habitats such as wetlands and woodlands and new ecological corri-
dors Ior species dispersal.
It is generally assumed that green structure has a positive eIIect on biodiversity, but
much depends on the size and detailed design oI wet and dry, and oI the composi-
tion oI trees, shrubs and grassland in habitat areas, and in ecological corridors that
connect them. Our understanding oI these ecological conditions is still limited. Even
more terra incognita is the ecology oI pests and invading new species possibly taking
advantage oI improved ecological corridors. One oI the problems is the gap between
research results and practice. The usual grid-cell inventories provide an overall
impression oI loss or gain, but they do not tell planners and designers how ecological
conditions can be improved eIIectively.
In parts oI the city, an ecology-based maintenance practice may considerably enhance
biodiversity, especially in grasslands that may greatly beneIit Irom less intensive
mowing regimes. Many cities Iind that these practices are good Ior native Ilowering
plants and animals, and may also be good Ior the budget. Nevertheless ecology-based
maintenance is not widely applied. One reason is the common belieI that urban green
spaces should look smooth, straight and tidv`. Most designers and maintenance
proIessionals too, are still educated with this ideal image and do not develop enough
ecological skills. As a result, good examples oI ecology-based maintenance are rare
and many people perceive wild as identical to neglect. ConIronted with shrinking
maintenance budgets, many municipal parks` departments seem to Iocus on inten-
sive maintenance Ior a limited area and a cheap regime Ior the rest. In cities such as
Utrecht the need to set priorities and make a choice oI maintenance regimes has been
the main reason to make green structure plans. Public protests against neglect have
Iorced the parks` department to make another choice in some cases: an economy-oI-
scale principle that seeks to save money by applying the same weekly mowing regime
to all grassland areas. In this way smooth, straight and tidv` is also cost-eIIicient, but
the diversity oI green spaces in diIIerent parts oI the green structure is reduced to a
minimum. Less mowing can be a cheap ecological alternative, but only iI applied in
20
a skilIul way, paying attention to time, place and technique, and this requires ecologi-
cal knowledge to be developed in the department. Cities such as Breda, which have
invested earlier in this learning process, are now harvesting both quality and limited
costs.
Green structure and flows: climate, water
Urban ecology involves more than nature in cities. It also addresses natural processes
oI climate and water. In many ways green structure inIluences the urban climate
and thermal comIort in streets. Nowadays, planners and designers sometimes Iorget
that there is a lot oI traditional knowledge about climate and design. There are, oI
course, huge diIIerences between regional climates in Europe. In summer, people in
Mediterranean cities are longing Ior trees to provide shade, whereas urban citizens
in boreal climates may preIer open green areas that allow sunshine to enter the built
environment. In winter, however, snow glare may cause problems that may be pre-
vented by tree planting between buildings. In central European cities, the heat-island
eIIect is best studied. In summer, higher temperatures and dry and polluted air con-
strain air quality in inner city areas. In some cities, thereIore, urban planning promotes
green Iingers that allow moist and cool airIlow to enter into the central area. The city
oI Warsaw is a good example. The climate argument may help this green structure
to survive and resist high-density plans, but in Warsaw this argument does not seem
to be strong enough. In the new Munich development, Messestadt Riem, however, a
large park was created as a climate corridor and plantings were designed to direct the
cool and Iresh air into the residential development. The detailed design oI the green
corridors is important. In some cases trees seem to slow down air circulation, thus
enabling air pollution to accumulate. In windy climates such as the coasts oI Denmark
and The Netherlands, the heat-island eIIect does not play a major role. Here, green
hedges are important as wind breaks in both, rural and urban landscapes.
Water does not only shape urban green structure in many ways. Green structure may
also play an important role in improving water management. Urban growth goes with
a dramatic increase oI hard surIaces. Rainwater cannot inIiltrate into the soil any lon-
ger and this causes sinking groundwater tables. Instead the rainwater runs into sewers
that are unable to cope with increased peak discharges Irom paved surIaces. Thus the
sewers have overIlows that seriously pollute surIace waters. Cities such as Utrecht
and Munich, thereIore, are disconnecting rainwater Irom the sewage system, using
urban green spaces to inIiltrate or retain rainwater. In existing built-up areas there is
limited space Ior water storage, but the urban Iringe oIIers more opportunities. Here,
water storage can be combined with recreation areas and even with Iarming. Some
cities, such as Breda, are exploring the options Ior Iarmers to become paid water
managers Ior at least part oI their time.

Ecological aspects of urban land-use planning
From an ecological perspective multiIunctional land use in cities and in the surround-
ing countryside is both vital and vulnerable. It is vital because nature and natural
21
processes can only survive in interaction with other Iunctions. But it is also vulner-
able because ecology is oIten put aside or neglected in Iavour oI hard economic or
Iunctional criteria. Working with nature requires rethinking normal` practice.
The potential synergy between water and green structure planning seems to oIIer
great opportunities. At the neighbourhood level, the rainwater drainage network Irom
rooI to park is the starting point Ior new detailed design and maintenance solutions
Ior buildings, streets and green spaces. At the regional and urban level, the river net-
work is usually the carrying structure. Here the synergy with Iootpath and cycle track
networks and green corridors is an obvious option. Increasing the rainwater storage
capacity in existing or new lakes in the urban Iringe is an interesting option that is
being explored by Breda, Utrecht and other cities in other countries.
Forestry seems to be a natural ally Ior multiIunctional green structure policies, provid-
ing an economic Iunction that will keep green areas green. This does not mean, how-
ever, that commercial Iorestry Iits the needs oI the urban population. MultiIunctional
urban Iorests are very popular. They are core elements oI the regional green structure
in cities such as Warsaw, Vienna, Oslo and Helsinki. The Ghent case illustrates the
planning oI new urban Iorests. One oI the problems in maintenance is that urban citi-
zens oIten do not understand the need to cut down trees. They love the Iorest but not
Iorestry. Even thinning oI trees in urban parks has led to conIlicts related to diIIerent
attitudes towards nature.
The relationship oI agriculture to urban green structure is much more an economic
problem. The choice seems to be between highly productive Iarmland and urban
development. In the case oI organic Iarming (biological or ecological Iarming),
however, there may be more options to combine Iarming with biodiversity and recre-
ation, Ior example, by protecting hedges and wetlands. Those Iarmers, who directly
sell local products to urban citizens and, at least partly, get their income Irom other
activities Ior tourists and school children, may become economic and social carriers
oI the urban green structure. The farming for nature programme oI pilot projects in
The Netherlands seeks to Iurther explore these options.
A related issue is the Ilow oI organic matter: the options Ior urban green structure to
contribute to the sustainable handling oI organic waste by producing compost. A case
study oI the Danish town oI Herning points to the considerable opportunities Ior the
use oI urban organic waste in agriculture. In Vienna this link has already been made,
by using household compost on organic Iarms, owned by the municipality. This illus-
trates the potential role oI organic Iarming in multiIunctional land use and, thereby, a
potential planning and management option Ior green structure development.
3. A human values and design perspective
The COST C11 working group on human values and design decided to look at the
issues Irom diIIerent angles and generated a number oI essays representing a variety
oI studies and views that are summarised brieIly here.
22
Green structure, origin and nature of an idea
Green structure is a modern concept, with at least two important roots in the history
oI landscape architecture and urban planning. One is the idea oI the public park that
developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Germany, England and France,
when many people Ielt an increasing need to escape Irom the industrialising dirty and
unhealthy cities. The parks had to be breathing places for the metropolis. At the same
time, there was a growing awareness that the new parks had to be accessible Ior every
citizen and this led to plans Ior an interconnected network oI green walks and parks
cutting through districts Ior the poor and Ior the rich. Haussmann and his chieI engi-
neer Alphand elaborated the idea Ior Paris, but it was Frederick Law Olmsted who
brought the approach to maturity with his park systems and parkways Ior American
cities. A second root is the Garden City movement that started in England and was
inspired by Ebenezer Howard, who reacted to the terrible London urban slums oI the
nineteenth century. Green garden cities provided an alternative. II cities grew beyond
a maximum size there should be satellite towns around the mother-city. Around each
city there should be a green belt to contain urban growth.
Underlying the approach to parks and green spaces was an idea oI nature that shiIted
Irom a romantic and aesthetic attitude to a Iunctional view related to health and rec-
reation. In the late twentieth century an ecological view, stressing the importance oI
biodiversity, became more prominent. There is no irreversible shiIt, however. The
aesthetic view oI nature survives, Ior example, in the design oI the new Warsaw
Central Library. Functional views oI nature are still dominant in green space designs
Ior most new developments. Urban green is perceived as a symbol oI nature, but diI-
Ierent people have diIIerent symbols and these diIIerences are a major Iactor in all
decisions about green spaces and green structure. The prevailing concept oI nature
is still Iramed in the polarity between nature and culture. Nature may help people to
recover Irom the stress oI city liIe. In the sustainable development debate, however,
some challenge the polarity and draw attention to the synergy between nature (sus-
tainable) and culture (development). For the city, this implies the need to strive Ior an
ecologically balanced, urban liIe based on both nature and culture. Is it conceivable to
see nature as a basic set oI processes that is an essential part oI urban culture?
A related philosophical question is the issue oI control. II nature is perceived as a
place to recover Irom the stress oI urban rationality and control, then, there is a con-
tradiction in green structure planning, iI that is perceived as an instrument oI control
over nature. But perhaps green structure planning can also be seen as creating basic
conditions Ior the Ireedom oI both nature and culture.
Social and psychological aspects
Research has clariIied a number oI trends that have taken place in the last Iew decades.
One oI these trends is urban sprawl. Higher and medium income Iamilies tend to
leave the densely built inner city areas and move to bigger houses with gardens in the
urban periphery or in the countryside. In the past 25 years, Ior instance, 30° oI the
inhabitants oI Marseilles have leIt the inner city areas Ior the outskirts. A majority oI
23
the urban population has more to spend and has a car. Most people have more time
Ior leisure too. As a result car trips to green areas have increased drastically, much
more than journeys Irom home to work. These trends could lead to a social segre-
gation oI people with more access to green spaces Irom those with less. Marseilles
and other cities, thereIore, have revitalised public parks and recreation areas in the
densely built parts oI the existing city. Less wealthy people do indeed use these parks
intensively, but this does not imply that public parks are primarily serving the poor.
Scandinavian research has demonstrated that higher income people, even those with
private gardens, seem to visit public parks more Irequently compared to people with
lower incomes living in apartment buildings. Some planners think that a loss oI green
space in one area can be compensated by other green spaces Iurther away. This has
not been conIirmed by research and although we do not yet have a Iull understanding
oI these matters, the conclusion seems to be that diIIerent green areas have diIIerent
qualities Ior diIIerent people and one area cannot simply replace another.
So the quality oI green spaces is a key issue. At an academic level, environmental
psychologists study the preIerred qualities oI green spaces. In their research they
encounter qualiIications such as wild, lush, serene, specious, common, imaginative,
festive and essential. Some researchers have tried to describe the qualities in terms oI
design characteristics such as legibilitv, coherence, complexitv and mvsteriousness.
These concepts, however, do not yet entirely bridge the gaps between the language oI
psychologists, designers and users oI green spaces.
In the Iield oI psychology and health, numerous studies have underlined the relation-
ship between health and green areas. Decreased blood pressure, less use oI painkill-
ers and lower stress levels are reported Ior people who visit parks and green areas
on a regular basis. The positive role oI green environments and gardening has been
demonstrated in the therapy oI stress-related problems such as burn out. These stud-
ies, too, do not yet bridge the gap between research and practice. They create a basis
oI knowing that green is healthy, but there is still a gap between this general under-
standing oI researchers and the questions oI practitioners interested in knowing how
green areas can make cities more healthy. In the absence oI clear cause and effect`
relationships, however, a direct goals and means` reasoning is inappropriate Ior most
issues and practitioners can only expect a better understanding oI how green areas
may create the conditions Ior healthier cities.
At the detailed level oI planning and design, however, there is also learning bv doing
through practical experiments. Some hospitals, Ior example, try to bring together gar-
den design and therapy and some schools seek to design school gardens that provide
better conditions Ior variety in the play and activities oI children. In search oI the
relevant qualities oI green space at the district planning level, the city oI Stockholm
used socio-cultural quality concepts that are the basis oI so-called sociotopes, outdoor
places with special qualities Ior certain groups oI urban citizens. Questionnaires and
interviews with residents combined with expert inIormation led to a map oI socio-
24
topes that can act as an interIace between the public and planners.
In some speciIic practical areas researchers have been able to Iormulate general prin-
ciples that make research Iindings accessible to planners and designers. One oI these
areas is the integration oI a blue and green structure with non-motorised transport net-
works. A World Health Organisation campaign suggests a 30-minute daily walk Ior
urban citizens to stay healthy and this has inspired urban planners to design networks
oI Iootpaths and cycle paths in order to create appropriate and attractive conditions
Ior pedestrian and cycle routes to every day destinations in the city. As an example,
the COST action C6 (Fleury, 2002) reviewed the experiences with design guidelines
Ior saIe road crossings, social control, lighting and visibility on Iootpaths and cycle
paths that could provide an alternative to the car.

Economic aspects
Many planners and economists assume that the weak position regarding decisions
taken about urban land use stems Irom the Iact that green areas are not valued in
monetary terms. Thus, diIIerent techniques have been developed to value green areas
in order to put them on an equal Iooting with buildings in a cost-beneIit analysis. One
oI these techniques is contingent valuation based on questionnaires that ask the users
oI green spaces about their willingness to pav Ior them. There is serious criticism
about the artiIicial context oI this approach and although much research has been car-
ried out on the method itselI, very little is known about its actual use in real planning
situations. A less controversial and more promising method is the so-called hedonic
price theorv, a way oI Iinding out, Ior instance, how much house buyers are prepared
to pay Ior the attractive environment oI a dwelling. In recent years several analyses
oI large data sets have produced interesting inIormation about house prices oI compa-
rable dwellings in diIIerent environments. Finnish research demonstrated a 5° higher
price Ior houses with a view onto the Iorest, whereas in Dutch research an increase in
house prices oI up to 28° was Iound Ior houses with a garden Iacing water, especially
iI connected with a sizeable lake. These Iindings may seem to make green areas more
attractive Ior developers oI residential housing schemes, but in Iact they point to the
increased value oI the edges oI green areas. For the real estate agents and the house
owners the higher prices may be a good reason to keep green areas green. More inter-
esting Ior less privileged citizens and Ior the government is the possibility oI using the
higher prices to create a Iund that provides a Iinancial basis Ior keeping the green area
green, as in red pavs for green` schemes that are being tested in several countries.
The social context, however, is very important. Experiences in France and in other
countries show that even in very attractive green environments house prices may stay
low in residential areas with a bad reputation Ior social reasons.
At the regional level the economy oI agricultural land use is a key to green structure
policy options. The preceding section has already discussed some ecological aspects,
but urban and regional planning requires an economy-based view on the prospects
and options oI land use. Evaluation studies in the eastern periphery oI Vienna resulted
25
in a map oI agro-Iunctional land units, which demonstrated the role oI these units
in agricultural production, resource protection, hazard damage protection, habitat
Iunction, recreation and in spatially structuring the urban-rural landscape. Regional
assessment studies such as these can be a basis Ior multiIunctional pilot projects and
investment strategies that explore the options at a Iarm or company level.
Designing the urban landscape
At the detailed design level oI streets and squares, the research Iindings concern-
ing physical conditions, Ior instance, thermal comIort and tree growth combine with
social conditions such as social control and saIety. The combined eIIects in diIIerent
situations are not well known and are still waiting Ior more research to be under-
taken.
At the level oI green spaces in the existing city, protection is not the only option. The
Stockholm sociotope experience demonstrates that through in-Iill projects and urban
renewal the urban environment can gain green quality, even iI the overall quantity
oI green is reduced. Such a situation also exists in many international style housing
developments oI the 1960s that have abundant green spaces, designed Ior articulat-
ing patterns oI blocks, rather than Ior creating green places Ior playing or walking.
Urban restructuring schemes, carried out through interaction with local residents and
other stakeholders, have resulted in the revitalisation oI neighbourhoods on the basis
oI some in-Iill development combined with an improvement in the quality oI the
remaining green areas.
New developments also include new green spaces and hence they may add new ele-
ments to the existing green structure. The case oI a new development on the periphery
oI the Belgian city oI Liege illustrates how derelict lands leIt by industry and mining,
the so-called brownfields, may be turned into green spaces. In this case the green
areas carry the internal structure oI a new residential development and connect the
area to the green structure at the urban level. New developments sometimes introduce
new principles oI green structure, as in the new towns around Paris. The layout oI
row houses or terraced houses, common in countries such as Britain and Holland but
relatively new to the French tradition, introduce a new, private garden-based green
structure that may also lead to new attitudes towards green.
The concept oI green structure may also inspire the redesign oI the overall image oI
the city, as was demonstrated by a design study Ior Kaunas, a Lithuanian city domi-
nated by the Soviet variety oI international style design. Instead oI looking Ior more
green areas outside the urban area, the image oI the city itselI is made greener. Green
Iingers and greenways, together with existing buildings as landmarks, create a new
Irame based on environmental psychology and design principles.
At the urban regional level, the case oI the new towns around Paris illustrates the
advantages oI creating new nuclei in a polycentric urban network with a strong inIra-
structure and public transport system. A clear understanding and planning oI green
structure may guide urban development at all levels.
26
4 A planning process perspective
Many actors may play a role in the planning processes concerning green structure.
The planning-process working group discussed how these actors make so-called poli-
cv arrangements: coalitions and deals resting on a common discourse. This approach
generated questions about the discourse, the coalitions, the power and resources and
the rules oI the game Ior a number oI case studies in diIIerent countries. The case
studies revealed a number oI interesting aspects, oIten characterised by an interaction
between Iormal and inIormal actions and decisions.
Colourful and multi-level planning
Most successIul Ior the quality oI urban green structure are those planning processes
that combine a strong green policy and interaction with other colours. Embedding the
network oI green spaces in a hundred percent of the ground policy is a precondition
Ior sustainable interaction between green and other Iunctions. In this perspective,
good green policy is a colourIul policy. These are the lessons learned Irom integrated
planning processes such as the Oslo programme Ior Akerselva, the Munich Isar Plan,
the Ticino Regional Park near Milan, the new towns programme around Paris and the
evolution oI the Madrid green structure. This does not mean that these programmes
managed to avoid conIlicts, nor does it mean that green areas were always being given
priority. But, when all parties are gathered round the planning table, green spaces are
on an equal Iooting with other issues and cannot be ignored or swept Irom the table
easily. Under these conditions strategies to make allies may be successIul.
Green structure planning is rooted in the regional landscape and this requires an
appropriate regional organisation that transcends municipal territories and Iits in with
ecological borders. In this way, Ior instance, co-ordinated policies Ior a river valley
can be implemented. A regional park authority can sometimes play an important role
in stimulating co-ordination and co-operation between partners at diIIerent levels oI
planning practice. Linking the regional to the neighbourhood level is not easy, but
the COST C11 cities` experience demonstrates that green structure planning cannot
Ilourish iI it is not Iirmly rooted in the public perception and public support at the
level oI residential neighbourhoods. EIIective green structure planning requires both
a multi-Iunctional and a multi-level-planning approach.
Sectors and disciplines
In the 1990s, the city oI SheIIield adopted the SheIIield Parks Regeneration Strategy
that marked a shiIt Irom mono-Iunctional to multi-Iunctional thinking. Parks were
the responsibility oI one sector, the Leisure Services Department, and were Iinanced
by the local council on the basis oI a standard that was raised to 6 hectares oI out-
door playing space per 1,000 oI population. The new approach involved a partner-
ship between local government departments and the voluntary sector and included
wildliIe conservation, and heritage and health, making open spaces an integral part
oI economic and social renewal. This illustrates how good green structures emerge
27
Irom co-ordinated actions Ior inter-sector approaches, which make Iull use oI work-
ing groups, staII skills, round the table meetings, etc. The users do not perceive green
spaces Irom this perspective and this implies that the diIIerent units oI the administra-
tive body must overcome their one-sector view and struggle Ior integrated solutions
to solve the problems.
Because the problems and challenges are oI a multi-sector character, there is also a
need Ior an interdisciplinary approach with planners, architects, engineers, investors,
Iarmers and Ioresters, etc. This is achieved in many cases by Iorming working groups,
setting up managers and using instruments such as competitions, to enable interdisci-
plinary groups to gain sound integrated proposals to solve the problems.
Participation of experts and lay people
In most countries public participation has become a regular part oI green space and
urban development planning projects. Uggledal, Ior example, is a small new resi-
dential development in the urban Iringe oI Gothenburg. During the design process,
the local planner worked with groups oI women, elderly people and school children
already living in the area. The Iear oI the new development causing serious damage
to their green environment was one oI the motives Ior their participation. The process
resulted in a good Iit oI the old and the new and no NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard)
protests as is usual in such situations. This example demonstrates the need to Iine-
tune participation processes to the planning situation. There is no standard recipe Ior
participation in the practice oI interactive planning.
There is a tendency, however, to explore more options Ior active participation and
this is not limited to the design stage. The city oI Utrecht introduced a system oI
selI-management contracts, enabling groups oI residents to take over the maintenance
oI a green area in their neighbourhood. At present there are 800 oI these contracts
where the municipal department concerned provides expert advice, plant materials
and a little money. In this way, lay people and experts are involved together and are
committed to parts oI the urban green structure network. Both the Gothenburg and
the Utrecht case studies were published by GREENSCOM, a European research
project that Iocussed on communication processes related to urban growth and green
(Lundgren, 2002 ; Aalbers, 2002).
A diIIerent means oI active participation is the work oI many amateur botanists and
bird watchers taking part in regular observations. The inIormation about nature in
urban areas largely rests on their work.
Values and interests may diIIer between proIessionals and lay people and between
diIIerent interest groups in our society and this may lead to conIlicts and diIIerent
discourses about Iacts and values concerning the quality oI liIe in cities. The diI-
Ierences become more visible when investors and real estate agents enter the green
structure debate and this will become a normal Ieature iI local governments turn to
private-public partnerships responsible Ior the realisation and maintenance oI green
spaces. Under these circumstances the tendency towards interactive planning pro-
cesses is understandable. This does not imply, however, that every stakeholder has to
28
and wants to participate in every stage oI every planning process. A green structure
strategy should go with a participation strategy.
A project-oriented approach
Integrated urban projects such as new developments, urban renewal, reIurbishing
projects and big events such as exhibitions pay attention to the quality oI green struc-
ture. In several cities new beautiIul parks have been leIt behind aIter a big garden
exhibition. Integration at the project level includes ecological, social and economic
aspects and depends on the participation oI public and private partners. The punta
verde initiative in Rome has already been mentioned in the introduction. New green
areas in inner city areas result Irom major reconstruction projects and in the urban
Iringe red pavs for green` projects use higher prices Ior dwellings Ior Iunding green
areas. At the regional level pilot projects such as those in the Bieslandse Polder near
the Dutch city oI DelIt explore farming for nature options. The complexity oI modern
cities and their planning systems is overwhelming, but a way to act within this struc-
ture is to cut down ideology to concrete issues or topics and deal with them using a
project-oriented approach. This does not mean, however, that planning can be reduced
to project management. Projects should Iit into a coherent strategic vision. A green
structure plan is such a strategic vision, which can only be eIIective iI it stimulates
concrete projects that will become the Ilagship oI the strategy.
Power play, tools and skills
Ideas about co-operation and integration may be conIronted with the hard world oI
competition and power play. Green spaces can also be a battleIield Ior parties who
Iight each other Ior various reasons. The Madrid case is a good example, but in almost
all cases there is an underlying struggle Ior power.
Uncertain Iutures Ior Iarmers and an uncertain political situation around urban plans
may create conditions Ior developers to start buying land. As a result, land prices may
rise by a Iactor oI ten and a point oI no return in urban expansion is soon reached,
causing severe pressure and a diminishing role Ior the qualities oI green. Under such
conditions green structure plans may be useIul tools Ior demonstrating the Ieasibility
oI a sustainable Irame Ior a Ilexible Iuture. Planning tools, however, need skills, in
this case the skills to Iorge the policv arrangements to make ideas work.
5 Green structure : dilemmas and recommendations
The three perspectives discussed in the preceding sections throw light on a number
oI green structure and urban planning issues. The question remains what they tell us
about the central dilemmas oI the introduction.
Sprawl versus compact city ?
In the early 1990s, the compact citv debate generated a lot oI papers and policy docu-
ments such as the European Commission`s Greenpaper on the Urban Environment
29
(European Commission, 1990). The leading idea was to increase the density oI exist-
ing cities - or develop them in a compact way - in order to prevent Iurther urban
sprawl. Critics pointed out the paradox: an increase at the regional level might imply
a loss oI green spaces in the existing city (European Commission, 1996). The cities
included in the COST studies do not represent all European cities and they have not
been studied in a systematic way that justiIies conclusions about general trends, but
they may illustrate the debate and signal some diIIerent aspects.
Sprawl is the dispersion oI urban growth in the periphery oI cities; it is a creeping
process that changes the green countryside into loosely built suburbia, blurring the
contrast between town and country. The wealthy newcomers in the countryside still
work in the city or depend on its services. Their travelling creates traIIic congestion
and their cars increase CO2 emissions. New roads are being cut through the green
countryside, causing Iragmentation and creating new barriers Ior people and Ior wild-
liIe. Moreover, the exodus leaves the old cities with less money to cope with a lot oI
urban problems.
The Utrecht and Munich cases illustrate the compact citv policy, devised to prevent
Iurther sprawl. As elsewhere, the driving Iorce behind urban growth is not only a
growing urban population. A major wealth-driven trend is the decreasing number oI
people per dwelling, causing a process oI thinning. Townspeople ask Ior more space
per person and Ior more private green gardens as well, and this is a major Iactor in
urban growth and sprawl.
In Utrecht, the compact citv policy, prescribed Ior all Dutch cities by the national
government in 1990, led to the new large housing development oI Leidsche Rijn,
deliberately built close to the old city on adjacent horticultural land. The area was not
very attractive and struggled with economic decline. Under market pressure, how-
ever, the density oI the new district became rather low Ior Dutch conditions: slightly
more than 20 dwellings per hectare. Easy access to motorways and the absence oI
public transport at an early stage greatly stimulated car use. Moreover, in the past ten
years, the new expansion did not prevent small villages in the nearby Green Heart
countryside Irom building lots oI houses.
In Munich the oIIicial urban development strategy is called compact urban green`,
thus explicitly suggesting the combination oI a compact city approach with a strategy
Ior green spaces within the city. The new Messestadt Riehm district illustrates the
result: the location is an old airport not Iar Irom the city centre and the design oI the
new residential area includes a new park. Although some in-Iill projects were built
on green spaces, the experience oI Munich and many other cities such as SheIIield,
Marseilles and Oslo, demonstrates how urban regeneration generates new parks
within the existing city.
Munich and Utrecht, the two cities with a compact city policy, clearly demonstrate
that a compact city strategy does not necessarily increase the density oI existing
built-up areas and that it does not inevitably lead to a loss oI green areas. Cities such
as Munich, Marseilles, Milan and many others build on brownfields such as Iormer
industrial areas, airports, railway areas, and disused harbours. These building projects
30
themselves usually include new green areas that strengthen the urban green struc-
ture. This is not always the case iI cities expand by building on adjacent greenfields.
Although much more compact than sprawl, these expansions sometimes destroy
valuable recreation areas and habitats Ior wildliIe. In Helsinki protesters made what
they called a blood map` oI the city`s unstoppable expansion plans. Helsinki is a Iast-
growing city surrounded by abundant and Iully accessible Iorests (everv mans right)
but no oIIicial green structure plan. This is very diIIerent Irom the situation in many
other parts oI Europe where cities are surrounded by inaccessible, intensively Iarmed
countryside. The latter situation creates conditions Ior urban expansion combined
with new accessible green areas, whereas in the Helsinki case there can only be a loss
oI green space. In both situations, however, urban and regional green structure plans
may be useIul instruments to guide urban development with green qualities. The use
oI green structure plans, however, does not automatically stop undesirable develop-
ments, as demonstrated by the building oI Milan`s Malpensa Airport within the limits
oI the Ticino Regional Park.
Urban sprawl is not only a matter oI urban pressure. The eIIects oI rural pull may also
play a role. Increased industrialisation and economy-oI-scale processes in agriculture
have led to the selling oI Iarms and village houses in many parts oI Europe. In some
regions urbanites are more than welcome to bring new liIe to the countryside. But
Iarmers may also survive iI they adopt innovative business concepts. Organic Iarm-
ing, and part-time Iarming, specialising in local products and the combination oI
production and maintenance tasks by Iarmers may create an economic base to keep
green areas green. Municipalities and regional authorities may subsidise and other-
wise stimulate these innovations, as demonstrated, Ior example, by the Iarms run by
the municipality oI Rome, by the contracts with Iarmers in the green belt oI Munich
and by the farming for nature programme in The Netherlands.
Summing up, the green city and the compact city can be seen as mutually exclusive
alternatives, as the disputes in Warsaw seem to suggest, but the real situation in most
cities shows a very diIIerent practice in which compact and green are combined in
many ways. Green structure planning emerges as a promising instrument Ior creat-
ing urban landscapes, with a valuable network oI green spaces that contributes to the
identity oI the local landscape. Green structure is more likely to resist uncontrolled
urban development than individual green spaces. At an urban level green structure
planning is an instrument that seems to be made Ior an attractive alternative to both
high-density and unlimited sprawl. Lobe cities with green wedges create conditions
Ior a long green edge oI the city that enables people to combine the proximity oI
urban services with living close to urban and regional green spaces. At a regional
level green structure planning may establish a network oI regional parks that struc-
tures both urban and agricultural development.
High-density urban areas may have reduced the pressure, but they did not stop urban
sprawl and certainly did not reduce the use oI the private car. But this does not make
the idea oI more compact cities obsolete. Most urban citizens love the visual contrast
31
between built-up and green areas. ThereIore, compact building with green quality
inside cities and a green structure policy at the regional level is a promising combina-
tion.
Defence or integration ?
The dilemma oI urban sprawl or high density deIines the issue as a choice between
various options Ior urban development. From the green side the dilemma is oIten seen
as a choice between the deIence and integration oI green areas. Should green spaces
be protected by deIending them against the city or by giving them a role in a new
multiIunctional urban landscape?
The deIending green story is told as defending nature against the citv. Urban growth
has indeed occupied the places oI Iorests, river valleys and wetlands and this experi-
ence reinIorces an old idea oI the city as the enemy oI nature. The polarity oI town
and country is perceived as the more Iundamental polarity between man and nature
and this idea is deeply rooted in our cultural history. Some people combine the idea
with other archetypical views when they describe the city as the seat oI all evil and
stress, as opposed to the pure and quiet countryside. On the other side many design-
ers and others hold the view that urban culture has to be deIended against the wild
nature. The dominating culture in the management oI green spaces is still a smooth,
straight and tidv` approach, with short cut lawns that express a deIence against the
wild, against nature. These deeply rooted Ieelings, oIten mixed with nostalgia, may
give mythical dimensions to the debate and sharpen the polarity, leaving only strate-
gies Ior deIending green spaces against the city as a policy option.
These myths, however, are obsolete. Whether we like it or not, the city is an ecosystem
where natural processes work. The COST C11 working group on ecology has studied
issues related to biodiversity, climate and the water cycle in urban ecosystems. In the
city, oI course, natural processes are highly manipulated, but this is no diIIerent Irom
the countryside. The manipulation oI natural processes can hardly be more radical
than on a modern Iarm. II there is anything leIt oI a general polarity between town
and country, it is certainly not the polarity between nature and culture.
The obsolescence oI the myths, however, does not imply that the contrast in percep-
tion and experience between built-up and green areas is outdated, or that the contrast
between wild and cultivated has to be given up. The second COST C11 working
group has studied the human values oI green spaces and the importance oI making
them part oI urban design. More than ever, urban citizens an increasing majority oI
the population are longing Ior green spaces and Ior regional identity, a quality that is
intimately linked to the ecology and the cultural history oI the urban landscape. This
leads to an integrative approach in which red and green is no longer an either or
dilemma, but a both and option. Likewise, both wild and cultivated are at home in
the urban landscape.
The COST planning-process working group described the diIIerent approaches as
discourses and the Ticino case illustrates the way in which the dominant discourse
32
may shiIt in the recent history oI urban development. In Lombardia, the discourse
oI deIence gradually changed into a discourse oI the challenge to combine industrial
development with nature and landscape preservation. This resulted in a Territorial Co-
ordination Plan Ior the Ticino Park. In recent years, however, with the building and
possible expansion oI Malpensa Airport and plans Ior new railways and highways,
the discourse seems to have changed back to the deIensive 'Salviamo il Parco'¨ or
'Save the Park¨. At the regional level, however, this does not imply a complete return
to deIensive strategies. It may be concluded that deIending green in one place may
well be combined with integrating green and urban development in another. In this
context, green structure planning may be an eIIective tool Ior a balanced approach.
The myths about town and country, man and nature, cultivated and wild are persistent,
they will not simply disappear because oI their inconsistency and they seem to be
inIluential in Iraming research, design and planning priorities. Possibly, a deIensive
attitude inIluences the priority in biological research Ior species counting, which
demonstrates the loss or gain oI species without linking this to the relevant ecological
conditions. Presumably, there is also a deIensive background to the Iocus oI environ-
mental psychologists on green is healthv` research and the economists` preIerence Ior
green is valuable` research. The deIensive approach Iocuses on knowing that green
is good and urban growth is bad. The integrative approach Iocuses on knowing how
green issues can play a role in urban development and this includes knowing how to
cope with conIlicts.
Down at the practical project level, however, the COST studies Iound a great number
oI projects that support an integrative approach and emphasise the need Ior contrast
between built-up and green areas and between cultivated and wild. At the regional
level the challenge is to know how diIIerent activities may take advantage oI diIIer-
ent opportunities in the urban landscape. New Iorests and new lakes, Ior example,
may stop urban growth in one area, while giving way to Iurther development in
other areas. Green areas need protection in some places, such as the Bastides area
in Marseilles but protection here should be part oI a general strategy Ior integrated
green urban development. Green structure planning is a very useIul element in these
planning processes. Many cities demonstrate that there is a lot to be gained by making
creative use oI the opportunities that present themselves when green structure plan-
ning joins Iorces with planning Ior other networks such as water, traIIic, greenways
Ior recreation and green corridors Ior wildliIe.
It can be concluded that, in practice, integration through co-operation may also
include generating support Irom people with diIIerent attitudes and opting Ior diI-
Ierent strategies in diIIerent places. At the regional level, an understanding oI the
potential oI green structure may link urban development and design to the identity oI
the local landscape. At the urban and district level the green structure contributes to
the identity oI the Iunctional and cultural urban tissue, including providing a contrast
between wild and cultivated. At both levels a multiIunctional approach to planning
and management creates broad support and thereby the conditions Ior a sustainable
role Ior green areas in urban development.
33
Top-down or bottom-up ?
Green structure planning cannot escape Irom the top-down versus bottom-up dilem-
ma. Public support and commitment is indispensable Ior a good Iunctioning network
oI green areas and the participation oI residents and users in planning and mainte-
nance may ultimately turn green spaces into green places. Personal attachment cre-
ates a sense oI place that makes people Ieel at home. A bottom-up approach to green
structure planning is the only way to make this happen. Critics, however, state that
this will lead to unrealistic dreams and NIMBY behaviour: shiIting the problems to
the neighbours.
On the other hand, green structure is also a part oI the regional system and so requires
specialised knowledge oI landscape ecology, water management, traIIic Ilows and
land-use economics. Moreover, conIlicting interests require wheeling and dealing
between government oIIicials and representatives oI interest groups. As a result, green
structure planning may lead to results. Critics argue that these results are oIten Iormal
compromises that make nobody happy. Moreover, the process becomes bureaucratic
and technocratic, making the lay people`s local debates redundant.
This is not the whole story, however. In many countries there is also a bottom-up
versus top-down debate between municipalities and higher levels oI government. At
the European level, the principle oI subsidiarity delegates responsibility to the low-
est possible level oI government. Green spaces used to be a clear case oI municipal
responsibility. Green structure, however, asks Ior a regional or higher authority to
decide in cases oI conIlicts, as is the case Ior the road and rail inIrastructure and the
water network.
The Plan Ior the River Isar in Munich, Ior example, managed to bridge the gap
between the municipal and higher levels. The city oI Munich, upstream and down-
stream municipalities, regional authorities and interest groups worked together,
understanding that they are all part oI one ecosystem. It seems that in this process,
the direct neighbours, the 200,000 people living next to the river, were nearly Iorgot-
ten and Ior that reason some local politicians were opposing the plan. This stresses
the importance oI including the lowest planning levels in a multi-level approach and
oI organising a planning cycle that combines top-down and bottom-up stages.
The Park Forest, Ghent project illustrates how this approach can work. Regional pol-
icy makers aiming to reverse deIorestation in Flanders succeeded in convincing the
regional government partners oI the need to plan a new 300 hectares multiIunctional
Iorest in the urban Iringe oI Ghent. A new urban Iorest was proposed, deliberately
planned to create a new natural border oI the city and steering the growth oI the city
to less vulnerable areas. This proposal was considered worthwhile Irom a regional
perspective, but at the stage oI public participation the local residents rejected the
plan as a top-down idea and preIerred an open green landscape to a closed Iorest. The
bottom-up participation process changed the plan. The result is an open Iorest type
interwoven with Iarmland.
34
Sometimes, as in the Ghent case, a combined top-down and bottom-up planning cycle
Ior a comprehensive landscape plan is an option. The concept oI green structure, how-
ever, also poses other options to escape the dilemma. In many cases, there is no possi-
bility oI making and no need Ior a comprehensive plan Ior a large area. Uncertainties
about the Iuture oI agriculture, Ior example, or about the market Ior housing and
industrial areas, and about available public Iunds Ior recreation and nature conserva-
tion, urge planners and politicians to make Ilexible plans. In this context then, green
structure can be understood as the backbone, not the Ilesh, as a Irame rather than
the in-Iill. Perceived in this way, the knowledge oI experts and the power oI interest
groups, controlled by regional democratic institutions, may very well dominate the
strategy Ior maintaining and developing a regional green structure. This structure may
serve as a sustainable spatial and ecological Irame Ior Ilexible in-Iill options based
primarily on bottom-up decision-making processes. This approach comes close to the
Two Networks Strategy, in which green structure primarily joins Iorces with the water
network and with greenways Ior pedestrians and cyclists. The traIIic network acts
as a carrying structure Ior the more dynamic economic Iunctions (Tjallingii, 1995;
European Commission, 1996; Aalbers & JonkhoI, 1995).
Recommendations
The discussion about dilemmas leads to an emphasis on the integrated quality oI
green structure rather than the quantity oI green spaces. DeIining quality in general
terms is not so easy, however. The existing and potential qualities oI green structures
are intimately linked to the nature oI the local landscape and to local needs. To a
certain extent, thereIore, the quality oI green structure can only be the unique result
oI local eIIorts. General quality aspects do exist, however, and it seems justiIied to
recommend Iurther studies aiming at general conclusions about the quality oI green
structure in diIIerent situations. It is not justiIied, however, to expect a complete
set oI cause and eIIect relationships leading to Iull control over nature and culture.
Without ever being able to predict the result oI every action, we may expect a better
understanding oI the physical and social conditions. The quality oI green structure
will be the result oI these conditions and the interactive process between actors in a
city. This local interaction can become a learning process, iI both the experiences and
the context are documented and communicated.
The COST C11 action teaches us that the exchange oI these experiences stimulates
Iurther action and a continued learning process that can enhance the skills required
Ior Iinding local solutions. The Iocus on quality, context, multi-Iunctionality and co-
operation is, thereIore, the central recommendation and serves as the background oI
the Iollowing remarks.
Tgeqoogpfcvkqpu"hqt"fgukipgtu
MultiIunctional use does not mean that everything can happen anywhere. Further
design studies are needed to explore the options Ior diIIerent Iunctions to be good
neighbours in the network oI green spaces. The saying goes that good fences make
35
good neighbours and this is also true Ior the zoning oI Iunctions. Designers may
explore the zoning and Iencing that make the right Iit oI activities Ior the local situa-
tion. But a programme oI research bv design may also generate more general guiding
principles Ior promising combinations and the spatial and technical conditions Ior
green structure planning.
One oI the Iocal points Ior Iurther design studies should be the combined planning
options Ior green structure and water. Already many cities have started river restoration
schemes that combine Ilood control with recreation and biodiversity. Disconnecting
rainwater Irom the sewerage system is on the agenda oI an increasing number oI cit-
ies, both in new and existing urban districts. This asks Ior combined green and water
planning at the rooI, street and neighbourhood levels. The challenge Ior designers is
to link the regional networks oI green and water with the more intricate networks at
the neighbourhood level.
A second Iocal point is the relationship between green and traIIic. Design studies
need to explore Iurther the options Ior attractive and saIe pedestrian and cycle paths
in combination with ecological corridors and water. Besides, the crossings oI these
greenways by heavy inIrastructure deserve special attention.
Tgeqoogpfcvkqpu"hqt"ocpcigtu"cpf"ockpvgpcpeg
The role oI maintenance in creating quality oI urban green spaces is underestimated.
Design studies always need to be combined with maintenance studies. Special atten-
tion is required Ior the contrast and combination oI wild and cultivated in maintenance
practice. Interactive learning bv doing processes involving residents and users should
explore Iurther the options Ior an ecologically and economically sustainable green
structure, which combine with the symbols oI nature dominating the public debate.
From a social point oI view, maintenance contracts with residents and other citizen
groups deserve Iurther attention. The assessment oI pilot projects will be an essential
method Ior Iocussing on interrelated issues in a practical setting that includes ecologi-
cal, social and economic issues.
Tgeqoogpfcvkqpu"hqt"rncppgtu
Planners are proIessional experts in municipal and regional sector departments, but
the title planner may also be used in a wider context, to include leaders oI resident
groups, non-governmental organisations and politicians engaged in the process oI
making plans. A lot may be learned Irom the experiences oI both conIlict and co-
operation during these planning processes. Here promising combinations oI green
structure design, Iinancing and maintenance may emerge. True win-win situations
may be rare, but they exist and Iurther options should be considered. Pilot projects
exploring, Ior instance, the approaches oI red pavs for green and farming for nature
may show the way Ior other creative public and private initiatives. From these experi-
ences we may learn about the real options Ior integrating green structure into urban
planning at diIIerent levels and across sector interests.
36
Tgeqoogpfcvkqpu"hqt"tgugctejgtu
Following the tradition oI their own discipline, researchers tend to specialise in ana-
lytical research and we do need more oI this to Iill the many gaps in our understand-
ing oI the physical and social processes related to green structure. More knowledge
is needed about the role oI green structure in regulating the urban climate in diIIerent
parts oI Europe and about the role oI green corridors in the ecology oI pests and pest
control. Serious gaps also exist in our understanding oI people`s attitudes to mainte-
nance practices and about the long-term eIIects on health oI diIIerent green spaces in
urban areas.
The most important recommendation Ior research, however, is to Iocus more studies
on the assessment oI integrated projects. The COST C11 experience points to the
vital role oI an integrated approach to green structure and urban planning. Assessment
studies are a basic element oI the learning bv doing process that is essential Ior
this approach. Best practices oI one city cannot simply be copied by another city.
Researchers, thereIore, should study and describe careIully both the general aspects
oI a project and its local context. Designers and planners working on multiIunctional
options and integrated plans need the assistance oI researchers Ior monitoring, Ior
studies on the eIIects and to reIlect on the role oI green structure in urban planning.
Only increased co-operation between researchers and practitioners can produce the
know-how that is required Ior eIIective green structure planning.
References :
Aalbers, C., Ekamper, T., Tjallingii, S.P. and van den Top, M., 2002. The Utrecht-
Houten Case Studv. GREENSCOM work package 4. Alterra, Wageningen.
Aalbers, C. and JonkhoI, J., 2003. S2N, the strategv of the two networks revisited.
Aeneas Publishers, Boxtel, NL.
Breheny, M., 1992. The Contradictions oI the Compact City: A Review. In: Breheny,
M.J. (ed) Sustainable Development and Urban Form (European Research in Regional
Science 2) 138-59. Pion, London.
European Commission, 1990. Greenpaper on the Urban Environment. Luxemburg.
European Commission, 1996. European Sustainable Cities. Report by the Expert
Group on the Urban Environment. (p.198, 1999) Directorate General XI, Brussels.
European Commission, 1999. European Spatial Development Perspective.
Luxemburg.
Fleury, D. (ed.) 2002. A citv for pedestrians, policv making and implementation. Final
report COST Action C6. EC Publications, Luxemburg.
Lundgren Alm, E., Malbert, B. and Korhonen, P., 2002. The Gòteborg Case Studv.
GREENSCOM work package 7. Chalmers University, Göteborg.
Tjallingii. S.P., 1995: Ecopolis, strategies for ecologicallv sound urban development.
(p.106) Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
37
38 39
SheIIield (United Kingdom), Marseilles (France), Zaartpark in Breda (The Netherlands), The Englische Garten in
Munich (Germany), Bridge on the Ticino in Pavia (Italy), The new central Library in Warsaw (Poland), The Forum
in Rome (Italy), Overall view oI Oslo (Norway) , Path connecting the town centre with the Iacilities area in Ceske
Budejovice (Czech Republic).
38 39
CHAPTER 2
Main challenges through
contemporary examples
40
The Green Structure of Sheffield
Anne Beer
MAP21 Ltd., SheIIield, and ProIessor Emeritus oI the Department oI Landscape,
University oI SheIIield. England, anne.beer¸btinternet.com
1 Introduction
SheIIield has no Green Structure Plan, since such a tool` is not part oI the UK urban
planning process. This paper gives a brieI overview oI the present situation regarding
greenspace in SheIIield and describes how the planning system has dealt with green
spaces in the absence oI a speciIic Plan`. It also considers the need Ior a more eIIec-
tive approach to greenspace as a part oI the city`s move towards more sustainable
development.
Unlike many other cities studied as part oI this COST C11 project, SheIIield`s prob-
lems relating to green structure do not stem Irom a lack oI greenspace itselI, or Irom
Iigure 1:SheIIield`s greenspace
unstructured greenspace. Instead there is a richness and variety oI space and oI high
quality landscape Ior the population to use and enjoy. The problem Iacing the City is
to manage this rich resource with very limited budgets and to use the planning sys-
tem eIIectively, both to conserve the best greenspace and to enhance the remainder
through sustainable land use and management. The City has been booming economi-
cally in recent years and the existing high quality green spaces, as well as those which
have been enhanced, have helped to Ioster the Irame oI mind that has enabled this
to happen. There is now a clear understanding in the City that its green spaces are
important to its Iuture and this is a very diIIerent situation Irom only Iive years ago.
2 Sheffield`s green backcloth
Background
SheIIield is an industrial city in the north oI England. It is the IiIth largest municipal-
ity in England, with a population oI 513,000 living within the Metropolitan District
(MD - the administrative area which includes both urban and rural areas) on 36,238
hectares. The density oI population Ior the SheIIield MD is 14 persons per hectare,
although within the built-up area, that is excluding both the rural area and the Peak
Park, it is 40 persons per hectare. One third oI the SheIIield MD lies within the Peak
District National Park (no other UK city has part oI a national park within its bound-
ary). One third is agricultural, with some scattered villages, and the other third is
urban. Over halI oI the City`s dwellings lie within 15 minutes` walk oI open country-
side or major urban open spaces and there are views out to open hills and Iields Irom
every part oI the City, due its hilly nature. The topography has exerted an exception-
ally strong inIluence on the Iorm oI settlement and the location oI green spaces, partly
because oI the deeply incised river system and partly because oI height variations
the lowest part oI the City lies at about 10m above sea level and the highest over
500 m.
AIter three decades oI great economic diIIiculties due to the restructuring oI employ-
ment opportunities, SheIIield is once more a thriving city, attracting many commuters
and shoppers Irom a hinterland oI over 1 million people. The many regeneration proj-
ects Iunded by the EU and UK government initiatives have begun to make a major
impact on the urban landscape, as well as the local economy and social liIe. SheIIield
is one oI the greenest cities in the UK. Even when owned by the City Council or
Water Boards, much oI the rural area and the moorland oI the Peak District are main-
tained by private individuals or companies. In these areas access agreements ensure
the public use oI such land (Iootways and cycleways), and some Iunding is available
Ior landscape improvements.
Figure 1 shows the major green spaces managed by the City within the context oI the
actual greenspace within the city boundary. It has been calculated that SheIIield`s 99
major urban open spaces attract over 25 million visits each year. It is recognised that
41
42
1. Diagram oI built-up areas. 2. SheIIield, Crookes. Housing now very popular with students. 3. Dia-
gram to indicate the extend oI green spaces within the city boundaries. 4. Ranmoor, late 19th century
houses. 5. Cathedral St Peter and St Paul. 6. The top oI the Porter Brook, steep sided valley, a Iootpath
Iollow the stream down almost into the city centre. 7. DensiIication in Ranmoor. 8. SheIIield moors
on the east oI the city. 8. The MayIield Valley to the west oI the city centre (green belt). photos Anne
Beer.
they play a vital part in the inhabitants` and visitors` perception oI the local quality oI
liIe; in acknowledgement oI this the City is actively upgrading sub-standard spaces,
many oI which suIIered two decades oI neglect as Council budgets Ior greenspace
were cut. These cut backs were enIorced by central Government controls over local
authority expenditure, but the relative lack oI regard Ior greenspace at the time meant
that these were disproportionately applied to this area oI the Council`s responsibili-
ties. A similar situation existed in all British cities (Swanwick et al., 2003).
The City also manages directly, or indirectly through management agreements,
over 150 woodlands. Due to the hills that they oIten clad, these woods are visually
dominant elements, so inIluencing visitors` as well as inhabitants` perceptions oI
the City out oI all proportion to the extent oI wooded land. Even within the totally
built-up city centre and in the major industrial areas, there is a constant awareness
oI being near and surrounded by nature a very unusual Ieeling Ior city-dwellers. A
recent initiative to increase the area oI woodland, which is already having an impact
on the quality oI SheIIield`s urban Iringe on the northern and eastern sides, has
been the creation oI the South Yorkshire Forest (SYF - www.syIorest.co.uk), part oI
which is within SheIIield. The SYF is supported by the Countryside Commission,
Forestry Authority, the City Council and the neighbouring towns oI Barnsley and
Rotherham.
3 Sheffield and its urban landscapes and biodiversity
To understand the green structure oI the City oI SheIIield - why there is so much
greenspace and the distribution and variation in quality oI that space - it is neces-
sary to understand how SheIIield expanded Irom a group oI dispersed villages into a
major industrial city and to recognise the role that topography and the river system
have had in limiting, directing and shaping that growth (see the COSTC11 website
www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/SheIIield ).
The qualities of the present green structure
The present day green structure oI the City has evolved as a pattern in response to
the local physical environment. There is a web oI linked greenspace corridors along
the river system that leads into the surrounding moorland to the west and north oI
the City, and to agricultural land to the south and east. Much oI this basic green
structure remains very rich in wildliIe, despite much oI its being in the midst oI an
urban area.
SheIIield contains the most varied range oI landscapes to be Iound in any city in
the UK. These landscapes range Irom the hard surIaces oI the dense urban centre,
through the housing and industrial areas to its hills, lakes (dams) and moorlands.
From every part oI SheIIield the hills dominate the skyline. Its river valleys lead
up to the open countryside that surrounds the City to the north, south and west.
The geology oI the area explains to a large extent the variation in the local natural
43
landscapes, as well as the initial growth oI this city as an industrial centre based on
local natural resources. It is the unique combination oI natural and human cultural
Iactors that have shaped SheIIield`s landscape and created its special qualities and
character.
SheIIield`s agricultural Iringe Iorms a major part oI its green spaces; it is highly
valued by its inhabitants. Most oI it was bought by the City in the 1930s to hold Ior
the beneIit oI the local people and later was declared as Green Belt. Farms are leased
to Iarmers, who also manage the landscape. Some amalgamation oI working units
has taken place as Iarming has changed and many outlying Iarm buildings are now
solely Ior residential use - and are much sought aIter. Development in the Green Belt
is highly controlled, but there is constant pressure Irom developers to be allowed to
build in this protected area and Irom central Government to reconsider boundaries.
As a result, identiIication oI any exceptional circumstances where development might
be allowed is underway; this takes account oI the strategic issue Ior the City relating
to the viability oI existing settlements, as well as the availability oI serviced land (Ior
instance, that previously used Ior other uses, such as schools).
Greenspace and Biodiversity
Nature can migrate Ireely along the river corridors and move into domestic gardens
and the open spaces in search oI suitable habitats. Deer have even been seen where
the green corridors penetrate the city centre and the industrial areas. Foxes and squir-
rels abound and are Iound in gardens as well as larger open spaces. There is a rich bird
liIe in the gardens and those open spaces which are the well vegetated. Water quality
has improved substantially in all the local rivers over the last decade. A wider range
oI Iish and aquatic liIe is now to be Iound. The City, which Ior many decades has pro-
tected its best area oI natural value lying within its boundary in line with Government
guidance, is now considering how best to categorise and protect the non-statutory
sites as well. English Nature, the UK Government`s advisor on nature conservation,
recommends that people should have an accessible natural green space within 300
metres oI their home. They also recommend that Local Nature Reserves should be
provided at the level oI 1 hectare Ior every 1,000 people. It is likely that these stan-
dards will be incorporated into new city planning strategies. For Iurther inIormation
about nature in SheIIield see www.wildsheIIield.com and the www.map21ltd.com/
COSTC11 website.
The private domestic gardens - preserving tree cover and biodiversity
In extensive areas oI the garden, and in some places the street, trees are an important
Ieature oI the local landscape; they do much to make it such a green place in which
to live. The Council has statutory powers to protect trees which are oI high amenity
value: through the use oI Tree Preservation Orders and Conservation Area Status,
and, Ior speciIic sites, through Planning Conditions on new or modiIied development.
Preservation orders can be placed on single trees, groups oI trees and even whole
woodlands. II a tree preservation order is in Iorce, it is necessary to obtain consent
44
Irom the Council beIore carrying out any work on the trees covered. Generally tree
preservation orders are issued only where there is some evidence that trees may be
under threat oI damage or removal, or where they are important Ieatures, visible to
the public as landmarks. When planning permission is granted Ior a new develop-
ment, a condition may be attached requiring permission to be obtained Ior any work
on trees. In conservation areas it is necessary to inIorm the Council six weeks beIore
carrying out work on any tree except saplings.
The planning system in Britain encourages the protection oI tree cover as densiIi-
cation and redevelopment take place. So it is normal procedure Ior the planners to
insist on layouts that retain the major trees. This may seem at Iirst to be an excellent
solution, but long-term studies by Dr. O. L. Gilbert (1999), a SheIIield ecologist,
have shown that such trees deteriorate rapidly iI buildings or service-runs are too
close.
They oIten require Ielling within a decade because oI the deterioration in their condi-
tion, although initially they might seem to have come through the site construction
process unharmed. In SheIIield, the impact oI densiIication on the urban landscape
oI the area to the west oI the centre, an area laid out in the late nineteenth century
and recognised as one oI the highest quality suburban landscapes in Britain, is
only gradually becoming obvious. The deterioration is likely to be exacerbated by
the newest Government directives encouraging the densiIication oI development.
The British dislike oI high-rise housing means that development takes the Iorm oI
low-rise blocks or dense terrace housing (now termed town houses` Ior marketing
reasons) to meet the density requirements oI central Government. Both these Iorms
mean that buildings and sealed surIaces take up virtually the whole ground area oI
the development, with only a small ring oI unsealed surIace around the edge. This
approach inevitably has an adverse impact on tree survival rates and increases the
likelihood oI Ilash Ilooding, as the surIace water can no longer sink into the ground.
Developers are targeting the western side oI the city, not because land is cheaper
there, but because it is where they can make the most proIit. In this area the cost oI
houses is substantially higher than in other parts oI the City, as buyers are willing to
pay a premium Ior a better` - in this case greener - looking location. However, it is
exactly this special, green-dominated landscape that the new developments are kill-
ing oII, with their direct impact on the health oI trees. It is a situation that the City
planners seem powerless to prevent, because oI ill-thought out central Government
guidance.
Not only is the tree cover in private gardens important itselI, but also the biodiversity
that these trees are able to support. As in other British cities, SheIIield contains a
patchwork` oI gardens, which are as much a part oI its greenspace as its parks and
other public and private green spaces. According to recent research (Gaston, 2002
and Thompson et al., 2003) domestic gardens cover about 23° oI the built-up area
oI SheIIield. There are over 175,000 gardens with at least 25,000 ponds, 45,000
45
nest boxes, 50,000 composts and about 360,000 trees taller than 2 m. This is a vast
resource supporting the survival and enhancement oI biodiversity within the built-up
area. The gardens vary greatly in size, character and maintenance regime, as also in
their capacity to support biodiversity. However, this resource could be enhanced still
Iurther, with increased public awareness (www.sheIIield.ac.uk/uni/projects/bugs).
Parks and other green spaces owned and managed by the City
The City looks aIter a range oI parks and other public open spaces. The quality oI
these spaces varies greatly, largely determined by when they were acquired and when
the work was carried out initially to make them satisIactory landscaped places Ior
a range oI recreational activities. Prior to 1880 there were Iew public gardens in
SheIIield and no real need Ior them, since everyone lived within a 10 to 15 minute
walk oI open land. The Iirst designed park was the Botanical Gardens (1833). This
was Iirst opened as a Iee paying` park Ior wealthier residents and was only opened
up to the public later on.
The valley system oI green spaces acted as a saIety valve all the time that the City
was growing, but gradually as people became more cut oII Irom contact with the
countryside, awareness grew that this lack oI green was detrimental to the health oI
the workers. This coincided with the Iashion Ior public parks in the UK and so Irom
the 1880s, when the City was giIted EndcliIIe Park Ior its people to enjoy, to the Iinal
giIt` oI Whirlow Park in the 1960s, the City acquired a substantial area oI parkland,
most oI which was divorced Irom the valley system. These parks survived because
wealthy industrialists ensured that the land would stay as parks by using legal cov-
enants. These parks were diverse in their origin: Ior example, a deer park owned over
the centuries by the aristocracy (NorIolk Park), the grounds oI old houses (Graves
Park and Firth Park), large mature gardens oI Victorian houses (Whirlow Park), and
woodlands which had been in private ownership (Ecclesall Woods). They remain the
best parks` in the city (SheIIield City Council, 1997 and Barber, 1993).
The other parks in the City Iorm part oI the planned open spaces oI the twentieth
century. In the 1930s, when the town planning system began to become more eIIec-
tive, the maldistribution oI open space within the City became apparent. For instance,
many oI the more densely populated areas had no access to local parks within a
quarter oI a mile (400m) oI dwellings. It was recognised that there was no shortage
oI open space within the City; it was just not always in the right place. To rectiIy this
the City began to set aside part oI the land it was acquiring Ior housing as open space
and up to the 1970s all new housing areas had to include a given standard oI open
space. However, most oI this land was never properly landscaped and survives to the
present as grass patches IulIilling no recreational, biodiversity or other sustainability
Iunction. From the 1930s to the 1970s it was also common to provide playing Iields
Ior schools and public use Iollowing the National Playing Fields Association (NPFA)
46
standards oI provision. Substantial parts oI the city are still laid out and maintained
by the City Ior sports purposes. However, recently considerable sums have become
available Ior indoor sports halls and this has been associated with the building over
oI some playing Iields. Whether this is good Ior the greenspace provision oI the City
or Ior the health oI the population is a moot point.
The involvement of non-governmental agencies and the volunteer sector
Traditionally, the parks have been looked aIter by a Parks` unit, while the other open
spaces have been cared Ior by Countryside` or Woodlands` units. However, there
has been no Iinancial capacity to extend their remit to cover all the green spaces
within the City and in recent decades resource cutbacks have meant that less can be
done. (Harrison`s paper in this book deals with the growth in the volunteer sector,
which has helped overcome these problems.) The decision has now been taken to
do more to co-ordinate the work oI the vast range oI bodies involved in greenspace
projects. The Government has worked with the City to bring in the Ground Work
Trust (www.groundwork.org.uk) and to Iund it properly. The purpose oI Groundwork
SheIIield is:
1. to promote the conservation, protection and improvement oI the physical and natu-
ral environment in the City oI SheIIield
2. to provide green spaces and recreation Iacilities with the objective oI improving the
quality oI liIe Ior those living, working and visiting SheIIield
3. to increase public education in environmental matters in order to conserve, protect
and improve the environment.
Groundwork SheIIield will have dual roles as a strategic co-ordinator and enabler oI
capacity in environmental regeneration, and as a programme deliverer. The Trust has
been very successIul over two decades in a number oI towns in the UK, delivering
enhanced greenspace and acting as a regeneration agency. Its staII has a wide range
oI expertise and knowledge.
4 The effectiveness of the city planning process in relation to greenspace
A re-distribution oI resources Ior greenspace has been underway in the last decade.
This has involved a substantial increase in work undertaken by the voluntary and non-
governmental sector, rather than any expansion oI staII in local authority departments
(Harrison, 2004 in this publication). Regeneration budgets have made a considerable
input - see www.sheIIield.gov.uk. There have been noticeable improvements to many
green spaces, particularly in the city centre and the old social housing areas. Most oI
these changes are taking place on an ad hoc basis, the only planning guidance ema-
nating Irom the Unitary Development Plan (UDP). This addresses greenspace within
the urban planning process through consideration oI a range oI topics and by setting
out oI policies.
47
The present UDP (1998) recognises the role oI green spaces as a support Ior lei-
sure activities, nature conservation and the City`s visual attributes, and also that the
majority oI the City`s open spaces are in eIIect greenspace. It contains statements oI
intent on: protecting the Green Belt and its landscapes; improving public parks and
green spaces; and the need to conserve the natural heritage. It considers the need to
improve public open spaces Ior recreation and to support more wildliIe, and the need
to counteract the historic maldistribution oI green spaces. Perhaps because oI the
disparate way in which greenspace is dealt with in the English UDP system, there is
no real consideration in SheIIield`s UDP oI what ought to happen to the many other
green spaces within the City, which are not classed as public open space and thereby
protected. Luckily many oI these green spaces exist because they are on unbuildable
land (due to steepness, instability or liability to Ilood). However, over the past decade
an increasing number oI local green spaces have been built over. The recent planning
guidance on densiIication make this trend likely to accelerate, as now even private
gardens are being targeted by developers with the Government`s encouragement and
there is little that local planners can do to stop them.
The role that private gardens, and particularly their trees, play in people`s percep-
tion oI their local quality oI liIe has never been recognised by the planning system.
Yet almost as much pleasure can be had Irom strolling along a well-treed residential
street, where all the vegetation in private gardens actually grows, as Irom a walk in
a local public park. There is a real lack oI thought in the UK, as elsewhere, about
the impact oI mishandled densiIication on the quality oI liIe, and a lack oI awareness
oI the long-term costs to society in both social and economic terms oI neglecting to
consider people`s reactions to environments lacking usable greenspace (Van Herzele,
2002). Without a suitable mechanism such as a Green Structure Plan (Beer et al.,
2003) drawing attention to the vital role oI green spaces in a sustainable city, this
situation is unlikely to change.
The nearest the SheIIield UDP comes to recognising the inherent multi-Iunctional-
ity oI greenspace and how this might inIluence the overall environmental planning
and management oI the City is in the proposal Ior a Green Network`. This idea was
developed by the City ecologists and so it emphasises the role oI greenspace in link-
ing habitats and allowing the movement oI plants and animals. Its potential Ior carry-
ing recreational activity requiring linear movement is not stressed. SheIIield`s green
corridors were never planned, although they were clearly identiIied as an asset in the
unpublished plan prepared by Abercrombie in the 1930s. Parts oI the river corridor
system had been acquired by the City Irom the 1880s onwards, so part is designated
as public open space. The remainder is unprotected, except where it coincides with
nature or archaeological conservation sites. The Green Network described in the
UDPs oI the 1990s overcomes this lack oI recognition within the planning process:
a network oI Green Corridors with Green Links is envisaged. The City`s purpose in
identiIying this network is to protect areas Irom any development that would detract
48
Irom their mainly green character, or which would cause serious ecological damage;
it is presented as that part oI the city where wildliIe and recreational values can be
enhanced. Despite good intentions, the way in which the Network is described is in
reality too vague to be used at the local level where decisions are actually made as to
what should happen on a particular site, (perhaps because it had to be presented in a
speciIic way to meet Government regulations on the scope and content oI UDPs).
As in all other UK cities, SheIIield has been applying the ideas behind Agenda 21 in
the environmental management oI the city Ior some years now, but a more broadly
based approach to the inIluence oI sustainability on planning and design is being
investigated, Iollowing Iurther UK Government directives. It would be useIul iI there
were a general recognition that urban areas can only Iunction sustainably iI the green
areas (inevitably these include the natural water courses) are understood to be in a
symbiotic relationship with the built-up areas the one inIluences the other inextri-
cably, and an increased inIrastructure, social and environmental cost can only result
Irom neglecting the link.
5 A role for a green structure Plan?
There are several critical issues Ior the City as it addresses how to deal with greens-
pace within the more sustainable development process which is now its aim :
1. There is a need to recognise that public open spaces are only a part oI the City`s
total greenspace system. Public open space can only be eIIectively planned,
designed and managed sustainably in the long term iI each space is understood as
part oI this much more extensive system. It includes the private garden as much as
the river valleys; it includes the agricultural land, the woodlands and moorland, as
well as the multitude oI smaller greenspaces leIt over as development has rolled
out across the landscape surrounding the core oI the city. These latter spaces occur
either because they were too diIIicult to build on, or because they were deliberately
set out as part oI the planned provision oI open space in housing and industrial
areas during the middle period oI the twentieth century. OIten such spaces were just
grassed over, since no money Ior design and planting schemes was ever allocated;
over time they have become part oI the problem oI the visual dreariness too oIten
associated with social housing areas. These leIt over` spaces perIorm no Iunction,
Iailing to support user needs Ior spaces Ior activities, or biodiversity, or to enhance
the aesthetic qualities oI the areas around them.
2. City planning policies in general need to recognise Iully and build on the Iact that
SheIIield is Iortunate to have one oI the strongest green structures oI any city in
the UK. This green structure, which at its core is linked by watercourses, underlies
the City. The eIIectiveness oI the river system as the core oI the green structure is
49
51
supplemented by: the agricultural area, the moorland, the woodlands and water Iea-
tures which lie outside the built-up area. The public open spaces within the built-up
area and extensive private gardens, which cover much oI the surIace oI the City
outside its core area, are also linked to this system, as nature does not respect man-
made boundaries and can thrive anywhere that land is available Ior colonising.
3. All the Ieatures oI the green structure in eIIect work together to make the City
more environmentally sustainable: Ior example, together they act as a sponge to
reduce Ilash Ilooding; they support a relatively high level oI biodiversity, particu-
larly because oI the extent oI the gardens and the existence oI the natural corridors
along the rivers; the valleys drain cooler air down Irom the hilltops towards the city
centre and the industrial areas beyond, improving air quality and also temperatures
in the summer in the built-up core. This structure was never planned, it happened
by deIault because the un-buildable land was leIt to nature. However, its existence
makes the City more sustainable than it would otherwise be and this Ieature can be
built on through the planning process.
4. The maldistribution oI local green spaces in quantity, type and quality needs a
citywide approach. An examination oI the distribution oI greenspace in relation to
the needs oI local populations is at present planned, but such a study must also take
account oI all the green spaces accessible to the public, not just those designated
as public open space, and recognise that all open spaces are multi-Iunctional in a
sustainable city. This study may well reveal the location oI areas oI greenspace
which could be sold Ior development. This might even enable improvements to
local open spaces to be selI-Iinancing, as has happened in other European cities
(see Tjallingii on Breda in this book). However, in the UK some means oI over-
coming Government constraints on how local authorities can use Iinancial gains
will need to be Iound. At present much oI the maldistribution has to do with the
quality rather than the quantity oI green spaces. In the west and south oI SheIIield`s
built-up area there are many high quality urban green spaces used Ior a wide variety
oI activities, whereas most oI those in the north and east, where development was
undertaken mainly in the mid twentieth century, do not have the richness oI land-
scape to support such a range oI activity. They Iail to enhance the local quality oI
liIe, or even to act as a wildliIe support system. The City has identiIied these spaces
as top priority Ior improvement and many are currently undergoing regeneration.
However, without a planning document akin to a Green Structure Plan it is impos-
sible to prioritise work eIIectively, or even to know what an appropriate design or
management solution might be. While involving local people in the design process
is oI vital importance, their input can only be part oI a broader package oI decision-
making Ior the design and management process necessary to change each site. It
may well help local communities to be more eIIective in interacting with designers
and managers iI they can understand how their local space is part oI a larger green
structure and involved in making the City a more sustainable place; it may even
50
51
mean more resources can be allocated directly to local communities involved in
enhancing their local green spaces in the Iuture.
References
Barber, A., 1993. Sheffield Parks Regeneration Strategv, Cinteract Consultancy
Services Ior SheIIield City Council.
Beer, A. R., Delshammar, T. and Schildwacht, P., A Changing Understanding oI the
Role oI Greenspace in High-density Housing, Built Environment, 29, 2, 2003, pp.
132-143.
Bownes J. S, Riley, T., Rotherham, I.D., Vincent, S. M, 1990. Sheffield Nature
Conservation Strategv, SheIIield City Council.
Gaston, K., Secrets oI the Garden, Planet Earth, Summer, 2002. (pp 22-23), Natural
Environment Research Council.
Gilbert, O. L., 1989. The ecologv of urban habitats, Chapman and Hall, London.
Harrison, C. 2004. A partnership approach to regenerating public greenspace in
Sheffield, COSTC11.
SheIIield City Council Unit Development Plan, 1998. SheIIield City Council.
SheIIield City Council, Sheffields Historic Parks & Gardens, UDP Policv Background
Paper, 1997.
Thompson, K, Hodgson, J. G., Smith, R. M., Warren, P. H. & Gaston, K. J., (2004)
Urban domestic gardens (III): Composition and diversity oI lawn Iloras, Journal of
Jegetation Science 15: 373-378
Swanwick, C., Dunett, N., Wooley, H., Nature, Role and Value oI Green Space in
Towns and Cities: An Overview, Built Environment, 29, 2, 2003. pp. 94-106.
Van Herzele, A. and Wiedemann, T., 2002. A monitoring tool Ior the provision oI
accessible and attractive urban green spaces, Landscape and Urban Planning, 63 (2):
109-126.
52 53
Contrasting green clothes within Marseilles city
Ann Caroll Werquin
Atelier Thales Consultancy,
France, wthales¸club-
internet.Ir
.
1 Introduction, a
town belonging to three
cultural identities
Marseilles is the second
largest municipality in
France, with a population oI
798,000 living in the admin-
istrative area (both urban
and rural areas), on 24,000
hectares. The density is 33
persons per hectare, although
within the built-up area
(excluding the 9,557 unbuilt
and protected natural spaces)
it is 55 persons per hectare.
The town lays between the
sea and the Provence, being
also close to the outIall oI the
Rhône river. The coastal posi-
tion is not only the principle
Ior town-Ioundation, it is
also the very Iirst reIerence,
in Marseille people`s mind
and in visitor`s mind. The centre is at the Old Port, where the urban landscape calls
up history oI the French oldest town. Mediterranean port, town oI trans-shipment,
importance oI Ioreigners, Ieatures to be noticed in so many details, even iI being
Marseillais nowadays rarely means being a longshoreman, even iI the town-wealth
was more due in the past times to the manuIacturing oI raw materials rather than to
the trade itselI. The sea and the rocky-coast belong indeed to the city image and may-
be authorise a special relation to density : an urban density very high in a well-deIined
perimeter, representing anyhow a small part oI the whole town. It is, then, a typical
Mediterranean populated and intricate built-up city, in its patterns oI narrow streets
52 53
and in its urban spaces.
How is organised the relation to the soil oI Provence ? The town boundaries are by
hill-slopes, valuing the relation to the seashore and creating a special status Ior the
town, being both inIluenced by the meso-climate oI Provence (in vegetation and cli-
mate) and by the seaside conditions (wind, dryness, rocks) giving a sort oI indepen-
dence. Marseille appears to some extends more a town oI interaction oI Mediterranean
worlds than a town oI Provence soil.
2 A very dense city-core inside low-dense urban areas and numerous old
village-nodes
Surrounding the 'grey-city¨ exist a 'green city¨. The town did possess on the wide
civil-parish territory, in the ancient days, her own country. She succeeded in the 19 th
century in providing citizens with copius water to create Iarms, with cattle and graz-
ing-meadows, and to organise shady, greened and treed resting places, converting the
hard conditions oI local climate.
The town`s relationship with this suburb-countryside was quite speciIic to Marseilles
(and other Mediterranean towns). This territory, mostly made oI rich estates being
second homes with Iarms, etc., all realms being behind walls, not visible Irom the
narrow paths, was considered as the town itselI, because oI the customs in usual way
oI live, this part oI the city having relevant parts and Iunctions in the urban way oI
liIe (Ior the well-oII and Ior humble people) and the town resisted the development
oI the usual urban sprawl until the last three decades.
The city and this relationship with the countryside reached its peak in the middle oI
the nineteenth century due to industrial growth and to the creation oI the water Ieeder
(Marseilles`s canal), but aIter quite a long steady period (oI a quite thriving city) , the
imbalance in the green part oI the town increased aIter World War II. The rich estates
vanished or were transIormed and the pressure oI surburbanisation changed the look
and the meaning oI this special land.
These areas had long been identiIied with the use oI vegetation and water and pro-
vided spectacular seascapes and scenic views, giving them a very strong identity;
all oI which could be considered beneIicial Ior the change in scale oI the urban lay
out and planning oI space. But some sectors lost their value, in social and economic
terms: selling prices, reputation, quality oI liIe (particularly in neighbourhoods on the
northern periphery), all these being inIluenced by the building oI a large number oI
social housing estates in the 1960s and 1970s.
It was oIten a disruptive development, a chaotic consumption oI land ignoring exist-
ing sites and leaving the area in just a Iew years to become land Iilled by urbanisation
and utilities, apart Irom a very Iew protected historic mansions. An image oI the cur-
rent outskirts and oI low-density urban areas took the place oI the speciIicity oI the
Mediterranean town.
Today the transIormation is spreading over almost all the land, especially in the
northern part. The green` city is a mix oI buildings, social housing estates, individual
54
1.Calanques`
limiting the
city to the
south. 2. the
Old Port` in
the centre.
3. a overall
view oI the
grey city`.
4. view towards the sea Irom Bastide Giraudy`. 5. the Bastide itselI. 6. an alley. 7. the canal watering
the Bastides` estates. 8. a water-tower in one Bastide` park. 9. the increase oI commuting and the loss oI
others transport modes, Irom municipal statistics. 10. the canal watering the green estates surrounding the
densely-built part oI the city (and in black, the administrative boundary oI Marseilles).
54
houses (planned unit developments) and plots oI land recalling the use oI the site Irom
another era, vestiges oI parks (trees, etc.), agricultural Iields, walkways and other Iea-
tures oI the previous landscape: planted drives, water channels, etc., all Iootprints oI
the planning oI space over centuries, oI added elements to cultivate a land that would
yield the highest quality oI liIe despite the climate.
It is evident that the spread oI numerous old villages, previously providing urban
services Ior extensive areas oI countryside, made a network that is still discernible on
the map and in the landscape, although this network is Iailing by the day. These points
oI density IulIil various Iunctions, the important one oI which is giving roots in local
history to the dwellers oI this suburb-countryside.
At the city region level, urban areas have grown, as has traIIic, large areas have
become attractive Ior residential use, competition between nearby towns has
increased; the way oI looking at nearby outdoor spaces has been modiIied, masking
their cultural signiIicance.
Nowadays, what does this speciIic heritage look like? What did Marseille do in order
to manage its suburban countryside? How can we assess green structure elements in
ongoing urban planning? How can we react, and should we accept the disruption oI
such important areas as this suburban countryside, when carrying on making changes
to suit those demands? What are the concerns oI the actors and what tools are they
using or wishing to use?
What inIormation can the case study oI Marseilles bring to this range oI questions?
3 Simplified typology of the greenstructure, within the administrative area
of Marseilles
To give a general idea oI Marseille`s 'green¨ structure, outdoor spaces are recorded
here. These components (green but also blue -the sea- or white -the rocks-) are ranked
by the importance oI their image. Special qualities that can be applied to the whole
city, stemming Irom the geography, the contour and grade oI land surIace oI the urban
site, are listed Iirst, Iollowed by components oI the grey` city, then the ones oI the
green area beyond. The harbour spaces are on the border oI both urban Iabrics. A Iew
oI these elements will be highlighted, Iocusing on special questions relating to green-
structure or on a policy, tool or proceedings used to acknowledge the part played by
some urban green spaces.
High points and contour lines (topography) have special importance Ior the whole
town. High points give highly scenic seascapes and turn a building into a landmark;
they provide interesting views Irom a lot oI diIIerent places (Irom both the grey and
green parts oI the town). The church oI Notre-Dame de la Garde is a highly attractive
place, oIIering a public open space, greened, and is the most relevant landmark Ior the
town, the image oI the city, although most oI these high points are within the boundar-
ies oI private properties (e.g. terraced gardens in typical country mansions).
The opportunity oI developing such landmarks was not much taken when building
55
new housing areas in the recent decades despite there being many scenic views in the
countryside, located on slopes, even on roads.
Strong features of the natural environment that surround the built environment as
a natural green belt, such as rocky coves (calanques) and associated native ras veg-
etation (garrigues), also bring quality to the whole city. These plots oI land remain
unchanged by law through preservation constraints (scenic easement) and by means
oI the Local Plan.
The grey city` (densely built-up) comprises:
1· Drives/ walks/ boulevards: urban Iorms with multi-Iunctions (pedestrians and
traIIic); basic public spaces: strolling along the allees`, social contacts, commercial
purposes, importance Ior daily liIe. The grey` city has used these same walkways Ior
three centuries: (Cours Belsunce, Allees Meilhan in the Canebiere and Cours Pierre
Puget, previously ramparts), accessible places Ior caIe terraces, all sorts oI markets
and Ior a variety oI Iunctions in popular areas.
2· The Old Port: this is the main public plaza, built on three sides (at a glance you can
enter diIIerent historic periods), open to everyone and oIten busy. Its water strongly
evokes wildliIe.
· Public gardens in town (not a very large range by now and almost none Ior a long
time) and a very Iew private gardens with an impact on public space (as the PreIect`s
oIIice).
3· The avenues, public plazas and their trees (oIten trees and a Iountain together),
lines oI trees Iorming shaded vaulted ceilings over the public space, to make the city
beautiIul and comIortable. In this category some boulevards are more to do with
improving the appearance oI the area (such are le Prado/ boulevard Michelet).
4· Outdoor spaces in private properties are not many. Some speciIic programmes
were undertaken in the nineteenth century Ior the beneIit oI the wealthy (Ior example,
the quartier Longchamp), upgrading living in the town and contrasting it with the
historic city core.
The low-density, green` town in the suburban countryside is characterised by an
extensive range oI green spaces, various streetscapes and landscapes, a mix oI areas
oI Iarmland, high-density villages, country mansions and estates, hardscape` ele-
ments and sudden changes to accommodate urban growth, new pressures, Iast access
roads and highways: all these Ieatures created an intensely characteristic land but
also, in some parts, a ruined area, sometimes considerably so.
Components to be Iound in the green` town include:
1· Numerous private gardens attached to individual houses, and the semi-private
gardens oI high-rise blocks oI Ilats (residential dwellings or government-sponsored
housing).
2· Typical country mansions and estates called Bastides`, created in the eigh-
teenth and nineteenth centuries by men involved in the Iinancial or manuIacturing
worlds. Bastides were part oI daily liIe and the countryside belonged to the town,
56
the same people lived in both, being at the Bastide on Sundays and in summer and
in town Ior work. A century ago, nearly everyone could have such a second home:
luxurious huge mansions or tiny ones called bastidons`, a small plot oI land with just
a hut. Originally these estates used as second home also produced goods (to eat and
sell). Rich people could make a little money Irom them, while having the pleasure oI
being very close to the town and dominating the harbour and the beautiIul seascape.
The making oI these estates required skilled work to meet the geographical demands
oI the site, in order to provide a comIortable urban liIe and to enable people to settle
in an advantageous location: having water, controlling the climate by possessing a
Iresh` garden (a deep stand oI trees as in Alpine Iorests and grazing meadows as
in Switzerland, waterIalls, tiny channels along paths). With reIerence to the number
oI 5,000 mansions mentioned in 1847, the link to this mainstay oI a previous era is
declining almost on a daily basis; only about ten oI these have been oIIered protection
as national heritage sites and are to be saved.
Nowadays agricultural production has changed drastically and the downturn in the
economy is marked. Today, the Bastides have an aesthetic and cultural value belong-
ing to all the Marseillais and they remain the symbol oI quality oI liIe and wealth.
Their preservation as elements oI a collective patrimony is a step Iorwards in valuing
these outskirts. All the unbuilt land belonging to the Bastide demonstrates its potential
Ior diversity, in the land surIace itselI, its Iorms, drawings, history and environmen-
tal aspects. The memory oI a previous era can still be seen. The northern periphery
has retained traces oI the old days. Most social housing estates or units oI individual
homes were built within the boundaries oI the long gone mansion and estate, roads
are a mix oI enlarged old paths and new ones, giving each sector a special identity.
The general lines oI construction and organisation oI a site are reminders oI its long
history and can be shared by the inhabitants. As open spaces they can be put to vari-
ous recreational and educational uses nowadays :
3· The beach of le Prado and its recently created public park and lawns has quite the
same Iunction that the Old Port. It is a major public space and a very busy place, and
a great way to enjoy the sea and the surI.
4· Public gardens and recent parks, speciIic natural areas with native plants.
5· Leisure spaces, derelict spaces, open plots of land linked with Iactories and
shopping centres, Iarmland on the urban periphery, valleys and Iamily allotments.
6· Marseilles`s canal (water Ieeder), built in 1847 and responsible Ior a new type
oI agriculture replacing vineyards and olive-trees. Vegetables and grazing meadows
could be created to provide daily needs, as in huerta` areas, because oI the watering
system. Private parks could be watered. LiIe improved as the water helped to give
humidity to the air, releasing water into the atmosphere and creating updraughts,
applying the same knowledge as used in Andalusian and North AIrican towns. The
canal is used less now. It could become a leisure Iacility, beneIiting public spaces,
but the dangers oI drowning, pointed out by the municipal staII, have negated this
suggestion.
57
7· Streetscapes: narrow shaded paths and country roads, and others allees, trees in
rows along streets in the high-density old parts oI the town.
4 The stakes in the green town
As a metropolitan area, Marseille needs to restore its position oI leadership in the
regional context and to improve the dynamics oI the economy. The municipality
aims to welcome new inhabitants, employment, new headquarters Ior industry and
commerce. Its aim is to have one million inhabitants within the town itselI, while the
whole urban area is aiming at 2 million inhabitants. Land seems to be abundant in
this part oI the town, and, as a large part oI this rocky surrounding resource has been
preserved, it is said able to accommodate growth.
This strategy appears in the Local Plan, with the objective oI raising density in the
low-density part oI town. The urbanisation process is not particularly related to
detailed methodology or strategies, especially regarding sustainability. Most oI the
green town is just seen as appropriate to housing settlements.
New Iast access roads were included as an aim in the planning documents (Structure
plan and local plan) as road traIIic had increased dramatically, even with the creation
oI the underground, and their impact on the area, landscapes, images and identities is
the subject oI much debate.
A huge change in the habit oI decades seems necessary when planning additional
development and road inIrastructures, iI there is a strong will to maintain qualities
oI an existing identity, to value environmental and social concerns and a good urban
legibility.
The question oI maintaining diversity and socio-spatial balance is relevant in these
new Iast-growing suburbs largely created by private developers inside the green`
town. The relationship between Iilling the gaps in the green` city and the existence
oI previous pieces oI built environment (social housing estates, villages and other
various small settlements) needs to be Iaced. What is the cultural and social impact?
How can we seek a higher proIile Ior the town, strengthening the network oI villages,
the urban character, the services oIIered and public transportation, while at the same
time preserving the green structure, which gives it identity?
The main characteristics oI the green` city stem Irom the variety oI historical circum-
stances: Irom immigrants, varying incomes, changes over time, changes in aesthetic
tastes. Many researchers see these rapidly changing areas as a challenge, wanting to
Iind appropriate connections without diluting the diverse aspects when developing
amenities and housing.
It is a special time to try to plan the Iuture oI the green` city. A new trend stresses the
attractiveness oI the urban core in the polynuclear area as increasing, the opportunity
Ior a debate Irom which planning would beneIit is recognised by at least a Iew. (See
the book 'Aire metropolitaine marseillaise, encore un effort¨, where such ideas are
58
expressed by deputies, architects, sociologists, and specialists in urban planning and
economics).
5 Planning tools and approaches to preservation
Planning tools
Experts in planning put Iorward proposals to manage the green city quite a long
time ago (with the Iirst generation oI Master Plan called Extension Plans), but
their awareness is still to be acknowledged. The one issued Ior Marseilles in 1933,
Ior 'urban growth and beautiIying the city¨ (Jacques Greber, architect) is notable,
outlining a real project aiming at coherence in developing spaces in the Iuture. The
general idea was: lowering density in inner city, make movements easier and green-
ing the whole town. It comprised three matrices: a zoning plan, a circulation plan
and a open spaces system plan, and also included rules Ior building and a project Ior
the renovation oI the historic core oI Marseille. The general sketch was a Iorerunner
oI the Iuture and was not approved by the municipal authorities, but a large number
oI proposals were Iinally carried on Irom one plan to the next and Iinally its strong
direction heralded the urban planning oI the town in the local plan oI 1978.
This document showed how stunning urban planning was at that time, Iorecasting
the need Ior preserving the historical character oI sites inside the green` city. In the
plan, the road network classiIied diIIerent types oI roads through and around the
town: Iast access roads were in a parkway design and scenic roads with a surplus oI
green were careIully designed using the gradient oI natural topography. Areas were
set aside Irom plots oI land intended Ior building development in order to stay as
green spaces, either as the surrounding Iorests and native ras vegetated zones, or as
smaller, isolated green spaces within the housing area, protected as old mansions and
their parks, or Iarmland and existing woods. The general design aimed to value the
landscape`s elements.
Greber`s urban plan can be seen as an ambitious attempt to accommodate urban
growth and to develop an image oI valuable landscape at the same time.
The beneIit oI Greber`s plan can be seen in the preservation oI the wilderness oI the
hills surrounding the land occupied by the urban perimeter and the built and natural
countryside. The next Master Plan (not a compulsory plan, by Meyer-Heine, 1949)
retained most oI these proposals, especially those relating to a system oI parks and
green open spaces going with the main road design oI a parkway running along the
main river and the scenic road on top oI the hills.
Later on, the Structure Plans (1969, 1973) also Iocused on the need to protect large
natural areas and organised a network oI large inIrastructures and some greened
gaps` (islands oI green spaces), to break the continuum oI housing and amenities.
The recent Local Plan (POS: plan d`occupation des sols) Ior the green` city grants
the legal right oI use oI the areas oI designated private properties and contains
general principles Ior the discerning use oI the land and landscape, but not much
59
detailed inIormation on how to succeed.
In the national policies, issued in recent decades, some tools appear appropriate to
address the landscape and greenstructure issues but have not yet been put to use,
although they probably will be used later on. The success in implementing expert
proposals in active projects through development processes or spatial strategies is
very uneven, the projects Irequently being delayed or minimised. It also takes time
beIore the national regulations can be Iully adopted, as can be seen with the recently
issued planning policy (DTA: Directive territoriale d`Amenagement), which concerns
the large scale oI inter-municipal city-region.
Approaches to the protection of the Bastides (preservation, reclamation and provi-
sion oI inIormation about the Bastides (typical mansions oI the countryside).
About 200 oI these mansions are mentioned as elements oI interest (and oI cultural
importance) in the Local Plan without a spatial strategy being developed Ior them.
Quite a large number oI mansions were transIormed (in use or in Iorm) and turned into
public amenities (the building itselI becoming a hospital, or a town hall, Ior example),
but only rarely were the ancient private parks saved (Ior example, parc Borely, which
was turned into a municipal garden a century ago; St Joseph/Gd Seminaire, bought
in1976, became a town hall Ior the northern periphery; parc Pastre, 111 hectares on
the hill oI Marseilleveyre, was bought in 1974-; and parc Bregante).
Nowadays the sea and the beach oIIer crucial opportunities Ior up-to-date and success-
Iul water sports, and the seaside development is a strong competitor in the provision
oI public spaces. Having being the backbone oI the urban, low-density periphery Ior
a very long time, and continuing to give a special identity to this land even when a lot
more oI inhabitants came in, the mansions are seen as a major component oI the land-
scape by practitioners, students, associations, groups oI inhabitants and stakeholders.
So the idea oI a parc bastidaire` was created, a project Ior a green Iinger entering the
city-core in which relevant mansions and parks close to one another could Iind a new
use and be a testimony to the lay oI land, slope, surIace Ieatures, and to this art oI
managing a harsh climate and beautiIul views in appropriate resting places.
The project was Iormulated into a proposal, using the planning tool oI a Landscape
Plan (Plan de paysage) in 1993, but is still delayed today. Other proposals with the
same objectives are under discussion concerning buildings or open spaces needing
preservation, as well as educational and recreational, innovative practices Ior the
stewardship oI this land and activities connected with the inhabitants oI the nearby
large social housing estates. Progress is to notice anyhow since the beginning oI the
1980s about keen analysis oI the countryside and oI the heritage, including the
knowledge on the importance oI the mansions.
Conclusion
The town is modernising at a relatively late stage compared with several other
European large harbour cities. For example, attempts to slow down the traIIic in
central areas (with special regulations, plans to improve the underground, and the
60
creation oI special bus lanes) were long overdue, as were the projects Ior the reclama-
tion oI run down areas in the town centre (Belsunce, la Canebiere), and new layouts
Ior public spaces and derelict areas oI Iactories near the harbour (Euromediterranee,
St Charles railway station). The city is being appraised. New headquarters are com-
ing, and its Mediterranean character is now viewed more as a Iactor oI diversity and
identity. Residents appreciate the special relationship between the sea, a densely built
city and a coastal and still natural location.
Residents also want the wide range oI green spaces needed Ior modern liIe and
some new programmes oI parks have developed. Another main challenge, proposed
aIter much debate by specialists, concerns the question oI the relationship between
communities and the road system, and all that brings: pollution, lack oI legibility in
courses, lack oI identity, lack oI urban amenities, increasing dependence on cars,
news roads Iilling the most vulnerable parts oI the outskirts. These questions make
an ambitious challenge, worthy oI the new millennium.
References :
Becquart, D.,1994. Marseille, 25 ans de planification urbaine, (Marseilles, 25 vears
of urban planning) AGAM/Ed de l`Aube. .
Borruey R., Chancel, J.M., 1999. Les bastides a Marseille ('Bastides¨ in Marseilles),
Monuments Historiques, 133.
Demouchy, G., 2001. Structure verte, blanche et bleue (Green, white and blue struc-
ture), text Ior the Marseilles`s meeting, non published.
Vallette, C, Hagege, C., Viard, J., Fellmann, T., 2000. Aire metropolitaine marseil-
laise, encore un effort (Marseilless citv-region, still a progress to make ') containing
contributions by deputy-mayor Irom Marseilles, specialists in urban-planning and
economics, L`aube sud.
Chancel, R., Borruey, R., 1980. Etude exploratoire pour une mfithodologie de
repfirage svstfimatique des bastides marseillaises (Methodological approach for a
overall inventorv of the Marseilless Bastides), Marseilles`s school oI Architecture.
Lortie, A., 1994. Jacques Greber, les plans pour Philadelphie (1917) et Marseille
(1933) (J. Greber, Urban layouts Ior Philadelphia and Marseilles), La ville, p.161.
Centre Georges Pompidou.
Peraldi, M., 1983, Rumeur des lieux, la Iormation du paysage peri-urbain marseillais
(Talkative places, roots oI suburban landscape in Marseilles), Dunod, Les annales de
la recherche urbaine, 18-19, pp. 89-101.
Roncayolo, M., 1996. Marseille, les territoires du temps (Marseilles, territories, time
and historv), editions locales de France, Actes Sud.
Tamisier, C., Fuzibet., 1995. Patrimoine, Pavsage et banlieue a Marseille (Heritage,
landscape and Suburban territorv in Marseilles), Ministere de l`Equipement, Conseil
general des Bouches du Rhône, Direction regionale des AIIaires Culturelles de
PACA, Transit.
61
62
1. This paper is partly based on research oI the author at Alterra research institute, Wageningen
The Breda experience
the role of green structure in urban planning
Sybrand Tjallingii
School oI Architecture DelIt University oI Technology
1
s.p.tjallingii¸bk.tudelIt.nl
1 Introduction
Research context
Breda was one oI the
Iirst municipalities in The
Netherlands to make a
Green Structure Plan, a
strategic plan that aimed
at integrating the plans
Ior individual parks,
woodlands and grave-
yards into a vision Ior the
development oI the urban
landscape. Because oI this
pioneer role the analysis oI
the Breda case deserves a
special place in a research
programme about the role
oI green areas in urban
planning. The research
concerns the experiences
in Dutch cities and con-
tributes to the European
research co-ordinated by
the COST C11 action. In
an earlier paper I Iollowed
the same case study approach Ior the analysis oI green structure
planning in the city oI Utrecht (Tjallingii,
2003).
Issues and research questions
Green structure planning originated Irom the concern in the 1980s that it became
increasingly diIIicult to deIend green areas against increasing pressure Irom building
activities. Some actors in the green sector consider themselves to be the weaker party
and Ieel the need to develop better deIensive or oIIensive strategies: green against red.
Some oI the actors in urban planning, however, think the most eIIective strategy to
keep green areas green is integrating green areas with urban development rather than
deIending them. Is green structure planning an instrument Ior deIence or Ior integra-
tion or does it perhaps serve both strategies?
Against this background a relevant question is whether the green structure is equiva-
lent with the green network: the idea oI a network oI pathways connecting wildliIe
conservation areas, an idea that has developed as the backbone oI nature policy in The
Netherlands. In practice, this view tends to develop into a deIensive strategy. The inte-
grative approach is Iound, Ior example in the combined planning oI greenways and
cycle tracks to give new liIe to an attractive traIIic network that has a long tradition
in Dutch cities. Another integrative option is Iound in riverside parks and Iloodplains
and in other combinations oI water storage and recreation Iunctions oI green areas. In
which way green area planning is combined with policies concerning the networks oI
wildliIe traIIic and water?
Obviously, successIul green area strategies require budgets Ior development and
maintenance. Here too, the question is how green structure planning is related to
Iinancial planning. Is it public or also private? Does the Iuture oI green areas depend
on the municipal green area sector departments` budget only, or does combined use
also lead to joint Iinancial responsibility? In this context the link is important between
structure planning that creates conditions and operational planning that realises con-
crete projects.
2 The Breda Case
Landscape and urban development of Breda
The city oI Breda has approximately 160,000 inhabitants who live on a surIace oI
130 km2 ( the density is 12 persons per hectare). The Breda urban region has about
300.000 inhabitants and is part oI an urbanised zone south oI the Randstad Holland.
For the Iirst part oI this short outline I Iollow the text oI an earlier case study
(Tjallingii, 1995: 125) that contains all the details oI the municipal sources.
Breda is situated between high and low. The settlement originated where the higher
landscape oI Pleistocene sands crosses over to the Holocene lowlands where, due to
Iloods, sea clay has been sedimented. The valleys oI the small rivers, the Mark, the
Aa or Weerifs, the Molenlei and the Bifloop Ilow out here into the wider and once
busy river Mark, which Ilows to the west between a Iew remaining sand ridges. More
than anything else it is the pattern oI the river valleys that structures the green areas
in the city. To the south oI the city the landscape is wooded, but above all inIluenced
by intensive Iarming. The Iarmers heavily Iertilise and drain their land and this Ire-
quently leads to peak Ilows that make the city water levels rise by more than one
63
meter. The increasing paved surIace oI the city, oI course, adds to these problems.
The deeper ground water Ilows reach the surIace in a seepage zone on the northern
edge oI the city. Both rapid drainage and removal Ior drinking water lead to sinking
groundwater tables in the seepage zone.
It wasn`t until aIter the war that the city also expanded to the north, and in the 1960`s
the district Hoge Jucht sprung up, with a great deal oI medium rise buildings and
much light, air and space in the Iunctionalist tradition. Green areas were planned
Ior use and the total surIace had to meet a standard number oI square meters per
person. In the 1970s urban building took a diIIerent turn and the new expansion to
the Northwest, Haagse Beemden, became one oI the Iirst urban developments in The
Netherlands which was deliberately designed in dialogue with the existing landscape.
Together, landscape architect Frans Maas and urban planner Leo Tummers conceived
a new urban area with 10.000 dwellings. Recreational use was not neglected, but
green was more: the existing landscape with old country estates, woodland and Iarm-
land gave structure to the urban plan (Tummers & Tummers, 1997:125).
The 1986 green structure Plan and the green` planning history
Partly inspired by the results in Haagse Beemden, the Parks and Gardens Department
oI the time also started to think in a structural manner about the green areas in the
centre oI the city. The result was the Green Structure Plan Ior the inner city (1982).
This was expanded Iour years later to a Green Structure Plan Ior the entire city (Iig 1).
The plan made it clear that the local hydrology with river valleys and the Iloodplains,
inIiltration and upward seepage zones, was a basic ecological condition Ior the urban
landscape. In this period, the municipal services were drastically reorganised and the
Parks and Gardens Department became the Nature and Landscape Sector in the new
Environment Department. AIter a public enquiry procedure, both Green Structure
Plans were adopted by the city council and this strenghened the position oI the sector
department within the municipal organisation. The green sector took the lead in urban
planning (Langeveld, 1992: 378). Local counciller Frans Römkens, was responsible
Ior environmental issues in that period. He took an active part in the making oI the
GSPs and, looking back, he explained: ' In doing so we made clear that, starting with
the green environment, we were able to develop a vision Ior the whole territory oI the
municipality¨ (van Ginkel et al. 1995:12).
The strong image oI the main green network as a carrier Ior urban development and
the teamwork in the making oI the GSPs created political support. At the same time
it led to many local projects that Iurther expanded the public support in the Breda
community. One example is the Ponds Project: development oI new nature in urban
green areas, directed at aquatic vegetation and amphibians. Some schools adopted a
pond project in their vicinity. School children were engaged both in design and main-
tenance work (Timmermans, 1995: 150).
By the end oI the 1980s, the leading ideas oI the GSP were challenged by a new
growth task Ior Breda inspired by the Fourth National Report on Spatial Planning.
A struggle Iollowed between the Environment and Urban Development depart-
64
ments. Both departments published new studies and there was a lively public debate.
Following this, the national Eo Wijers Foundation directed their third spatial planning
ideas competition at the eco-region Breda, with the title Concepts which embrace
town and countrv with ecologv as the guiding principle.
As a result oI the discussions and the design competition consensus grew about
the need to conceive an urban development policy that considered both the spatial
claims Ior building and the basic natural system that was underlying the GSP. Step
by step the policy documents oI the Environment Department demonstrate a move
Irom a green sector view to an integrated approach incorporating both green and red
issues. These steps were marked by the Landscape Policy Plan (1990), the Municipal
Environmental Policy Plan (1991) and the Regional Ecological Model (1992). This
Regional Ecological Model Iurther elaborated the GSP Irame to become an ecological
Irame Ior sustainable urban development oI the Breda Region and included all Iunc-
tions requiring space. The Irame was able to position new residential and commercial
developments but also new ecological corridors and new urban Iorests.
Local politicians, civil servants and the public in Breda were highly inspired by world-
wide events that led to the 1992 UN Rio ConIerence about sustainable development
and this theme became a leading idea in municipal policy. A Iormer State Minister
oI the Environment became the mayor oI Breda and he Iurther promoted a strong
environmental policy. Green became identical with a broad policy Ior sustainable
urban development that included both green structure planning and an operational
programme oI projects.
In 1995, the broad green structure approach was challenged by the provincial plan
that returned to a narrow sector concept oI green as nature. The local planners, how-
ever, were able to amend the plan Ior the Breda situation. In 1997, as integrated
planning had Iurther developed at the local level, an actualisation oI the GSP Irame
was required in the context oI the new urban structure plan, the Stadsplan. The name
Green Structure Plan had disappeared but the leading idea survived and contributed
to the basic networks that Iorm the sustainable Irame Ior dynamic urban development.
This basic network is conIirmed by more recent local structure planning documents.
In recent years, the important role oI landscape structure in both rural and urban
development is recognised and named the groundlaver oI spatial planning. Both
in Dutch national spatial policy (Ministrie van VROM, 2001) and in the European
Spatial Development Perspective (European Commission 1999), a layer approach is
adopted with landscape as the groundlaver.
In the year 2003, Ior the third year in a row, the national initiative Ior sustainable
development elected Breda as the most sustainable city in The Netherlands. This
demonstrates the continuity oI the planning tradition oI which green structure plan-
ning is the backbone.
Planning, management and maintenance practice
The Breda GSP combined Iinancial commitment to priorities in the green network
65
with the principle of give and take (Verburg et al. 1994:270). This implied that in
neighbourhoods with a lot oI green areas some public green could be turned to private
green or even to red. The GSP included the agreement that the money generated in
this way could be used by the Parks department itselI to improve the quality oI green
areas in other places. This gave the Parks Department a certain Ireedom oI operation
even in a period oI severe budget constraints. The GSP provided the basic compara-
tive inIormation about green areas in diIIerent districts. But most important was the
way the GSP gave priorities Ior investment in the main green network.
The GSP also played an important role Ior the department itselI. Maintenance practice
was changing under the pressure oI increasing ecological awareness in the 1980s.
This implied the decision to Iorce back the use oI chemicals Ior weed killing in green
areas and on paved surIaces. The use oI chemicals, however, is rather cheap and
more ecological alternatives were still in an experimental stage. This led to a process
oI learning with experimental pilot projects that were assessed by the maintenance
workers, designers and local residents together. Special workshops made design-
ers Iamiliar with new practices that required Ior instance minimal paved surIaces.
Detailed instructions about the regime oI maintenance are not speciIied in the GSP
but in the operational green management plan.
Ecological networks, water and traffic
From the beginning green planning in Breda included an open eye Ior the synergism
between green areas and water issues like groundwater, riversystems and rainwater
retention. The Zaartpark project is only one example, but projects have been realised
in all river valleys and in almost every part oI Breda. One oI recent projects is the
watermachine to the northeast oI the city where rainwater storage is combined with
puriIication in a system oI lakes and watercourses on the edge oI the city. A recent
plan Ior the inner city proposes to open up again the old harbour that was Iilled in
the last century.
Planning Ior the interaction between green structure and traIIic networks has Iocused
on issues like the crossings oI rivervalleys and the main roads. Presently, planning
eIIorts in the existing city are concerned with radial development zones and the rail-
way zone where traIIic, new buildings and the quality oI public open space all play
their role. A major new project and a challenge Ior green network planning poses
the new Amsterdam Paris high speed train that passes the city through the western
Iringe. A concentration oI the new railway with existing inIrastructure in this zone
creates new opportunities Ior broad viaducts that enable the crossing oI local traIIic,
pedestrians, cyclists and wildliIe.
Structure plans and projects
The Breda GSP started a policy development that increasingly created good con-
ditions Ior projects. Starting in 1994 a series oI vearbooks for sustainable urban
development reported about the concrete urban projects that were realised. From
1994 onward, yearbooks Ior sustainable urban development presented projects and
66
67
activities oI the current year. These projects include new urban developments like the
Westerpark district, a planned digging up oI the old harbour in the inner city and a
number oI water retention plans in the urban Iringe. The yearbooks demonstrate the
wide support Ior an integrated approach Irom citizens, civil servants and politicians.
The 1999 yearbook Iocused entirely on green area projects (Kater et al.,1999). The
Zaartpark (Iigure 2) may serve as an illustration.
The Zaartpark case and the green structure plan
In 1991 a small park (6 ha) was laid out in one oI the river valleys in the city oI
Breda. The designers oI the Zaartpark, landscape architects H¹N¹S, created a green
area with many Iunctions Ior the local residents who participated in the making oI the
plan. The new park also adds an important habitat to the spatial ecological network
Ior plants and animals. And, last but not least, it perIorms an important Iunction in the
water system by providing storage Ior the clean water oI the Zaart, a brook that runs
into a polluted small river. The project costs were approximately t 1 million.
Iigure 2 : the Zaarpark, view, proIile showing the
habitat and, below, layout.
The Parks Department had not planned the project Ior 1991, so initially no Iunds
were available. However, the 1986 Green Structure Plan with its map provided a
clear picture oI the priorities Ior investments in green areas. Moreover, the principle
of give and take enabled the Parks department to use money generated by privatising
public green spaces Ior Iunding projects connected with the green network. Under
these conditions the money paid by a local hospital to buy land Ior the extension oI its
parking lot was used to start the project. Moreover, taking advantage oI the structural
position oI this site in relation to the water system, an innovative plan was designed
that made the Zaartpark a pilot-project that generated extra Iunding. In this way a
small quantitative loss oI green land could be used as a lever to gain an important
qualitative improvement in the green network.
Discussion
Returning to the issues and questions oI the introduction I will discuss them under
the Iollowing headings.
· htqo"itggp"ctgcu"vq"itggp"pgvyqtmu."htqo"swcpvkv{"vq"swcnkv{
The Breda case conIirms the idea that Green Structure Plans represent a shiIt oI atten-
tion Irom individual green areas to green networks. A survey oI 18 Dutch municipal
GSPs (Meeus et al. 1989) describes this shiIt towards a spatial network approach as a
general trend. In the Urecht case study (Tjallingii, 2003) I describe the same trend and
discuss how it relates to an international tendency illustrated Ior example by the role
oI the green zones in the German Ruhr area (IBA Emscherpark, 1992. For green open
space planning in London, Turner (1992) characterises the trend as: from standards
per 1000 to green strategv. Previous reports, he argues, have Iocused on the quantity
and distribution oI open space. In the new approach the emphasis is on the quality oI
open space and on its structural role (Turner, 1992: 385). The Utrecht GSP struggles
with the quantity versus quality issue and Iound no clear relationship between the
quality oI a green area and its surIace. The Utrecht GSP authors, however, expect poor
quality iI the surIace oI a green area is below the standard oI 20 m2 per inhabitant
(Gemeente Utrecht, 1990: 35). Although the Utrecht GSP showed spatial green struc-
tures, the green area department was reluctant to use these structures as an indication
oI value and commisioned Iurther research to quantiIy the value oI green areas. There
is no evidence, however, that the resulting Iigures (Hinssen, 1992) were perIorming as
a practical tool in the negotiations about green and red in Utrecht. In the Breda case,
the basic regional ecosystem determined the spatial structure and this is the backbone
oI the green stucture and the value oI this structure in urban planning.
This does not imply that Iigures were unimportant. QuantiIied data were analysed and
used Ior work planning and budget control (van Asperen 1983). But the Breda GSP
highlighted the structural base and used the images oI the plan to convince others oI
the need to adopt an ecological base Ior both red and green development oI the city.
68
· fghgpukxg."qhhgpukxg"qt"kpvgitcvgf
The Breda case leaves no doubt about the strategic role oI a planning approach that
started with the GSP. This approach is neither deIensive nor oIIensive. Rather, the
Breda type oI green structure planning is an integrated way to let green areas play a
prominent role in urban projects. Apparently, the essential element is the move Irom
green structure as a tool Ior sector planning to green structure as a groundlayer and
Irame Ior integrated urban planning. The Zaartpark case illustrates the useIulness oI
this tool in the Breda situation. In comparison, the Utrecht GSP resulted Irom a deIen-
sive attitude. At the project level Utrecht has had some impressive green successes,
however. One project involves the digging up and restoration oI a canal with green
banks that was Iilled thirty years ago. The evident success oI this project, however, is
not a result oI deliberate green structure planning (Tjallingii,2003).
· uvtcvgikgu"cpf"dwfigvu
The Zaartpark case also demonstrates a possible link between green structure and
budgetary planning. The Breda GSP combined Iinancial commitment to priorities
in the green network with the principle of give and take (Verburg et al. 1994:270).
Thus the department could invest in green areas in spite oI budget constraints. In the
Zaartpark case this was not enough, but the backbone position oI the new park in the
Breda green structure made it possible to tap new Iinancial sources. Obviously GSPs
can be made more eIIective iI spatial and budgettary strategies join Iorces.
· geqnqikecn"pgvyqtmu."vtchhke"cpf"ycvgt
The Breda cases conIirms the expected link between green structure planning and
policies to bring nature back to the heart oI the city. In Breda, the most important
ecological pathways are the river valleys that constitute the basic green structure oI
the city. The Zaartpark is just one example that demonstrates the potential Ior new
habitat creation as a part oI a public park.
The Zaartpark is one oI many projects that combine green area and water planning.
Other projects include the new Westerpark development and several new parks
between the central city and neighbouring villages. Breda is pioneering in this Iield.
This cannot be said oI the combination oI cycle tracks and greenways, where Breda is
lagging behind. The Utrecht satellite new town Houten is the leading example in The
Netherlands that shows the high potential oI this greenway design principle.
· itggp"uvtwevwtg"rncppkpi"cpf"itggp"wtdcp"rtqlgevu
The Breda and Utrecht cases demonstrate two diIIerent approaches. In the Breda case
green structure planning became an instrument in the emancipation oI the green sec-
tor. Gradually, a IruitIul climate oI co-operation grew that resulted in a wide range oI
integrated projects Ior sustainable urban development. In the eighties and early nine-
ties, the Utrecht green sector department used green structure planning as a deIensive
tool that had a limited impact. The recent battleIields oI red versus green had leIt their
traces and the climate was coloured by strategic interests rather than by co-operation.
In spite oI this, some important green projects survived.
69
References :

Aalbers, C., T. Ekamper, S.P. Tjallingii & M. van den Top, 2002. The Utrecht-Houten
case studv. Work Package 4 oI the GREENSCOM EU 5th Iramework research proj-
ect. Alterra, Wageningen.
Feddes, F., R Herngreen, S.Jansen, R. van Leeuwen & D. Sijmons (ed.), 1998.
Oorden van Onthouding, nieuwe natuur in verstedelifkend Nederland. (Domains oI
abstinence, new nature in urbanising Netherlands) Nai Publishers, Rotterdam.
Gemeente Breda, 1986. Groenstructuurplan. (Green Structure Plan). Breda.
Gemeente Utrecht, 1990. Groenstructuurplan. (Green Structure Plan), Utrecht.
Gemeente Utrecht, 1995. Structuurvisie Utrecht (Structure view), Utrecht.
Hinssen, P.J.W. (ed.), 1992. De kwaliteit van de ruimte in ciffers. (The quality oI open
space in Iigures)
IBA Emscherpark, 1992. Memorandum :u Inhalt und Organisation. Ministerium fùr
Stadtentwicklung. DüsseldorI.
Van Ginkel, M., A. van den Elshout & W. Timmermans (ed.), 1995. and Kater,
G., M.NoordegraaI & T.Schepman 1999: Jaarboek duur:ame stadsontwikkeling.
(Yearbook sustainable urban developnment, 1995, 1999) Gemeente Breda.
Meeus, J.H.A., 1989. Gemeentelifk groenbeleid (Municipal green area policy). Groene
reeks 13. Published under joint responsibility oI the ministy oI LNV (Agriculture,
Nature an Fisheries) and VROM (Housing, Spatial planning and the Environment) by
CAD Stedelijk Groen, Wageningen.
Meeus, J.H.A., T.J.M, Borst & M.A.M. Kuipers, 1989. Jan groenstructuurplan tot
groenbeleid, analvse van expliciet geformuleerd groembeleid in 18 gemeenten. (From
Green Structure Plan to green area policy; an analysis oI explicit green area policy in
18 municipalities) De Dorschkamp, Wageningen.
Ministerie LNV, 1990. Natuurbeleidsplan. (Nature Policy Plan) The Hague.
Ministerie LNV & Ministerie VROM, 1999. Grote stedenbeleid en Groenimpuls,
Groen in en om de stad (Big cities policy and incentives Ior green areas in and around
the city) Sdu, Den Haag.
Min.VROM, 2001. Ruimte maken, ruimte delen. Jiffde Nota over the Ruimtelifke
Ordening 2000/2020. (creating space, sharing space. IiIth policy memorandum about
spatial planning 2000/2020) Ministerie van VROM, RPD, Den Haag.
Timmermans, W., 1995. The ecological development oI brook valleys in the Breda
urban area. In: Van Engen, H., D. Kampe & S. Tjallingii (ed.) Hvdropolis, the role of
water in urban planning. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Tjallingii, S.P., 2000. Ecology on the Edge: landscape and ecology between town and
country. Landscape and Urban Planning 48 (2000) 103-119.
Tjallingii, S.P. J.H. Spijker & C.A. de Vries, 1995. Ecologisch Stadsbeheer, aan:etten
voor een strategie voor de stad Utrecht (An ecological approach to urban manage-
ment, strategy Ior the city oI Utrecht) IBN rapport 163. IBN-DLO, Wageningen.
Tummers, L.J.M.&J.M. Tummers-Zuurmond, 1997. Het land in de stad (The country
in the city). THOTH publishers, Bussum.
70
Turner, T., 1992. Open Space planning in London; Irom standards per 1000 to green
strategy. Town Planning Review. 3 (4) 1992, 365-386.
Van Asperen, H.S., 1983. Samenhang ontwerp-uitvoering bif het scheppen en
instandhouden van groenvoor:ieningen. (The relationship between design and imple-
mentation in creating and maintaining green areas) PhD dissertation. Wageningen
University.
Van Schendelen, M. van, 1997. Natuur en Ruimtelifke Ordening in Nederland, een
svmbiotische relatie. (Nature and Spatial Planning in The Netherlands, a Symbiotic
Relationship). Nai publishers, Rotterdam.
Van den Top, M. & T. Selnes 2000: Sturing van Groen om de Stad. (Steering oI green
areas around the city). Discussiepaper. ALTERRA/ LEI, Wageningen.
WRR, 1998. Ruimtelifke ontwikkelingpolitiek. (Spatial development policy) WRR
(ScientiIic Council Ior National Government Policy), report 53 Sdu Publishers , Den
Haag.
Websites:
http://www.breda.nl
http://www.utrecht.nl
http://www.groenstructuurplan.nl
71
72 73
The Greenstructure of Munich
The need for and risk of regional cooperation
Bettina Oppermann
1
and Stephan Pauleit
2
1 Department Ior Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University oI
Hannover, Germany (bettina.oppermann¸iIps.uni-hannover.de)
2 Centre Ior Forest, Landscape and Planning (KVL)The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural
University, Frederiksberg, Denmark (sp¸kvl.dk)
1 The formation of the greenstructure of Munich
The natural context ...
Munich is situated 80 kilometres north Irom the Alps in the Munich plain, a glacial and
postglacial outwash oI limestone gravel (Fig. 1). The plain has Iew geomorphologic
Ieatures to infuence urban development except the foodplain oI the river Isar with its
sequence oI river banks and terraces. Despite its overall homogeneous appearance,
a variety oI habitat types refect the fne grained pattern oI ecological conditions in
the Munich plain. Today, only small patches remain oI the natural woodland types
oI predominantly oak and the cultural landscapes such as the once extensive grassy
heathlands and Ienlands in the northern Munich plain (Fig. 2). The river Isar is a broad
green corridor Irom south to north through the city. (More inIormation can be Iound
in the policy case study in chapter xx and on the internet http://www.map21ltd.co.uk/
COSTC11).
Outside the foodplain, the woodlands have been mostly cleared in the northern part
oI the Munich plain, whereas the woodlands in the south were protected as Iorests.
Clearings around villages give this landscape a characteristic structure until today.
Most natural habitats were destroyed by modern Iarming practices and urbanisation.
They are small, isolated and oIten neglected or badly managed. Still, the results Irom
the frst habitat survey in 1983 showed that 11° oI the city surIace are important
sites Ior nature conservation. The city includes habitats that are unique and/ or have
become extinct elsewhere. Interestingly, the city`s biodiversity is higher than that oI
the surrounding countryside characterised by intensive Iarming. The natural context oI
the greenstructure is described in more detail in the 'ecology¨ case study (in chapter 3
oI the book). An extended version can be Iound on the internet.
... and urban history
The City oI Munich was only Iounded in the 12th century on the western banks oI the
river Isar. King Henrv (Heinrich der Lòwe) tore down the old bridge over the river Isar
72 73
Figure 1: Munich is situated 80 km Irom the Alps in the Munich plain (source: Bavarian
State Ministery Ior Regional Development and Environmental AIIairs 2003, p.1)
Figure 2: Usable green structure in Munich and the Munich Region. The historic
Englische Garten (Photo: S. Tiedtke) and Ienlands in the northern plaine near Freising
(Photo: I. Burckhardt)
Figure 3: Green structures and diIIerent standards oI supply in the City oI Munich (City
oI Munich, W. Nohl, 1995, p. 71)
74 75
Iurther north to build a new one. The rise oI Munich at the crossing oI two important
European trading routes, in particular Ior salt, began. Later, it became the residence oI
the Bavarian electors and then kings who created summer residences with large parks
outside the city (Nvmphenburg and Schleissheim). The summer residences were Iar
outside the city and surrounded by Iarmland. They were linked to the city by canals,
avenues and a sequence oI places and small parks.
Munich remained a small town within medieval boundaries until the 19th century. The
Map oI 1812 shows the city still mostly confned within its medieval limits, surrounded
by a corollary oI gardens, keeping respectIul distance Irom the foodplain and already
expanding northwards with the frst public garden in Europe in the English landscape
style. The Englische Garten was created by Friedrich Ludwig Sckell Irom 1789.
UnIortunately, Munich did not keep its old ring oI Iortifcations with the bastions and
most oI the historic canals still shown on the map (Fig. 2). They were later mostly built
over or flled in.
The frst big projects oI city enlargement took place in the frst part oI the 19th century,
when the elector Maximilian and King Ludwig I built new neighbourhoods in the
north, and northwest oI the city. These extensions Iollowed a grid pattern. They were
speculative and very densely built up. The strong growth in built-up areas at that time
was not complemented by the creation oI public parks. Greenspace was only created
in the Iorm oI small squares with a representative character. Moreover, big cemeteries
were located at each oI the Iour points oI the compass.
Between 1871 and the turn oI the 19th century, the city experienced a dramatic growth
Irom 170,000 to over 500,000 inhabitants. In 1935, Munich had a residential population
oI 735,000 inhabitants (LH München 1991). Most oI the industrial development took
place in the north oI Munich whereas high quality residential areas developed in the
south, around Nymphenburg in the west and along the river Isar corridor. Thus, the
diIIerentiation between the rich` south and the poor` north oI the city was already
Iounded Irom the beginning oI the city`s development.
Another element oI Munich`s greenstructure that becomes more and more important
today originates Irom this time. It is the railway system with a main corridor stretching
Irom the city centre to the west. Together with Nuremberg and Berlin, Munich was one
oI the cities chosen by the Nazis to demonstrate their power. Fortunately, the planned
grand style reconstruction oI the inner city was not carried out while large-scale
inIrastructure projects such as the motorway ring in the north and the Ireight railway
station were leIt unfnished. These derelict lands became big inIormal greenspaces and
ecologically important sites in the northern part oI Munich where public greenspaces
are lacking. Many parts oI the city were destroyed in WW II. Some squares and blocks
were not rebuilt until recently (MarienhoI, Marstallplatz). Just now, the redesign oI an
empty square in the city centre, Jakobsplatz, has begun aIter a debate about its Iuture
Ior over 50 years.
AIter the war Munich began to develop rapidly. Siemens and some other large
74 75
companies chose Munich Ior their headquarters. Larger projects to create new public
greenspaces have only been realised aIter a long period since the 1970s, with the
creation oI the Olympic Park in the north, the East Park in the 1970s and the West Park
in 1983. Each park is distinct by its 'design language¨. In the southern part oI the city,
the Isar still has some non-designed parts with gravel banks which are very popular
Ior recreation. In 1984, Günter Grizmek, then proIessor Ior landscape architecture,
started an initiative to promote this kind oI 'useIul technical landscape¨ and he raised
a lot oI protest by those experts who held up the qualities oI a well designed Iormal
greenspace.
2 Challenges for greenstructure management in Munich
Within the cities borders .
Munich is the 3rd largest municipality in Germany, with a population oI 1,3 million.
The density is 42 persons per hectare. In city statistics, Munich is listed as one oI the
most densely built-up urban areas in Germany. The economy is now mainly based on
inIormation technology, services, banking and the insurance sector. As a consequence,
the Munich region has a high percentage oI highly paid jobs and one oI the lowest
unemployment rates in Germany. There is a continuing strong need to build new
homes and oIfce foor space but land available Ior development is scarce.
The city is aware oI the need to protect and develop its greenstructure. The urban
strategy 'Munich Perspectives¨ and it is subheaded Compact - Urban - Green`. It
includes a greenspace strategy to develop a greenspace network. The so called social
land use regulation allows the city to levy a tax on the added value Irom development,
and this means is also eIIectively used to implement social and ecological measures.
However, the abandonment oI building activities and creation oI greenspaces within
the city is opportunistic, Ior instance, when land becomes available as on the Iormer
railway areas or the new neighbourhood oI Messestadt Riem. Densifcation oI the city
has been Iavoured by the planners to contain urban sprawl. Pressure on greenspace in
low density residential areas by infll densifcation is very strong. As a consequence,
gardens with many old trees are lost.
The city uses Iormal and inIormal instruments Ior greenstructure planning to achieve
its aims. Formal instruments are Ior example greenspace protection. 19° oI the city
area are under diIIerent Iorms oI protection, Irom strictly protected nature reserves
and natural monuments (e.g. heritage trees) to protected landscape areas where
development can be controlled. In addition, public greenspaces are owned by the city
or the Bavarian state (e.g. the historic parks), and thereIore well protected.
Formal planning instruments are the landscape plan on the municipal level and the
greenspace master plan on the level oI neighbourhoods. These plans set the goals
Ior landscape planning. They need to be approved by the local council and the lower
nature conservation agency oI the Iederal state and are then integrated into the land
use plan and Master plans, respectively. This integration gives the plans legal strength
76 77
Figure 1: The Isar was once (1812) a wild alpine river (Schiermeier 2003, p.83)
Figure 3: The redesigned frst section oI the river Isar aimed to restore the beauty
oI the wild river (Photos : S. Tiedtke)
Figure 2: The section oI the inner city is the most important open space Ior
recreation and outdoor activities (Photos : S. Tiedtke)
76 77
but it also means that many oI the 'green¨ contents can become lost in the process (a
more comprehensive account oI the German system oI landscape planning is given in
English in Turowski 2002).
Mitigation banking is considered today as a potentially very eIIective instrument to
link urban development with the creation oI new greenspaces. Also mitigation banking
allows to develop coherent greenstructures through combination oI compensation
measures Irom individual urban developments. Moreover, it is now required not only
to compensate Ior individual projects but also Ior Master plans. It is an open question
right now whether this compensation scheme can be extended to the regional level
and how this can be used Ior the improvement oI the greenstructure at that scale.
The creation oI greenspaces is oIten linked with large development projects. Also,
garden exhibitions have a long tradition in Germany, and especially in Munich. They
set planners under pressure to present a park and also a consistent green strategy to
the public. Cities compete with this inIormal marketing instrument and Munich will
present the new neighbourhood oI Riem with its greenspaces in 2005.
. and in cooperation with neighbouring municipalities
Munich is a concentric and very compact town. It did not succeed to incorporate the
neighbouring municipalities during the frst halI oI the 20
th
century as other cities did.
ThereIore, the big challenge oI today is to cooperate with independent neighbours
and fnd solutions Ior the siting oI unwanted inIrastructure Iacilities. For instance, the
new airport is about 40 km away Irom the city centre near Freising. It caused a huge
problem Ior the transport system. Modern public transport was mainly realized in the
1970s beIore and aIter the Olympic games. A star-like light railway system connects
a region Irom Freising to the lakes and Alps in the south. Today, the planners discuss
how this system could be converted into a network system oI public transportation to
reduce the development and transportation pressure in the central city. Water supply,
waste management and waste water treatment are Iurther Iunctions that Munich can
only handle with the help oI the region.
The big lakes and the Alps are a big attraction Ior Munich`s residents but 80 km away.
The exodus to the south causes huge traIfc problems every weekend. Since 20 years
the northern region tries hard to provide recreation Iacilities close to the settlements.
Lakes have been created Irom Iormer gravel pits Ior swimming and recreation. More
and more, the Iarmers are included in the maintenance and management oI important
landscaped zones and are encouraged to switch to selI-marketing.
3 Present activities
In the centre .The densely built up inner city and neighbouring 19th century
developments are the most defcient areas oI greenspace. The closed blocks oI the
inner city are still attractive places Ior living in neighbourhoods with small shops,
caIes, etc. However, it is diIfcult to increase the amount oI greenspace in the small
courtyards oIten used as car parks. Vacant lots are mostly redeveloped. The inner and
78 79
the middle ring road are some oI the most problematic places to live because oI the
heavy traIfc. The Iunction oI these roads has been an issue oI great political debate.
In 1996, the 'green¨ interest groups lost a public poll to reduce the capacity oI the ring
road. Instead, it was decided to put the road underground and increase its capacity. In
the north, a park has been built on top oI the covered road (Petuelpark).
. the citvs fringe . A national garden Iestival is now due to open in the new
neighbourhood Messestadt Riem in 2005. The area oI the new Messestadt Riem was
used as the main airport until 1985. The area became available Ior a large mixed
development with residential areas, an exhibition centre, commercial areas and a
modern park. In turn, the Iormer exhibition centre (Theresienhòhe) is now being
converted into a mixed neighbourhood in the inner city.
. and the region. In particular the city region is experiencing very strong growth. The
landscape is fat and rather monotonous but has many ecologically important sites such
as remnants oI the grassy heathlands and Ienlands. On this level, co-ordinated eIIorts
oI the diIIerent local authorities and all other stakeholders are required to protect and
develop the greenstructure oI the Iuture regional city. Two initiatives have been set up
Ior this purpose, the 'Heathland Society¨ and the 'Fenland Society¨. Both contribute
to the general aim to attract people in the northern part oI the Region oI Munich.
.
We will reIer to two activities in detail in the case studies oI part B oI this book. The
restoration oI the river Isar foodplain in the central and southern part oI the city is
a major project to improve greenspace provision and quality (see 'Policy¨ chapter).
The city promotes a multipurpose green belt area around Munich (see 'Ecology¨
chapter).
4 Conclusions
In some respects, urban development in Munich and its region resembles a merry-
go-round. Areas Iormerly used Ior inIrastructure Iacilities become available Ior
urban development projects by modernising or translocating the inIrastructure. These
developments create also opportunities Ior developing public greenspaces. As an
inIormal rule, one third oI the overall area becomes greenspace in large projects such
as the new neighbourhood Messestadt Riem and the redevelopment oI areas along the
main railway corridor. OI course, while big parks are created in this way, the overall
amount oI open space declines through each regional urban project. Moreover, the
scale oI impact increases with every cycle. The new airport and the new exhibition
centre are much larger than their predecessors. This increase in size is connected with
the loss oI green space and wildliIe habitats as the heaths and Ienlands in the Munich
plain.
The city did not plan a greenstructure during its main phases oI urban development
78 79
and natural physical boundaries did not restrict urban growth. Consequently, the city
has not a coherent greenspace system. Parks are rather scattered islands, except the
river Isar foodplain. There is a lack oI connecting green networks, in particular in
east-west direction.
Recently, large parks were created but the overall greenspace balance is negative.
The population has remained stable since the 1970s. However, due to increasing per-
capita space demand and the need to locate new industries and services, the pressure
on greenstructure continues to be very high. There is a need Ior adaptation oI the
existing instruments Ior greenstructure planning to meet the increasing and more
diverse recreational demands and improve the environment in the city. A reduction
oI environmental impacts, the linking oI greenspaces and the systematic reuse oI
previously developed land can only be achieved, iI coordination and cooperation,
including intensive public involvement, becomes the norm not only on a city wide
scale but also in a regional and ecologically inIormed densifcation strategy.
References
LH München, 1991a. Statistical Yearbook 1991. Census oIfce (ed.), München (in German).
LH München 1999. Munich Perspective. A summarv of the 1998 urban development strategv.
City oI Munich, Department oI Urban Planning, Munich.
LH München 1995. Erholungsrelevante Freißàchenversorgung fùr das Stadtgebiet (Open
space provision Ior recreation in the city). Perspektive München, SchriItenreihe zur
Statdentwicklung, C1, Munich (in German).
Turowski G. 2002: Spatial Planning in Germanv, Structures and concepts. Akademie Iür
RaumIorschung und Landesplanung (ARL), Hanover.
Schiermeier F., 2003: Stadtatlas Mùnchen, Karten und Modelle von 1570 bis heute. Münchner
Stadtmuseum, Stadtarchiv München, München.
.
80 81
Milan and the regional green structure` of
Lombardy
Maurizio Meriggi
Department oI architectural design, Polytechnic University oI Milan, Italy
grecomeriggi¸tiscalinet.it
1 M i l a n ,
geographic and
d e mo g r a p h i c
data
Milan (the Roman
Mediolanum 'in
the middle oI the
land¨) occupies
a central position
in the Lombardy
plain, between
the Ioot-hills oI
the Alps (nearly
40 km to the
north) the river Po
(almost 50 km to
the south) and two
oI the Po`s main
tributaries Irom
the Alps, the rivers
Ticino and Adda,
(some 30 km to
west and east, respectively).
At about 100 m. above sea level, Milan
occupies a prime position in relation to water
courses gravitating down Irom the Alps to the
plain.
Ground in the northern part oI the city is
Iairly dry, while land to the south is extremely
lush and Iertile. These geographical Iactors
have long played a key role in the city`s
development. Dense urbanisation and
manuIacturing activities in the northern part oI
80 81
the area expanded to the north-west (along the Ticino valley, towards Lake Maggiore)
and to the north-east (along the Adda valley, towards Lake Como). Conversely, land to
the south has remained principally agricultural, with relatively Iew towns concentrated
mainly along the route between the western and eastern and the seabords.
Milan and her hinterland now Iorm one oI the most densely urbanised areas in
Europe at the southern end oI theso-called Blue Banana`. In all, the city, its suburbs
and extensive outskirts (including both urban and rural areas), cover some 188
municipalities, encompassing a population oI 3,5 million and an overall area oI about
2,000 km2. The population density oI this 'Greater Milan¨ is 17,5 persons per hectare.
Considered at the regional scale, complete with medium-size belt cities (the 'Lombard
Multinuclear City¨, with the cities oI Varese, Como, Lecco, Bergamo, Brescia, Lodi,
Pavia, and the outer poles oI Novara in Piedmont and Piacenza in Emilia) the total
population amounts to nearly 7 million.
A Milan 'Urban Region¨ consisting oI the area bounded by the rivers Ticino and Adda,
to west and east, by the Ioothills oI the Alps to the cities like Novara and Bergamo, has
become a Ieature oI Planning Documents in recent years.
2 The green structures of Milan
As given above, Milan`s Green Structures should be considered Irom two points oI
view : the city and the Urban Region, i.e. the system oI urban 'green structures¨
within the metropolitan core (extending Irom the city centre to the inner peripheries
oI 'Greater Milan¨), and the system oI Regional Parks. The latter represents the most
original experience Milan has to oIIer as a case study in the Italian and European
panorama: an attempt to create a 'green structure¨ oI great size, on the scale oI an
'Urban Region¨, which also serves as a tool Ior 'grey structure¨ planning.
2.1 The green structure of ~Greater Milan¨ : from city centre to northern
periphery.
The green structure oI 'Greater Milan¨ is composed principally oI the city oI Milan`s
urban parks, supplemented by several extensive green areas located outside the
municipal boundary but within the administrative area oI the Province`.
The development oI this green structure Iollowed the expansion oI the city Irom the
mid-19th century (when Milan was still a walled city) to the end oI the 20th century
(when Milan became a conurbation). As stated earlier, the principal thrust oI this urban
growth was to the north-west and to the north-east , with some recent exceptions to
the north and east.
̋ North-east system.
In 1783, when the city was still under Habsburg rule, the frst public park was begun
in the north-eastern sector oI the city intra-muros, on land Iormerly in monastery
ownership, adjoining the 'Venice Gate¨ (Porta Venezia). Originally designed as an
'Italian garden¨ with a smaller 'English garden¨ appended to the Royal Villa oI
82 83
Ticino Valley Regional
Park, maps : countryside,
canals, urban settlements
and woodlands.
pictures : the ticino val-
ley, Vigevano piazza,
view from Tornavento,
canal locks in Vizzola,
green space with Roman
testimony in Milan
The Ticino River, the Vigevano`s square, belvedere at Tornavento, Vizzola Ticino dam, public garden in Milan
82 83
1790,.this park became the 'Giardini Pubblici di Porta Venezia¨ (17,7 hectares).
In 1881, temporary structures were erected there Ior the National Exhibition (the frst
event oI what was to become the Milan Fair).
The role oI the public gardens as a venue Ior the leisure and cultural activities
was reinIorced by the construction oI the Natural History Museum (1893) and the
Planetarium (1943). In 1777-1780, a Royal Villa was built at Monza (some 15 km
to the north-east oI Milan`s Porta Venezia) There too Italian and English landscaping
infuences were combined in the design oI the associated park (732,5 hectares). In
1922 the Iamous Monza Autodromo (motor racing circuit ) was built in the park.
The Iormer Villa now houses a school oI arts and craIts. In 1923-1927, the Monza
Bienniale (international exhibition oI decorative arts) was held there, as was the 1930
Monza Trienniale (Iorerunner oI the Milan Trienniale, frst held in 1933 at the Parco
Sempione). In the late 19th century, another large park was planned along the same
Milan-Monza axis, complete with a hippodrome. All that came oI the project was
the race-track ; it was closed in the 1920s (when horse-racing was transIerred to new
premises north-west oI the city). The Iormer track was converted Ior use as an open
air school (the Casa del Sole) and a park (the Parco Trotter).
̋ North-west system.
Soon aIter the 'Giardini Pubblici di Porta Venezia¨ opened to the public, a large new
sports stadium in the Iorm oI a Roman arena was inaugurated (1806) ; it fanked the
then Parade Ground occupying part oI a Iormer ducal hunting ground immediately
north-west oI the Castello SIorzesco.
At the end oI 19th century, the old Parade Ground was designated as the site Ior a
new public park by the frst Milan Master Plan (1889) :the Iuture 'Parco Sempione¨
(47 hectares). The second National Exhibition (1906) was held there and, nearly three
decades later, the 'Palazzo dell`Arte¨ was built in the Park Ior the frst Milan Trienniale
(1933). Meanwhile, Parade Grounds a Iew kilometers to the north-west became
available Ior other purposes. Extensive green structures had been planned around
these Parade Ground since the late 19th century. In the 1920s and 1930s the Milan
Fair was transIerred to thesite, and a group oI parks was built nearby, withextensive
sports Iacilities includinga new horse-racing track, the San Siro Iootball stadium and
a large swimming pool at the 'Lido¨. This area was enriched during the Post-World
War II reconstruction oI Milan by providing new green areas on an artifcial hill made
with accumulated rubble Irom the bomb-damaged city (1943). Called Monte Stella,
this hill also has an agricultural zone (Parco di Trenno).
̋ East system.
Two special parks were created to the east oI Milan during the 1930s : Parco Lambro,
on the River Lambro, and, a Iew kilometres Iurther south the Idroscalo a stretch
oI water originally intended to serve as a seaplane port within easy reach oI Milano
Linate airport. The Idroscalo was later converted into a aquatic sports Iacility. A new
park was created nearby in the 1960s : the Parco Forlanini.
84 85
̋ Metropolitan belt park system : North Park and South Agricultural Park
Milan`s most recently created parks are the North Park (1975) and the South
Agricultural Park (1990). Located at the interIace between the Metropolitan
administrative area and neighbouring municipalities, both these parks were planned
as links between the metropolitan core and the belt oI the Regional parks.
The North Park (600 hectares) is located within a built-up area ; it encompasses
subsisting patches oI agricultural land, scattered woods, a Iormer military airport
(part oI which is now used as a recreational airport`) and a large Secondary School
complex. The North Park represents the mmost southerly ramifcation oI the northern
Regional parks, Iorest land Ior the most part, stretching like fngers through the
agglomeration oI Milan`s northern suburbs.
The much larger South Agricultural Park (48,000 hectares) Iorms a 15 km-wide green
belt around the southern part oI the city and its outskirts, linking two Regional Parks
: the Ticino Valley Regional Park (to the west, on Lombard and Piedmont Regions)
and the Adda Valley Regional Parks, South and North (to the east). Composed
principally oI cultivated felds and compact Iarm buildings oI the courtyard type (the
'cascina¨traditional to the Po Valley ),the South Agricultural Park also encompasses a
number oI some oI satellite 'dormitory towns built in the 1970s and 1980s.
̋ New city parks in the making
In 1995, the Nine Parks project was adopted by the City oI Milan. The aim was to
create new parks in zones mainly occupied by redundant industrial and military
premises, by means oI public-private partnership agreements : the Municipality would
sanction planning zone changes (Irom industrial to residential) and high building
quotas providing 50° oI the overall site area was given over to parkland. Six oI the
Nine Parks are now at the construction phase.
̋ Dynamics
By analysing the way Milan`s green structures have been Iormed, we may observe
some phenomena closely related to the problems oI the densely built metropolitan
conurbation, notably the problem oI fnding enough large areas oI land Ior parks.
We have seen how the creation oI parks in the north-west system oI green
structuresIollowed outward shiIts, Irom the centre to the periphery, oI activities
requiring extensive areas oI land, such as military Parade Grounds or the Milan Fair
: Parco Sempione was laid out on Iormer military land (the old Parade Ground) and,
Ior a while, the Park shared this site with the Milan Fair. Later, the Milan Fair was
relocated to a site vacated by other Parade Grounds which, in turn, moved still Iurther
out oI town ; that site has since become surplus to military requirements too, and a
new park is now proposed there (one oI the Nine Parks). As the Milan Fair has been
yet again, to an out-oI-town location, the question oI whether or not its previous site
should be used Ior a green area is currently under discussion. In the case oI 'green
structures to the east and the north system oI the city, we have seen how the creation oI
parkshinged upon re-using Iormer airportsor airport-related Iacilities Ior leisure uses :
84 85
the Idroscalo, where a seaplane port was convertedIor use as a 'water park¨ ; and the
'North Park¨, where a Iormer military airport became a 'recreational airport¨.
The inter-relationship between airports and green structures` is also a major issue
with regard to Regional parks in the vicinity oI Milan (cI inIra, The Ticino Valley
Regional Park relationship with the Malpensa hub).
Another characteristic oI Milan`s green structures in the parallel development oI parks
within the city and on its outskirts. Such was the case when Milan`s frst green structure
(the 'Giardini Pubblici¨) was created within the city walls while the Duke`s park was
taking shape a Iew kilometres away, at Monza. A comparative pattern emerges Irom
analysis oI the role played by the Regional Park network, in creating green structure
at the scale oI the 'Urban Region¨ as is explained below.
2.2 Urban region green structures`: Regional park network
When considered at the scale oI the 'Urban Region¨, green structures` are
represented by a network oI Regional Parks where Municipalities and Provinces,
working as consortia, have direct responsability Ior works oI environmental renewal
and revitalisation, and Ior enabling public use oI these parks by building and/or
maintening such structures as cycle ways or canals. (Ior Iurther inIormation, cI
Policies`, the Chapter fve, Milan Case Study).
This network is composed as Iollows: two riverside parks, to east (the South and
North Park oI the Adda River, 31,400 hectares) and to west (Park oI the Ticino, 90,000
hectares); a metropolitan belt park to the south (Southern Milan Rural Park, 48,000
hectares); and two linear parks wedged between built-up areas to the north-west
(Parco delle Groane, 3,445 hectares) and to the north-east (Lambro Valley Park, 7,254
hectares). These are linked by smaller Regional parks.
This extensive green belt oI parks positioned around the city has been used by
planners as a strategic tool, to curb the outward expansion oI the 'Urban Region¨.
Yet the designation oI Regional Parks - which constitute Territorial Plans at a supra
municipal level and thus take precedence over Municipal Master Plans - has turned
out to be the only possible mechanism through which the city can be equipped with
green structure, at a time when the Milan Metropolitan area is conIronted by the
increasing deregulation oI building development and the extreme Iragmentation oI
administrative powers and planning instruments.
3 The Lombard Ticino valley Regional Park as an example of regional
scale green structure`
The Lombard part oI the Ticino Valley Regional Park, on the western outskirts oI the
Milan Metropolitan Area, is the largest one oI the Lombard parks. It was designated
in 1974 and represents the Lombardy Region`s frst experience in combining the
overall planning and design oI green areas with environmental protection, as a means
to counteract urban sprawl. One oI this park`s characteristics is the very wide swathe
(20km to30 km or more).oI protected land running the entire length oI the river
86 87
valley. In all, the park covers a total area oI 90,640 hectares ; it encompasses 430,000
inhabitants and 47 municipalities in the provinces oI Milan, Pavia and Varese.
The Lombard Ticino Valley Regional Park covers the Ticino river valley Irom Lake
Maggiore to the River Po ; its boundaries envelope river banks and the canals, large
areas oI woodland (including Iormer Ieudal hunting grounds) and agricultural land,
three medium-size cities (Pavia, Vigevano, Gallarate), several smaller cities, 2500
agricultural businesses and Malpensa airport (the inter-continental hub Ior northern
Italy). Three highways, Iour railways and several national and provincial roads
traverse the river (and hence the park).
The Ticino river bed, with its multiple foodplain ramifcations, is the widest bed oI all
the Po tributaries. It presents an exceptional biodiverse environment and constitutes
an ecological corridor (the only one in northern Italy) between central Europe and
the Mediterranean. These conditions are unique in Italy, there are no other plain
oI similar size, nor any comparable natural` environment, anywhere else in the
country. Moreover, the Ticino valley is within easy reach oI the sprawling Milanese
agglomeration, yet because it was used as a game reserve throughout the 19th and
20th centuries (by members oI the Lombard and Piedmont nobility and subsequently
by rich industrialists), its natural environment has survived, more or less intact.
Another remarkable aspect oI the Ticino Valley Regional Park is that,despite its vast
size, its boundaries happen` to coincide with green and grey structure that were already
well-designed and well-equipped ; the word happen` must be used here as some
municipalities in the valley opted to be included in this Regional Park while others did
not, Ior reasons oI local politics. In Iact, the park would be improved by the inclusion
oI other municipalities, particularly on the Piedmont side oI the river where the area
granted to the Ticino Valley Regional Park is limited to a narrow strip along the river
banks and nearby woodlands (an area oI 6,250 hectares) in 11 municipalities.
Structure and landscape of a Regional Park
A Regional Park is a consortium oI Municipalities and Provinces, governed by an
Assembly (Assemblea Consortile). The territory oI the Park is governed by a Plan
oI Territorial Coordination (PTC) setting out restrictions and conservation criteria
applicable to each typology zone.
I shall attempt a brieI description oI the landscape in the Ticino Valley Regional Parks
oI Lombardy and Piedmont : a sort oI 'green city¨ covering an area oI nearly 97,000
hectares, in the Iorm oI a linear structure some 110 km in length and 7 to10 km wide,
centred on the River Ticino.
It is organised as Iollows :
a. Woodlands and natural river banks
In terms oI planning legislation, the most protected areas,oI the Park are the river
banks and woodlands (their status being akin to that oI historical cit centres). Their
status as designated 'Natural areas¨ also aIIords them protection under the National
86 87
Law on Protected Areas .
Most oI the Park`s woodlands (some 19,290 hectares) are concentrated along the river
banks (the river bed occupies an area oI 14,710 hectares). These woodlands and river
banks Iall into two main categories : at the northern end oI the valley, where the river
Iast-fowing river is largely contained by high steep banks, Alpine and evergreens
predominate ;thereaIter, as the river bed widens and meanders through the foodplain,
the vegetation is composed principally oI hydrophyte plants.
The woodlands are partly composed oI Iormer Ieudal game reserves, areas oI which
remain in private ownership.
The river banks are densely Iorested Irom the source oI theTicino at Lake Maggiore
to the city oI Pavia. At the northern end (where the river is rarely overfows its high,
steep banks even in spring), there are a Iew villages, some heliotherapy centres and
several riverside resorts which tend to become Iairly crowded in summer. Swimming
in the river is dangerous owing to rapid current ; even so, people do swim there and
unIortunately, some drown every summer.
One oI the Iew remaining area oI moorland is contained within the northern
woodlands ; so too, is the international hub oI Malpensa airport. From 1910 onwards,
sairports have been a constant Ieature oI plans Ior the area bordering the Ticino valley
woodlands : a military airport is sited there, and the disued Lonate Pozzolo airport, is
located south oI the Malpensa hub, where a third runway is planned.
b. The river`s lateral canals
The entire canal network within the Park is protected by the Plan oI Territorial
Coordination (PTC). These waterways also Iall under the jurisdiction oI the various
Water Authorities responsible Ior running the diIIerent networks: Consorzio Villoresi,
Ente Nazionale Energia Elettrica (ENEL), Associazione Est-Sesia, among others.
Any improvement or modifcation to the waterways must be approved jointly by the
relevant Water Authorities and the Park Administration.
Seen in the perspective oI the green city`, the canal system represents the principal
transport network. Water Irom the river Ticino has been channelled through canals
to power mills since medieval times ; however, the canal system was built mainly
Ior transport and irrigation. The most important canal oI this kind is the Naviglio
Grande (52 km), built originally in the 12th century to connect Lake Maggiore to
Milan. This canal begins at Tornavento (a Iew kilometres downstream Irom the source
oI the Ticino, where the river remains navigable) ; it then runs south, almost parallel
to the Ticino, all the way down to the city oI Abbiategrasso, where it Iorks : an arm
branches oII southwards (the Naviglio di Bereguard), while the Naviglio Grande
continue eastwards to Milan. There, it Ieeds another canal, the Naviglio Pavese to
Pavia.The Naviglio Grande was long used to transport heavy materials (likeas marble
Ior theconstruction oI Milan Cathedral, or frewood) and to irrigate the dry plain. From
the 1800s, the Milanese nobility built several country villas there, with direct access
Irom the city by boat ; a Iew small cities alsogrew up along the canal. The Naviglio di
Bereguardo (19km) was used to transport salt Irom Venice to Milan
88 89
The Naviglio Pavese (30 km), connecting Milan to Pavia, was completed at the
beginning oI the 19th century ; it was used both Ior transport and irrigation.
The Ticino river also Ieeds the late 19th century Canale Villoresi, an irrigation canal
that branches oII at the Pan Perduto lock, north oI Tornavento ;aIter runnig almost
parallel to the river as Iar as Tornavento, it heads eastwards, through Milan, and
terminatesat the Adda River. The Canale Villoresi and the related canal system are
controlled by the Consorzio Villoresi. The third major canal oI the Lombard side oI
the river is the Industrial canal, which was routed Irom the Pan Perduto lock at the
beginning oI the 20th century. It Ieeds a network oI Iour hydro-electric power stations
between Vizzola Ticino and Turbigo (also the location oI one oI Italy`s largest thermo-
electric power stations. This last takes water Ior cooling Irom the Naviglio Grande . At
this point, the electrical network continues on the other side oI the river, with another
canal routed to Ieed another hydro-electric power station near Vigevano. The last
hydroelectric power station directly served by the Ticino river was built in the 1950s,
with a dam-bridge at Porto della Torre, near Somma Lombardo. In that same period
a regulation dam Ior the whole system was built at Miorina, between the Porto della
Torre Dam and the egress oI the river Irom the lake, at Sesto Calende. The Industrial
canal and the hydro-electric power stations are controlled by Ente Nazionale Energia
Ellettrica (ENEL). All these canals are equipped with contiguous service roads, Ior
maintenance and inspection. So the canals`s service roads provide the entire park with
a sort oI cycle way trunk-route, some 70 km in length, running through woodlands
north-south Irom Sesto Calende to Pavia, with the track alongside the Naviglio
Grande leading right into the centre oI Milan. This main north-south inIrastructure
incorporates 14 bridges accross the River Ticino ;they are oI various types (stone,
iron, concrete, or pontoons) and date Irom the early 19th century onwards. Along its
way, this network connects with a great variety oI landscapes and townscapes, ranging
Irom urban settlements (mostly historical centres), to unspoilt countryside (cI inIra) or
the industrial landscape oI the power stations.
c. Countryside
Rural area makes up the greater part oI the park (54,530 hectares) ; they are
concentrated in its central and southern sectors, on both sides oI the river. Seen in the
perspective oI the green city`, these rural areas represent the everyday Iabric.
The landscape in these rural areas is dominated by the cultivation oI rice and corn :
felds ponctuated by irrigation canals (especially in the area oI rice ) and studded with
Iarm buildings known as 'cascina¨; these are usually oI the traditional courtyard type,
set within the irrigation canal network. Some date back to the 15th century. BeIore
agriculture was industrialised, these buildings oIten housed hundreds oI Iarm workers
during the rice harvest. Today, many cascina are disused, or have been converted Ior
use as tourist Iacilities.
The park also contains two large monasteries: Morimondo Abbey, and Certosa di
Pavia (the Pavia Charterhouse) bothoI them past centres oI agricultural innovation .
Morimondo Abbey was Iounded in the 11th century by French monks Irom Morimond.
88 89
The monastic community reclaimed felds near the river banks between Abbiategrasso
and Bereguardo and introduced a cultivation technique knowed as 'marcita¨ whereby
the abundance oI water was used to prevent the soil Irom Ireezing, so that several
harvests could be produced each year.
The Certosa di Pavia was Iounded in the late 14th century by the Duke oI Milan ; the
monks used experimental cultivation techniques to tend vast areas oI land. The Certosa
was the fnal segment in the Duke`s Great Park (2,700 hectares, stretching northwards
Irom Pavia and the castle). Deemed one oI the earliest parks in Europe in the modern
sense oI the term; the Great Park had pleasure buildings such as the Mirabello, hunting
grounds, felds and cascinas Ior testing innovatory methods oI agricultural production
and a boundary wall some 22 km in length.
d. Urban settlements
Urban areas within the Park amount to 14,710 hectares in all, encompassing 47 cities
and relatives villages. Limits on urban growth laid down by the Plan oI Territorial
Coordination (PTC) must be respected by Master Plans Ior cities inside the Park.
Seen in the perspective oI the green city` these areas represent a sort oI periphery.
In most cases, the populationoI these settlements ranges Irom under than 1,000
to 10,000 inhabitants ; the exception are Abbiategrasso (about 30,000), Gallarate
(about 50,000), Vigevano (about 70,000) and Pavia (the largest, with about 90,000
inhabitants). Nearly all these cities are oI medieval or even Roman origin ; most have
historical centres with squares and churches dating Irom the Middle Ages to the 19th
century and some have castles, too. The smaller cities are in immediate contact with
green structure`, but this inter-relationship is sometimes more problematic in the case
oI the Iour medium-sized cities .At Pavia, the urban Iabric is perIectly integrated
with the natural landscape oI the Regional Park. The banks oI the river Ticino remain
sparsely built even in the historical centre core, and the city retains an intact image
thanks to the old covered bridge and the street Irom it, which Iollows the south-north
axis oI the Roman city and leads straight to the castle and the Iormer ducal Great Park
(the present Parco della Vernavola). By contrast, uncontrolled urban sprawl during the
1950s,1960s and 1970s on the outskirts oI Vigevano has leIt the city centre eIIectively
isolated Irom the Regional Park, despite the Iact that the historical core is physically
linked by a canal system. Similarly at Abbiategrasso, where parts oI the old city wall
survive and the Iormer moat is now a public park (Parco della Fossa), the historic core
has been cut oII Irom the nearby canal system and the Regional Park by the city`s
more recent outskirts.
These instances oI urban expansion pre-date the designation oI the Regional Park in
1974. Since then, the planning oI urban development within the Park has placed greater
emphasis on the quality oI townscape in relation to rural and natural surroundings, and
on promoting the restoration oI the architectural heritage. The use oI green corridors`
to link thearchitectural heritage to green structure` has been explored in several (as
yet unimplemented) projects.
90 91
Problems of green structure
planning and management in Warsaw
Barbara Szulczewska
1
and Ewa Kaliszuk
2
1. Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty oI Horticulture and Landscape
Architecture, Poland; barbaras¸zd.com.pl , szulczewska¸alpha.sggw.waw.pl
2. Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty oI Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,
Poland;
ewakaliszuk¸yahoo.com, kaliszuk¸alpha.sggw.waw.pl
1 Introduction
Research context
Warsaw represents
cities in Poland that
in the last decade
have been developed
according to the
rules and constraints
oI political and
economic trans-
Iormation. Warsaw`s
space refects these
processes, showing
how changes in the
rules oI economic and
spatial development,
and management have
infuenced the physical
structure oI the city.
The green structure
oI the city has also
been aIIected by these
changes. At the same
time planners have
been trying to work
out development plans
oI the city according
to the principles oI
90 91
sustainable development, as in many other European cities. Likewise, the problem oI
the scope oI urban space densifcation creates the most sensitive issue Ior discussion.
Thus in Warsaw these two main driving Iorces can be observed: constraints created
by transIormation processes and attempts to Iollow contemporary European planning
principles.
Issues and research questions
Green structure has come under considerable pressure over the last 15 years.
However, its contemporary pattern and problems oI development have emerged
as the result oI other issues as well, such as: the history oI the city`s development,
conditions oI the natural environment, and planning and management practices. These
practices themselves have been infuenced by diIIerent discourses that appeared and
subsequently disappeared, or have been already in Iorce. OI course, the green structure
problems in other cities could be identifed on the basis oI similar Iactors, but here we
are Iocusing on their specifc confguration in Warsaw.
A short history oI the city`s development is outlined below in order to understand
certain aspects oI the present shape oI Warsaw`s green structure. The natural
environment, one oI the crucial Iactors in creating green structure, is discussed in
greater depth in Part B oI this book (Kaliszuk E.). The Iollowing issues relating to the
historical and environmental background are discussed:
̇"In the aItermath oI World War II several important ideas had a strong infuence
on the development oI Warsaw`s green structure. Almost all oI them had
emphasised diIIerent aspects such as political and social issues (very important in
the Communist period), then recreational, structural and subsequently ecological
issues (Szulczewska and Kaliszuk, 2003). What is the overall eIIect oI these ideas
on contemporary green structure? How have they infuenced green structure
planning?
̇"The transIormation oI the Polish political and economic situation in 1989,
combined with a worldwide evolution oI the approach to urban planning and
green structure as well, has been a tremendous infuence on the quality oI green
spaces. This particular period in Poland has been characterised by an unstable
political system, changing laws (including spatial development law), a lack oI a
good management system, and a changing ownership structure. In Warsaw these
problems have multiplied not only because it is the biggest Polish city, but also
because it is the only one that has been managed as an association oI municipalities
Ior several years. The management system changed two years ago and Warsaw,
as Ior other cities, now constitutes one municipality. So the questions arise as to
how these new circumstances have aIIected Warsaw`s green structure planning
and management; what sort oI rules are needed in order to achieve eIIective green
structure planning, development and maintenance?
Warsaw`s case study presents problems rather than solutions, but their identifcation is
the frst necessary step on the way to improvement.
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2 The Warsaw case
Landscape and urban development of Warsaw
Warsaw, the capital oI Poland, is located on the Vistula River in the central part oI
the Mazovian Lowland. Covering about 516.7 km
2
, Warsaw is the biggest city in
the country. The population reached 1,707,400 in 2003 (www.warszawa.um.gov.pl).
Three main environmental elements aIIect the urban morphology oI Warsaw, i.e. the
valley oI the Vistula River, the Warsaw Escarpment and a morainal plateau.
Warsaw`s origins that go back to the turn oI the thirteenth century represented densely
built-up areas surrounded by walls (which still partially exist). It soon developed in a
diIIerent direction, on the western side oI the Vistula River.
The frst signifcant element oI historical green structure was established in the
seventeenth century in a village located south oI Warsaw. The Wilanow Palace and
park was designed as the king`s country residence. The natural conditions oI Vistula
terraces were used in a garden composition. Simultaneously, spatial and Iunctional
connections were developed, on the one hand with the city oI Warsaw, on the other
with adjacent villages and Iarms. All main roads Irom Warsaw to Wilanow were
planned and designed with trees at the end oI the eighteenth century (Kicinska, 1993).
The vicinity oI this residence was agricultural at that time and this continued to be
mostly the case Ior years, even up today. Large Iorests existed along the Vistula River,
the Warsaw Escarpment and to the south oI Warsaw and parts oI them have even been
preserved until the present time.
The frst major group oI concepts that regulated the development oI the urban Iabric
and the green structure was realised in the eighteenth century. That period is known as
the golden age oI the city`s planning and architecture (Kicinska, 1993). Warsaw was
transIormed then into a modern European City. Two axes ordered the urban structure,
the Saska and the Stanis฀awowska. The key elements oI these axes have become the
valuable Ieatures oI today`s green structure and they are regarded as an important part
oI Warsaw`s cultural heritage (Saski Garden, Ujazdowski Park and Palace).
AIter this IruitIul time, the development oI Warsaw was limited by three partitions oI
Poland between the powers oI Prussia, Russia and Austro-Hungary that lasted Ior 123
years. However, a signifcant but negative impact on Warsaw`s physical development
was made by the construction oI two rings oI Iortifcation by the authorities oI Tsarist
Russia (Wilski, 1997). Besides Iorts (some with moats), roads and embankments were
also constructed. Most oI these elements have been retained up to now and some oI
them have successIully contributed to the development oI green structure (Figure 1).
The next crucial investments oI the nineteenth century such as the Warsaw railway,
water pipeline and sewerage systems have infuenced Warsaw`s environment
positively. The frst oI these, the railway, has contributed to a contemporary ventilation
system. Its vast, open areas extend Irom the central district to the suburbs and create
one oI the western ventilation wedges (circulation on the western side predominates in
92 93
the Castle and
the square M.J.
Pitsudskiego
in the centre,
the Vistula
viewed from the
Library, royal
residence of
Wilanowa.
94 95
Warsaw). The water and sewerage systems were built according to plans elaborated
by Lindley, the English engineer. They represent the frst plans regulating ecological
problems, environmental protection and the health oI inhabitants (Wilski, 1993).
The rapid growth oI Warsaw`s population and oI its surIace area at the beginning oI
the twentieth century made architects draw up systematic plans Ior its development.
The tradition oI contemporary green structure planning reaches back to that time
when the concepts oI the green open space emerged. The evolution oI green structure
planning and development is described below.
Green structure planning : evolution of discourses - evolution of green
structure
The frst spatial plans Ior the city`s development were drawn up at the beginning oI
the twentieth century and this document was the frst one that introduced the idea
oI careIully designed green open spaces within a neighbourhood (Wilski, 1993).
Since then diIIerent concepts have emerged regarding green spaces as aspects oI
green structure planning connected with the problems seen as particularly important
or just in Iashion` at a given time (Szulczewska and Kaliszuk, 2003). Thus, the
present pattern oI green structure in Warsaw should be considered as an eIIect oI
diIIerent discourses that infuenced planning practice in the twentieth century. The
most infuential discourses, discussed in greater detail by Szulczewska and Kaliszuk,
(2003), are as Iollows:
̇"Green Wedges` frst reIerred to in the 1929 Master Plan Ior Warsaw.
The goals: to link up recreational areas through the city, especially Irom the
centre to the suburbs, and to saIeguard proper air ventilation.
̇"Functional Warsaw` the theoretical concept drawn up in 1934 to
emphasise the importance oI the natural condition in the proper zonation oI
land use, including greenspace (mostly carried out on a regional scale).
̇"Parks of Culture and Leisure` an idea developed in the 1950s that
emphasised the political and social aspects oI green open spaces. Its goal:
cultural entertainment Ior the public in the Iorm oI cinemas, amphitheatres,
sport and recreation.
̇"Multifunctional Centres for Leisure and Entertainment` this idea
was planned and partially implemented in the 1960s and 1970s; only a Iew
centres have been developed since then and the land reserves Ior the others
were retained until the political and economic transIormation oI the 1990s.
̇"System of Open Spaces in Cities` - a theoretical concept oI 1968 that
emphasised a structural role oI open spaces, including green spaces; it was
94 95
developed in 1974 and regarded as an important discourse/idea Ior green
structure planning.
̇"Standards and indicators accepted Ior green structure development in the
1960s and legally binding until the early 1980s. Their goal: to signifcantly
infuence the pattern, surIace areas and Iunctions oI the greenspace in the
city. The hierarchical recreational system stemmed Irom these established
standards, in which green spaces comprised the neighbourhood, district,
assembly oI districts and the whole city, each with its own particular levels
oI recreational Iacilities provided to Iulfl diIIerent needs; this system was
abandoned in the 1990s.
The discourses presented above are not in Iorce any more, but their physical eIIects
are evident in Warsaw`s structure in the Iorm oI parks, neighbourhood greenery,
ventilation wedges, etc.
The Iollowing two discourses have been adopted and are infuencing green structure
policy today:
̇"Urban Natural System` this concept has been promoted since the 1980s.
It was developed as a consequence oI implementing the ecosystem theory
within the planning process, but it also underlines the importance oI the
preservation, conservation and creation oI ecological systems so as to ensure
proper living conditions Ior city dwellers through the setting-aside oI space
to enable nature to Iunction (Szulczewska & KaItan, eds., 1996).
̇"Sustainable city`: green city` and compact city` these concepts both
exempliIy the more general idea oI the ecological city` and have been applied
recently in green structure planning in Warsaw; the idea oI a green city` has
an infuence on the protection and development oI the green structure, while
the compact city` promotes an densifcation that develops built-up areas at
the expense oI greenspace.
These last two concepts have their advocates and opponents who Iorm two coalitions
fghting against each other during the process oI contemporary urban planning
and development, as well as in the development oI green structure. The attempts
at putting them into practice are seen in Warsaw`s landscape, but they have rather
negative infuences. This aspect is explained in the Iollowing section.
Present problems and challenges
Warsaw has Iaced many problems with the development and management oI green
structure planning, Ior the last 15 years during the so-called transIormation period.
These problems, as mentioned in the Introduction, have been caused by several
96 97
major Iactors: natural conditions, the historical heritage, the city`s development as a
consequence oI diIIerent ideas, but most oI all by the rapid and unexpected changes in
the physical structure oI the urban Iabric resulting Irom the economic and management
situation oI the city.
The most important problems are described here:
Problem Description
1. The way in
which the green
citv and the
compact citv
ideas are adapted
to the reality oI
Warsaw
Many investors, politicians and town planners consider Warsaw to be too extensively
built-up. Skorupski (2000) has submitted an argument that the frst plans reserved
great areas Ior green open spaces (mainly Ior recreation) without any possibility
oI assuring a budget not only Ior the development oI green spaces but also their
maintenance. The city that Iaced a very important task the reconstruction oI
Warsaw aIter tremendous destruction in WWII was not able to develop these
areas appropriately. Thus green open spaces had been somewhat limited by the
resultant development plans Ior Warsaw. The transIormation period that started in
1989, combined with the worldwide evolution oI an approach to urban planning
introducing the compact city among other ideas had tremendous, negative
infuences on the quality oI green spaces. The important achievement in the protection
oI green open spaces was the concept oI the Urban Natural System implemented
partially in the Warsaw Development Plans oI 1982 (air ventilation and regeneration
aspects only) and Iully in the Warsaw Development Plans oI 1992 and its amendment
oI 2001 (Kaliszuk, 2003). The latest version regulates the pattern and Iunction oI
green structure Ior the whole city by means oI appropriately written guidelines Ior
the Urban Natural System (it is described in greater detail in Part B Kaliszuk, E.).
However, at the moment, Iollowing the political and administrative changes oI 2003,
this plan is not legally binding any more. This situation infuences the development
oI Warsaw`s green structure in very negative way. Some green open spaces, regarded
by investors and some planners as undeveloped areas, are nowadays objects oI great
interest to them. They have enough power to Iorce changes on the areas that were
designated as the Urban Natural System in the previous plan. As a consequence,
many controversial decisions have been taken concerning densifcation oI built-
up areas, especially within Warsaw`s central neighbourhoods. The investors and
planners use the argument oI the compact city as a good one Ior urban development.
More recently, the systematic reduction oI the Urban Natural System areas can be
observed.
Comments
The key point oI this problem is the debate as to whether and how planners and
politicians should fnd a balance between the ideas oI the green citv and the compact
citv and how they should be implemented in such a large city as Warsaw. The problem
96 97
described above presents a good example oI the confict between these two concepts.
The Urban Natural Svstem represents the frst concept in which its advocates try to
saIeguard the Iunctioning oI almost every green structure element. The trends oI urban
intensifcation exempliIy the application oI the second concept in which its supporters
would like to see almost every undeveloped spot built on without considering such
important Iactors as city size and population. What is important in the Warsaw
example is that both concepts are, in Iact, employed rather ideologically, with only
small reIerence to their real scope, assumptions and guidelines and without any
discussion between these two sides oI the confict.
Problem Description
2. The natural
and cultural
heritage
endangered by
the pressure oI
investments.
In the time oI transIormation many investments have been allowed, iI not actually
in the valuable areas that make the natural and cultural heritage oI Warsaw, then
in the vicinity (Figure 1and 2). This negative process has gradually caused a
deterioration oI the city`s valuable landscapes. One oI the best examples oI this
is the Warsaw Escarpment a critical structural element oI the Warsaw landscape
that is regarded as part oI the very important natural and cultural heritage oI the
city. Along the escarpment there are well-preserved patches or strips oI natural
Iorests, magnifcent historical parks and gardens, sporting and recreational areas,
palaces and other historical buildings. The natural landscapes had alternated with
the cultural landscape, but the city`s development has led to signifcant landscape
Iragmentation along the entire Warsaw Escarpment. One oI the Iundamental reasons
Ior this degradation is the lack oI integrated protection oI both the natural and
cultural heritage (Kicinska, 2000). Some steps have been taken towards protecting
the escarpment, but they are ineIIective. A Iew nature conservation areas have
been established since 1980 but only Ior some patches oI Iorest. Indeed, they have
strengthened the isolation oI these remnants oI the natural landscape. The areas in-
between, which are very attractive, have been under huge investment pressure (Ior
residential areas, multi-storey blocks oI fats and oIfce buildings). The natural and
historical linkages oI these conservation areas have been partially lost, while those
that still exist are in danger.
Comments:
The lack oI a clear policy Ior the development oI green structure and a lack oI eIIective
planning instruments makes the protection oI valuable landscape areas very diIfcult,
especially with the pressures oI investment. Nowadays investors seem to win in
Warsaw, as is evident in the townscape. Their opponents intervene only occasionally
in controversial investments that impinge on the areas important Irom the point oI
view oI landscape protection. Those who protest are mainly local inhabitants and
users oI deprived areas, supported by ecological NGOs. Also the Warsaw Division
oI the Polish Town Planners Society (TUP) took part in actions against building
98 99
over open spaces. However, such short-term actions do not Iacilitate the eIIective
participation oI local inhabitants in the decision-making process (both in terms oI
the development oI their neighbourhood green space and the city). Chmielewski
(2002) underlines this insuIfcient participation oI local inhabitants in all planning
decision-making. He explains this negative phenomenon as a lack oI tradition oI local
community organisations that take part in green structure planning and development,
as well as its maintenance. Up till now the only Iorm oI common action has been a
protest against a development, Ior example, iI the green open spaces are endangered.
But as the examples show, this is a weak and still ineIIective means oI participation
(see also Szulczewska, B., chapter 5).
Problem Description
3. The
natural
heritage
endangered
by intensive
recreational
use
The second, indirect infuence oI intensive urban development in the vicinity oI the
valuable areas is an increase in recreational activities. There are many examples that
illustrate these negative processes: 1. cyclists who preIer extreme riding conditions have
partially remodelled the very Iorm oI the Warsaw Escarpment that was developed Irom
geomorphological processes; 2. an open air swimming pool, used extensively in summer
time, is located on the oxbow lake (Czerniakowskie Lake) - which has been protected
as a nature reserve; 3. the recreational capacity oI Kabacki Forest will be exceeded as a
result oI the construction oI huge multi-storey blocks oI fats in a district that is going to
surround the Iorest, and by opening the frst underground line with its last stop located by
the Iorest, giving Varsovians easy access to this nice green open space (Kicinska 2000).
Comments:
The natural and cultural heritage in Poland is protected by the Act on Nature
Protection oI 2004 (this replaced the Act oI 1991). According to this Act the same
rules oI protection apply to the protected areas both inside and outside the urban areas.
The general character oI these rules does notthere is heavy recreational pressure on
densely populated areas. This is especially true in the case oI nature conservation areas
where strict protection rules do not permit the development oI recreational Iacilities
(Szulczewska, 2002.b).
98 99
Problem Description
4.
UnsatisIactory
distribution
oI power and
resources
in green
structure
planning and
management
Past: As the only city in Poland Ior many years, Warsaw was an association oI eleven
municipalities. According to a general law on selI-government, each municipality
had rights to undertake independent decisions in certain felds including spatial
planning and the management oI green open spaces. An independent Warsaw
City Council had also been established and its role was to co-ordinate and control
planning and development processes. In Iact, the power oI the local authorities
was so strong that most decisions on green structure planning, development and
maintenance had been taken almost independently by each oI them. The negative
eIIect oI this political structure was seen in the Capital City oI Warsaw Development
Plan oI 2001. Its guidelines were written as the result oI negotiations among eleven
local authorities and the City Council. When considering the green structure pattern
and Iunctions in the fnal Iorm oI the plan, certain green spaces vanished or their
status was changed to reduce their environmental role. That procedure allowed
investors to start their investments in the very attractive locations.
Present: Warsaw is one organism` consisting oI 18 districts. While the planning
power (including green structure planning) is totally in the hands oI the City Hall,
the development and maintenance oI most green structure elements (parks, squares)
are in the hands oI each district. However it is up to the City Hall (City Council) to
decide on the budget oI each district and also the workIorce.
Future: The clear relationships between the City Hall, the Voivodship Council
and the districts have to be established in order to pursue a comprehensive green
structure policy. Also new actors should be taken into consideration such as NGOs,
investors (at the moment considered rather as the bad guys` Irom the green structure
point oI view).
Comments:
The City Hall was to co-ordinate the activities oI eleven Warsaw municipalities
according to the so-called Warsaw Act` passed in 1994 in order to establish
relationships between administrative bodies. UnIortunately, the division oI
responsibilities turned out to be vague and co-operation between the Warsaw
municipalities and the capital city itselI was Iar Irom harmonious. As a result oI
insuIfcient co-ordination oI actions undertaken during recent years, many decisions
involving investment were made without appropriate analysis oI their importance
Ior the whole city. Other decisions, oIten essential to improve the city`s Iunctioning,
were not made at all, or made aIter considerable delay (Chmielewski, 2002).
It is too early to assess how the new administrative arrangement has been infuencing
the city`s development, including green structure, and whether the new distribution
100 101
oI power is going to be eIIective. But, on the basis oI very recent interviews (they
are part oI an ongoing environmental protection programme), it should be stressed
that not only Iormal relationships between Warsaw City Hall and Warsaw Districts
are considered important; a Iew other issues have also been identifed as being in
urgent need. The Iollowing are the major ones: an exchange oI inIormation that reIers
to the ongoing decision-making process, a data base oI Warsaw`s environment with
easy access Ior all actors involved in the planning and development processes and
clear procedures Ior landscape planning and development. It seems that almost all
the administrative bodies are in Iavour oI one comprehensive green structure policy
Iormulated at a central level, with a clear distribution oI responsibilities, a workIorce
and Iunding. The policy would be Iormulated within Warsaw`s City Hall, with the co-
operation oI two oIfces. The City ChieI Architect`s OIfce is responsible Ior preparing
planning documents, while the Environmental Protection OIfce (in which the position
oI City Landscape Architect has been established) is responsible Ior the policy and
management oI the green structure. It depends on the City Hall how they make use
oI the possibility oI infuencing newly created agreements. OI course, the general
lack oI Iunds Ior maintenance and the development oI green spaces (in 2002 only one
park in Warsaw was regenerated) will be one oI the biggest constraints in building on
relationships, but a challenge at the same time.

Problem Description
5. Constant
changes in
rules oI the
game
The protection, development and management oI green structure in Poland is generally
regulated by three Acts:
Cev"qp"Gpxktqpogpvcn"Rtqvgevkqp (2001): this was amended many times, especially in
order to keep up with the European Union regulations. It requires planning documents
(particularly at the local level) to solve problems relating to town and countryside
development, taking green structure into consideration. It allows local plans to provide
a balance between built-up and open spaces necessary Ior the preservation oI a balance
with nature.
Cev" qp" Pcvwtg" Rtqvgevkqp" (2004): this also replaced an Act Irom 1991 that had
been amended several times. It oIIers protection Ior greenery in towns and villages,
particularly trees and shrubs. It also Iormally defnes the term green open spaces as
spaces within built-up areas, which are designed Ior the Iollowing purposes: recreation,
health, education and aesthetics. In particular thev consist of parks, squares, boulevards
and promenades, plavgrounds, botanical gardens, :oos, ethnographical gardens,
horticulture and agriculture exhibitions, cemeteries, animal burial sites, barrows
(tumulus), fortihcations, domestic gardens and estate greenerv.
Comments:
Pursuing a green structure policy is complicated, not only due to these changes in
100 101
legal regulations, but also due to the changes in the Warsaw administration (described
as Problem 3). These constant overlapping changes do not serve the development
oI green structure well. The latest version oI the general policy was stated in a plan
entitled Capital City oI Warsaw Development Plan, Including Obligatory Guidelines
Ior the Warsaw Boroughs in Preparing Local Spatial Development Plans, of 2001.
When the rules oI the game changed and Warsaw became one municipality, this plan
was not in Iorce any more. The new studv of the conditions and direction of spatial
development within a municipalitv and the programme for the protection of the
environment are being drawn up at the moment. Both these documents are supposed
to Iormulate a comprehensive, consistent green structure policy (among other
development and protection policies), but the question arises as to how long they will
serve as a basis Ior implementation.
Conclusion
Some problems relating to green structure planning and management are much the
same as in many European cities. The major one depends on money that can be spent
on green structure development and maintenance. Another problem is caused by the
densifcation oI urban development such as the infll development that happens at
the expense oI greenspace, especially when badly maintained. The analysis oI the
problems presented in the above sections has concentrated specifcally on Warsaw.
The critical issue seems to be the lack oI a clear and, above all, stable green structure
policy that would help to combine diIIerent aspects oI the development and
maintenance oI green structure, such as greenspace and urban structure, greenspace
and recreation, and greenspace and environmental problems, Ior example, water
storage, wildliIe traIfc, etc. This integrated approach should be taken simultaneously
on various levels Irom discourses, through policy and planning procedures, and fnally
through the development and maintenance process. The constantly changing nature
oI Warsaw`s circumstances make the whole process oI urban development, including
green structure, Iragment.
References
Chmielewski, J.M., 2002. Struktura przestrzenna. W: Krajobraz architektoniczny
Warszawy konca XX wieku. S. Gzell (red.). Akapit-DTP, Warszawa.
Kaliszuk, E., 2003. Metody identyfkacji i oceny systemu przyrodniczego miasta na
przykladzie Warszawy. Doctoral thesis. Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw
(manuscript).
Kicinska, E., 2000. Zielen Wars:awv w opracowaniach pracowni :ieleni BOS, BUW,
PUW, BPRW 1945-1991 r. (Warsaw Green Open in works oI Planning OIfces BOS,
BUW, PUW, BPRW in years 1945-199). Gmina Warszawa-Centrum, Warszawa.
Skorupski, J., 2000. Rozwoj Warszawy i powiekszanie sie ,warszawskiego¨ odcinka
102 103
Wisly. W: Wisla w Warszawie. Biuro Zarzadu M. St. Warszawy, Wydzial Planowania
Przestrzennego i Architektury, Warszawa.
Szulczewska, B., 2002a. Teoria ekosvstemu w koncepcfach ro:wofu miast (Ecosystem
theory in concepts oI urban development). Treatises and Monographs. Warsaw
Agricultural University, Warszawa.
Szulczewska, B., 2002b. Problemy ochrony przyrody. W: Krajobraz
architektonicznyWarszawy konca XX wieku. S. Gzell (eds.). Akapit-DTP,
Warszawa.
Szulczewska, B., KaItan, J., 1996. Ksztaltowanie Systemu Przyrodniczego Miasta.
IGPiK, Warszawa.
Szulczewska, B., Kaliszuk, E., 2003. Challenges in the Planning and Management oI
Green structure` in Warsaw, Poland, Built Environment, Vol.29, No. 2, Alexandrine
Press, pp. 144-156.
Wilski, J. (ed.), 1993, Warsaw Physical Development, Warsaw: Warsaw Capital City
OIfce.
102 103
The Rome case study
Strategies for green structure planning
and maintenance
Lucia Martincigh
Technology oI Architecture
Department oI Design and Study oI the Architecture
University oI Rome Tre martinci¸arch.uniroma3.it
Based on the contributions of : Bruno Cignini, Mauro Degli Effetti, Stefano
Mastrangelo, Daniel Modigliani, Mauro Pagnotta,
Town Municipality oI Rome
1 Introduction
Research context
The unicity oI the roman situation can be well exemplifed by the exceptional
concentration and the widespread presence oI archaeological and historical, artistic
and monumental evidences, located both in the central and suburban areas, by
the environment oI the roman Campagna and by the extension oI the municipal
territory. Rome indeed, with its approximately 128,000 ha oI land, is the largest town
municipality in Europe, and is the Italian city with the largest extension oI agricultural
land: 52,000 ha, representing 40° oI its whole territory, and boroughs oI very large
extension.
One oI the strategic choices oI Rome Municipal Administration was the individuation
and the protection oI its Ecological Network, an articulated and Iunctional system oI
areas with some naturalistic, agricultural and recreational importance. This Ecological
Network was acknowledged by the 'Piano delle Certezze¨ (Plan oI the Certainties,
1997), a general variant oI the existing Master Plan. Contemporarily, with the
adhesion to the Agenda 21, Iollowing the 'Paper on Rome environment state¨ and
the establishment oI the Forum Agenda 21, the 'Plan oI environmental action¨, that
contains the strategic lines Ior the Administration environmental program activities,
was defned (2002).
The predictions oI the new Master Plan improve and complete, Ior the extra urban
territory, the lay-out already defned in the ~Rkcpq"fgnng"Egtvg||g¨, and increase, in the
inner urban area, the environmental system, giving it the role oI a network crossing
also the new developments, guaranteeing all the connections among the areas that
Iorm it, with the aim to maximize the ecological eIIects.
104 105
The work, carried out by the various municipal oIfces, with the contribution oI
experts and researchers Irom the scientifc and proIessional world, can oIIer a valid
contribution to the COST C11 Action research.
Issues and research questions
In Rome, many battles were Iought to protect the open territory. The aim was to
enhance its potentials to allow people enjoy the landscape, know and study important
historical, artistic and naturalistic values. The means used Ior the most outstanding
examples, as the 'Parco dell`Appia Antica¨ or 'Villa Borghese¨, exempliIy more or
less the situation to be Iaced also in the other less Iamous cases. For the Iormer, a
debate was raised to international level involving well-known people in the cultural
ground; Ior the latter, complex judicial events and long-term negotiations took place.
The diIfculty in the deIence oI the historical and environmental heritage against the
building speculation has characterized the protection and acquisition oI the roman
green assets. A long political-administrative process, started between the 80ies and the
90ies, Ior the institution oI natural reserves inside the city range, was brought to end
only recently by a regional law (L.R. n.29.10.1997). Now the diIfculties are related to
fnancial aspects, due to the low budgets oI local administrations, that are assigned Ior
the acquisition, maintenance and conservation oI such green structure.
Because oI the expropriation indemnity values and the fve year withdrawal oI the
obligations (as set out by L. 1187/68 and by Constitutional Court sentence 179/99),
since the 'Piano delle Certezze¨, and even more with the new Master Plan, the
Municipal Administration adopted a diIIerent approach Ior the acquisition oI the
public green areas necessary to Iulfl the fxed standards. The expropriation is not
anymore the only one at use, but also other tools that are less onerous and less time
consuming, as diIIerent type oI compensatory and equalizing processes, are now
adopted by the Municipal Administration.
For the use oI the land, inside the system oI protected natural areas instituted by the
regional law, various agreements with private people are Ioreseen. For the maintenance
oI the public areas, private investors are involved by the means oI 'a fnance plan¨ (Il
progetto di fnanza).
As Ior the cultural approach, the new Master Plan can be taken as reIerence. It embraces
indeed the most recent Iormulations on sustainable urban planning, indicating three
strategic and structuring aspects: the environmental, the mobility and the dwelling
systems, prioritising the environmental regeneration and the collective transport,
reducing at the maximum the new urban expansion and aiming at the upgrading oI
the existing city. The strategy Ior creating an environmental system is based on the
integration oI primary and secondary components, constituted by diIIerent types oI
green areas, and components oI completion to link them. These are to be implemented
104 105
by the enhancement oI watercourses, and oI their banks or shores, creating, where
possible, cycle and pedestrian paths.
The new fnancial tools are already implemented and constitute tests to start a debate;
the integrative approach oI the new Master Plan is still theoretical, but it is already
inIorming many actions oI the Municipal Administration.
2 The Rome case
Landscape and urban development of Rome
Rome expanded on one oI the most meaningIul historic centre oI the world, an
area which concentrates also nowadays the biggest part oI important city activities
(political, administrative, cultural, commercial, and Ior leisure) The core is surrounded
by a periphery developed frst by property speculation, then by large settlements oI
public housing estates and fnally by huge unauthorised settlements. Such irregular
growth was caused by the inadequacy oI the city to Iace a powerIul urban migration
phenomenon, which took place Irom halI oI the 60ies to the beginning oI the 80ies.
During this period the city population doubled, reaching now about three million
people; the built area increased oI about 20,000 ha, halI oI which were illegal
residential buildings, covering also precious parts oI the territory, distinguished by a
beautiIul landscape or by the presence oI historic assets.
In the mid 80ies a process oI legalisation oI the spontaneous settlement, aligning local
inIrastructure and services to the standards, was started. Important public housing
programmes were concluded and saIeguard actions Ior rural areas were started, while
the most urgent issues oI environmental impact were tackled. In the mid 90ies the
frst integrated programmes oI urban upgrading started, Iocusing on public housing
settlements that lacked services and environmental quality, and presented social and
economical problems (L.179/1992).
The innovative aspect oI these programmes concerns the possibility oI getting the
necessary Iunding by private investors, granting them the use oI 'leIt over¨ public land
Ior building mixed use buildings. This possibility will Iavour in turn the settlement
oI diIIerentiated socio-economic entities and allow the perspective oI triggering
economic growth processes on site. The implementation phase is actually going on.
For the last twenty years, Rome did not seem to grow anymore, and there is no evidence
letting presume a change in this trend, at least in the middle period. Actually oI the
rough 128,000 ha oI municipal territory only approximately 40,000 are urbanised,
while the green open areas are about 87,000 ha, about 67° oI the whole surIace.
These constitute the ecological network oI Rome; a whole oI protected natural areas,
urban green areas, food-bed areas (Tiber, Aniene, and tributary canals) and Iarmlands.
The productive Iarms are 1,900, with 410 ones engaged in livestock breeding (cattle,
106 107
Villa Borghese:
The Secret
Gardens, (Irom
the collection
oI: 'Acquerelli
del Comune
di Roma.
I Giardini
Segreti di Villa
Borghese¨);
Villa Borghese:
Statues oI
Secret Gardens,
(Irom: Di
Giovine, M., a
cura di, Guida
al verde di
Roma Alla
scoperta dei
parchi naturali
delle ville
storiche e
dei giardini
pubblici,
Comune
di Roma),
Punto Verde
Qualita: via
della Mendola
(reprinted
with the
permission oI:
DFD Associati
(Arch.
Farcomeni e
Dott. Corsini),
Villa Paganini
(Irom website)
, Map oI Rome
Green Structure
(Irom town
municipality),
CaIIarella
Valley, Farm
at Castel di
Guido, (Irom
the leafet:
'La tenuta
di Castel di
Guido¨), Parco
dell`Appia
Antica e della
CaIIarella:
Pavement oI
Via Appia
Antica,
Massenzio
Circus, and
Lozzi & Rossi
Editori, s.d.
106 107
sheep, goats and pigs). The Municipality oI Rome manages directly two Iarms: 'Castel
di Guido¨ and the 'Tenuta del Cavaliere¨, both in a biological way.
The urban public 'green heritage¨ adds up to more than 3,000 ha; in the last ten
years increased oI 24°. Its composition and articulation are very complex. There
are indeed: historic villas, an inheritance oI the noble Iamilies; gardens, not planned
Ior mass use, that present problems oI conservation; large rural areas with important
roman vestiges, turned into large urban parks; a spread texture oI small and medium
size equipped areas, that constitute the main public residential green, and fnally the
street green: squares, fowerbeds, median strips, hedges, lines oI trees etc.; all areas
that support most oI the anthropic pressure.
The master plan previously defned the green areas on the basis oI a standard number
oI square meters per person. In the last one, the reIerence parameters Ior the urban
standards were reviewed, but above all the standards themselves were all checked at
local level, borough per borough, and evaluated in terms oI quantity and quality. The
aim is now not only Iunctionalist but also environmental; in the design all the green
areas are connected, making the parks entering the core oI the city.
The protected natural areas of Rome
Kn the Roman Ecological Network, the natural protected areas play a prominent role Ior
the city`s environmental policies; they constitute indeed a real system, Iormed by 18
land parks, oI remarkable dimension too, and 1 sea park; they sum up 40,000 ha (31°
oI the whole municipal area). They are mainly located in the outskirts but enter also
into the most central zones. Some oI them (8) were instituted thanks to the regional
law (L.R.29/97), issued in conIormity to a national law (L.394/91), and are managed
by a special body: Roma Natura, created by public law, provided with administrative,
fnancial and property autonomy. Roma Natura is in charge oI management Ior 14,000
ha oI immensely rich territory, where archaeological vestiges, monuments, villas and
Iarmhouses represent only part oI its value. Extraordinary is also the fora and Iauna
richness in the whole roman ecological network. Spontaneous vegetal species are
1,300 (1/5 oI the Italian fora), insect species 5,200, vertebrate species 160, oI which
21 amphibious and reptile (70° oI the species oI the Lazio region), 115 birds, oI
which 75 nesting (50° oI the species nesting in Lazio) and 26 mammiIers (90° oI the
species present in Rome Province).
The Environmental action plan
For the Iulflment oI the Local Agenda 21, the Municipality oI Rome had to defne the
Environmental Action Plan; a plan to be made and implemented with the consensus oI
the various stakeholders oI the involved territories. To this aim various activities were
started. A Irame oI the strategies to be used Ior achieving a sustainable development
was elaborated, cointaining general and operative goals, action lines and indicators
Ior their monitoring. A consultative Forum, composed by representatives oI the
108 109
community, was constituted; it produced a document, that was integrated to the
previous Iramework to constitute the 'Environmemtal Action Plan¨ (Piano di Azione
Ambientale).
The whole programme oI the Municipal Administration defnes a new model oI
sustainable city, which issues are: the land saving, by Iavouring reuse and renewal oI
the vacant or built sites; the cycle/pedestrian mobility and public transport promotion,
by Iavouring non polluting and non energy consuming means; the environmental
consistency oI the technological inIrastructures, by mitigating and reducing impacts;
the expansion oI the public and private green spaces, by the implementation oI an
'ecological network¨; the regeneration oI the water resource by guaranteeing the
urban soil maximum possible permeability and by paying attention to the aquiIer
vulnerability; the regeneration oI the air resource by limiting the town planning loads
and by increasing the biomass; the regeneration oI the contaminated soils; the garbage
collection and disposal, by promoting prevention and recycling measures, and the
progressive tip closure; the acoustic pollution control, by integrating the 'acoustic
zoning¨ in the plan norms.
The new master plan
As already mentioned, the new Master Plan re-organizes the environmental system as a
network. Not anymore only a 'green wheel¨ Iormed by regional parks and agricultural
land, which spokes enter to the core oI the city, but a more complex and circumstantial
layout, that involves the consolidated urban texture and the new transIormations oI
the city. The new Plan will double the public green areas, its fnal target being about
7,900 ha, so that the average theoretical standard Ior the whole city territory will be
23,7 sqm meter per inhabitant. Besides the parks and the public green areas, the Plan
includes private green areas (about 2,000 ha), which will increase to 10,000 ha the
whole surIace oI green in Rome.
The Plan confrms the minimum standards already fxed by the previous plan, on the
base oI a ministerial decree (DM 1444/68): Ior services and Iacilities at residential
level, 22 sqm/inh (roughly 13 sqm/inh Ior green areas, 6,5 sqm/inh Ior services and
2,5 sqm/inh Ior parking); Ior services at city level, 17,5 sqm/inh (15 sqm/inh Ior green
areas, 2,5 sqm/inh Ior services). The Plan stresses the issue oI standards revision and
proposes, aIter careIul quantitative and qualitative analyses, a parameter that equalizes
120 cubic meters to a new room and to one inhabitant settling. The Iorecasts oI new
settlement, that have to be verifed with the town planning standards, were computed
on the basis oI this parameter. This computing put into evidence that a huge amount
oI public green areas was still to be acquired; the actual standard Ior the whole city
is indeed 15,8 sqm/inh. This realization imposed to choose other acquisition modes
besides expropriation and Iree cession, in particular, as already mentioned, the
'compensative cession¨. This means the possibility Ior transIer oI the construction
108 109
right Irom one area to another, in agreement with the real estate owners.
A specifc study was carried out to highlight the diIIerent kind oI existing public
urban green areas. The distribution oI the new Plan green standards in the various
parts and boroughs oI the city was defned, with the aim to re-balance the most dense
and scanty ones. The setting oI new green spaces and the specifc solutions were
determined with regards both to the balance oI the large areas and to the lacks within
the districts. To this aim, the new Master Plan introduces also a quality choice based
on the interchange among various public destinations; it fxes an inclusive standard
Ior 'Public areas and public services on a local level¨, defned as quantity but open as
choice oI type oI Iacility, that the urban management authority will choose, depending
on the district town planning situation.
The new plan considers, besides the usual classifcation oI green spaces (Historical
villas, Open spaces, Shaped gardens, Green spaces Iormed by built up areas,
Decorative green, Spaces mostly equipped Ior sport and leisure, Fluvial green with
naturalistic character, Private green spaces with historic, morphologic, environmental
value, Private green) also other specifc types oI green, with various levels oI use
and oI protection: 'Private green with ecological value¨, areas with a high covering
oI lawns, shrubs, trees in which privately managed sport and leisure Iacilities Ior the
districts dwellers can be located; 'Private equipped green¨ with an almost totally
green setting, aimed at perIorming a landscape and ecological Iunction, that can host
also private Iacilities oI public use; 'Environmental belts along roads and railways¨,
aimed at mitigating the mobility inIrastructures landscape and acoustic impact, and
dimensionally apt to become real green zones usable, in part, also by the community.
The maintenance
Maintaining roughly 4,000 ha oI public green areas is nowadays a fnancial challenge,
since the resources are insuIfcient, both as staII (500 gardeners, 250 assistants, 25
technicians) and in budget (about halI oI the required). The problem will increase as
the heritage increases with the new Iorecasted acquisitions.
This is why the council has recently decided to involve private investors by means
oI the 'Progetto di fnanza¨. This project fnancing has various levels oI application:
Irom small commercial activities (kiosks Ior newspaper, drinks, Iood etc.) whose
managers will care Ior the maintenance oI small areas (1,500/2,000 sqm) to play
and leisure activities Ior children, whose managers will care Ior the maintenance oI
larger areas (5,000/8,000 sqm) and multiIunctional centres (sport Iacilities, theatre,
cinema, shows, shops etc.) whose managers will care Ior the maintenance oI very
large areas (250,000/300,000sqm). The process Iollows various steps. The Town
Municipality technical oIfces choose some public decayed green areas, to be re-
qualifed, preIerably located in districts lacking services and/or Iacilities, and issue
110 111
a competition Ior presenting use proposals. The private investors who make the best
proposals, in agreement with the municipal programmes, can build on some part oI the
public land a Iacility; the Town Municipality, on its side, gives both the use oI the land
Ior 33 years (renewable) and the building permit Ior Iree; it moreover gives a priority
lane to the case and organizes by some banks, as guarantee, a subsidized loan. The
Municipality remains the owner oI the land and oI the Iacility. The private investor,
on his side, builds and manages the Iacility, keeping the whole profts, caring Ior the
related green areas and opening it to the public.
The city council has activated also other Iorms oI collaboration with end users and
blocks oI fats administrations Ior guaranteeing the cleaning and maintenance oI small
green areas. In this case, the technical oIfces organize the work and the upkeep, case
by case.
The aim oI these new Iorms oI fnancing concerns the maintaining oI at least 10° oI
the whole green heritage oI Rome (up to date about 400 ha) without using the public
budget.
3 The visit
On the occasion oI COST C11 Meeting in Rome, a workshop and a technical visit
were organized by the X Department 'Environmental and Agricultural Policies¨ oI the
Municipality oI Rome, with the aim to highlight the new trends and policies Ior the
green areas planning and management. The choice oI the places was made to give an
idea, in one day visit, oI the various green areas characterizing the city and oI one oI
the green wheel spokes entering it. The itinerary started Irom the heart oI the ancient
Rome and ended in the baroque city, passing by the countryside.
The ~Parco Archeologico Centrale¨
The idea oI an archaeological park was born at the beginning oI the 19
th
century with
Napoleon`s idea oI the 'Jardin du Capitole¨. Also iI in diIIerent ways and in diIIerent
times, the archaeological areas were restored: the Roman Forum and the Palatinum
(1890-1925), the 'Passeggiata Archeologica¨ (1918), the Terme di Caracalla and the
'Passeggiata dei Fori Imperiali¨, and now a new excavation phase is at work. The
various sections oI this Park, partly interlaced, will become a large layout oI museum
paths, unique in the world that will connect the Capitolium to the Antique Appia
Park. Gardens, boulevards, 'Horti¨ (antique roman orchards), green settings and
plantations alternate to paved lanes and remains oI various roman periods. 'Via dei
Fori Imperiali¨ one oI the central axes oI the area, is only dedicated to pedestrians on
Sunday Ior some parts oI the year.
110 111
The ~Parco dell`Appia Antica¨
In Napoleon time, Pope Pio IX, to enhance the catacomb systems and the basilicas,
launched an upgrading plan Ior the Appia Antica: `Regina viarum`.
The Park, already a protected area oI regional interest (1988), was widened thanks
to CaIIarella and Aqueducts Parks (L. R. 29/97). The property (3,500 ha) is mainly
private, and is entrusted to 'Ente di Gestione del Parco dell`Appia Antica¨ (1998).
The area includes the Via Appia, 16 km long, and a huge number oI evidences oI
countryhouses, nymphaeums, tombs and a temple in the beautiIul setting oI the
Campagna Romana. The aim is to protect the monumental heritage, the landscape,
and to avoid unauthorized building. The Park represents a biological corridor with
great regulating potentials Ior climate and air pollution.
The ~Parco della Caffarella¨
The CaIIarella Valley, a national monument (L. 1497/39, 1089/39, 431/39 and L. R..
66/88), is an ancient place oI myths and legends. Its name comes Irom the estate built
in the 16
th
c. Into the valley, crossed by Almone river, woods oI ilex and oak take turns
at cultivated felds and pastures, with medieval and modern Iarmhouses, showing the
typical Campagna Romana landscape. The Park is an historical, archaeological,
environmental and landscape whole system.
Azienda Agricola Castel di GuidoThe Farm, a very old setting located in the
countryside, is a protected area oI mixed property (2000 ha). The main cultivations
are cereals: grain, corn and hay, while cattle-Iarming comprehends Friesian (250) and
Maremma (450) cows. Cheeses and meat are directly sold on the spot. The choice oI a
biological agriculture, underlines the Municipal Administration will to grant an urban
ecosystem. Inside the Farm, since 1999, there is a Iaunistic Oasis Ior birds oI 250 ha.
Villa Borghese
In 1903 the Villa, built by Cardinal Borghese at the beginning oI the 17th c., was
opened to the public by Rome Municipality. The prompt upgrading works made by
the Town Municipality were interrupted in the 30ies; some interventions aimed at
Iacilitating car traIfc distorted it. In the war period, other utilitarian changes occurred.
The Iollowing long restoration work is visible just now. The Villa, a protected
area, oI public property, occupying 85 ha., contains a lake, Iountains, buildings,
monuments and a huge number oI estimated statues; it oIIers precious spaces such as
the Secret Gardens, restored with rare and exotic fowers, untouched views oI roman
countryside, with planes planted in the 16
th
century, and English gardens. A project
(1997) established the Villa as a 'Museums Park¨; in Iact it hosts Iamous exhibition
buildings and cultural Ioreign academies.
Villa Paganini
A typical district garden, about 2,5 ha, once a vineyard (16th c./19th c.), then
112 113
Vi
Via Appia
Antica Park :
pavement, Ro-
man testimonies,
view towards
recent suburban
settlements, pine
trees
transIormed in a countryside villa, decayed because oI many changes oI property. In
1890, under the pressure oI building sprawl, the park was divided and partly built with
small houses. In 1934 Rome Municipality bought the remaining part to make a public
garden and a school. The garden has been restored in 2003/04 to recover its botanical
and architectural values, and to bring the necessary amenities.
Punto verde qualità Via della Mendola
The green area (24,5000 sqm) an application oI 'Progetto di Finanza¨ (2003), lays in
112 113
a modern, up middle class residential district; it is a hinge between two districts and
is characterized by a very steep land. The Iacility contains some shops, a restaurant,
a swimming pool, a gym and a kind oI kindergarten, where children can go and play,
being surveyed, plus three multiIunctional grounds. An equipped health path is open
to the public as a garden next to the Iacility. The manager maintains the whole green
area, is happy with the accommodation and has asked to develop Iurther more the
place, implementing a cycle path to connect it to the other adjacent district.
References :
Papers presented at the COST C11 Workshop held in Rome, April 2, 2004 :
Cignini B., 2004: Il Sistema Ambientale e Agricolo della citta di Roma. (Rome`s environmental
and agricultural system), Dipartim di Roma ed il Processo di Partecipa:ione. (The Agenda 21
in Rome and the participative approach), Dipartimento X Politiche Ambientali e Agricole del
Comune di Roma, Roma.
Mastrangelo S., 2004: La gestione del verde pubblico a Roma. (The management oI the public
green areas in Rome), Dipartimento X Politiche Ambientali e Agricole del Comune di Roma,
Roma.
Modigliani D., 2004. Le nuove previsioni per le aree verdi nel Nuovo Piano Regolatore
Generale. (the statements oI intent Ior the green areas in the new Master Plan), Dipartimento
X Politiche Ambientali e Agricole del Comune di Roma, Roma.
Pagnotta M., 2004: Progetti Ambientali di Riqualihca:ione Urbana. (Environmental project
Ior the urban renewal), Dipartimento X Politiche Ambientali e Agricole del Comune di Roma,
Roma.
Other references:
Oliva, M., 2004. Il sistema ambientale. (The environmental system). Urbanistica, 116, gen.
giu. 2001.
Cignini, B., Massari, G., Pignatti, S., 1995. Lecosistema Roma - Ambiente e Territorio.
(Roman ecosystem Environmental and Territory). Fratelli Palombi Editori, Roma, 1995.
AA.VV., 1997. Rela:ione sullo stato dellambiente a Roma. Comune di Roma. (Relation oI the
environmental status in Rome. Municipality oI Rome). Maggioli Editore, Rimini, 1997.
AA.VV., 1997. Piano di A:ione Ambientale di Roma. Documento preliminare. (The
Environmental Action Plan oI Rome. Preliminary document). Editrice Le Balze, Montepulciano
(SI), 1997.
AA.VV., 2003. I suoli di Roma. (The soils oI Rome). Comune di Roma. D.E.I. Srl Tipografa
del Genio Civile, 1995.
Di Giovine, M., a cvura di, Guida al verde di Roma Alla scoperta dei parchi naturali delle
ville storiche e dei giardini pubblici (Guide to Rome green To the discovery oI natural parks
historical villas and public gardens), Comune di Roma, Lozzi & Rossi Editori, s.d.
114 115
Websites:
http///www.agenda21.it
http///www.comune.roma.it
http///www.LIPU.it
http///www.parcoappiaantica.org
http///www.RomaNatura.it
http///www.villaborghese.it
Maps and pictures are reprinted with the permission of the Councillor and the Director of:
Dipartimento Ẋ 'Politiche Ambientali, Risorse Agricole e Protezione Civile¨, Iİ U.O. 'Tutela
del Territorio e della Biodiversitਠof Rome Town Municipality:
The picture of Punto Verde Qualità: via della Mendola is reprinted with the permission of: DFD
Associati (Arch. Farcomeni e Dott. Corsini).
114 115
OSLO, a vision for a sustainable future
Signe Nyhuus
1
, Guttorm Grundt
2
1 & 2 Dep oI transport and environment aIIairs City oI Oslo,
signe.nyhuus¸radhuset.oslo.kommune.no
guttorm.grundt¸ radhuset.oslo.kommune.no
Introduction
The city is the Iirst municipality in Norway, with a population oI 527.000 inhabitants
on 45 400 hectares (density : 11,6 persons per hectare).
Oslo has a vision Ior a sustainable Iuture embedded in the Strategy Ior Sustainable
Development, adopted by the City Council in June 2003: Oslo shall be a citv in sus-
tainable development, characteri:ed bv economic, social and cultural growth within
natures ecological sustainabilitv. We shall pass the citv on to the next generation in
a better environmental state than we ourselves inherited it.
The European common indicators on environment and sustainability show that the
environmental qualities oI Oslo are improving, and that Oslo is a city on the path
to sustainable development. This does not, however, mean that Oslo is a sustainable
city yet.
The ecological Iootprint analysis tells us that the City has ecological Iootprints
more than double the size oI the global average. This is mainly due to the resource-
demanding liIestyle and consumption pattern oI the inhabitants.
Oslo also has other challenges concerning environmental protection, social equity,
crime prevention, health promotion, cultural integration and municipal Iinances, just
like most large cities. The main question is, however, what actions are taken; and
does it help us in the direction oI sustainability?
Oslo`s main quality may be in adopting a broad approach to the work Ior sustain-
ability.
Some aspects are, however more important than others, and we will Iocus on the Iol-
lowing three aspects oI the work and achievements which are oI paramount impor-
tance to Oslo`s sustainability:
1. Urban Ecology
2. Global responsibility
3. Local democracy and community involvement
116 117
1, entering the toll road 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, promoting public transport, cycling and walking has contributed to a
signifcant reduction in climate gas emissions (Oslo in blue on the picture). 7, 8, 9, Oslo redeveloped the river
corridors as a vital part oI the city`s green structure. For the River Akerselva, new Iunctions were Iound Ior old
industrial buildings and measures to improve the water quality mean salmon can spawn again.
116 117
1 Urban Ecology : Why is the blue-green structure so vital for the ecology
of the city ?
Oslo cares Ior its urban ecology, and has done so Ior many years. Preserving and
working with nature, not against it, is a central principle in our Urban Ecology
Programme.
Oslo is surrounded by green Iorest hills and the blue Oslo Ijord, and the citizens oI
Oslo live in close contact with nature. This is the result oI a Iavourable natural setting
and a love oI nature, and popular support Ior an active nature protection policy.
Oslo has invested in preserving its natural capital; two thirds oI the area within the
city boundary is Iorest, parks and lakes. This constitutes both green lungs` and the
drinking water sources. The city Iorest is managed according to sound ecological
principles and is widely used by the general public. The city Iorest and parks also play
a vital part in the biological diversity in the city, which comprises up to two thirds oI
all biological specimens Iound in Norway.
Over 1,000 moose, roe-deer, beavers and lynx roam the city Iorest, together with
thousands oI recreation-seeking citizens in the aIternoons and weekends.
The city Iorest is widely used by schools Ior educational purposes: classes in some
schools spend one day per week in the Iorest or other outdoor locations.
The city Iorest is now protected as a green belt` against urban development, which
instead takes the Iorm oI densiIication in Iormer industrial and traIIic areas, especially
where there are links to the public transport system.
To the south Oslo borders the Oslo Ijord. It has not always been clean, but heavy
investment in sewers and two large sewage treatment plants has made the Ijord once
again popular Ior swimming, Iishing and sailing. The Bekkelaget sewage plant was
built into a rock at a cost oI 100 million euros. Plans are being made Ior removing
sludge with a high PCB content Irom the inner harbour basin. This will Iacilitate the
realisation oI the Fjord City Plan, opening some parts oI the Oslo sea Iront to the
public Ior recreation and urban redevelopment by moving part oI the port activities.
Urban development close to the largest public transport link in the country will Iavour
the city environment. The City Council has also set strict criteria Ior the use oI renew-
able energy in the area under development.
Connecting the Iorest with the Ijord, nine rivers run through the City`s built-up area,
although not all oI them are clean yet. But they will be in a Iew years time. The river
corridors are a vital part oI the City`s green structure. The establishment oI the Aker
River Environment Park, where the salmon is back spawning, has Iormed a model Ior
the other rivers. To stimulate the politicians and the administration in this eIIort, the
Oslo River Forum was established by a group oI enthusiastic pensioners, two oI them
having received the Oslo Environment Prize. The City has now established a Iorum
118 119
Ior co-ordinating the work oI the diIIerent municipal agencies concerned, with the
Oslo River Forum as an active partner. Plans are now being made to re-open closed
stretches oI some oI the rivers. The Iirst re-opening will take place in 2005 with the
creation oI a natural swimming pond, including a waterIall and adjacent recreation
areas.
Together; the Iorest, the parks, the lakes, the rivers and the Ijord Iorm a blue-green
web and ecological inIrastructure in and around the city Iabric which is vital both Ior
the wellbeing oI our inhabitants, and Ior the sustainability oI our city.
2 Global responsibility : How come Oslo has such low climate gas emis-
sions and why does the City work to reduce them still further ?
Climate changes represent one oI the most important challenges Ior the sustainability
oI mankind and the City oI Oslo has taken on the responsibility to contribute to this
global challenge. Oslo has today very low climate gas emissions, slightly less than 3.0
tons per capita, which compares with the average emission levels oI China and Brazil.
The main contribution oI the City to the global climate is, thereIore, to maintain its
low level oI climate gas emissions. Another goal is to reduce the emissions accord-
ing to the national obligations set in the Kyoto Protocol and long-term goals oI the
United Nations. The Iollowing section Iocuses on the reasons and policy behind the
low emissions, and what is being done to reduce them Iurther.
For many years two thirds oI the energy consumption in Oslo has been supplied by
electricity produced by hydroelectric power, which is a sustainable source oI energy.
The City oI Oslo is also a producer oI hydroelectric power through its ownership in
the Oslo Energy Company. Oslo uses electricity both Ior stationary energy use in
buildings (including heating), and in transport.
Two thirds oI the public transport system runs on electricity. This includes trams,
trains and the metro and our public transport company has had a passenger increase
oI 20° since 1990.
The City has some 50 electric cars in service and aims to increase the share oI cars
with no or very low emissions to 50° by 2008.
To reduce climate gas emissions Irom car transport in the City the metro system is
being modernized in order to capture more passengers. The Toll Ring Ior cars entering
the city both reduces the car traIIic by around 10 °, and Iinances part oI the expan-
sion oI the metro lines.
The building oI c. 100 km oI cycle lanes and roads has increased cycling in the city
and our City-Bike project oIIers 1,200 bikes Ior users in the more central parts oI the
city. Over 75 ° oI school children in Oslo walk or cycle to school.
Oslo has developed a district heating system Ior the city which contributes to signiIi
118 119
cant reductions in climate gas emissions Irom both stationary energy use and Irom
waste.
Household waste is burned Ior energy use in the district heating system, thus eliminat-
ing methane emissions Irom alternative landIills.
The City Council has established an Energy EIIiciency Fund oI c. 100 million euros
where the interest or yield is used to stimulate and support energy eIIiciency cam-
paigns and projects, amounting to the equivalent oI 700 GWh over the last 10 years.
This represents the output oI a medium sized Norwegian hydroelectric power station.
The Iund also supports projects involving change to alternative sustainable energy
sources such as bio-Iuel and passive heat sources like rock or sea combined with heat
pumps. Five oI our schools and one nursing home now use geo-energy. The largest
geo-energy or rock store project Ior heating and cooling in northern Europe is under
construction in Nydalen.
In spite oI a low level oI emissions the situation is not totally satisIying. We want
to reduce the emissions Iurther and phase out the use oI Iossil Iuels where there are
viable alternatives. To be able to obtain substantial results we have to seek solutions
in a regional context. In the year 2000 Oslo took the initiative to develop regional co-
operation through a common Climate and Energy Strategy Ior the Oslo region and the
strategy was adopted by Oslo and the Akershus and Buskerud counties last year.
This strategy has now been Iollowed up by a regional Climate and Energy Action
Packet. This is in partnership with relevant national agencies and the most important
energy producers, transporters and users in the region. The Action Packet is planned
to be put into practice Irom 2004.
3 Local democracy and community involvement : Why are the City
Districts so important for the sustainability of the city ?
Oslo believes in the principle oI subsidiarity and has decentralized important parts
oI the City`s Iunctions to its 15 urban districts, each with a population oI 20,000
40,000 inhabitants.
The main goals oI the Urban District reIorm are:
· Decentralisation oI political power and democratisation oI local manage-
ment
· Better service Ior the public
· Better quality oI the municipal services
· More eIIicient use oI the municipal resources
· More meaningIul working conditions Ior employees.
120 121
Each Urban District has a political Urban District Council oI 11 members, which gov-
erns the Urban District on behalI oI the City Council. Four Districts now hold direct
elections to their City District Council in order to investigate whether this will raise
the democratic activity in the city. II the experiences are positive, the rest oI the City
Districts might do likewise. The District administration is headed by a Director and
their staII (50 ° oI the Urban District directors are women). The Districts are not only
Iinanced according to local population size, but also according to the social and health
challenges Iacing the local population. The Districts with the most serious poverty and
social equity challenges consequently gets the largest budgets by Iar. This has contrib-
uted to prevent a larger gap between the diIIerent socio-economic groups during the
last 10 years, in spite oI a relatively large immigration Irom the non-western world.
The City Districts run a variety oI service units and institutions, such as kindergartens,
homes and care units Ior the elderly and disabled, youth clubs, senior centres and
health centres.
In addition to their core tasks the City Districts have Ireedom to engage in diIIerent
projects and actions tailored to their needs. Here are a Iew examples which may illus-
trate the variety and character oI their work:
Seven Districts have participated in our Green Municipality Programme, piloting
environmental management in the administrative organisation, and 14 kindergartens
have been certiIied according to the Environmental Lighthouse certiIication system.
This programme is now extended to include the whole municipality.
Some Districts have educated their own Environmental Lighthouse certiIying person-
nel to certiIy local businesses and exchange certiIying services with other districts.
Several Districts practise Green Procurement and use cycles or electric cars Ior trans-
port in their services.
The City Districts have appointed Local Agenda 21 contacts and some have recruited
expert staII to work with LA 21 in the district. Six Urban Districts have established
a Local Agenda 21 Iorum with participation Irom local organisations and businesses,
and prepared and adopted their own LA 21 plans or programmes. Many Districts sup-
port local volunteer LA 21 initiatives practically and Iinancially, and Iocus on environ-
ment and other LA 21 challenges in their City District Day arrangements.
Three Oslo inner east districts are participating in a 10 year Urban Development
Programme Ior urban renewal, social inclusion and cultural integration. The pro-
gramme is carried through in partnership between the City Districts, the City and the
Ministry oI Local Government. The Programme Iunds a series oI actions including
physical improvement oI housing and urban spaces, multicultural youth clubs and
employment training Ior youth, primary medicine workshops Ior immigrant women,
Iree kindergartens Ior immigrant children and support teaching in multiethnic
schools.
120 121
The Iormer District oI Romsås, now Grorud, has established a pioneering project
called ¨Exercise in Romsås¨ to improve health conditions and lower the mortality
rate oI the population. The primary goal is to help vulnerable groups in the local
population to change their liIestyle in a positive direction through physical activ-
ity. The project initiates both Iitness-to-music groups indoors and outdoor walking
groups. Doctors in the District can prescribe exercise on a green prescription` as an
alternative or supplement to medicine.
Oslo reinforces its commitment to sustainable development
The commitment to sustainable development is not on the wane. On the contrary,
during the last year the City has adopted several major White Papers increasing the
City`s involvement:
· Report to the City Parliament 1/2003: Strategy Ior Sustainable Development`
including Urban Ecology Programme Ior the period 2003-2014.
· Proposition to the City Parliament: Strategy Ior Biodiversity in Oslo`.
· Oslo in Motion`; a strategy Ior health, promoting outdoor recreation and
sports.
· Oslo Extra Large a city Ior all`; a strategy Ior tolerance and integration.
· Report to the City Parliament 3/2003: Green Municipality`, a programme
Ior an Environmental Management System, imposing environmental man-
agement on all parts oI the municipal administration and services.
In addition, the City Government is preparing a Master Plan Ior the City, with strate-
gies Ior urban planning, city economy, housing, employment, and social and cultural
development that will supplement the sustainable strategy.
Equally important to the adoption oI these political documents is the adoption oI
the Earth Charter, with its values and principles Ior a sustainable Iuture. Oslo is the
host city oI the Nobel Peace Prize and the annual ceremony takes place in Oslo City
Hall. Formerly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, Mr. Gorbachev is today co-chair oI
the Earth Charter Commission, and one oI the authors oI the charter. The adoption
oI the Earth Charter is, thereIore, a strong symbol oI the global commitment to both
peace and sustainable development, since these belong together.
Oslo received the European Sustainable City Award 2003- see
www.oslo.kommune.no
122 123
Green structures of Ceske Budejovice,
Czech Republic
Irena Hanouskova et al.
Institute oI Landscape Ecology, Academy oI Sciences oI the Czech Republic,
Ceske Budejovice, CR irenaha¸uek.cas.cz
Based on contributions of : 1aroslav Bohac, Michael Bartos, Drahomira Kusova,
1an Tesitel, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech
Republic, Ceske Budejovice, CR, 1iri Pykal, Agency of Nature Conservation of
the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, CR, jiri_pykal¡nature.cz, Vladimira
Hruskova, Svatopluk Mika, Town Municipality of Ceske Budejovice, CR,
HruskovaV¡c-budejovice.cz, MikaS¡c-budejovice.cz
Introduction
The central European town oI Ceske Budejovice is situated in the South Bohemian
Basin. Locator Hirzo, a very experienced architect, sorted out the environment Ior
the strategic plan to enIorce the royal sovereignty in South Bohemia. The town was
Iounded on the conIluence oI the Vltava and the Malse rivers in 13th century. Both the
rivers and also man-made Mlynsky stream provided adequate natural deIence against
the enemy.
Nowadays the city is the centre oI Ceske Budejovice district spreading on the area
oI 1,626 km2. The administrative unit comprises 107 municipalities with 178,140
inhabitants. Population density represents 110 inhabitants per 1km2. In contrast to
this, population density oI the urban agglomeration, where there are 99,521 inhabit-
ants on the area oI 55.54 km2, represents almost 1,800 inhabitants per 1km2. These
Iigures show the enormous pressure in the direction oI commercial use oI the land,
many times at the expense oI green structures.
C. Budejovice surrounding includes a wide range oI versatile green areas Irom pro-
tected areas (biosphere reserves Trebonsko and Bohemian Forest, protected landscape
area Blansky les) to wetlands, ponds, deer parks and man-made parks. The typical
landscape with Iorest, shelter belts, ponds, parks, deer park, gardens and historical
monuments is situated in the vicinity oI the city downstream the Vltava river. Within
pedestrian accessibility, the historical town oI Hluboka or Opatovice village, a candi-
date on UNESCO`s World Heritage List, are situated.
Particular driving forces and diversity
The green structure was shaped up during historical attempts oI land, water and other
resources utilization under natural conditions oI alluvial plains oI the Vltava and the
Malse rivers. The contemporary driving Iorce Ior particular areas is the Iocus oI the
city environmental planning and management on the Iollowing greenery components:
122 123
place oI King Premysl
Otakar II and town hall,
tower houses oI quarter
Vitava, mowing in
Stromovka park, children
in willow crown, ravens
nesting in sycomore
trees, Vitava and Malse
rivers close to the town
centre, Vrbenske rybnik
pond area, ederly people
are enjoying green spa-
ces, bicycle path along
the Vitava river and
connecting Wienna to
Prague, park Na Sadech.
124 125
vegetation elements oI urban character, vegetation elements oI street character, green
wedges, composition axes oI green structures system, major and minor axes oI veg-
etation network (Mika, 2004). The river axes have substantial role in the network.
In the history the green structure composition was Iormed largely by man intention,
remarkable periodicity oI seasons and Iluctuations oI the environmental values,
Iavourable or even limiting to occurrence oI particular species and individuals (see
Fig. 1, 2). Resulting dendroIlora is composed oI 82° broad-leaved tree and shrub
species and 18° oI evergreen species. The species occurrence and its changes along
the urban gradient witness diIIerent intensity and superposition oI the Iorces in the
individual areas. The prevailing land-use Iorms result in particular species diversity
oI the areas (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Number oI species in areas along the city gradient oI built city centre to
areas under seminatural control. Ceske Budejovice (CR). Data were provided by
Albrechtova (1998), Hanouskova and Sera (Hanouskova et al., 2002, 2003, 2004).
The C. Budejovice arrangement oI urban environment, including green structure and
its management along the river banks, contributes to Ilood-regulating system oI the
rivers watersheds. The system was convenient until the (8th)13th oI August 2002
when the extreme Iloods inIlicted the city. During the second Ilood wave the water
Ilow in the Vltava river, downstream the conIluence with the Malse river, was almost
equal to so called thousand-year water. 27.21 ° oI the entire town area was Ilooded
and the structures under the Ilood level played the role oI eIIicient large combs Ior
mud and debris carried by the water Ilow. The man-made ecological system was
badly damaged and later many wood species had to be removed and particular sites
had to be substantially reconstructed, e.g. parks Stromovka and Na Sadech.
s
p
e
c
i
e
s

n
u
m
b
e
r
124 125
Fig. 2. Numbers oI dead and heavily damaged trees and shrubs registered aIter the
Ilood, drought and drainage impacts in years 2002-2003.
(Stromovka park, Ceske Budejovice, CR, 587 individuals recorded between 9th -11th
oI August, 2003; data received in cooperation with J. Möllerova, Czech Agricultural
University, Department oI Dendrology, Prague)
Perception of city green structures
On the basis oI the content analysis oI the regional press in South Bohemia
1
we
can state that nearly 90° percent oI citizens use the greenery oI the city Ceske
Budejovice. People do not perceive the problem oI public greenery as urgent and
mainly observe iI the greenery is in good shape.
During the evaluation oI questionnaire answers (Kusova et al, 2004) it was Iound that
C. Budejovice is perceived as a 'green town¨ by the inhabitants. More than 4/5 oI
them use the greenery Ior their leisure time in passive and active ways and more than
2/3 are contended with the quality. The inhabitant is interested in clean, tidy and well-
maintained greenery. About 7 ° oI respondents perceive the greenery oI the city as a
scene or show that might distract or relax the mind or diversiIy the urban stereotyped
environment. 6° oI respondents would improve the green structure connectivity and
the same number recommend ,more benches'. 22° suggested better
1. Contentment with urban greenery oI the city inhabitants. Ceske Budejovice (CR), 2004.
(Results oI the poll commissioned by ILE AS CR (Kusova et al, 2004)
126 127
management, e.g., more waste bins, more public lavatories. 5° speculated about
,better anticipating oI needs and wishes oI / between individual area users' or ,care-
Iul approach to other greenery users, also by dog keepers'
The diversity oI eligible green structure Iorms and management inIormally helps to
span the misleading and constrained idea oI the town culture that greenery is untouch-
able and saIe only when observed Irom pavements, behind car windows, etc.
The environment connectivity and contextuality perception Ior a visitor/green struc-
ture user is supported by well situated bicycle lanes that Iacilitate connection between
the historical centre, greenery in the built areas, greenery under nature conservation
and areas Ior leisure time in the city suburb and vicinity. The diverse areas proxim-
ity, walking and biking distance during a trip oIIers important experience Ior active
visitors; it is an important inIormal lecture oI cultural continuity oI urban landscape
changes and maintenance.
Visited sites of Ceske Budejovice
The quality oI particular city areas and their green structures is introduced on the
examples oI Iour sites situated along the river Vltava and anthropogenic gradient
between the city historical centre and a small historical town Hluboka in the vicinity
oI C. Budejovice.
Park Na Sadech
The central park Na Sadech was designed by the garden architect RudolI Vacha (1825-
1899) and situated behind the historical town IortiIication destroyed in the 18th cen-
tury. The area is 3.5 ha. At the date, the park belongs to the city conservation area
proclaimed in 1980. A. Lanna`s memorial, playground Ior children, a Iountain, a caIe
and proximity oI important services, administrative and shopping centres contribute to
the site quality. According to Kusova et al. (2004), 15° oI the city inhabitants obvi-
ously visit the park.
AIter the year 2002 an essential reconstruction oI the park was undertaken. Besides
paving the paths, greenery adjustment, locating appropriate spots Ior benches and
waste bins, reconstruction oI Iountains and their illumination it also included the
renewal oI greenery patches. New pavements are better accommodated to the vegeta-
tion. The roots are supplied with water by means oI drainage layers along the paths
and by watering.
In the course oI the reconstruction, a halI oI bushes and a tenth oI trees disappeared
Irom the stands. The core oI the park, consisting oI lime trees, chestnut trees, maples,
sycamores, elm trees, rosebays, azaleas and magnolias remained unchanged. Acacias,
lilacs, hawthorn and honeysuckle bushes, bird cherry trees and other less valuable,
diseased or incidentally emerged trees were cut down to be replaced with original,
grown-up wood species.
Since 1980 the raven colony(ies) add the local colour to the park and trouble the pub-
lic, at least by their noisy crowing contributing to traIIic noise in the surroundings.
The Ilowers in this central park suIIer Irom vandalism. Almost one third oI the park
126 127
Ilowers are destroyed by vandals, and thereIore the Iirm attending the Ilower beds
must repeatedly renew the damaged canopies.
Park Stromovka
Stromovka is the largest park in C. Budejovice with the area oI 68 ha. It was estab-
lished in 1950s and 1960s as team work oI volunteers and inhabitants. The environ-
mental management has improved since 1990s: new paths, cycling trails, benches,
playgrounds, pond Bagr. The park is Irequently visited by all age and social groups oI
inhabitants. According to Kusova et al. (2004), 43° oI the city inhabitants obviously
visit the park. Since 1992 the Stromovka park has been registered as an important
landscape component according to the Act 114/1992 on nature and landscape protec-
tion. It has been delineated as a regional biocentre within the system oI ecological
stability oI the landscape. Sometimes it is reIerred to as the ,green lungs oI the city'.
In the park, since 1993, a Sculpture Symposium Stromovka has taken place every
year and several open spaces took advantage oI sculptural decorations.
In the park, about 270 species oI Iungi were Iound in 1995. In 1997 the research oI
birds showed 60 species, 53 oI them were nesting in Stromovka; abundant species
are warbler, blackbird, chaIIinch and great tit. In 2002-2004 during the COST C11
monitoring 356 plant species were recorded; Canadian poplar, weeping willow, silver
birch, black alder, lime trees and maples are common in tree canopy. At the end oI
1980s the reconstruction oI tree composition was realised and oak, beech, maple,
lime, pine and spruce were added to Iorm the Iuture design.
According to the Regulation plan, a bridge Ior walkers and bikers was built (Ior bet-
ter accessibility) between the Vltava river banks. Just aIter a reconstruction is the
bridge Ior walkers and bikers across main road that splits Iormer Stromovka area into
two separate patches. Stromovka is easily accessible Irom the historical centre at the
date.
In August 2002 Stromovka park was aIIlicted with Iloods which changed this area
into a marshy lake. The suburban recreation zone became inaccessible and the stag-
nant water was a large incubator oI gnats. To drain the area and restore the original
conditions, the municipality had to invest more than 5 million CZK. The investment
also covered the construction oI a system oI open ditches Ior the area drainage. AIter
two extreme severe impacts, i.e., Ilood (year 2002), dry and hot summer (year 2003)
and drainage (year 2003) nearly 600 trees and shrubs were heavily damaged or dead
(Fig. 2).
Stromovka park is attended exclusively by the Municipality oI Ceske Budejovice.
The articles in press in the period 2000 2002, which were related to the park, mostly
mentioned the disputes on property rights between the municipality and private own-
ers. The disputes ended up in the decision oI the municipality to stop attending the
greenery on private land and continue on state and municipality property. Apart Irom
the Iact that an unattended park patches look ugly the Ilowering grasses may increase
the threat oI allergies.
128 129
Quarter of slab and tower houses Vltava
The area was built up during 7th and 8th decennia oI the 20th century as slab and
tower houses concentration on the leIt side oI Vltava river (4 133 Ilats, 68.5 ha, archi-
tects: Vyhnanek and Kubik).
The housing construction was realized in Ilat open area on Iormer agricultural land oI
the river alluvium. The houses are built in rows and in that way the greenery Iollows
similar rectangular and line system. The uniIorm built up area and the uniIorm age
structure oI plantations does not allow orientate the area user very well.
The green structures were embedded aIter Iinishing the buildings. The lawns based
on several grass species were established on made-up ground and young trees and
shrubs were planted. Older trees, obviously oaks, were preserved in several patches.
At the date, the plant species numbers Iluctuate surprisingly between 15-40 and more
per a managed habitat. The richest species assemblages were Iound under the trees
Irequently used by birds, obviously blackbirds, magpies, doves and sparrows as rest
stops; species rich are also the habitats oI Iormer garden beds or near the dog keepers`
and walkers` tracks.
In August 2002, lower habitats oI the area were Ilooded without remarkable impacts
on the young greenery structure.
Restoration oI the older built up area is in progress and is destined Ior remedy oI
environment quality, including tree densiIication, microclimate enhancement and
re-Iilling the barrier plantations. The municipal subsidy was aimed at constructing
playgrounds, renewing decorative greenery, attending public spaces, car parks and
bike paths and sidewalks maintenance. On the area oI 650 m2, the city hall Iounded
Iirst dogs´ park that has ever existed in its territory.
The children who would like to grow some plants and do not have any opportunity to
do so are oIIered a chance in the Centre oI ecological and global education Cassiopea.
They can grow plants oI their own in the newly established bio-garden.
Vrbenske rybniky pond area
The area oI Vrbenske rybniky is a unique seminatural and landscape complex situated
in the north-west oI the city oI Ceske Budejovice, about 4 km Irom the city centre.
According to Kusova et al. (2004), 14° oI the city inhabitants obviously visit the
area. The ponds were built in the 15th and 16th centuries. At the date, they are man-
aged as the nature reserve Vrbenske rybniky declared in March 1990 and comprised
the area oI 246 ha. It includes 4 medium-size ponds, the meadows bordering with
the ponds and the stands oI wetland alder-trees habitat unique by its area in central
Europe.
In August 2002 the area was impacted by Iloods without any substantial response oI
greenery, while the Iish Iarming was spoiled.
The natural reserve is unique Ior its high concentration oI various species on a small
area located very near to the city. In 1993 there was established the educational path
128 129
,Along the dikes oI Vrbenske rybniky ponds', concentrating on botany, zoology and
ecology. The path is Ior bikers as well as walkers, it measures 2.5 km and the inIorma-
tion is presented on ten boards.
Most land in the nature reserve is the property oI the city oI Ceske Budejovice and
the management is provided by the organisation Forests and Fishponds oI Ceske
Budejovice Ltd. The ponds are managed in the same way as traditional carp ponds
Ior the production oI marketable Iish, just with some restrictions given by the reserve
status and management plan. The same organisation looks aIter the alder-tree area,
which is used as a pheasantry Ior breeding pheasants and letting them out Ior hunting
purposes.
Considering species diversity and population abundance oI many water Iowl species,
the reserve belongs to the most valuable localities in South Bohemia. In the course
oI the 20th century, 191 bird species were Iound here and nesting was proved in 93
species.
Vrbenske rybniky territory is a birds´ paradise Ior visitors. People can watch e.g. birds
mating, nest building and water Iowl Iamily liIe at a short distance.
In the reserve there were Iound more than 900 species oI butterIlies during 20 years
oI survey (Pykal, 2004). The mown meadows bordering with ponds host rich meadow
vegetation including some more scarce and spectaculous species. 398 plant species
were registered by Albrechtova (1998).
The area, considering its high habitat and species diversity, deIinitely belongs to
the most valuable Iishpond localities in South Bohemia. ThereIore the territory was
proposed to become part oI the bird area (Special Protected Area), which is currently
under preparation as 'Ceskobudejovicke rybniky' according to 'Birds Directive¨,
and, together with the adjacent Iormer military training platIorm, also as a proposed
'Site oI Community Interest¨ according to 'Habitats Directive¨ oI the European
Union.
The mentioned steps should contribute to the preservation oI natural-scientiIic and
landscape-Iorming values oI this territory, which also serves the recreational purposes
oI the inhabitants oI two largest residential parts oI the city. Though the numbers oI
people along the ponds dams are high Irom spring to autumn, no negative impact on
water birds has been Iound.
The territory is oIten visited by the students oI biology Irom all types oI schools
beginning with basic schools up to the University oI South Bohemia and its Faculty
oI Agriculture or the Faculty oI Biological Sciences.
Several aspects of Ceske Budejovice urban planning
Planning guided the town spatial structure Irom the town origins in the 13th century.
By the seventies oI the 20th century, the town was 'shaded oI¨ megalomaniac general
trends. In comparison to Mayer (2000)
130 131
Many historical concepts and ideologies that were summarised by Mayer (2000) can
be observed in resulting green structure patterns developed under local environmental
driven Iorces and the social-driven aims.
In general, the present patterns maniIest the idea that local environment and avail-
able open space is crucial to a sense oI enjoyment oI city liIe, conservation diversity,
incorporating the characteristic nature Ieatures into the sense oI genius loci, managing
the green structures peculiarity and contextuality.
The planning oI the areas quality and diversiIied management eventuate in diversity
oI green structures Ior leisure and education. It is essential Ior changing green struc-
tures to allow a visitor to experience the diIIerences between environmental comIort
along a short distance gradient or during a Iew hours oI walk.
The Iuture oI green structures space distribution is predetermined by a Iinal version
oI Master Plan (2000). In the plan, the important vegetation Iorms are components oI
green axis connecting (isolated) urban habitats between each other and within land-
scape ecological systems. The projects secondary to Master Plan are based on the lat-
est instrument oI landscape planning in the CR, the Territorial System oI Landscape
Ecological Stability (Bucek et al., 1996; Ministry Ior Regional Development, 1997).
At the date, the Ilood impact is discussed in the view oI construction regulations and
provisions and will eventuate in the changes oI the latest version oI Master Plan.
The environmental planning and management is supportive to urban planning oI
greenstructures.
In long the term perspective good general remedies will be received when the state
policy oI the environment is considered (Ministry oI the Environment oI the CR,
2004) and environmental aspects involved in the Iirst steps oI Master plan and
Regional plan development.
References :
Albrechtova, A., 1998. Inventari:acni pru:kum prirodni re:ervace Jrbenske rvbnikv
(Inventory research oI natural reserve Vrbenske rybniky in Czech). Agency oI
Nature Conservation oI the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, 74 p.
Bartos, M., 2004. Development of the town Ceske Budefovice and its green structures.
Institute oI Landscape Ecology AS CR, Ceske Budejovice (COST C11 Final Seminar
excursion, Ceske Budejovice, 2nd-4th oI December, 2004)
Bohac, J., 2004. Green areas in the vicinitv of urban area. Hluboka nad Jltavou
and Opatovice. (COST C11 Final Seminar excursion, Ceske Budejovice, 2nd-4th oI
December, 2004)
Bucek, A., Lacina, J., Michal, I., 1996. An ecological network in the Czech Republic.
Jeronica, Brno, X/ 11, pp. 1-45.
Hanouskova, I., Bohac, J., Sera, B., Bartos, M., Gottlieb, M., Kusova D., Lepsova, A.,
Sedlacek, F., Tesitel, J. 2002-2004. Organi:mv ohro:ufici u:ivatele :elene v urban-
130 131
nim prostredi (Organisms with harmIul eIIects Ior area users in green structures oI
urban areas in Czech and English). Institute oI Landscape Ecology AS CR, Ceske
Budejovice, Ministry oI Education, Youth and Sports oI the CR, Prague. (Annual
reports on the project COST C11, OC11.001)
Hruskova, V., 2004. Floods in Ceske Budejovice in August 2002. Statutorv Town of
Ceske Budefovice, Department of Public Properties, Ceske Budejovice, 6 p. (COST
C11 Final Seminar, town introductin, Ceske Budejovice, 2nd-4th oI December,
2004)
Kusova D., Bartos, M., Tesitel, J., 2003. Presentation of Ceske Budefovice public
greenerv in press. Content analysis oI South Bohemian regional periodicals. Institute
oI Landscape Ecology AS CR, Ceske Budejovice, 7 p.
Kusova D., Bartos, M., Tesitel, J., 2004. Organi:mv ohro:ufici u:ivatele :elene v
urbannim prostredi (Organisms with harmIul eIIects Ior area users in green structures
oI urban areas in Czech). Institute oI Landscape Ecology AS CR, Ceske Budejovice,
54 p. (COST C11 OC11.001 Annual report on sociological research)
Mayer, K. (Ed.), 2000. Urbanisticka citanka. Jvbrane textv urbanisticke literaturv
XX. stoleti (Urban textbook. Selected texts oI urban literature oI XXth century - in
Czech). Czech Chamber oI Architects, Prague, 128 p.
Mika, S., 2004. The citv of Ceske Budefovice in brief historv, gree nstructures.
Statutorv Town of Ceske Budefovice, Department oI Environment Protection, Ceske
Budejovice, 4 p. (COST C11 Final Seminar, town introduction, Ceske Budejovice,
2nd-4th oI December, 2004)
Ministry Ior Regional Development, 1997. Metodika :apracovani USES do u:em-
nich planu sidelnich utvaru (Territorial System oI Landscape Ecological Stability
in area plans oI settlemets. Guide oI methods in Czech). Ministry Ior Regional
Development oI the CR, Brno. pp 1-23.
Ministry oI the Environment oI the CR, 2004. Statni politika :ivotniho prostredi
2004-2010 (State policy oI the environment 2004-2010- in Czech), Prague, 56 p.
Pykal, J., 2004. Vrbenske rybniky Iishpond area. Agency oI Nature Conservation
oI the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, 4 p. (Contribution to COST C11 Final
Seminar excursion, Ceske Budejovice, 2nd-4th oI December, 2004)
Starcevsky, P., Lacina, L., 2000. U:emni plan statutarniho mesta Ceske Budefovice
(Master Plan. Statutory Town Ceske Budejovice - in Czech). CD version 2001.
Talirova, J., 2004. Greenerv of Ceske Budefovice town centre, parks and between slab
houses. Integrated High School of Architecture, Ceske Budejovice, 10 p. (COST C11
Final Seminar excursion, Ceske Budejovice, 2nd-4th oI December, 2004)
132 133
The cities green structures along rivers or canals : Akerselva in Oslo, Isar in Munich, Naviglio
Grande in Milan city region, canal surrounding the city centre oI Breda, project Ior Rivelin valley
in SheIIield, Vistula in Warsaw
132 133

CHAPTER 3
An ecological approach
to green structure planning
Members of Working group 1 A :
Anne Beer, Eva Erhart, Susanne Guldager,
Irena Hanouskova, Ewa Kaliszuk, Olli Maijala,
Signe Nyhuus, Stephan Pauleit"*ejckt+. Ulrik Reeh,
Peter Schildwacht, Sybrand Tjallingii, Inkeri Vähä-Piikkiö.
134 135
Figure 1.1. 'Ecology¨ case studies oI Cost Action C11
134 135
1 Introduction
Stephan Pauleit
There is a growing body oI evidence on the ecological beneIits oI green structure
in urban areas. Green spaces can serve as habitats Ior wildliIe and enhance natural
processes such as water inIiltration and Ilood water retention (Hough 1995, Tjallingii
1995).
Whether green spaces can eIIectively IulIil these environmental Iunctions depends on
a variety oI Iactors such as the overall provision oI green spaces, the size, diversity
and distribution oI green spaces within the city, their history as well as the design and
management oI the individual green spaces (Gilbert 1989). Creation oI green space
networks and corridors have been proposed as a strategy to promote connectivity
between green spaces Ior wildliIe movement, the management oI water in the city
and to improve air quality (Barker 1997).
Adopting an ecological approach to green structure planning and management that
enhances natural processes can thus contribute to make the urban environment an
attractive and healthy place to live, where nature can be enjoyed Ior the beneIit oI
everyone. It can also contribute to avoid or reduce environmental problems in cit-
ies that otherwise require costly engineering solutions such as river engineering or
rainwater retention Iacilities. However, to which extent has such an approach been
adopted and how ?
Within COST Action C11, a working group 'Ecology and green structure planning¨
was Iormed to Iind out more about the use oI ecology in green structure planning in
European urban areas. Unlike the human value and planning approaches discussed
in this book, the ecological approach Iocuses on the urban ecosvstem as a basic set
oI conditions Ior both humans and other species. The participants oI the ecology
working group selected case studies with which they were Iamiliar and where they
had access to inIormation Irom their work in the administration or the involvement
in projects and research. Some oI the case studies were also visited during the COST
Action and this provided an opportunity to gain Iurther insights on site visits and in
discussions with city oIIicials.
The selected cities have a wide geographical coverage, although a Mediterranean
city is missing (Fig. 1.1). ThereIore, environmental conditions Ior green structure
are diIIerent but also the ecological Iunctions oI the greenstructure, e.g. ists climatic
Iunctions, are diIIerent. Population size ranges between 60,000 to 1.6 million popula-
tion but the urban region is usually much larger. Fast growing cities with a strong
economy such as Munich and cities with a weaker economy (Warsaw, C. Budejovice)
were included, but not declining cities. ThereIore, the case studies are not representa-
tive Ior the whole range oI urban situations in Europe.
The case studies addressed Iour questions:
1. How have natural and cultural Ieatures inIluenced the development oI greenstruc-
137
ture in the urban environment?
2. What does this greenstructure mean Ior biodiversity and environmental Iunctions
(i.e. water, climate)?
3. What is presently recorded about ecology in the case study area, by whom, and
how?
4. How have ecological goals been set out to inIluence the planning, design and
management processes? Is there any evidence that these goals have eIIectively
inIluenced the planning processes within the study area?
The Iirst part oI this chapter compares the results Irom the case studies. First, an
overview oI the green structure in the case study areas is given. The next chapters are
concerned with the relation oI this green structure with biodiversity, water, climate,
as well as the management oI organic matter in the city. There is no separate chapter
on the role oI ecology in green structure planning as each oI the thematic chapters
already discusses, Ior instance, whether and how biodiversity goals are set and used
in planning in the case study areas. Overall, the main outcomes oI the working group
are discussed in the general conclusions Part A oI the book.
In the Irame oI the COST Action, the working group could not assess in-depth the
situation oI ecology in green structure planning in the selected cities and towns. The
case studies also diIIered in the inIormation that could be provided. ThereIore, we
rather concentrated on presenting those Iindings Irom the diIIerent case studies that
seemed particularly worth oI highlighting and acknowledge that there are still many
gaps in our knowledge that would need to be addressed in a more systematic study.
Still, we believe that the comparison oI the case studies provides useIul inIormation
on how ecology is handled in green structure planning and management, what are the
speciIic problems, but particularly to identiIy examples oI good practice that could
also be oI interest to other cities.
References :
Barker G. (1997) A Framework Ior the Future: Green Networks with Multiple Uses
in and around Towns and Cities. English Nature Research Report No. 256. English
Nature, Peterborough
Hough M., 1995. Cities and Natural Process. Routledge, London.
Tjallingii S., 1995. Ecopolis Strategies Ior ecologically sound urban development.
Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
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137
2 Green structure patterns
Stephan Pauleit and Ewa Kaliszuk
The chapter aims to characterise the main Ieatures oI the green structure oI the case
studies to highlight both common and individual Ieatures.
Green structure cover
Urban areas may be imagined as predominantly covered by buildings and paved
areas. However, the amount oI green spaces can be surprisingly high and surpass that
oI built-up areas. The importance oI green space in the case study cities is presented
by the percentage oI green areas. For instance, in Vienna, according to land use sta-
tistics green spaces cover 49° oI the city`s surIace area (Iarmland and woodlands on
the urban Iringe are included) whilst only 33° is classiIied as built-up. Similarly, two
thirds oI Oslo`s surIace area consists oI woodlands and Iarmland. These Iigures still
do not account Ior the green spaces that can be Iound within urban land uses such as
housing areas. In Munich, a survey oI the whole city area showed that all vegetated
areas covered almost 60° oI the surIace area (including Iarmland). In particular low
density housing areas were shown to be important. These green spaces generally do
not appear in city green space statistics and are not shown on city maps but they are
a part oI the urban green structure and can have ecological Iunctions (e.g. as a habitat
Ior wildliIe). An ecological approach to green structure planning should be concerned
with all oI these green spaces and assess how they contribute to biodiversity and other
ecological Iunctions in the city.
Green structure layers
Each city has its own, distinctive green structure. Figure 2.1 (next page) gives an
overview oI the major green structure elements in the case study areas. The speciIic
green structure oI a city is a result Irom the interaction oI natural and human processes
over time. As a result, a great variety oI diIIerent green spaces can exist in a city and
according to their origin three diIIerent green structure layers can be distinguished:
1. The pre-urban layer oI the natural and cultural landscapes that were already
there beIore the city. This layer includes, Ior instance, rivers, Iorests, arable
land, wetlands, hay meadows and pastures. These green spaces oI the pre-urban
landscape can consist oI a wide range oI diIIerent vegetation types, that reIlect
the natural conditions such as geology, soils and historic Iarming practices.
It is particularly this pre-urban layer which distinguishes the greenstruc-
ture Irom one city to the other. For instance, in the two Nordic cities
Oslo and Helsinki woodlands, wetlands and the sea shore are promi-
nent and they have inIluenced the pattern oI urban development. In the
central European cities (Utrecht, Munich, Vienna, C. Budejovice), on the
other hand, open Iarmland is much more important around the cities.
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139
green
struc-
ture
pattern
main
struc-
ture
ele-
ments
chal-
lenges
green
struc-
ture
pattern
main
struc-
ture
ele-
ments
chal-
lenges
̋ Lack oI green
space in inner
city
̋ DensiIication
̋ Improving green
space quality
̋ River Vistula
̋ Escarpment
̋ Historic parks
̋ Green corridors
̋ Woodlands
̋ River Iloodplain
̋ High banks
̋ Historic parks
̋ Park islands with-
in the city
̋ Streams
̋ Green wedges
̋ Green ring
woodlands,
Iarmland)
̋ River Danube
̋ Historic parks
̋ DensiIication
̋ Built up oI cor-
ridors
̋ Low green space
quality in resi-
dential areas
̋ Lack oI green
space in inner city
̋ DensiIication
̋ Urban sprawl
̋ Fragmentation
oI natural green
structure
̋ Development oI
green space net-
work
̋ Lack oI green
space in inner
city
̋ Management oI
Iarmland
̋ Stong urban
growth
̋ Green space
Iragmentation
̋ Built over oI
streams
̋ DensiIication
̋ Urban sprawl
̋ Fragmentation oI
green space
̋ Loss oI biodiver-
sity
̋ Urban develop-
ment in green
space network
OSLO HELSINKI HERNING UTRECHT
̋ Sea border
̋ Hills
̋ green ring (wood-
lands)
̋ Park islands with-
in the city
̋ Sea border and
islands
̋ River Vaanta
̋ Hills
̋ GreenIingers
oI woodlands,
streams and wet-
lands
̋ Hills
̋ Green-blue ring
(wetlands)
̋ Historic parks &
IortiIications
̋ River and canals
WARSAW MUNICH C. BUDE1OVICE VIENNA
Figure 2.1: Green structure patterns oI the case studies (white: urban areas; black woodlands; dark grey: water sur-
Iaces; light grey: Iarmland)
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139
Natural Ieatures such as hills, and in particular streams, have oIten a special role
in the case study areas in being connected green spaces. For instance, in Oslo,
woodlands cover the steep slopes oI the hills around the city and the shoreline is
an important part oI the green structure. In Helsinki, the sea with islands is also an
important element oI the green structure. Green Iingers are reaching into the city.
The green Iingers were preserved in valleys, wetlands, and on rocky hills that could
not be built-up. In other cities (Munich, Utrecht, Vienna, C. Budejovice, Warsaw)
streams and Iloodplains are green space corridors. Where natural constraints were
not so not strong, and where no special protection existed such as hunting Iorests,
the pre-urban landscape was mostly built over, and remnants oI the pre-urban land-
scape are Iragmented. For instance, in Munich woodlands in the city area are split
into 153 woodlands, 70° oI which are smaller than 5 Hectares. Another example
is Oslo where 60° oI the small streams were canalised and/ or have disappeared
underground.
2. Urban layer: This layer includes public parks, playing Iields, cemeteries but also
the green spaces within the diIIerent land uses such as gardens in residential areas,
green space on institutional grounds, in commercial developments, as well as land
where the Iormer use was abandoned (derelict land). The distribution oI these green
spaces Iollows the urban development patterns. In many cities, the green space
cover is very low in the densely built areas oI the inner city and the 19th century
extensions but much higher in low density housing areas.
3. InIrastructures such as major roads, railway lines and canals can include important
green spaces. Canals are very important in Utrecht as linear green spaces. The
railway lines may not be accessible but they kept land Irom being built over within
the city. They can oIIer an opportunity Ior creating green space corridors when the
railways and adjacent land are not needed anymore. Large green spaces can also be
Iound along motorways, big roads and other linear inIrastructures.

The case study areas greatly diIIer in the amount, composition and distribution oI
these diIIerent green spaces, and thereIore it can be assumed, that the conditions
are diIIerent Ior biodiversity and other ecological Iunctions oI the green structure.
Moreover, this green structure is owned, controlled and managed by a variety oI diI-
Ierent public, institutional and private bodies. For instance, over 70° oI the land in
Helsinki is owned by the city, including the green spaces. In Munich, public green
spaces owned by the city or the Bavarian State cover only some 10° oI the city sur-
Iace.
Figure 2.1 summarises some oI the main Ieatures oI the green structure oI the case
study cities. The table in this Iigure also highlights the challenges posed by problems
and opportunities. The pressures on urban green structure and the related questions
Ior urban planning belong to diIIerent categories:
̋ The low provision and Iragmentation oI green space in densely built up urban areas,
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141
green spaces are scarce, Iragmented and vulnerable to Iurther Iragmentation. The
opportunities to create new green spaces are limited. These areas are also oIten
characterised by low environmental quality (e.g. air pollution, noise, increased sur-
Iace water runoII and low biodiversity): How can new green spaces be introduced
in these areas to improve the ecological situation?
̋ In the existing city, urban compaction may lead to a Iurther loss oI green spaces.
This can mean the building over oI public green spaces, inIormal green spaces,
Iarmland, derelict land and green spaces along transport corridors. Green space
is also lost due to intensiIication oI existing urban land uses, Ior instance in low
density housing areas. Compaction policies will Iurther increase the pressure on
remaining green spaces. Can planning, design and management oI multi-Iunctional
green spaces compensate Ior this loss or does every square metre oI green space
less in the city mean a loss oI its environmental perIormance? Where are the limits?
How can urban compaction be planned in a way so that the ecological quality oI
the city is increasing rather than decreasing?
̋ Pre-urban elements oI the green structure such as lakes, streams, wetlands are oIten
particularly Iragile habitats. Even where they are legally protected this may not
be enough Ior their real preservation because the development oI their vicinities
has major inIluence on them. How can green structure planning create Iavourable
conditions Ior the long-term survival oI these habitats and their plant and animal
species?
̋ Urbanisation changes the landscapes around the cities, in particular in the strongly
growing urban areas such as Utrecht, Munich, Vienna, Oslo and Helsinki. The char-
acter oI these landscapes may be negatively aIIected by urban land uses, dissection
by transport inIrastructures and a loss and Iragmentation oI the natural elements oI
the green structure. However, in landscapes already degraded by intensive Iarming
and commercial Iorestry, an ecological approach to urban development may also
improve green structure qualities. How can ecologically Iunctional and multipur-
pose green structures Ior urban Iringe landscapes be created that provide a green
backbone Ior the regional city?
Conclusion
Few cities have a sound inIormation base Ior green structure planning. There is no
point in more data gathering Ior its own sake but it is diIIicult to protect, plan and
manage what is not known. Moreover, good tools are required to make eIIective use
oI this inIormation in urban planning and management. The case studies presented
some examples how this can be achieved, including methods oI ecological mapping
and technical tools such as geographic inIormation systems.
The case studies have shown how distinctive and special the green structure oI
each city is. Each green structure has resulted Irom diIIerent natural conditions, his-
torical development, policy and planning systems as well as ownership structures.
Sometimes the same pressures on this green structure Irom urban development could
be observed but the consequences on the green structure and its ecological Iunctions
will be diIIerent. ThereIore, every city needs to Iind its own speciIic solutions Ior
green structure planning and management. The next chapter will present main Iind-
ings oI the speciIic ecological Iunctions oI the green structure in the case studies and
how these are considered in green structure planning.
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141
3 Biodiversity
Inkeri Vähä-Piikkiö and Olli Maijala
Biodiversity challenges urban land use planning Ior two issues. Firstly, recent decades
oI urban ecological research oIIer a new image of European urban nature. Urban
nature can still support diverse mosaics oI indigenous and valuable habitats and spe-
cies, in spite oI Iragmentation, continuous spatial decrease and neglect in urban plan-
ning (Sukopp, 1998). Sometimes urban areas can host even higher species numbers
than the surrounding countryside, as in Helsinki (Vähä-Piikkiö et al., 2004). Secondly,
both the International Convention on Biodiversity (SCBD) 1992 and nature protec-
tion legislation in all European countries put ecological responsibilities not only on
traditional nature protection but also on land use planning in general (Sukopp, 1998).
As urban protection areas are oIten small, green areas are generally the most impor-
tant resource Ior urban biodiversity (Colding et al., 2003). Here, we have a twoIold
approach to the relationship between urban biodiversity and urban planning. Firstly,
as a more general view, we consider how biodiversity is taken into account in urban
land use plans and green plans, and secondly, as a more speciIic view, we are inter-
ested in how biodiversity should inIorm urban green structure planning.
The Iollowing 8 European cities and towns oIIered case descriptions Ior the work-
ing group 1A 'Ecological issues¨: Warsaw, Vienna, Munich, Oslo, Helsinki, Ceske
Budejovice, Herning and Utrecht. The Iull descriptions are Iound in the COST C 11
website. The planning systems and situations in the cities vary. Four oI the cities have
an integrated land use plan and the other Iour have a separate green structure plan
level in their planning system. The cases were analysed Ior their biodiversity percep-
tion, inIormation, tools, goals and policy levels, and especially in relation to overall
municipal strategies, urban and green planning, and environmental management.
Special green planning instruments (ecological account, compensatory principles)
Irom Germany and the Netherlands, were excluded, as the data did not assess their
special value Ior biodiversity goals. These instruments are also under continuous dis-
cussion in landscape planning journals.
3.1 Biodiversity information
Something is known everywhere on biodiversity as protected species and habitats. All
cities had databases that served well national nature protection: Inventories covered
mostly national nature protection areas, NATURA 2000- or directive-protected spe-
cies and habitats. Some cities had also wider 'habitat¨ inventories, but 5 out oI 8 cases
used coarse land use or land cover classiIications and data, instead oI vegetation data
connected to biodiversity (Sukopp 1998). Habitat data were mostly occasional or old,
missing the potential oI monitoring biodiversity development in planning. Warsaw
and Helsinki had multi-taxonic approaches. Databases included also variable data on
various taxa (organisms) and special habitats. This pool oI mixed data seemed like
142
a source oI inIormation Ior environmental education, but oIIered also possibilities
Ior special indicators Ior municipal strategies (e.g. Oslo) or operational management
projects (like in Herning). Biodiversity inIormation did not seem to be integrated,
prioritised or valuated Ior deIining planning goals. It was commonly unclear how
this inIormation contributed to strategies Ior urban planning, protection, management
and maintenance. We conclude that generally there are enough data to create local
biodiversity policy, but the local biodiversity goal is still missing. Knowledge is lack-
ing especially oI the conditions on which species and areas can develop positively.
Some oI the existing data are also in Iorm or at a scale that is diIIicult to use in actual
urban planning. Because oI the very complex nature oI biodiversity, good data are
not enough we need interpretations, aggregations and valuations, to give practical
guidelines to green structure planning. Based on our cases as well as current dis-
courses we are in the actual developing phase oI this work (e.g. in Oslo this kind oI
valuation work is just starting).
3.2 Biodiversity policies in urban planning
We aimed to describe how biodiversity policies (Sairinen 2000) appeared in plan-
ning in the 8 cases. We were interested in whether the biodiversity inIormation was
directly used as a background material, or in the goal setting Ior zoning, or in the
principles, rules, tools, means and strategies in planning. We also wanted to examine
iI biodiversity goals were present only in traditional nature protection contexts, or
also in land use planning levels. II biodiversity was present in land use planning, how
did it appear: in zoning categories, or in special biodiversity planning approaches, in
strategic or management planning?
It was Iound, that Iirstly, in general, biodiversity data were only used Ior national
nature protection. Secondly, Utrecht and Oslo had separate biodiversity goals among
other ecological values in urban or green planning. Thirdly, it appeared that the data
and descriptions available were not enough Ior a deeper analysis on how biodiversity
is planned also outside protected areas, especially in green structure and urban built-
up areas. For this, more extensive policy-oriented planning research or detailed plan-
ning data would have been needed.
Is zoning the very only tool in planning? Zoning was common in the cases, but
it raised Iurther questions. How eIIective are the ecological zones? Which goals do
they serve, and how are these goals implemented? How are the diIIerent ecological
themes combined or prioritised in those zones which are the principles used? There
is a potential conIlict with the diIIerent green beneIits. The material did not oIIer pos-
sibilities to give answers to these questions. However, it is evident that oIten these
diIIicult issues are not explicitly dealt with in the planning documents, and remain
hidden and solved only haphazardly. Ecological corridors are widely used, but their
value and implementation Ior enhancing biodiversity should be assessed with natural
scientiIic methods. Modern urban ecology oIIers new approaches Ior the assessment
oI the Iunctionality oI mental structure models (e.g. metapopulation theory, popula-
tion biology).
EIIective biodiversity policies wait Ior becoming an integrated part oI urban and green
planning practice. In the cases we distinguished two diIIerent potential approaches Ior
enhancing biodiversity in urban and green planning. Firstly, some oI the cities used
sophisticated, traditional sector planning instruments based on holistic planning
concepts with hierarchical and multi-Iunctional constructions (e.g. 'Urban Natural
System¨ (UNS) in Warsaw, Landscape Ecological Strategy in München, USES in
C. Budejovice). In these concepts, biodiversity can be added as a new piece in a
complicated system, and given the chosen goals and importance. Secondly, many oI
the cities had various kinds oI integrated planning instruments based on typically
quite new holistic (environmental) strategies, like environmental programme (e.g.
Helsinki, Herning), diagnostive environment strategy (like Warsaw), green strategy
(Utrecht), and strategy Ior sustainable development (Oslo, and many other cities
with Local Agenda21). In these strategies biodiversity can be an explicit issue, with
deIined local goals. However, among the case cities, Oslo was the only case with
contextualised biodiversity policy questions. Oslo has a biodiversity toolbox Irom
strategic goals to individual project management procedures, and they have worked
on biodiversity deIinitions, goals, and interpretations on practical projects oI many
kinds. However, as the holistic strategy-type oI tools are recent, we do not yet know
how they are implemented in urban and green planning, or what is their precise eIIect
on urban planning and land use. Vienna and Helsinki do see already that what is
omitted or unsolved in land use or green planning, is oIten re-appearing within envi-
ronmental management, e.g. as complicated biodiversity questions.
3.3 Biodiversity needs conscious goals and new tools
A conscious biodiversity goal is needed for every urban and green plan. The bio-
diversity goal oI a plan needs to be discussed according to local and national needs,
traditions and planning tools. A municipal biodiversity strategy may help (e.g. Oslo),
iI the strategic goals can be Iurther elaborated within the decisions and processes, e.g.
in land use planning.
Viable biodiversity policy needs monitoring. New development is needed to pro-
duce an active biodiversity monitoring package Irom the present databases oI latent
background inIormation. Local goal setting in planning needs a comparable and
repeatable source oI biodiversity inIormation. Some common indicators are needed
Ior monitoring development, like number oI vegetation types or species numbers oI
vascular plant Ilora per square km (e.g. Helsinki). Research is needed Ior complet-
ing European vegetation classiIication including boreal and urban cultural vegeta-
tion types, and to improve habitat valuation. Why are labour-consuming and costly
habitat inventories leIt omitted in land use and green planning, like in Warsaw or in
Helsinki?

Biodiversity should be raised on ~societal agendas¨. Biodiversity is a complicated
issue that needs to be discussed more and widely to be able to have a stronger position
143
on the important societal agendas. It is important to think about the processes how this
discussion can be created and promoted. How is biodiversity interpreted? What are
the conscious biodiversity themes, uses, values and deIinitions? How do they appear
in the Irames oI legislation, in the decision making processes and political discourses,
and in the planning instruments and discourses? What kind oI societal contracts can
be made? The plans are Iull oI societal policies, all oI which are valuating in some
way or another. It seems that studies opening green planning traditions, practices
and processes are needed (cI. Laine et al. 2003, Colding et al. 2003).
Outside the case data, Stockholm in Sweden oIIers an encouraging comparable
example to Iollow: combining local initiatives, applied planning research, develop-
ment oI practical planning tools and national urban green and biodiversity policies
in strong urban pressures (see e.g. LöIvenhaIt et al. 2002, Colding et al. 2003). The
spatial goals and plans are based on real nature surveys, and the spatial goals are
deliberately brought into customary land use planning practices, even on a detailed
planning scale.
3.4 How can green structure planning enhance biodiversity?
Green structure planning aims to look at all the various uses and meanings oI urban
green, analyse and integrate them, and give them a Iunctionally and politically strong
coherent context in green structure plans. For biodiversity this is useful especiallv for
two reasons. firstlv, it gives a seemingly suitable context to plan and visualise the
essential structural elements oI urban biodiversity networks: the core areas, and the
connecting, corridor-type oI areas (oI which the Stockholm-case is a good example;
see LöIvenhaIt et al., 2002). Secondlv, an important aspect related to actors and poten-
tials Ior enhancing biodiversity is how to combine diIIerent green interests, to Iind
allies Ior a traditionally politically weak issue. In this combination task greenstructure
planning may have an important potential role. The Munich and Utrecht cases provide
good examples oI creating multiIunctional projects (like combining green and water
projects) to enhance biodiversity.
References :
Colding, J., Elmqvist, T., Lundberg, J., Ahrne, K., Andersson, E., Barthel, S.,
Borgström, S., Duit, A., Ernstsson, H., and Tengö, M. 2003. The Stockholm Urban
Assessment (SUA- Sweden) . Millenninum Ecosvstem Assessment Sub-Global
Summarv report 9.12. 2003, 28 pp. (on 20.5.04 in pdI on http://www.ctm.su.se/ or
http://www.ctm.su.se/StockholmNationalCitr)
Council oI Europe, 1996. The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversitv
Strategv. Council of Europe, UNEP & European Centre Ior Nature Conservation. 50
s. Strasbourg.
Laine, M., Peltonen, L., and Haila, Y. 1998. Local 'Instigating disputes¨ and the
144
Politicization oI the Environment: The Case oI Tampere, Finland. Advances in
Human Ecologv. 7, 161-206.
LöIvenhaIt, K., Björn, C. and Ihse, M. 2002. Biotope patterns in urban areas: a
conceptual model integrating biodiversity issues in spatial planning. Landscape and
Urban Planning 58: 223-240, 2002.
Maijala, O. 2004. Enhancing biodiversitv in urban planning. Unpublished report,
Ministry oI Environment (in Finnish).
Sairinen, R. 2000. Regulatorv reform of Finnish environmental policv. 290 pp. Centre
Ior Urban and Regional Studies Publications A 27. Espoo.
Secretariat oI the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1998. Convention on Biological
Diversitv. Text and annexes. UN/CBD/94/1. 34 pp. Montreal.
Sukopp, H., 1998. Urban ecology scientiIic and practical aspects. In: Urban ecologv
Breuste, J., Feldmann, H., Uhlmann, O.(eds.). Springer, Berlin.
Vähä-Piikkiö, I. , Kurtto, A. & Hahkala, V. 2004. Species number, historical elements
and protection oI threatened species in the Ilora oI Helsinki, Finland. Landscape and
Urban Planning 68: 357-370, 2004.
Finnish Biodiversity Research Programme 1997-2002. 2002 (FIBRE) (http:
//www.ymparisto.Ii)
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4 Green structure and water
Sybrand Tjallingii
A comparison oI the cases reveals interesting aspects oI the interaction between water
and green structure. Water and green have a common history in most cities and usu-
ally river valleys play a leading part in this history. Potentially, however, water and
green also share a common Iuture. On the one hand, green areas are essential Ior
water management issues like Ilood control and rainwater retention. On the other,
water contributes to the value oI green areas Ior nature, recreation and residential use.
This comparison oI cases will Iocus on both the historic and the Iuture dimension oI
green and water.
4.1 Water structures the urban landscape
Water is not only a carrier oI urban green, it structures the whole pattern oI built-up
areas and open spaces; it carries the urban landscape. Water links urban development
to the local landscape with its drainage pattern, rivers and shores. Urban history may
be read as the transIormation oI this pre-urban landscape in a process oI interaction
between nature and culture. Modern cities bear the traces oI this interaction and thus,
being one oI the key agents, water carries the identity oI the city. Each city has its
unique local identity. However, in a comparison oI the cities involved in this COST
action, some distinct categories emerge that may throw light on the diIIerent roles oI
water.
The seashores and harbours generate the identity oI Oslo. Helsinki and Marseille.
There are marked diIIerences between the Oslo Fjord, the Helsinki archipelago and
the Marseille harbour and cliIIs, but the cities share the view to the open sea they oIIer
to their citizens going Ior a walk along the shore.
Rivers dominate the urban landscape in many cities but there are diIIerent rivers.
The Isar in Munich and the Vistula in Warsaw behave like Iast running braiding riv-
ers, with various channels contained in a Iloodplain. One oI Munich`s Iamous his-
toric parks, the Englische Garten, uses a diverted Isar channel to create a romantic
English-landscape-stile public park. Like the Isar on the north side, the Ticino on the
south side oI the Alps creates a braiding river valley that is the heart oI a regional park
visited by many people Irom nearby Milan. But the Ticino does not cut through the
city itselI. In Warsaw, at a greater distance Irom the mountains, the Vistula is a less
dynamic braiding river. But in the geological history the river has cut a deep valley
with steep escarpments on which the city was built. Today, the river valley and the
old escarpments, together, carry Warsaw`s main green structure.
In less dynamic rivers the water Ilows more slowly through the plains and starts
meandering. The Tiber in Rome is sometimes very dynamic but yet, its wide meanders
have created a deep lying attractive greenway Ior pedestrians and cyclists through the
heart oI the city. In Utrecht, the old meanders oI the Rhine were cut oII Irom the main
river but their modiIied Iorm structures both green structure and street pattern in the
146 147
inner city. On some distance Irom the inner city, the Danube, the Donau Kanal and
the Iloodplain shapes old and new green structures in Vienna. In Ceske Budejovice,
the Vltava is the carrier oI the local green structure.
Small streams play a role in the green structure oI almost all cities. In SheIIield,
small streams, running down Irom the Peak District hills used to have many water
mills, providing the energy Ior the early industries. Today, the streams and valleys are
transIormed into greenways. The same happened in Oslo and Munich. Other cities
like Breda, Helsinki, Herning, Rome, Vienna and Warsaw also have numerous small
streams and valleys oI which at least some were kept green to become important car-
riers oI green structure.
Shipping canals play their part in the green structure oI SheIIield, Utrecht and Milan.
Other canals, like those in Munich, were created primarily Ior water supply oI Iarm-
land and Ior watering gardens oI castles that, later, became part oI the urban green
space network. In Mediterranean cities like Marseille and Rome, canals and aqua-
ducts became the blood vessels oI urban liIe and were used to Ieed parks and gardens.
Water is an essential element in the gardens as well as in the city itselI, as expressed
by monuments created at the end oI aquaducts like the water castle in Marseille and
the Trevi Fountains in Rome.
In some cities, water and inundation was part oI a defence svstem and this leIt us with
Iortresses and bulwarks that have been turned into beautiIul parks in cities like Breda
and Utrecht.
4.2 Green areas contribute to water management
Enhancing the potential synergism between green area and water management is a
promising Iield oI action Ior technicians and designers in urban areas (Hough, 1995;
Van Engen et al., 1995; Tjallingii, 2000). The traditional technical approach concen-
trates on rapid removal oI storm water by sewers. Presently, many cities explore the
options oI a more ecological approach based on retention oI rainwater and prevention
oI pollution. On the one hand this change oI attitude Iollows Irom a better understand-
ing oI the role oI green areas in the urban water balance. On the other hand urban
growth goes with a dramatic increase oI hard surIaces, creating peak discharge prob-
lems the old sewer systems are unable to cope with. The situation is getting worse
as a result oI the predicted climatic change, involving higher rainIall and longer dry
periods. Dramatic Iloods and dry summers in recent years have put this issue high on
the European agenda.
In the upstream mountains and hills reIorestation can be an eIIective erosion preven-
tion strategy. Ceske Budejovice reports this approach as an element oI urban green
policy. The Czech city also shares with most other case study cities a deliberate policy
to keep Iloodplains open and green Ior Ilood control reasons. Some cities, like Breda,
Herning, Munich and Utrecht have developed more detailed strategies to combine
storm water storage and green area design at the district level. On sandy soils with
lower groundwater tables the strategy is to use green spaces Ior rainwater inIiltra-
149 148
tion leading to groundwater recharge. On hard rocks or impermeable clay soils rain-
water is stored in ponds and watercourses with Iluctuating water tables. This is a
rainwater retention strategy illustrated by the cross section Irom the Utrecht Leidsche
Rijn project.
The Messestadt Riem project in Munich, describes these and other principles as eco-
logical building blocks (Burkhardt & Duhme, 1996). Not only water quantity beneIits
Irom the combination oI green and blue. Old and new wetlands, Irom larger marshes
to natural riverbanks also contribute to water quality. Discontinued agricultural land-
use and drainage around Herning, Ior example, create a new green-blue ring with new
qualities Ior wildliIe, recreation and water storage. Many other projects in Munich,
Utrecht, Breda and other cities demonstrate the great potential, both Ior surIace water
quality and biodiversity.
4.3 Promising perspectives
Far Irom giving a complete picture oI best practices, the case study cities and the
other cities involved in the COST action illustrate the promising perspectives Ior
urban projects that combine green and blue. Water creates conditions Ior biodiversity,
tree growth, scenic beauty, and recreation. Green areas create conditions Ior healthy
water management. At the urban level these projects contribute to green and water
structure as key elements oI the local urban identity.
References :
Burkhardt, I. & F. Duhme 1996. Okologische Bausteine Messestadt Riem. (Ecological
Building Blocks Ior the Messestadt Riem development). ReIerat Iür Bauordnung und
Stadtplanung, City oI Munich.
Hough, M., 1995. Cities and Natural Process. Routledge, London.
H¹N¹S consultants, 1996. Joorbeeldboek infiltratie en berging regenwater in
Leidsche Rifn. (Book oI examples Ior inIiltration and storage oI rainwater in Leidsche
Rijn, Utrecht). H¹N¹S, Utrecht.
Tjallingii, SP., (2000a) Ecology on the Edge - landscape and ecology between town
and country. Landscape and Urban Planning 48 (2000): 103 - 119.
Van Engen, H., D. Kampe & S.P. Tjallingii (ed) 1995. Hvdropolis, the role of water
in urban planning. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Fig.1.Guiding model
Ior the design oI streets
and green spaces in
Leidsche Rijn Residential
Development project.
The green area retains
rainwater. The overIlow
leads to the urban surIace
water system. (Source:
H¹N¹S).
149
5. Climate and green structure planning
Ewa Kaliszuk and Stephan Pauleit
In urban environments, green spaces have important climatic Iunctions such as pro-
viding shadow, windbreaks, reducing the heat island eIIect and improving air quality
(see reIerences, e.g. Givoni, 1991, Von Stülpnagel, 1990). A city`s green stucture
may enhance these Iunctions. Green corridors, Ior example, may carry cool and Iresh
air Irom neighbouring Iorested hills into inner cities. The case studies represent only
some situations Irom a wide range oI climatic diIIerences.
This chapter gives an overview oI whether and how these diIIerent climatic Iunctions
oI the urban green structure are recognised in its planning, design and management.
The chapter summarises the Iindings Irom the case studies, and presents some exam-
ples oI good practice Ior climate conscious green structure planning.
5.1 The role of green structure for climate and air quality
Overall, the inIormation on the role oI green structure to improve air quality and cli-
matic conditions provided in the case studies was quite limited. It seems that overall
little importance is given to climate considerations in green structure planning. Where
inIormation was provided in the case studies, emphasis was placed on air quality
and the role oI green space corridors to improve ventilation oI urban areas. In Oslo,
several studies were undertaken to assess the role oI green space corridors Ior ventila-
tion, and Warsaw`s system oI green corridors is supported by extensive research on
air quality (Bednarek 1990, Blazejczyk and Kuchcik 2001).
For Helsinki, the importance oI the sea Ior ventilation was stressed. Moreover, the
role oI woodlands to reduce air pollution Irom roads was studied. Detailed guidelines
Ior the design oI protective tree belts along the roads were developed. However,
there is little evidence oI their implementation as the space required is rather used
Ior buildings. Presently, the national states have to Iace the implementation oI legally
binding EU air quality directives. Plans Ior building alongside roads are now being
reconsidered and protective measures, including tree planting, might become more
important in the next Iuture.
The relation between green spaces and temperature climate was only discussed in a
Iew case studies. DiIIerent issues were important in the case study areas. Increased
temperature levels in urban areas were only considered as an issue in Central
European cities but not in north-west and north Europe. In the latter, shelter in open
spaces Irom cold wind and bad weather is more important.
For the City oI Munich inIormation on surIace temperatures was obtained Irom aerial
imagery to assess the climatic role oI vegetated areas (Fig. 5.1). The results clearly
highlighted the climatic importance oI green space cover within urban land uses (resi-
dential areas, industry and commerce, etc.). An increase oI vegetated surIace cover by
150
10° reduced surIace temperatures on average by 1°Celsius. Mature stands oI trees
were particularly eIIective to mitigate the heat island eIIect, and thereIore should be
strictly protected.
5.2 Climatic goals for green structure planning
Air quality is used as an argument to protect green space corridors in Helsinki and
Warsaw. Warsaw`s system oI green corridors Ior air quality improvement is sum-
marised in Box 5.1. The corridor concept was respected in urban planning in Warsaw
until recently but it is now threatened by development projects (Szulczewska and
Kaliszuk 2003). In Oslo too, large development projects have been approved although
negative consequences Ior air quality were predicted. The Helsinki case highlighted
a dilemma. There is evidence oI the beneIicial role oI green spaces to reduce air pol-
lution, and hence they should be protected. Yet, at the same time, the city advocates
densiIication to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which would mean the destruction
oI green space within the city. A similar tension also exists in Munich where the city
has adopted a strategy called 'compact urban green¨, and likely in many other
cities. However, these contradictions are not solved in urban planning. This dilemma
Fig. 5.1: Cover oI trees and shrubs in urban land use units and average surIace temperatures
on a hot summer day. Well treed areas such as parks (Nymphenburg Park, lower leIt) and
low density residential areas (around Nymphenburg Park) are cooler than the densely built
up inner city (lower right) and industrial areas (upper right). The density oI very young and
elderly population served as an indicator Ior particularly vulnerable areas (source: Pauleit and
Duhme, 2000).
151
deserves more attention in urban planning and design. Potentially, a green Iinger
design will be able to concentrate the climatic Iunction oI green spaces and may
seduce more citizens to stay in a city with attractive green edges.
SpeciIic goals and targets to mitigate the heat island eIIect through green spaces are
nowhere in place in the cases studies. However, there are examples Irom other cities
where climate plays an important role in urban development. For instance, Stuttgart
has a climatic strategy (Klima21) and managed to protect green corridors and the
hills around the city to improve penetration oI cool and clean air into the city. The
Messestadt Riem case study is an example where climate considerations were impor-
tant in shaping the green structure in a large urban development project (Fig. 5.2 next
page).
Box 5.1: Environmental functions played an important role in the plan-
ning of Warsaw`s green fingers
In Warsaw, green space corridors (green Iingers`) were designated in the
Iirst legally binding municipal plan oI Warsaw elaborated in 1929. These
were designed Ior recreation and to enhance air exchange. This plan has been
in Iorce until today. In modern Warsaw, the municipality coordinates the
development in its 18 local districts. The green structure plan has proven a
very important tool in this respect to maintain a coherent green structure.
In the latest version oI the municipal development plan, a distinction has
been made between three zones oI the green structure: These are called
the Ecological Zone, the Ecological Zone- Auxiliary System and the Air
Exchange and Regeneration System.
The Air Exchange and Regeneration System protects areas, which create good
climatic conditions in Warsaw. It partially covers the ecological zones oI pre-
dominantly Iorests and parks, while large wastelands, railroads and highways
are designated as major corridors Ior ventilation. Development and sources oI
air pollution are strictly controlled. However, current development pressures
have led to the building up oI some green spaces within this zone.
152
5.3 Conclusions
Providing all year around useable green spaces is an important goal Ior green structure
planning. Their design must be sensitive to the local climatic conditions. Moreover,
green structure can have a wider importance to improve urban climatic conditions.
There is no one 'ideal¨ urban climate but urban climatologists stress the importance
oI having outdoors a great range oI diIIerent microclimatic conditions within walking
distance (_150 m; Mayer 1990), while avoiding climatic extremes. A dense network
oI green spaces, including provision oI trees in streets would be important to meet
these requirements.
Overall there was little evidence that climate considerations play a signiIicant role
in green structure planning, and generally in urban development. Climatic goals and
strategies are lacking. However, the case studies provide scientiIic evidence that pro-
vision oI green space and in particular that oI trees is important to improve climatic
conditions in towns and cities. It can be important, Ior instance to improve air quality
by enhancing ventilation, or reduce air temperatures in cities with extended periods oI
hot summers. Green space on private and institutional land can be equally important
than public green space in this respect.
Fig. 5. 2: Climate considerations inIluenced the urban planning and design oI greenstructure
in the new neighbourhood Messestadt Riem in Munich. Overall, one third oI the development
is green space. A large park in the south serves as a corridor to improve ventilation oI the
inner city but also to reduce air temperatures in the new neighbourhood. Green Iingers allow
Iresh air to penetrate into the residential areas (based on Burkhardt 1996).
152
The case studies oI Warsaw and Messestadt Riem show how climate considerations
can play a role in shaping green corridors on the city and neighbourhood scales,
respectively and introducing climatic considerations into the design oI green spaces.
Tools Ior climate conscious green structure planning such as the approach used in
Munich should be Iurther developed to support the setting oI local goals and targets
Ior green structure planning. Human health and comIort studies could be very useIul
to strengthen urban climate considerations in green structure planning, design and
management.
References :
Bednarek A., 1990. Warunki klimatvc:ne na terenie :ieleni miefskief [.in]
Wvkor:vstanie uklad„w ekologic:nvch w svstemie :ieleni miefskief. SGGW-AR Press
64: 43-52.
Blazejczyk K., Kuchcik M., 2001. Anali:a i ocena funkcfonowania terenu pololonego
w Wars:awie pomied:v Al. Zwirki i Wigurv, ul. Raclawicka, Etiudv Rewolucvfnef ora:
linia PKP w svstemie pr:ewietr:ania miasta. IGiPZ, PAN, Warszawa (manuscript)
Burkhardt I., 1996. Ecological Building Blocks for the New Neighbourhood Riem.
Brochure published bv the Citv of Munich, Munich (in German).
Czerwieniec M., Lewinska J., 1996. Zielen w miescie, IGPiK, Warszawa
Givoni B., 1991. Impact oI planted areas on urban environmental quality: a review.
Atmospheric Environment, 25 B (Urban Atmosphere) (3), 289-299.
Mayer H., 1990. Human-biometeorologische Bewertung des Stadtklimas. In:
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI-Kommission Reinhaltung der LuIt (Hrsg.).
Umweltmeteorologie. JDI-Schriftenreihe, 15, 87-104.
Pauleit, S., Duhme, F., 2000. GIS assessment oI Munich`s urban Iorest structure Ior
urban planning. Journal of Arboriculture, 26 (3): 133-141.
Szczepanowska H.B., 2001. Dr:ewa w miescie. Hortpress, Warszawa.
Szulczewska B., Kaliszuk E., 2003. Challenges in the Planning Managment oI
Greenstructure` in Warsaw, Poland. Built Environment 29: 144-156.
Von Stülpnagel A., Horbert, M. & Sukopp, H., 1990. The importance oI vegetation
Ior the urban climate. In Urban Ecologv, Ed. H.Sukopp. The Hague, The Netherlands:
SPB Academic Publishing.
153
154
6. Green structure, farming and organic matter
Eva Erhart
Organic waste represents not only a problem to society, but also a resource in terms
oI nutrients, energy, and humus. In the management oI the urban green structure and
in urban agriculture, there is a demand Ior soil amelioration products and Iertilizers.
In many cases, organic waste products (e. g. compost) can IulIil these demands and in
this way reduce the mining oI scarce resources like phosphorus, lime and sphagnum,
as well as the energy-intensive production oI nitrogen Iertilizer.
Only two case studies dealt with the management oI organic matter in green struc-
ture. In Vienna and Herning, investigations were conducted to which extent the urban
green structure can contribute to the sustainable handling oI organic waste produced
in the municipality.
Key Iindings oI the studies are that organic waste products, e. g. compost, can substi-
tute a signiIicant part oI the soil amelioration products and Iertilizers currently used
in the management oI urban green structure and in urban agriculture, respectively.
In Vienna, the largest part oI the compost produced Irom organic household wastes
is used in agriculture on the municipal agricultural estates. Approx. 850 ha oI the
agricultural area belong to Vienna`s municipal estates, the remnants oI the Iormer
imperial estates. In order to realize closed ecological cycles oI nutrient Ilows in at
least a part oI waste management, a special model Ior biowaste treatment and use
was developed. This made it possible that a part oI the estates could change over to
organic Iarming (http://www.bestpractices.org).
In Herning, organic wastes Irom agriculture are currently the main input into biogas
production. Organic wastes Irom households are incinerated, only a small Iraction
goes into biogas production. The organic material Irom private gardens as well as
Irom public green areas goes into composting. From the compost output, approx. 20
° are used in public green areas, the rest is used in private gardens. However, detailed
estimates oI nutrients contained in the municipality`s organic waste showed that arti-
Iicial Iertilisers and sphagnum moss products currently applied in green spaces could
be easily substituted by compost produced Irom organic waste. It was concluded that
the ongoing consumption oI manuIactured Iertiliser and sphagnum in parks and gar-
dens was unnecessary and should be replaced by the use oI compost based on garden
and park waste.
The two studies and in particular the best practice` example oI Vienna show that
organic waste products can IulIil the demands Ior soil amelioration products and Ier-
tilizers that arise in the management oI urban green structure and in urban agriculture.
Organic Iarming not only contributes to closing ecological loops, it may also create
better conditions Ior multiIunctional land-use and Ior the preservation oI historic
landscapes as apart oI the urban green structure.
154
7. Pests and diseases
Irena Hanouskova
Control is the basis oI regulations and programmes addressing organisms classiIied
as pests and causing diseases. There is a variety oI national and municipal policies
Ior Iood quality control, health and hygiene and plant protection and Ior controlling
speciIic organisms like rodents, insects and invading plant species. The emphasis is
on cure rather than prevention. Some scientists warn against possible risks oI natural
habitats in urban areas, but there is little evidence to support this Iear. On the con-
trary, there is a lot oI evidence about the positive eIIects oI the natural parts oI green
stucture on water quality and health. But the Iact is that we know very little about
creating preventive conditions Ior pests and a bout the possible role oI green structure
in preventive strategies. The case studies did not make reIerence to pest and diseases
and the relationship with green structure.
Future research should thereIore Iocus on a better understanding oI the development
and the spread oI both harmIul organisms and their natural enemies. Improved under-
standing can be the basis oI improved policies Ior cure and prevention and may lead
to practical guidelines Ior planners.
155
156
Case Studies
8 - Ceske Budejovice
Irena Hanousková , 1aroslav Bohác

Institute oI Landscape Ecology, Academy oI the Sciences oI the Czech Republic
irenaha¸uek.cas.cz
Introduction to the town of Ceske Budejovice
Ceske Budejovice was built as an important centre oI royal power in the south oI
Bohemia. It lies at the conIluence oI Vltava and Malse rivers, near the Iormer settle-
ment Budivojovice (Budoywiz). It was Iounded as a royal town in the year 1265. The
historical town plan with its regular central square and a rectangular network oI wide
streets reIlects the architectural highlights oI mediaeval urbanism at that time. The
original street network has been used Ior modern road traIIic until the present day.
There are now approximately 100,000 inhabitants in an area oI 55.5 km2 (Jihocesky
kraj, 2004) in the administrative district. Ceske Budejovice is at the centre oI the
South Bohemian Region where 624,778 inhabitants currently live (2001 data) in 623
municipalities in an area oI 10056 km-2 (JhK, 2004).
The Ceske Budejovice green areas represent nearly all the main categories Iound in
Czech and European towns - parks, allees, playgrounds, gardens, important trees,
wildliIe and wetland areas along a well-developed environmental gradient between
the built-up centre and semi-natural suburb. UseIul inIormation is summarised in
basic documents oI the town administration: the Master Plan (2000), Geographic
InIormation System (GIS) oI the Statutory Town oI Ceske Budejovice (2002),
Database oI Vegetation (2), which are widely used institutional instruments oI the
evidence and management oI the town`s green areas. Internet inIormation and pub-
lished research articles were researched and included in the analysis oI the town`s
green areas (Hanouskova et al., 2002 and 2003). Results oI the long and short-term
monitoring oI the area were made available during the development oI the COST C11
project (Hanouskova et al., in press); the multidisciplinary assessments based on the
authors` opinion and expert consultation were also used. The history oI the town was
taken Irom Podhorsky (2003) and Jirman (2001).
How have natural features influenced Ceske Budejovices green structure ?
Natural structures of the town from a landscape perspective
The town is situated in a landscape that is Iormed by the alluvial plain oI the Rivers
Vltava and Malse in a geomorphological area called the Ceskobudejovicka panev
1. In the Czech Republic, the term bioregion is widely applied Ior the administrative and scientiIic
landscape classiIication at a regional scale at the date and is understood to be a biogeographical term
classiIied on the basis oI potential biota, identical vegetation stages and historical patterns oI biota
migration (Culek et al., 1996).
156
basin, near an important elevation, Lisovsky prah.
We use here the concept oI bioregions
1
, oIten applied in the Czech Republic, to
interpret the town`s natural background. The natural climate, vegetation, biota and
agriculture oI the town`s cadastral area mostly represent the Ilat Ceske Budejovice
bioregion (No.1.30). A small part oI the area belongs to the Bechynsky bioregion (No.
1:21). The Ioothills along the Jihoceska panev basin mark the boundaries between the
bioregions and the border is indicated by a notable change in the angle oI slope.
The Ceske Budejovice bioregion was Iormed by the basin, which was Iilled by acid
sediments and large areas oI sub-irrigated terrain depressions. The Ireshwater basin
was Iormed by wash out, mostly oI incoherent sediments, such as clay, sand and
gravel, compacted locally. The bioregion diIIers according to the surroundings,
typically the occurrence oI water surIaces, wetland biotopes and the presence and
absence oI beech Iorests. The oak-coniIerous biota prevails, with isles oI oak-beech
stands. The potential vegetation was reconstructed as acidophillous oak Iorests with
Iir added, alluvial Iorests and meadows, willowed habitats and boggy alder carrs. The
sub-irrigated Iorests are unique, where the oaks, Iir and spruce are abundant. (Culek
et al., 1996.)
The Bechynsky bioregion to the south east oI the built-up area is characterised by
rugged and habitats oI the Rivers Vltava and Mase acted as important regulators and
barriers to colonisation and urbanisation. This was evident as Iollows:
· the town was Iirst built on well drained land and then subsequently on the wetlands,
which had become unsuitable Ior historical Iorms oI agriculture in the thirteenth
century; this was in direct contrast with the building oI most other towns in Europe,
which avoided building on Ilooded land and swamps.
· this late construction date was to the comparative advantage oI the mediaeval build-
ers, who could adopt the latest concepts oI city construction in their plans
· the subsequent urbanisation oI the town Iollowed the old town composition, which
was deIined by the surrounding nature
· the rectangular street network oI the historic centre was accommodated to Iollow the
curved lines oI the Vltava and Malse. The natural patterns oI these rivers, together
with the builders` experience, determined the town layout Ior more than seven cen-
turies.
· the hydrological conditions were Iavourable Ior setting up Iish ponds, which con-
tributed to the town`s prosperity Irom the sixteenth century. Some oI the ponds have
become bird habitats, which are oI European importance today.
· the high water level enabled hydrological technologies to be used. In the landscape
scale, historical attempts to increase water production through redistribution result-
ed in an important cultural Ieature, the system oI ponds, drainage, wetlands and cor-
ridors along the ponds and ditches, with well developed and structured vegetation,
its high semi-natural quality typical oI the southern Bohemian cultural landscape
and tourist areas at the time.
· wet meadows were converted to arable land aIter (sub)surIace hydrotechnical ame-
lioration
157
159 158
· the town landscape was mostly deIorested
· large areas were lost during the second phase oI agricultural reIorms, with selI-
maintaining vegetation cover stabilising the soil surIace, genetic pool, species and
habitat diversity.
The role of vegetation in merging cultural features with nature
In the green areas oI the town conserving the recognised role oI vegetation and/or
changing it according to cultural demands was considered important (Figure 1);
its role was promoted in practice by individuals, institutions and their instruments,
through historical Iorms oI environmental and resources management. The vegetation
Iorms and their management are evident at various levels oI the ecological hierarchies
in the landscape and have resulted in Iunctional types oI green in town planning and
engineering. The types were summarised by Srytr et al. (2001). The resulting green
structures contribute individually to biodiversity by means oI controlling Iorms oI
management and environmental services, species behaviour and species vectors,
Iacilitating the penetration oI organisms into new habitats and/or town areas (Figure
2). Many green space issues are considered trivial and are leIt out oI the planning sys-
tem as a result, or they are still too intricate to be introduced in practice, Ior example,
the ecosystem/ecological behaviour oI individual species and systems, their interac-
tion, relationships and ecological services.
Figure 2. Proportion oI tree and shrub species native to Europe and introduced Irom other
parts oI the world along the anthropogenic gradient oI green areas in the town Ceske
Budejovice
Central park Suburb park Quarters oI Suburb area
Na Sadech Stromovka preIabs Vitava Vrenske rybniky
159
I. role of natural vegetation before the towns appeared
- protective: shelters
- source in Iood chain Irom wild herbivores to carnivores
- principal component oI Iood chain Ior man
- source oI health via Iood chain
- source oI additional energy
- source Ior instruments
- managed object when Nature agrees`
- spiritual: vegetation as object oI spirituality and/or rituals
- barrier
- environment when travelling through the landscape
- environment Ior relaxation
- living conditions
II. role of vegetation in towns in rural society
- protective: shelters, Iences
- source in Iood chain oI domestic and wild herbivores
- principal component oI Iood chain Ior man
- source oI health via Iood chain
- source oI additional energy
- source Ior constructing instruments, buildings, etc.
- spiritual: vegetation as object oI spirituality and/or rituals
- aesthetic
- means oI livelihood
- object managed in co-operation with nature
- barrier
- enemy that might be eradicated or controlled
- means oI physical training
- environment Ior leisure time
- environment created Ior social contact
- living conditions
III. present role of vegetation in the town district
- protective: shelters, Iences
- Iood source oI domestic and wild herbivores
- principal component oI Iood chain Ior man
- source oI health through impact on psychological well-being and on
..distribution oI biota
- source oI additional energy
- source Ior constructing instruments, buildings, etc.
- spiritual: vegetation as object oI spirituality and/or rituals
- aesthetic
- vegetation as means oI livelihood
- vegetation as object managed in co-operation with nature
- vegetation as a barrier
- object that might be managed as selI-maintaining
- enemy that might be controlled or even eradicated
- object that might be restructured
- object under protection
- environment during physical training
- environmental component Ior travel
- environmental component Ior leisure time
- environment Ior social contact
- recovery oI habitats impacted during sources management
- living conditions
Figure 1. Changes
in the role oI veg-
etation Ior users oI
green space
160
Resulting structure of green space in Ceske Budejovice - Master Plan and
expected benefits
In the Master Plan, the nature oI green structures merges with the cultural role oI the
vegetation structures and might be Iound (in)directly under the category levels oI the
plan. Each category/area oI nature contributes to biodiversity in an individual way
(Figure 2). Nature conservation developed in the Iramework oI physical planning and
other Iorms oI integrative planning in the Czech Republic (Sanderson and Harris,
2000). The various roles oI green space are identiIied under individual topics in the
Master Plan oI Ceske Budejovice. They are:
· built areas. It is indicated, indirectly, that green space has neither an important nor
a subsidiary role in Iorming the environment. The vegetation assemblages might
change rapidly or might be stabilised in the long-term, or they may have limited
importance in time. The built areas have a residential role Ior working activities,
agriculture and Iorestry, traIIic construction and services, sport and recreation,
public Iacilities, technical Iacilities and water resources, residential housing with
gardens and green structures oI Iarmhouses.
· areas that cannot be built. This section identiIies the long-term stable, natural and
(assisted) semi-natural green areas. They are: town green vegetation, landscape
green vegetation, water surIaces, agricultural land resources, areas oI Iorestry ser-
vices, and gardens.
· landscape and vegetation system. The section identiIies the long-term stable, natural/
semi-natural, potential and/or remnant green structures. The system is introduced in
the Master Plan by applying an instrument developed Ior landscape planning in
the 1980s, which was applied to the whole oI the Czech Republic, the Territorial
System oI Landscape Ecological Stability, TSLES (USES), see origins in Michal
et al. (1991) and its later development in Löw et al. (1995), Bucek et al. (1996),
Ministery Ior Regional Development (1997) and comparison with the Netherlands
practice (Boresova, 2001). The idea oI the system was based on the experience
oI multidisciplinary teams oI biologists, landscape ecologists and planners and is
interpreted as a mutually integrated complex oI natural and changed, nearly natural
ecosystems, which maintain natural stability, and consist oI what exists at present
as well as what has been proposed Ior the Iuture. The TSLES is distinguished as a
local, regional and supra-regional system. It was applied to conserve and support
the gene pool at landscape scale, to inIluence less ecologically stable patches oI the
landscape, to contribute to landscape multiIunctionality and to preserve important
landscape phenomena. The important idea was that remnants oI natural or semi-
natural communities, that are typical oI a biogeographical region, are valuable Ior
maintaining landscape ecological stability by preserving biodiversity. The structural
categories oI the TSLES, the corridors and biocentres oI local, regional and supra-
160
regional importance, were incorporated in the town Master Plan as basic groupings
oI landscape and vegetation systems reIlecting the nature oI the Ceske Budejovice
and Bechynsky bio-regions. The green areas oI natural and semi-natural importance
are included in the Master Plan in all the categories oI landscape system under the
TSLES: Ior instance, ponds and the cultural/natural heritage allow Ior the natural
development oI communities with a higher level oI ecological stability.
- binding proposals Ior public constructions/utilities, such as establishing parks,
developing bank vegetation, associated and recreational plant cover oI the supra-
regional biocorridor oI the River Vltava and its permanent management and enlarge-
ment oI the local biocentre.
Action for the future
In the Czech Republic, green space planning in urban areas is promoted institutionally
by the state administration, within the Iramework oI legal instruments and inIluenced
by local environmental conditions. The latest instrument, developed with the support
oI the Ministry Ior the Environment, is a system Ior processing and registering data
oI recorded green (dendrological elements) to enable the more eIIicient maintenance
oI green by using the latest inIormation technology and through the application oI the
Geographical InIormation System (GIS, Finstrle, 2003). The use oI GIS, as has been
shown Irom its application as a practical instrument in other branches oI research and
data management, will enhance the ecological practice in urban areas.
References :
Boresova, J., 2001. Ecological networks and application of EU Directives in land-
scape management in the Netherlands. Thesis. Mendel University oI Agriculture and
Forestry, Brno.
Bucek, A., Lacina, J., Michal, I., 1996. An ecological network in the Czech Republic.
Jeronica, Brno, X/ 11, pp. 1-45.
Culek, M. et al. (eds.), 1996. Biogeograficke cleneni Ceske republikv (Biogeographical
Division oI the Czech Republic ). Enigma, Praha, pp. 1-347.
Finstrle, A., 2003. Navrh svstemu pro :pracovani dat a evidenci :elene (dendrologick-
vch prvku) :a ucelem :efektivneni udr:eni :elene v modernim pofeti informacnich
technologii s vvu:itim GIS (System proposal Ior processing and data register oI
recording green (dendrological elements) to enable the more eIIicient maintenance
oI green by using the latest inIormation technology and through the application oI
GIS). Progress report. Ministry Ior the Environment oI the Czech Republic, Praha,
VaV/660/1/02 BiosIera. (http://www.env.cz/AIS/web.nsI/pages/zelen¸GIS, 2004)
Hanouskova, I., Bohac, J., Lepsova, A., Keclik, R., Sera, B., 2002. Organi:mv ohro-
:ufici u:ivatele :elene v urbannim prostredi (Organisms with harmIul eIIects Ior
area users in green structures oI urban areas in Czech and English). Institute oI
161
163
Landscape Ecology AS CR, Ministry oI Education, Youth and Sports CR. Report on
the project OC C11.001.
Hanouskova, I., Bartos, M., Bohac, J., Kusova, D., Lepsova, A., Sera, B., Tesitel, J.
et al., 2003. Organi:mv ohro:ufici u:ivatele :elene v urbannim prostredi (Organisms
with harmIul eIIects Ior area users in green structures oI urban areas). Ministry oI
Education, Youth and Sports CR. Report on the project OC C11.001.
Hanouskova, I., Bohac, J., Sedlacek, F., Sera, B., Lepsova, A., Zacharda, M. HarmIul
organisms in urban green areas. Ekol„gia (Bratislava). (In press)
H-VIEW GIS, 2001. Geografickv informacni svstem mesta Ceske Budefovice
(Geographical InIormation System oI the town Ceske Budejovice). Ceske Budejovice,
Praha, GeIos a.s. CD.
Jihocesky kraj, 2004. Jihocesky kraj InIormacni portal (Region oI South Bohemia
InIormation portal). Belleville s.r.o., Arakis & Belleville s.r.o., Ceske Budejovice,
CR, 20 September 2004 (http://www.jihocesky-kraj.cz/obce.asp?obec÷1&k÷1)
Jirman, L., 2001. Historie Ceskvch Budefovic (Ceske Budejovice History), Ceske
Budejovice, 20 May, 2004 (www.budweb.cz)
162
163
9 - Helsinki
Inkeri Vähä-Piikkiö
1
, Olli Maijala
2
1 Urban Research, Urban Facts, City oI Helsinki, P.O.Box 5530, FI-00099 The City
oI Helsinki, Finland; inkeri.vaha-piikkio¸hel.Ii
2 Institute Ior Urban and Regional Studies, Helsinki University oI Technology,
P.O.Box 9300, FI-02015 HUT, Finland; olli.maijala¸hut.Ii
1 Introduction
Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. The urbanised area with around one
million inhabitants extends Iar beyond the administrative borders oI the municipality
oI Helsinki (some 560 000 inhabitants in 2003). Helsinki is a northern and maritime
city located at the GulI oI Finland. Its municipal territory covers 185 km2 oI land area
and 500 km2 oI sea area.
The population and housing production have grown very Iast in Helsinki during the
1990s. Helsinki aims to have 620 000 inhabitants, which would mean, Ior example, 7
million m2oI Iloor space Ior new housing and 9.2 million m2 oI Iloor space Ior busi-
ness premises by the year 2025. This growth puts much pressure on green areas, both
within the city structure as well as in the urban Iringe areas.
Nature and culture shaping the green structure in Helsinki
The landscape oI Helsinki is dominated by glacioIluvial landscapes, exposed bedrock
and Iorested hills alternating with Ilat, clay areas which once constituted the seabed.
The city centre is situated on a rocky peninsula near the open sea. The shoreline is
long and there are hundreds oI islands, most oI which are small rocky outcrops Irom
the sea. Inland the landscape scenery is dominated by granite hills (30-60 m. above
sea level).
The geographical location oI Helsinki on a narrow peninsula has had a signiIicant
inIluence on its urban and green structure. Because oI the topography oI the region
and the historical possibilities oI the city to expand, there are long stretches oI green
Irom the north that penetrate deep into the centre oI the city (Figure 1, Map A, next
page). Most oI these main continuous radial green areas, the so-called green Iingers
oI Helsinki, are a mixture oI Iormer agricultural river valleys, rocky Iorested ridges
with spruce swamps and other wetlands, that were diIIicult geo-technically diIIicult
Ior construction. As the City oI Helsinki owns 69° and the state some 7° oI the land
inside the municipal borders, the City is also the largest owner oI the green areas.
About one third oI Helsinki was designated green space` in 1998, which amounts
approximately to 100 m2 per inhabitant (Table 1,next page). The (mainly) locally
planned public green areas comprised about 4.2 hectares/1000 inhabitants (42 m2/
inhabitant) in 2002, totalling 5 654 ha. Public urban Iorests cover 63° oI this green
space. Otherwise it consists oI built parks (17°), manor estates (1°) and meadows
and landscaped` Iields (11°). Mostly accessible nature conservation areas cover 4.2
km2 (oI which 2.8 km2 is land), comprising 0.6 ° oI the total area oI Helsinki.
The sea, shoreline and archipelago are also oI great importance when discussing the
green areas in Helsinki. There are almost 100 kilometres oI shoreline and over 300
islands in the Helsinki archipelago. More precisely, complete data on the present land
use or land cover types (regardless oI land use planning categories) does not yet exist.
Helsinki has only data on planned land use categories (zoning). For habitat distribu-
tion in 2001, see Table 2.
164
Figure 1. Present and planned green areas in Helsinki. Map A. Green areas and built-up
areas in Helsinki in 2001. Green areas light grey, The Baltic Sea white, built-up areas dark
grey. Map B. Green areas in Helsinki Master Plan 2002. Green areas light grey. Map C.
Green areas in Helsinki in Uusimaa Regional Plan 2002. Green areas light grey. Source:
Vähä-Piikkiö, I. and Hahkala, V. 2004
Table 1. Land use in Helsinki in 2001 and in land use plans 2002.
Land use 2001 Helsinki Master plan 2002 Uusimaa regional plan 2002
Km2 ° Km2 ° Km2 °
Built-up areas 98 52 112 60 150 80
Green areas 85 45 70 38 33 18
Nature protec- 4 2 4 2 4 2
tion areas
Total 187 100 186 100 187 100
Note: Green areas and nature protection strongly exaggerated.
Sources: Land use in 2001 according to basic database oI Helsinki metropolitan region.
Master plan: http://www.hel.Ii/ksv/english/index.html.
Uusimaa regional plan: http://www.uudenmaanliitto.Ii /mkaava/map.html
165
2 Green structure benefits for biodiversity and the environmental
services in Helsinki
Biodiversity
The biodiversity in Helsinki is unusually well known. A nature database Ior the City,
with map applications in diIIerent scales, was created in 2001. It includes at the
moment nature conservation area boundaries, protection data on sites and species,
criteria and valuations oI observed taxa, lists oI sources, observations and sampling
methods, and GIS-based presence/absence atlases on e.g. breeding birds and vascular
plants. To serve the various needs oI diIIerent branches oI administration, still more
development work is needed on, Ior example, thematic maps, and warning and guid-
ing` environmental applications.
There is an unusually high biodiversity within hemiboreal Helsinki, compared to rural
neighbouring municipalities, or other European temperate cities and towns. This has
been measured by several taxa (vascular plants, breeding birds, polyporus Iungi, but-
terIlies and bumblebees), their species number, ecological and historical groups and
threatened species (Figure 2). Green areas are the most important areas Ior vascular
plant Ilora (they host most oI maximal species-rich sites, endangered, rare and native
species) (Tables 2 and 3). Present nature protection areas host only some 4°-15° oI
endangered vascular species habitats. Many species also live within the built-up urban
Iabric, such as threatened semicultural species (Vähä-Piikkiö et al., 2004).
Table 2 : Habitat distribution on present land use and loss on planned land use in Helsinki
Occurrences and loss oI habitats on green areas, °
Present occurrence on : Planned loss on green areas, °
Habitat Built-up areas Green areas By Helsinki By Uusimaa
Master Plan 2002 Regional Plan 2002
° ° ° °
Shores and aquatics 27 73 30 68
Swamps 29 72 43 65
Mires 38 62 32 61
Herb rich Iorests 46 54 29 59
Heath Iorests 38 62 31 56
Dry natural and
semi natural meadows 45 55 29 64
Manor and villa
environment. 49 51 28 60
National and
regional threa-
tened species 27 73 34 67
Note 1. Seminatural, agricultural and artiIicial habitats are also called cultural habitats (IUCN 2001,
CORINE 2001).
Note 2. Indicators:The 40 threatened vascular plants in Helsinki, including occurrences oI 27 nation-
ally in Finland and 13 regionally threatened species. The 100 rarest native vascular plant species
present in the least number oI squares in Helsinki.
166
For migratory and breeding birds the archipelago and three large protection areas are
the most important. The green Iingers` make continuums oI diminishing communities
oI shore breeders and Iorest indicator species, and host several endangered species.
Supporting non-Iragmented and continuous regional green structure is important.
Existing green connections are crucial to support resident populations, also in sur-
rounding municipalities. Establishing new east-west connections between the green
Iingers would be proIitable Ior Ilora and Iauna, including threatened species.
Environmental services
In Helsinki, the potential Ior green areas to improve the climate, reduce air pollution
and manage water Ilows is not considered the most important issue in planning. The
local environment the sea and a cool climate mean that cooling and ventilation
are not issues in green planning. The tools to protect against air pollution are mainly
emission control, eIIicient energy production and traIIic policy (Helsinki Metropolitan
Area Council, 2000). For politicians, water issues and the state oI the Baltic Sea are
the most important. These are success stories in local environmental politics, but
remain an unsolved regional and global problem. The status oI the coast, archipelago
and rivers has been politicised, whereas streams have only recently gained Iresh
attention as something more than parts oI the drainage system. The management oI
Table 3. Prioritised habitats oI threatened vascular plant species in Finland and in Helsinki
in 2001.
According to IUCN- threatenness -classiIication 2001
Habitat Finland Helsinki.
40 threatened 100 rarest natives
No oI species ° No oI species ° No oI species °
Forests 35 19 7 17 27 27
Mires 18 10 6 14 26 26
Aquatic habitats 11 6 6 14 27 27
Shore habitats 37 21 9 21 8 8
Rock, bolder
Iield and cliII
habitats 14 8 0 0 3 3
Alpine habitats 15 8 0 0 0 0
Seminatural,
agricultural and
artiIicial habitats 50 28 14 33 9 9
Altogether 180 100 42 100 100 100
Note 1. Seminatural, agricultural and artiIicial habitats are also called cultural habitats
(IUCN 2001, CORINE 2001).Uusimaa regional plan: http://www.uudenmaanliitto.Ii /
mkaava/map.html
Note 2. Indicators:The 40 threatened vascular plants in Helsinki, including occurrences oI
27 nationally in Finland and 13 regionally threatened species. The 100 rarest native vascular
plant species present in the least number oI squares in Helsinki.
167
Ilows in Helsinki is mainly dealt with by means oI other environmental management
systems. The potential oI green areas Ior waste management in Helsinki is small.
Ecological goals and tools in the planning, design and management processes in
Helsinki
There are no policy goals regarding biodiversity in Helsinki, except Ior those already
laid down in legislation (such as species and nature types to be protected nationally).
According to an ongoing study it also seems that biodiversity, especially the so-called
ordinary urban nature` (with no clear, detailed, or explicit protection in law) is a
secondary interest in land use planning (Maijala, 2004). However, last year the City
Council approved a very general statement that the biodiversity in Helsinki 'will not
be reduced¨. But this statement has not led to any Iurther elaboration oI what it will
actually mean in practice.
Landscape planning in Finland does not appear in separate, Iormal plans but
approaches are integrated in the land use planning instruments. Land use planning is
carried out according to Iormal and legally binding instruments, using various inIor-
mal tools that have been developed in order to complement the Iormal tools, as well
Figure 2. Number
oI vascular plant
species in 1 km2 in
Helsinki in 2000.
1108 species and
531 squares alto-
gether. Species
occurrances in 348
squares. (Source:
Vähä-Piikkiö et al.
2004.)
as to compensate Ior their shortcomings.
The main Iormal legislative instrument to govern both the green structure and urban
growth in Helsinki - as well as in every municipality in Finland - is the General
Master Plan, which is approved by the municipal council. The overall green planning
is tightly integrated within the General Master Plan. The General Master Plan inte-
grates green with other issues at an early proIessional planning stage: no separate sec-
toral green plan is considered or approved by any political decision-making agency.
In the new General Master Plan 2002 the strong emphasis on growth and densiIica-
tion along with a lack oI clear goals on urban green and especially biodiversity may
lead to conIlicts and a severe reduction in the total amount oI green areas available,
as the proposals retain only two thirds oI the present green (Table 1, and Figure 1,
Map B).
The phrase green Iingers` is an inIormal, basic concept used to deIine the main
structure oI green in Helsinki. It is a substantial tool, too, but it does not contain any
speciIic supporting instruments in itselI to strengthen the status oI this basic struc-
ture. The support in practice is threeIold: Iirstly, the concept oI green Iingers` has a
long established status as the representation oI green structure in Helsinki (but quite
how secure that status is has not been ascertained, either in discussion or in prac-
tice). Secondly, the green Iingers` will receive a legal status when integrated in the
General Master Plan. The status oI individual Iingers` can also be strengthened by
other speciIic policy tools: as an example, the most well-known oI the green Iingers`,
the Central Park oI Helsinki, was protected Irom development by a Local Master Plan
drawn speciIically Ior this sub-area in 1977. However, this policy has not been contin-
ued in relation to other 'green Iingers¨. Another new tool, which has been included in
the new legislation, is the possibility oI creating a National Urban Park. Helsinki has
used its own version oI this concept in one oI the green Iingers`, the Vantaa River
Valley, and named it Helsinki Park`. So Iar this is only a kind oI status tool` that
increases the ethical commitment to the area nominated as a National Urban Park.
The Regional Land Use Plan used to have a clear regional green goal in its Iocus
during the 1970s-1980s. However, the Iirst Regional Land Use Plan Ior the Helsinki
region during the new Land Use and Building Act oI Finland (brought in Irom
1.1.2000) includes only one third oI the present green areas (Figure 1, map C),
and does not oIIer any biodiversity policy or aims besides legislative requirements.
Although the areas Ior the development oI urbanisation can be said to contain smaller
local green areas, the plan basically allows two thirds oI the present green to be lost.
This would result in considerable changes in biodiversity, environmental qualities and
green structure services (Vähä-Piikkiö et al., 2003). The previous structural emphasis
would also be lost.
Nationally, the Environment Departments at the municipal and regional level (state)
are oIten in the limited position oI giving an expert opinion or Iormal statement in the
land use planning processes, even though they are responsible Ior the nature policy
inIormation Ior the whole oI the municipal administration. The environmental admin-
168
istration has so Iar been mainly successIul in taking care oI national programmes on
nature protection, but less so with regard to local biodiversity policies, or in enhanc-
ing green area policies. This is also the case in Helsinki (Vähä-Piikkiö et al., 2004).
In green management, however, the administrative division in charge (Public Works
Department) has strived, on its own initiative and with success, Ior multi-goaled and
participatory practices.
Ordinary citizens have indicated in numerous surveys that they value green areas
highly, both in their own vicinity and outside urban areas. However, a conscious
green policy does not exist in Helsinki, nor is it apparent in discussions connected
with planning. This clash oI values may cause trouble in what is considered to be a
worsening oI environmental qualities, in the Iuture planning participation processes
and in green management. It almost seems as iI it is leIt to the citizens to show an
interest in green and biodiversity, instead oI planners and politicians.
3 Conclusions
Helsinki is unusually rich in biodiversity and has a high percentage oI green within its
land area. It also has quite a good database oI nature inIormation. However, despite
the strong growth and pressure on existing green, no overt policy or goals Ior biodi-
versity have been established and the position oI the green structure overall (includ-
ing the backbone, the green Iingers`), is vulnerable. Helsinki, with its densiIication
policy, is reaching the point where the urban green is not any more a matter-oI-course
option, not to mention its structural continuity and regard Ior biodiversity. An explicit
policy, clear goal-setting, monitoring and new types oI tools and co-operation are
urgently needed. Some weak shoots` oI this may already be seen.
References :
City oI Helsinki, Urban Facts, 2002. Helsinki region statistical comparisons 2002.
p. 83.
Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV), 2000. Air qualitv in the Helsinki
Metropolitan Area. Concentrations, emissions and trends.
Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV), 2001. SeutuCD01 (GIS-data package;
see: http://www.ytv.Ii/english/data/projects.html)
Maijala, O., 2004. Enhancing biodiversity in urban planning. Unpublished draIt
report, Ministry oI Environment (in Finnish).
Vähä-Piikkiö, I., and Hahkala, V., 2003. Vascular plant biodiversity and land use in
Helsinki. The city oI Helsinki, Urban Facts, Research series.
Vähä-Piikkiö, I., Kurtto, A., and Hahkala, V., 2004. Species number, historical ele-
ments and protection oI threatened plants in Helsinki, Finland. Landscape and Urban
Planning, 68, pp. 357-370.
169
170
10 - Herning
Susanne Guldager
1
and Ulrik Reeh
2
1 Landscape and Planning, Danish Centre Ior Forest sgu¸kvl.dk
2 Veg Tech A/S

, Denmark reeh¸adslhome.dk
1. Introduction
Green structure as the subject oI planning goes back in Denmark to the middle oI
the twentieth century, when the Iamous Fingerplan` was created Ior the Greater
Copenhagen Region. This Iirst green structure plan was adopted by a Iew regional
planning authorities and local municipalities in the 1970s. However, in the 1980s
interest in overall planning issues was low and was not resumed until ecological
issues were brought into Iocus by the United Nations in the reports Our common
Iuture` in 1987 and the Agenda 21 document Irom the Rio conIerence in 1992.
This oIIicially recognised commitment to sustainable development was a great chal-
lenge to the local authorities with responsibility Ior translating that commitment
into everyday planning and management practices. With this is mind, an interactive
research study involving the Municipality oI Herning and researchers at the Danish
Forest and Landscape Research Institute was set up. In order to analyse the unique
local conditions, system analyses were developed using Ilowcharts and a GIS-based
mapping tool to bridge the gap between diIIerent disciplines. This paper relates to the
interdisciplinary research study in Herning.
Herning is a medium sized Danish municipality, with the town oI Herning as the
urban centre. The landscape around the urban development is an extensive landscape
oI natural resources, Iorests and mainly agriculture. The Municipality covers a total
area oI 542 km2 and has 59,000 inhabitants. With a population density oI 108 per
ha., Herning is sparsely populated in comparison with many other European towns
and cities. However, Herning is the twelIth largest among Danish towns and cities,
according to the number oI inhabitants. Furthermore, at present Herning is expanding
as a modern commercial centre and plays an important role in promoting new ideas
in town planning and environmental management.
How have the natural and cultural features influenced the development of green
structure in the urban environment ?
From its original Iormation, the landscape was dominated by small hills and plains
oI heath, subdivided by streams and valleys. This landscape was Iormed in the most
recent and second most recent glacial period oI Denmark. The living conditions in the
region were poor and the population was very sparse until the railway was established
in the late nineteenth century.
Over the Iollowing years the changing economic conditions have inIluenced land
use. Heathland, streams and meadows were cultivated eIIectively during the Iirst part
oI the twentieth century and drained to provide suIIicient agricultural land. Due to
170 171
a decline in agricultural interest nowadays, streams and meadows are again being
restored as wetlands and grassland.
The landscape oI wetlands today Iorms an almost complete green/blue ring around
the town and the Iormer agricultural land around the urban development is today an
attractive area Ior wildliIe and recreation, managed as a nature reserve or as grassland.
These landscapes deIine and structure the urban development.
Most new housing and business developments are located outside the blue ring as
attachments to the Iormer agricultural villages in the area. These developments are
also separated Irom one another by green belts oI agricultural land. The small hills to
the north and south are nowadays plantations oI pine and Iir. In these areas landscape
elements such as urban Iorests and wetlands have been integrated within new housing
developments.
South oI the centre are 276 ha. oI bog called Knudmosen. This wetland has limited
the urban development and resulted in a rather extensive recreational area close to the
urban centre. Knudmosen includes the oldest landscape park in Herning, but today
most oI the bog is managed by grazing cattle and oIIers indigenous Ilora and Iauna
as an attraction to visitors.
Besides providing habitats Ior Ilora and Iauna, the urban green structure tradition-
ally provides amenities such as playgrounds, lawns and greens, picnic sites, trails
and greenways, etc., the construction and maintenance oI which limit biodiversity to
varying degrees.
Figure 1: Green plan Ior the central Municipal area oI Herning relates to the
natural Ieatures in the landscape
2 What does the green structure mean for biodiversity, environmental ser-
vices and management of flows?
Biodiversity
An overview oI the situation regarding biological diversity, surIace water and organic
waste management is presented below, with reIerence to the Herning research study.
Thematic subjects such as air and climate are also mentioned brieIly.
In Herning, as in most Danish municipalities, there is no systematic registration oI
Iauna and Ilora and only sparse inIormation on biotopes and natural vegetated areas.
The local authority uses selected species as environmental indicators and maintains
an overview in co-operation with privately organised societies on diIIerent biodi-
versity themes - birds, Iungi and botany, Ior instance. Indicators are a well-known
methodology used to assess environmental status and monitor changes. In Herning,
Ior instance, certain bird species are used as indicators Ior water quality in streams.
With the purpose oI analysing the possibilities Ior improving biodiversity in the urban
green structures, existing inIormation supported by Iield studies was presented on
thematic GIS-based maps as part oI the research study. In addition, historical maps
indicating changes illustrated the natural potential oI the landscape. Data on natural
or urban vegetation types provided Iurther inIormation on the natural potential oI the
landscape. The actual vegetation types registered in the landscape are: creek, wind-
break, moor, meadow, common, pond, bog, Iorest and agriculture. In urbanized areas
dense urban character, open urban character, garden character, park character and
grassland were deIined.
The local authority has established a website - www.herning.biobank.dk.
Surface runoff and urban green structures
SurIace runoII water constitutes a Ireshwater resource and can support ecosystems
and be oI value as an amenity to human beings. In the old (central) urban areas, sur-
Iace runoII is handled in combined sewer systems, while in the more recent (periph-
eral) urban areas separate sewers are used.
The potential Ior using the urban green structure Ior surIace runoII treatment is oI
considerable interest. The physical conditions Ior local inIiltration have to be evalu-
ated, since local inIiltration is regarded as a sustainable management method.
Necessary inIormation on impervious cover, soil contamination sites and soil type
has been gathered. The degree oI impervious cover was grouped into three categories
(residential areas with 40°; industrial areas with 60°; and central urban areas with
85° impervious cover). The original 13 soil types present in the area were grouped
into the Iollowing soil types: clay`, sand` and peat` - indicating diIIerent suitability
Ior local inIiltration or construction oI reservoirs. These data not only support the
overview, but also support the dialogue with other proIessionals within the local
authority.
In Herning the conclusions relating to storm water management were that urban green
structures have great potential Ior contributing to the handling oI sustainable surIace
172
173
runoII, since conditions Ior introducing a sewer-Iree system are generally Iavourable
and suIIicient green areas are available. As the operating sewer system Iunctions
quite well, it was suggested that a sewer-Iree system be introduced, as appropriate, in
already urbanised areas and in new urban development. The use oI vegetated systems
has been recommended rather than subsurIace inIiltration tanks in order to support
biological and recreational use oI the area and to provide puriIication oI the runoII.
Organic waste and urban green structures
Organic waste represents not jus a problem to society, but it also provides a resource
in terms oI nutrients, energy and organic material. There is a demand Ior soil ame-
lioration products in the management oI the urban green structure. In many cases,
organic waste products (Ior example, compost) can IulIil these demands and in this
way reduce the mining oI scarce resources such as phosphorus, lime and sphagnum,
as well as the energy-expensive Iixation oI nitrogen Irom the atmosphere
Following analysis, sustainable nutrient application criteria were agreed upon. These
criteria range Irom the application oI nutrients corresponding to that part oI the nutri-
ent demand oI vegetation, which exceeds that provided by the soil itselI (minimum
amount), to the amount that can be justiIied Irom a soil and water pollution point
oI view (maximum amount). Due to the limited budget o the local authority, it was
anticipated that their consumption oI manuIactured Iertiliser and sphagnum was
approximately equal to the minimum amounts oI nutrients and organic matter that
could be replaced with organic waste products. Annually, approximately 4 tonnes oI
nitrogen (N), 0.8 tonnes oI phosphorus (P) and 20 tonnes oI sphagnum are purchased
and used by the Parks Department.
InIormation on the use oI Iertiliser on private lots in the urban green structures was
Figure
2:
Flow-
chart-
treat-
ment
me-
thods
and
prod-
ucts,
1999
not directly available, but this was assumed to be not less than the amount used
in public areas. Thus, the minimum quantity of nutrients and organic matter from
organic waste products that can be applied in the urban green structure amount to
8 tonnes of N, 1.6 tonnes of P and 40 tonnes of sphagnum. In order to estimate the
maximum amount of organic waste products that can be applied within the urban
green structure having regard to environmental protection, the limits stipulated by the
Danish Ministry of the Environment (1996, 1998) were used. These limits are: 170
kg N ha-1, 30 kg P ha-1 and 15 tonnes of dry organic matter ha-1. With 2,750 ha. of
urban green structure available, the following quantities can be applied in Herning:
2750*170 kg N, 2750*30 kg P, and 2750*15 tonnes dry organic matter.
Information on the actual amounts of different fractions of organic waste produced
in the Municipality, the present treatment methods and the end use of products was
gathered, and illustrated in a single waste flowchart.
The figure shows that the Municipality of Herning uses most of its organic waste to
produce energy, so the motivation for using the local urban green structure in the han-
dling of organic waste is small. However, to complete the assessment of the potential
for using organic waste, the amounts of N, P and dry matter contained in the urban
fractions of organic waste, which was produced annually by the Municipality, were
calculated. Approximately 166 tonnes of N, 82 tonnes of P, and 8,459 tonnes dry mat-
ter in total are contained in these fractions. Compared to the minimum estimate, the
potential for the urban green structure to contribute to the handling of organic waste
in non-agricultural fractions by replacing purchased fertiliser and sphagnum is small.
It amounts to 5% of N, 2% of P, and 0.2% of sphagnum/organic matter. Compared to
the maximum estimate, the available area in the urban green structure just suffices in
terms of legal application of organic waste products.
In conclusion, the ongoing consumption of manufactured fertiliser and sphagnum
in parks and gardens was unnecessary and could be replaced by compost based on
garden and park waste.
Climate and Air
The prevailing westerly wind brings fresh air from the North Sea into the region.
Accordingly, protection by windbreaks has been necessary to support agricultural
production. Over the years, a network of pine and fir hedgerows has been created.
The hedgerows today virtually belong to the perception of the traditional landscape
in the region. Within the last few decades, however, these traditional hedgerows have
been replaced by deciduous trees and shrubs planted in three, five or seven rows.
Since agriculture on poor soils is no longer profitable, some of these areas have been
changed again to meadows or have been forested. The Danish Government and the
EU give financial support for these changes as part of a general nature protection and
forestation policy.
174
Cost-d-final.indd 174 15-07-2005 09:06:34
3 How are the character and functions of green structure considered in
land use/landscape planning? How are the character and functions being man-
aged to meet ecological and environmental goals?
Formal planning instruments - Danish planning regulations
The Danish planning system was changed radically in the 1970s with a new Planning
Act. According to the Planning Act three comprehensive planning levels were intro-
duced in local authorities, based on the principle of framework control. Local authori-
ties have to formulate plans for the total geographical expanse of the particular local
authority, including the countryside. Following an amendment to the Planning Act in
2000, an Agenda 21 strategy on environmental issues is now a compulsory part of
municipal planning.
Green areas are highlighted in the Planning Act as one possible category of land use
within towns and cities. Green structures connecting urban and rural areas are also
brought into focus. In the overall structure plan in Herning, green areas and green
structures are integrated.
A Green Plan presented by the Parks Department underlines traditional cultural and
recreational values, but does not specifically take the ecological potential of green
structure into consideration. But the Danish Nature Protection Act also places empha-
sis on planning activities and an Action Plan on the Protection of the Environment
has to be prepared by local authorities. In Herning, such a plan was first presented in
1993 and has since been evaluated and revised several times. Topics in the plan for
the period 2001-2006 include: health, noise, air pollution, and the protection of water
and soil resources, etc. Tools to support the plan include identifying indicators (birds
and fresh water conditions) and subjects of high priority (energy saving in industrial
production and transport planning to reduce vehicle movements).
Informal strategies
The actual handling of urban landscapes and potential for green structures is defined
by economic possibilities and by the experience and skill of the local authority’s spe-
cialist staff, where dialogue with citizens also plays an important role.
In the last decade or so, economy and efficiency related to quality in the manage-
ment of green areas have been a big issue in park departments all over Denmark.
Management systems have been developed to help all actors within the profession to
communicate and find a common understanding.
The Parks Department in Herning has defined quality criteria expressing different
aims in the management of parks and green areas. In relation to environmental goals,
the use of pesticides has ceased and alternative methods have been introduced with
success. Different standards are also accepted in the maintenance of the green ele-
ments. For example, different levels in the maintenance of lawns allow biodiversity
to be enhanced according to their natural potential.
From 2003 onwards, the Parks Department is hosting an innovative project, called
Holistic Park Management, which is supported by the National Agency for Enterprise
175
Cost-d-final.indd 175 15-07-2005 09:06:35
and Housing, under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. The project
brings the users of the parks into focus and relates user needs to financial issues and
priorities, and to the organisation of green areas and nature.
4 Summary and perspectives
The experience of Herning shows that records on biological and environmental
matters are found in different departments within the local authority. This implies
that data on parks is held in the Parks Department; that data on green issues as an
integrated part of the urban environment is kept in the Town Planning Department;
and that data on flora and fauna is found in the Environment Department. Systematic
information is not currently collated by the local authority itself, but information on
certain subjects of interest, such as birds and botany, is gathered in co-operation with
private organisations.
This procedure creates problems for the adoption of a holistic approach in relation to
sustainable planning and management. This seems to be the case not only in Herning,
but generally in Danish municipalities.
The research study in Herning clearly demonstrated that tools to make information
available and support interdisciplinary solutions are needed urgently and that the
planning process must take care to co-ordinate local plans with the overall goals in
planning and management.
In co-operation with the administrators in the Municipality of Herning, it became
clear that the green structure does possess the potential for contributing to a more
sustainable management of biodiversity in particular, and urban runoff, and to some
extent organic waste too. However, lack of adequate information and appropriate
methodologies are barriers to the planning process, as well as in the realisation of
goals in design and management.
The Municipality of Herning took an early interest in sustainability and formulated
goals in local planning demanding sustainable solutions from designers and develop-
ers. Much valuable experience was gained and new knowledge was gathered, which
have influenced the next steps and have clearly identified the need for new tools and
methodologies.
References :
Jensen, M. B., Persson, B., Guldager, S., Reeh , U., Nilsson, K., 2000. Green struc-
ture and sustainability – developing a tool for local planning. Landscape and Urban
Planning 52, 2000, p. 117 – 133.
Persson, B., Guldager, S., Reeh, U. Jensen, M. B., 1999. Økologiske muligheder i
byens grønne struktur – et tværfagligt samarbejde om biodiversitet, organisk affald og
regnvand i Herning Kommune. Park- og Landskabsserien nr. 26, 1999.
Ministry of Environment: The Danish Planning Act (763 – 11/9 2002).
Municipality of Herning: Green plan for Herning and Environment 1996.
176
Cost-d-final.indd 176 15-07-2005 09:06:35
177
11 - Munich
Stephan Pauleit
Centre Ior Forest,Landscape and Planning, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural
University , Frederiksberg, Denmark sp¸kvl.dk
1. Introduction
Munich is a city with a population oI approximately 1.3 million, covering a surIace
area oI 311 km2 (LH München, 1991). It is the centre oI a strongly developing region
oI 2.4 million inhabitants in an area oI 5,500 km2. This development puts pressure on
the green spaces within the City and the countryside. Results Irom a European study
show that 6.5° oI land in the Munich region is classiIied as natural and that 7.8° oI
agricultural land was lost due to urban sprawl between 1950 and 1990 (EEA, 2002).
How have natural and cultural factors shaped Munich`s green structure ?
Munich is situated in the Munich plain, a glacial and post-glacial outwash oI lime-
stone gravel. The City was Iounded on the western banks oI the alpine river Isar and
developed in concentric rings around the inner city. The River Isar has its origin 80
kilometres south in the Karwendel mountains (see chapter xx). Other than the Isar
Iloodplain and steep banks oI glacial and post-glacial river terraces, natural Ieatures
have had little inIluence on urban growth. Figure1 brieIly characterises the main ele-
ments oI Munich`s green structure. While the groundwater level is 20m. below the
surIace in the southern part oI Munich, it comes to the surIace at the northern edge oI
the City, where extensive Ienlands have Iormed. ThereIore, a distinction can be made
between the dry and the wet part oI the Munich plain. Naturally, deciduous wood-
lands, predominantly oak, would have covered the gravel plain. Extensive grassy
heathlands developed on the shallow soils through sheep grazing. These woodlands
and heaths have been mostly cleared to give way to Iarmland. The Isar Iloodplain is
the major element oI the green structure in the City. Parks, including the most Iamous
park oI all, the Englischer Garten, were already created in the eighteenth and nine-
teenth centuries along the river. When the River Isar was controlled in the nineteenth
century, it was preserved as a green corridor. It is thus both a natural and a planned
green structure.
During the period oI strong urban growth in the late nineteenth and the Iirst halI oI the
twentieth century, the City did not develop a spatially coherent green structure such
as the green Iinger` plans in Copenhagen or Helsinki. Speculative development was
very dense. The northern part oI the City is characterised by large industrial develop-
ments, whereas the cultural landscape, with lakes, woodlands and cultural heritage,
is an attraction Ior recreation and tourism in the south. With the concept oI a green
belt`, the City Region tries to compensate Ior the lack oI a systematically developed
green structure.
Natural green spaces such as woodlands, grassy heathlands, Ienlands and wastelands
cover almost the same area as the public green spaces, but only a Iew oI them had
received the same level oI protection prior to the Iirst habitat survey (LÖK, 1983).
They are only small remnants oI the once predominating natural and cultural land-
scapes. Natural green spaces are mostly Iound at the urban Iringe, in particular in
the northern and northwestern part oI the City. By comparison, Iew natural areas are
Iound in the densely built inner city, but also most oI the Iarmland has a low habitat
value. The large wastelands in the north and west oI the City partly resulted Irom
inIrastructure projects initiated during the Third Reich` but never completed.
The habitat survey was complemented by a survey that provided detailed inIormation
on green spaces within urban land uses. The results showed that apart Irom Iarmland
on the urban Iringe, the largest amount oI green space can be Iound in Munich`s
residential areas. However, there is strong pressure on residential green spaces Irom
inIill densiIication (Wagner, 1992), threatening mature stands oI trees in particular
(Jocham, 1988).
2 What are the benefits of Munich`s green structure for biodiversity and
the environment ?
Biodiversity
Munich has a good inIormation base on habitats Ior wildliIe due to biotope mapping
and subsequent studies on individual habitat types (LÖK, 1983 and 1990). The city oI
Munich is surprisingly rich in higher plant species, with over 1,200, when compared
with the intensively Iarmed agricultural land and the plantation woodlands beyond
(LH München, 2002). The habitats identiIied in the habitat survey particularly con-
tribute to this biodiversity. These are mainly natural woodland types, heathlands and
Ienlands but also wastelands and extensively managed grasslands in some parks such
as the Englischer Garten, Nymphenburg Park and Olympiapark. Intensively managed
parks and other green spaces have a low conservation value.
Many oI the natural green spaces are very small in size and isolated Irom one another.
For instance, woodlands are split up into 153 sites and 79° oI these are smaller than
5 ha. Protecting them individually will not suIIice to preserve the City`s biodiversity.
Moreover, many habitat sites were Iound to be in a degraded state due to changes in
ecological conditions (Ior example, lowering oI water tables in the Ienland areas),
lack oI proper management and negative inIluences Irom the surrounding land uses.
SigniIicantly, the survey oI ecologically important sites was complemented by a sur-
vey to characterise ecologically important Ieatures or urban land uses Ior the whole
city area. For each oI over 3,500 land use units, data on green space provision and
more detailed inIormation, Ior instance on tree density, are available. The survey
showed that green space in urban land uses such as residential and commercial areas
can have a species-rich Ilora and Iauna. In particular, low density housing areas with
a high coverage oI mature stands oI trees, and wastelands in industrial/ commercial
areas and along railway lines, where unmanaged grassy vegetation can develop, were
178
identiIied as important Ior wildliIe. These vegetation structures were considered as
corridors Ior wildliIe in the city (LÖK, 1990, Duhme and Pauleit, 1992).
179
Green structure
patterns
Status
Variety oI natural woodland, Ienland
and heathland types due to the Iine
grained pattern oI natural conditions
and adapted historic Iarming pratices
River Isar is Munich`s most important
green corridor with natural woodlands
and large parks with high ecological
value. Also smaller streams
Mostly converted into intensive
Iarmland. Only tiny remnants oI wet
grasslands and woodlands leIt. (grey
shaded : original extent oI Ienland
areas)
Important remnants oI natural
woodlands. Large plantation wood-
lands (spruce, pine) south oI the city
(not shown)
Remnants in the north, parly pro-
tected or used as military training
ranges. Wastelands in industrial areas
and along railway lines. Losses in the
last decades due to urban development
projects
Along river Isar and scattered in the
city. Mostly lower habitat quality
due to intensive managment and use
but exceptions are old parks such as
Englisher Garten
Largest green space resource within the
built area. Mostly intensively managed
but dense stands oI trees in low density
housing areas can have important habi-
tat Iunction
Intensive Iarming
Large open spaces, important corridors
in west & east direction. Habitats and
environmental Iunctions
Main challenges
Natural conditions were large-
ly ignored during main phases
oI urban development
Restoration oI river Isar and
smaller streams (W, rm, Ien-
land streams, historic canals)
Restoration oI ecological
conditions (hydrology/soils),
extensiIication oI Iarming
Natural woodlands mostly
small and Iragmented. Con-
version oI plantation wood-
lands into naturalistic wood-
lands
Restoration and linkage
oI heathland in the north
together with neighbouring
municipalities. Management
oI heathlands
Creation oI more greenspace
in the inner city, linking oI
greenspaces, management Ior
nature in existing greenspaces
Protection oI greenspaces, in
particular trees, Irom inIill
densiIication
Landscape restoration in par-
ticular in the Ienland areas
Availability oI Iormer railway
areas Ior development with
potential Ior development oI
greenspace corridors but also
threat oI habitat destruction
Main green structure
elements
Natural units : gla-
cial & post-glacial
terraces oI gravel
deposits, river Isar
Ilood-plain
Streams, canals and
artiIicial lakes
Wetland habitats in
Ienland
Woodlands
Heathland and
wastelands
Parks & public
green spaces
Low density housing
Farmland
Railways
180
Environmental benefits
The potential oI green space to improve the urban climate, reduce air pollution, and
manage water Ilows has not been studied in the same systematic way as their habitat
Iunction. For instance, air quality is regularly monitored, but the Iunction oI green
spaces to improve air quality is not known.
However, a pilot study has shown the important climatic and hydrological Iunctions
oI green space (Pauleit and Duhme, 2000). SurIace temperatures were correlated with
the provision oI green space, and particularly that oI trees and shrubs (See Figure1
in Chapter xx). SurIace temperatures were highest in the densely built-up inner city,
but signiIicantly lower in well-greened neighbourhoods. A similar relationship was
established between green space provision and the capacity to inIiltrate surIace rain-
water runoII within the urban area. Theoretically, most oI the rainwater runoII can be
inIiltrated within the study area. Overall, the results Irom this pilot study provided
evidence that green spaces can signiIicantly improve urban environmental conditions,
but that suIIicient provision oI green space is required Ior this purpose. ThereIore, the
current pressure on green spaces within the City Irom inIill densiIication will have a
negative impact on the City`s environmental perIormance.
How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning, design and
management processes ?
Public parks and green spaces, woodlands and also many oI the habitats identiIied
in the habitat survey are protected under diIIerent Iorms oI designations such as
nature reserves, protected natural landscape elements or protected landscape areas.
However, the habitat survey clearly shows that protection oI ecologically important
sites alone cannot preserve biodiversity, because these habitats are oIten too small and
Iragmented Ior the long-term survival oI species. Moreover, environmental beneIits
such as water inIiltration depend on all green spaces, both private and institutional.
ThereIore, green structure planning and management need to cover the City`s whole
area. Both Iormal and inIormal instruments Ior green structure planning are used in
Munich Ior this purpose. Formal instruments are the landscape plan Ior the whole city,
green structure plans at the level oI master plans, and green space plans at the site
level. Both landscape and green structure master plans need to be integrated into the
general land use plan and overall master plans, to become legally binding.
Key elements oI this strategy are habitat corridors and speciIic targets Ior ecological
green structure planning in urban land use zones. It is thus a strategy that aims to
integrate urban ecology into land use planning.
Ecological goals Ior green structure planning have been deIined in the city`s urban
development strategy Munich Perspectives. This strategy is subtitled compact
urban green`, thus aiming to create a city that is densely built to minimise Iurther
urban sprawl, but at the same time that oIIers a high quality oI liIe within the built
environment. Supplementary Ecological Guidelines detail the ecological goals. These
ecological goals are based on a spatial strategy Ior nature conservation that requires
180 181
the development oI habitat corridors between ecologically important sites and deIines
speciIic goals and targets Ior the provision oI habitats in urban zones (Figure 2).
Implementation oI ecological green structure planning is challenging in a city where
pressure on open space is so strong. A Species and Habitat Action Plan outlines mea-
sures Ior the management oI the diIIerent habitat types (LH München, 2002). In order
to implement the Ecological Guidelines, priority is given to:
· reducing green space deIicits in the densely built-up inner city and improving con-
nectivity between green spaces. In particular, big development projects such as the
conversion oI the Iormer airport into a new neighbourhood are used to create new
green spaces. The conversion oI disused areas along the main railway lines provides
an opportunity to create corridors in an east-west direction. Overall, the role oI eco-
logical goals is less important than recreation, but climate considerations have also
played an important part, in particular in relation to the railway corridor to the east
oI Munich and the conversion oI the Iormer airport into a new mixed neighbourhood
(See Figure 5.2 in Chapter 3. climate and green structure planning).
Figure 2: Nature conservation strategy Ior the city oI Munich (LH München, 2002,
based on LÖK, 1990).
· enhancing and improving the landscape around the city. Key projects are:
One greenbelt Ior all`, a project to create a multiIunctional greenbelt around the
City. An ecological land-banking scheme has been created Ior Ienland restoration,
including the restoration oI small streams, on Iarmland owned by the City in the
Ienland area to the northwest. Compensation measures Irom diIIerent development
projects can be combined to upgrade a larger area, instead oI scattering them in
many small areas across the City. Developers pay the total costs Ior the creation oI
habitats in these areas, including costs Ior planning, management and monitoring
over 20 years, as well as interest rates, so the City is able to implement measures
in advance.
This greenbelt project has also established co-operation with Iarmers. Currently, 45
out oI 100 Iull-time Iarmers co-operate with the City to implement ecological mea-
sures such as extensive management oI pastures and restoration oI small streams.
Co-operation with the neighbouring municipalities in the northern part oI the Munich
plain in the so called Heathland Society and the Fenland Society to restore and
enhance these important landscape types. In particular, the Heathland society has
been quite successIul in restoring and reconnecting remnants oI this habitat type.
Currently a new project oI the Heathland Society aims to promote a programme
Ior the development oI the landscape north oI Munich through setting goals Ior the
enhancement oI landscape character and ecology.
3 Conclusion: Is there evidence that ecological goals influence the planning
processes in Munich ?
Two key challenges Ior green structure planning in Munich were identiIied in this
case study: adaptation oI the green structure within the city to provide environmental
beneIits such as rainwater inIiltration and preserve the City`s biodiversity; and the
protection and restoration oI the landscape surrounding the City that is acutely threat-
ened Irom urbanisation and already degraded Irom intensive Iarming.
Munich is strong on inIormation on the provision and ecological quality oI greens-
pace throughout the City. Species data is more diIIicult to obtain, and generally it does
not cover the whole City. On the basis oI the habitat survey, an ecological strategy
Ior green structure planning has been developed and adopted, with distinct goals Ior
habitat corridors and land use zones, but there is no equivalent green structure strat-
egy with goals Ior climate and water management. Such a strategy could promote the
linkage oI green spaces by corridors to enhance natural processes in the City and help
to protect residential green space that is under pressure Irom inIill densiIication.
Implementation oI the ecological goals deIined in Munich`s nature conservation
strategy is a challenge in a city that is already densely built up and continues to
grow. Formal instruments oI green structure planning and green space protection are
important, but there is a shiIt towards approaches that seek to Iind solutions through
co-operation with land owners (Ior example, Iarmers), by providing incentives Ior
adopting ecological measures and/or by implementing these measures through large
182
development projects such as Messestadt Riem. Moreover, the Heathland and Fenland
Societies Ioster co-operation and co-ordination between neighbouring municipalities
regarding landscape restoration and management. However, despite these positive
eIIorts, there is real pressure on green space and large-scale losses oI valuable habi-
tats Ior wildliIe have been observed since the completion oI the Iirst habitat survey
in 1983.
The Greenbelt one Ior all` project aims to link recreational objectives and measures
with landscape measures (cycle routes through attractive Iarmland) and to link these
with conservation goals and measures (such as the restoration oI the Ienland). Green
space planning Ior the new neighbourhood Messestadt Riem is an example at the proj-
ect level where equal weight has been given to recreational and ecological objectives
in the planning oI the green spaces. Yet, the concept oI multipurpose` landscapes
and green spaces may Iind its limitations in the inner city, where green space is very
scarce. Optimising environmental Iunctions within small leItover green spaces that
have also to serve Ior recreation may not compensate Ior Iurther loss oI green space
due to inIill densiIication. Moreover, the loss oI green space within the City cannot
be compensated by landscape restoration through the land-banking scheme in the
urban Iringe. Overall, the dilemma to plan Ior a compact and a green city seems not
be resolved, as the loss oI green space due to inIill densiIication shows.
References
Duhme, F., Pauleit, S., 1992. Naturschutzprogramm Iür München.
LandschaItsökologisches Rahmenkonzept. Geographische Rundschau, 44 (10): pp.
554-561.
EEA (European Environment Agency), 2002. Towards an Urban Atlas. Assessment
oI Spatial Data in 25 Cities and Urban Areas. Environemtnal Issue Report No. 30.
EEA, Copenhagen.
Jocham, U., 1988. Auswirkungen von Baumaßnahmen auI Bäume. Garten und
Landschaft 7/88, pp. 36-38 (abstract in English).
LH München, 1991a. Statistical Yearbook 1991. Census oIIice (ed.), München (in
German).
LH München, 2002. (Ecological Guidelines). Department Ior Planning, München (in
German).
LÖK (Lehrstuhl Iür LandschaItsökologie), 1983. Survev of ecologicallv important
habitats. Final Report, Chair Ior Landscape Ecology, Munich Technical University
(in German), unpublished.
LÖK (Lehrstuhl Iür LandschaItsökologie), 1990. Landscape Ecological Strategv for
the Citv of Munich. Final Report, Chair Ior Landscape Ecology, Munich Technical
University (in German), unpublished.
Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F., 2000. Assessing the Environmental PerIormance oI Land
cover Types Ior Urban Planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): pp. 1-20.
Wagner, M., 1992. Assessment oI the Environmental Consequences oI InIill
Development. Master`s thesis, Munich Technical University, Freising (in German).
183
184
12 - Oslo
Signe Nyhuus
Department Ior Environmental AIIairs and Transport, Municipality oI Oslo
Norway signe.nyhuus¸radhuset.oslo.kommune.no
Introduction
The municipality oI Oslo (454 km2) is located in the inner part oI the Oslo Fjord in
South Eastern Norway. Approximately two thirds (307 km2) oI the municipality is
covered by Iorest, waterways and agricultural land, and one third (147 km2) by a build-
ing zone that includes residential, commercial and industrial areas. Approximately 30
km2 or about 20° oI the building zone is covered by mixed boreal Iorest and decidu-
ous trees. Since 1995 Oslo has been the Iastest growing city in the Nordic countries
with the creation oI 69,000 jobs and an immigration oI 46,000 people to the city in
the period 1995-2000. (Oslo municipality, 2003).
1 Green structure development and pattern
Compared to its surroundings the local climate in the city is dominated by relatively
warm summers, low precipitation and mild winters, with the city itselI located in a
south-Iacing valley. The terrain slopes gently upwards Irom the sea to the Iorested
hills around the city (up to 700 metres above sea level). Cambro-Silurian limestone
and shale, rich in calcium, Iolded in the Caledonian era, make up the central parts
oI the city and westwards along the Ijord. The Oslo region is a result oI an extended
depression oI earth covered by sea and slowly Iilled with sediments. The age oI the
rocks varies Irom Cambrian to Permian (600-250 million years ago). Remnants oI
the Pre-Cambrian rock, mainly oI gneiss and granite, are exposed in the southern
and eastern parts oI the municipality (Dons, 1996). The vegetation in the Oslo region
mirrors the local variations in precipitation, temperature and rock. Thus the broad-
leaved trees such as wych elm (Ulmus glabra) , small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata),
Norway maple (Acer platanoides) and common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) grow mainly
on the Cambro-Silurian limestone in the building zone, while the Scots pine (Pinus
sylvestris) grows in the south eastern part on the Pre-Cambrian rocks where there is
a slightly drier local climate. In the northern part oI the city, Norway spruce (Picea
abies) are dominating. Here the precipitation and altitude are higher than in the central
and south eastern parts oI the city.
The town was Iirst located around the outlet oI the Alna river around the year 1,000
AD. Most oI the urban development has taken place since the Second World War.
The built-up area oI Oslo is still one oI Europe`s least densely populated and the rate
oI development today is, according to some politicians, not high enough in order to
meet the rising demand Ior housing. A comparative study oI several European cities
(Oslo, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, den Haag, Bristol, Birmingham, Hanover,
Bremen, Gdansk, Zaragosa and Barcelona) carried out by the University oI Oslo at
184 185
the request oI the municipality, shows that Oslo was the largest in area, but only 27°
oI the area was developed, the remaining areas being Iorests and green structure.
(ProSus & GRID-Arendal, 2002).
Table 1 shows diIIerent land use and greenspace categories within the built-up area
oI the municipality. The category Iorest` in the table describes a mix oI pine and
deciduous trees, wych elm being the most common, Iollowed by small-leaved lime
in the built-up area. Scots Pine covers the eastern Iorest and Norway spruce the north
western Iorested area.
The pressure on the green structure within the built-up area is strong due to the pres-
ervation oI the Iorested area surrounding the building zone. A large part oI the popula-
tion oI Oslo is used to living in green surroundings and an awareness oI the threat to
green structure due to the ongoing densiIication process has emerged over the last 20
years. An analysis oI the reduction oI green structure in Oslo Irom 1952-1990 revealed
a signiIicant impact on three categories due to land use changes Irom natural areas
to residential, commercial and industrial space (Nyhuus & Thoren, 1996). The same
study stated that there has been a strong Iragmentation oI green open spaces, on aver-
age a 50° reduction Irom 1950-1990, which resulted in more numerous, but smaller
areas oI green open spaces. The same trend might well have continued Irom 1990 to
the present day, but Ior the introduction oI the Green Plan (Oslo Municipality, 1993),
the Green Poster (Oslo Municipality, 1997) and The Biodiversity Report to the City
Council, which are useIul tools to combat the increasing pressures on greenspace.
The separation oI the Iorest and built-up area has been on the agenda Ior many years.
AIter the Second World War when city planning was resumed, the politicians decided
that all new development should take place within a border between the Iorested
area and the area that was deIined as the built-up area. This border has stayed the
same since then, even though now and then newly elected politicians have suggested
Table 1. Distribution oI area categories in the study area
Categories Area (km2) Area in °
1
Residential area 64.0 43.6
Other developed areas
2
14.1 9.6
Allotment gardens and cottages 2.2 1.5
Industrial/storage areas 8.1 5.5
Areas Ior traIIic purposes 21.3 14.5
Forest 30.0 20.4
Parks and graveyards 3.9 2.7
Agricultural areas 2.3 1.6
Water 1.0 0.7
Total area 146.9
1.Area as percent oI total area
2.OIIices, commercial/service, public buildings, sports centre/sports ground
187 186
building in the Iorested region called Marka. The Iorest and the manage-
ment in Marka diIIer Irom the vegetation types and management evident
within the built-up area. However, both types are multiIunctional. Figure
1 shows how the municipality oI Oslo is divided into a building zone with
its own internal green structure and the surrounding Iorests.
Figure 1. The distribution oI green open area within the municipality oI Oslo
Oslo - green spaces
187
2. Green structure and biodiversity
Due to a mild local climate, calcium-rich soil, varied topography and a short gradient
between sea level and the surrounding boreal Iorests, the city oI Oslo is very rich in
biodiversity in relation to its location and latitude. The diIIerent nature types recorded
in the municipality are shown in Figure 2. The richest biotopes oI natural vegetation
are on the Cambro-Silurian layers up to approximately 220 metres above sea level.
Furthermore, Oslo has an international responsibility Ior these biotopes due to the
very specialised vegetation (rich broad-leaved deciduous Iorest, calcareous woodland
and calcareous rocky shores), species richness and the high number oI red-listed spe-
cies. This vegetation is uniquely Iound in the building zone and on the islands and
the need Ior preservation and in some cases management becomes even more urgent,
since these vegetation types are not Iound in the Iorested areas outside the building
zone.
Two main Ieatures oI the green structure are highly signiIicant Ior biodiversity: the size
oI the open spaces and the quality and management oI them. The City Government
has adopted the work carried out on biodiversity in Oslo. The City Government has
provided the City Council with an overview oI the status oI valuable natural habitats
and biological diversity in Oslo, the threats that they Iace and the basis Ior the work
to preserve and develop this biodiversity. Furthermore, inIormation is provided on
the work that the City Government has done and plans to do in order to saIeguard the
existence oI valuable habitats and biological diversity in Oslo.
The work has produced a management tool that consists oI a database with an accom-
panying digital map. Using this tool, all those involved in land use planning and
management can gain access to inIormation on sites that are oI value Ior biological
diversity. The database thus gives the city a very good Ioundation Ior ensuring that
biologically important sites are protected. The ongoing work is divided into Iour main
Iields:
Figure 2. The distribution oI the main biotopes within the municipality oI Oslo
1. Implementation, operation and maintenance oI the nature database
2. Additional registration in and updating oI the management tool
3. SaIeguarding oI the sites that are oI a high biodiversity value
4. InIormation to the public, developers and other interested groups
The biotopes recorded are classiIied according to the national classiIication system
developed by the Directorate Ior Nature Conservation. Following deIined criteria,
biotopes are put into categories oI great importance, oI importance, or oI regional
importance. Figure 3 shows that in Oslo registered biotopes are divided almost evenly
within the categories oI importance.
By 2006 all agencies in the municipality oI Oslo are supposed to introduce an
Environmental Management System Iollowing the so-called Demings-Circle
(Deming, 1950 and 1986). This model is widely used in the environmental planning
certiIication process relating to both private and public businesses. When conduct-
ing an environmental certiIication such as EMAS, ISO 14001 or Environmental
Lighthouse (a Norwegian certiIicate), businesses have to Iollow the so-called PDCA
circle or Demings-Circle (Plan, Due, Check, Act). Goals and plans Ior biodiversity
should be included in the considerations undertaken by all the relevant agencies
according to the PDCA circle. The use oI such a process ensures that the steps
are conducted in a well-planned way (Pedersen et al., 2004). The GIS tool and the
implementation process will be evaluated within the Iramework oI the revision oI the
Report to the City Council 1/2003 (Oslo City, 2003).
3. Environmental benefits of green structure
Blue-green structure
Eight rivers and/or streams run through the built-up area oI Oslo, starting Irom lakes
188
Figure 3. The recorded biotopes in Oslo are classiIied according to the national High/Low
Importance classiIication criteria
in Marka having their outlet in the inner Oslo Ijord. However, 60° oI the streams are
canalised under ground. When the City Government came into oIIice in 2000 two main
environmental tasks were put on the agenda. One was to strengthen the public trans-
portation system; the other was to restore the blue-green structure oI the city. About
100 years ago attention was paid to one oI the largest rivers in Oslo, the Akerselva.
More recently a land use plan including management principles were developed in the
1980s and action was taken. This work has changed the Akerselva Irom a grey pol-
luted river into a nice and quite clean salmon river containing sweet water insects and
bottom` animals that have returned to the ecosystem. The upper part is very popular
Ior swimming and thus the status Ior this river is multiIunctional.
Today the other main river, the meandering River Alna, has priority. Both the Alna
and Akerselva were adversely aIIected by industry and became outlets Ior chemicals
and other kind oI pollution. However, the industries have more or less moved out oI
the city or ceased to exist and housing development has taken over as the main pres-
sure on the remaining green river banks. Two other important rivers, the Ljanselva
and Lysakerelva, are in good shape containing several Iish species, while the smaller
ones are in a rather bad shape.
During the 1990s Oslo experienced Ilooding, especially along the Akerselva. This has
had both environmental and economic consequences, since the river runs through the
most developed and urban part oI the city and it has illustrated Ior the management
system how valuable green river banks are in order to handle the water load.
Action has now taken place to preserve and restore the blue-green structure. Following
an initiative by retired politicians now working in an NGO, the Oslo River Forum,
the City Council has Iormed a municipal Iorum, the Co-operative Organisation Ior
the Rivers and Streams in Oslo, where both municipal and state oIIicers and NGOs
are represented. During the summer oI 2004 a new natural swimming basin will be
opened along the upper part oI the River Alna. This will bring recreational opportuni-
ties to the vicinity oI several thousand inhabitants oI the District oI Grorud.
Organic compound
Organic waste Irom parks and other public spaces and graveyards are being com-
posted at assigned places within the city. Soil Irom composted matter is then sold
to the public. There are very Iew Iarms leIt within the built-up area except Ior some
District Iarms where the public can visit and experience animals such as horses, goats
and ducks, etc. Organic waste Irom these Iarms is composted on the Iarm. Oslo has
an area oI small-scale agricultural landscape leIt, but this area has been assigned Ior
development. For the time being plans have been developed to show how this new
District will be placed in the landscape.
Clear cutting is Iorbidden and the Management Plan Irom 1996 is currently being
revised, recreation and ecology being the most important issues. Pluck Ielling oI trees
and the resultant removal oI organic waste is a matter Ior discussion.
189
Introduced species as pests
Pests in terms oI introduced species that represent a threat to local natural species are
a problem in Oslo as in most other cities, since species do not respect human borders.
The Recreation Authority has developed a strategic plan Ior the management oI and
counteraction against alien or introduced species. The Iocus today is particularly on
two plant species which threaten nature in Oslo: giant hogweed (Heracleum man-
tegazzianum) and Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glanduliIera). The strategic plan
includes several courses oI action Irom recording, providing inIormation to prohibi-
tion. Also included are suggestions Ior other initiatives relating to species that are
oI lesser importance. These include species such as Canada goldenrod (Solidago
canadensis), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), Acer pseudoplatanus, introduced spe-
cies oI stonecrop (sedum), Vincetoxicum, Fallopia and butterbur (Petasites hybridus).
The plan also describes the management costs involved in keeping those species that
are identiIied as pests in the Oslo Ilora under control.
Conclusion
The policy Ior green structure planning and biodiversity is described in the Report
to the City Council no. 1, 2003: Strategy Ior Sustainable Development. Environment
and Sustainability Status 2002. Urban Ecology Programme 2002-2014. Chapter 3,
Oslo will conserve and strengthen its blue-green structure, includes goals, indicators
and time limits Ior biodiversity and green structure planning. Indicators are measured
once in each election period (every Iourth year) in order to identiIy progress. The
Recreation and Leisure Service, which has the responsibility Ior most issues described
in that chapter, is due to report to the Commissioner Ior Transport and Environmental
AIIairs when the report to the City Council will be revised in 2006 at the earliest.
References :
City oI Oslo, 2003. Surveving Natural Habitats and Biological Diversitv and
Classifiving Their Jalue. Oslo.
City oI Oslo, 2003. Strategy Ior Sustainable Development. Environment and
Sustainability Status, 2002. Urban Ecology Programme 2002-2014. Department Ior
Transport and Environmental AIIairs.
Deming, W. E., 1950. Some Theory oI Sampling, Wiley, New York.
Deming, W. E., 1986. Out oI the Crisis; Quality, Productivity and Competitive
Positions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Dons, J. A., 1996. Oslo-traktenes geologi med 25 turbeskrivelser. Vett & Viten,
Nesbru (in Norwegian).
Nyhuus, S., Thoren, A. K. H., 1996. Gronnstrukturens vilkår I communal arealplan-
legging 1965-1995. Norges Iorskningsråd. Norsk institutt Ior by- og regionIorskning.
MILKOM notat 15/96 (in Norwegian).
Pedersen, A. O., Nyhuus, S., Blindheim, T., Krog, O. M. W., 2004. Implementation
oI a GIS-based management tool Ior conservation oI biodiversity within the munici-
190
pality oI Oslo, Norway. Landscape Urban Plan. 68 (2004), pp. 429-438.
ProSus & GRID-Arendal, 2002. En Iaglig evaluering av Oslo kommunes miljostatus
og bærekraItstatus (in Norwegian). ProSus, University oI Oslo.
Oslo kommune, 2003. Statistisk årbok Ior Oslo 2003. Byrådsavdeling Ior Iinans,
statistisk kontor (in Norwegian).
Oslo kommune, 1993. Grontplan Ior Oslo. Kommunedelplan Ior gronnstruktur i
byggesonen. Plan og bygningsetaten (in Norwegian).
Oslo kommune, 1997. Gronn plakat. Helsevernetaten (in Norwegian).
Oslo kommune, 2004. Strategi Ior bekjempelse av introduserte problemarter.
FriluItsetaten (in Norwegian).
191
192
13 - Utrecht
1

Sybrand Tjallingii
Faculty oI Architecture, DelIt University oI Technology, The Netherlands
s.p.tjallingii¸bk.tudelIt.nl
1 Introduction
Urban development and landscapes
Currently the city oI Utrecht has approximately 250,000 inhabitants who live on a
surIace area oI 91 sq.km. On its western edge is the so-called Green Heart, a 60 km.
wide meadow-landscape that is the open centre oI a horseshoe oI cities: the Randstad,
with 6 million inhabitants (Figure 1). To the east, Utrecht borders on a wooded hill
ridge pushed up by glaciers in the ice age. South oI the city, the big rivers belonging
to the Rhine delta dominate the open meadow landscape. Peat mining by means oI
dredging created a landscape oI lakes north oI Utrecht where recreation is today`s
leading activity. Most oI the green land around the growing city is still in agricultural
use. The city has grown in a concentric way. The river Leidsche Rijn to the west has
given its name to the latest large urban expansion, now under construction. The new
district will have 30,000 dwellings and the same number oI jobs.
N
2km
Its central position in the country made Utrecht an important road and railway junc-
1. This case study is partly based on research conducted by the author at ALTERRA
Research Institute, Wageningen. The work was part oI GREENSCOM, a research project
under the EU 5th Iramework programme
Figure 1. Landscapes in the Utrecht region
Utrecht
Hillridge
Green Heart
Meadow
Landscape
Lakes
River Rhine
Delta system
192
tion. Green planners and residents suIIered a traumatic experience when, aIter a battle
oI more than ten years, a new motorway was built in the early 1980s to the east oI
the city, cutting right through the woodland oI the popular Amelisweerd estate. Here,
indeed, urban development was the enemy oI nature.
2 Green structure
The green structure of streams
Meandering rivers, more than anything else, give structure to the green areas in the
city. Two thousand years ago the Romans Iounded the city and called it Ultrajectum,
the last bridge. In those days it was a real eIIort to cross the river that was the northern
boundary oI the Roman Empire. In the centuries that Iollowed, the river Rhine trans-
Ierred the bulk oI its Ilow to more southerly channels. In the middle ages the Utrecht
branch oI the Rhine was cut oII Irom the main stream. The tamed river became a con-
venient waterway and the high banks became a place Ior warehouses and workshops.
Today, there is only a small stream that meanders through the city where it splits
into two branches. These streams shaped the urban street pattern. From these streets,
pedestrians can walk down the steps and sit in the outdoor caIes and restaurants along
the river banks. Richness in the details oI nature and culture, such as wall vegetation
and sculptured lantern consoles, contribute to the typical Utrecht river proIile that is
not Iound in any other Dutch city (Figure 2). In the surrounding countryside, towpaths
along the river now oIIer nice walks with beautiIul views. Within the city, the rivers
turn to greenways with parks and trees.
The green structure of defence works
In the 19th century, the earthen deIence walls oI the city became redundant. Starting
in 1827, landscape architect Jan David Zocher turned these walls and what was leIt
oI the ramparts and towers into a beautiIul English landscape-style park with a walk
around the inner city, the so-called Singel. The deIence oI Holland was taken over by
the New Holland Waterline that included a series oI inundation works and Iortresses
east oI Utrecht. For military reasons, this area stayed green until 1948. ThereIore, the
city Iirst expanded to the north and west and it was not until the 1960s that urban
growth took place on the eastern side. Even then, the Iortresses stayed green and
became the carriers oI the urban green structure.
193
Figure 2. River branches have shaped the old city
194 195
The green structure of public parks
The citizens oI Utrecht can still walk in the inner city courtyards oI churches
and monasteries planted with elms and lime trees in the Middle Ages. In 1673
the city created its Iirst public recreation area: the one kilometre long Maliebaan,
a green allee with six rows oI trees made Ior the students who liked to play the
malie (mall) game. It was not until the late 19th century that public parks were
considered to be a real need Ior the city and became a regular Ieature oI urban
development. In some cases old country estates with gardens became part oI the
growing urban area and were transIormed into public parks. Most oI them, how-
ever, are green islands not connected by greenways.
The green structure of transport networks
Along the banks oI the old and new canal, which stretches Irom Amsterdam
to Germany, cyclists and pedestrians Iind attractive greenways. Their technical
design, however make them unattractive Ior wildliIe. The railway verges are
quite the opposite. They oIIer excellent habitats and corridors that contribute to
the ecological network. Cyclists, however, usually preIer other greenways. The
motorway verges are not so special, whereas the motorways themselves create
serious barriers between built-up and green areas.
Figure 3. The green structure oI streams Figure 4. The green structure oI deIence works
Figure 5. The green structure oI public parks Figure 6. The green structure oI transport networks
194 195
3 Green structure and urban ecology
Green structure and biodiversity
Surveys in the 1970s revealed that the Ilora oI Utrecht (91.km2.) amounts to approxi-
mately 700 species oI native plants. This number is high compared to the 938 species
Iound in a survey oI the whole Province (2,000 km2.). The number oI bird species
breeding in the city is 93. Amateur biologists have collected data about butterIlies,
amphibians and reptiles. These surveys do not cover the whole oI Utrecht, but they
provide excellent inIormation Ior the protection oI species.
Green structure Planning may create or protect conditions Ior biodiversity. It is there-
Iore important to discuss diIIerent categories oI conditions. A Iirst condition is the
surIace oI green areas. The built-up area covers about 70° oI the municipal territory,
agricultural land takes up 24°. Roads cover 4° and only 2° is Iorested. The built-
up area, however, includes parks, cemeteries and private gardens. Within these public
green areas, the level oI maintenance is an important condition Ior biodiversity. Best
conditions Ior wild plants and animals are Iound in the rough woodlands (18.1° oI
the total green area), and rough grass (18.6°) categories. As maintenance costs are
low Ior these areas, their surIace increased in the 1980s, a period oI budget cuttings.
In residential districts, however, the rough maintenance categories met with resis-
tance. Wild was seen as the result oI neglect and in socially problematic areas the
wild bushes were soon perceived as unsaIe. This led to a preIerence Ior higher main-
tenance levels within the districts. It is easier to create conditions Ior natural plant and
animal liIe in the main green structure between residential districts.
Connecting corridors between green areas are vital conditions Ior crawling animals
and Ior the dispersion oI seeds they carry with them. The role oI green corridors there-
Iore has become an important issue Ior urban ecologists. In their preparatory study
oI the Utrecht Green Structure Plan, Farjon et al., 1987: 87, point to the Iollowing
dispersion zones requiring attention in planning and maintenance:
o river zones
o railways
o canals and ditches with unpolluted water
o greenways with pedestrian and cycle tracks
o green zones along the canals.
All oI these corridors are part oI the main urban green structure. The Province
developed a method oI biotopes and ecological groups with indicator species and
the municipal Department Ior Green Areas Iurther elaborated on this approach and
generated maps Ior six ecological groups, indicating the desired corridors.
Corridors only create ecological conditions Ior biodiversity iI they connect habitats.
Habitat qualities related to abiotic Iactors play a key role in this context. Gradients at
the landscape level between high and low, dry and wet, sand and clay, create a Irame
Ior diversity. At the level oI the urban landscape a key Iactor is upward seepage oI
clean, nutrient poor groundwater that occurs at the Ioot oI the Utrecht hill ridge.
Gradients at the level oI road verges and river banks are the Iocus oI habitat-creation
programmes in all parts oI the city.
Green structure, health and pests
Research about the use oI green areas in Utrecht revealed that 65°-86° oI the resi-
dents oI diIIerent urban districts Irequently visit a park and 67°-87° Irequently visit
a recreation area outside the city (Hinssen, 1993: 27). The Wilhelminapark in the city
and Amelisweerd, just outside the city, both attract approximately one million visitors
per year. The inner city parks and the outer green areas are not exchangeable. People
love them Ior diIIerent reasons.
The history oI the GriItpark is a paradox in the context oI health. The highly contami-
nated soil oI the old gasworks could not be completely puriIied. ThereIore the area
was considered too unhealthy Ior residential development. As a result, a beautiIul
park emerged in the heart oI the city: unhealthy iI you were to grow Iruit trees and eat
the apples; very healthy, however, Ior the stressed oIIice workers looking Ior a quiet
park to have lunch in.
Recently Van Bronswijk (1999) pointed out the risk that more natural ecosystems in
urban areas could improve conditions Ior rats and mosquitoes. She even warned oI
a possible revival oI malaria as a result oI climatic change combined with the pres-
ence oI natural wetlands in Dutch cities. The reaction Irom experts in the Iields oI
entomology, epidemic diseases and health was clear: there is no evidence oI such a
threat (Takken et al., 1999: 836). Rather, the opposite is more likely. The more natural
parts oI green structure will improve water quality and this will create less Iavour-
able conditions Ior pests. There is no reason Ior panic, but there is a case Ior sound
maintenance practice based on urban ecology.
Urban water and climate
Earlier attempts to link green structure and water planning (Tjallingii, Spijker & de
Vries, 1995) had only a limited impact. The gap between the two sectors in municipal
administration was too big. The new Leidsche Rijn development, however, combines
green and water planning in an elegant way. In the Leidsche Rijn plan, surIace water
will circulate Irom the built-up area into a lake in the adjacent green lobe` that is part
oI the urban green structure. Here, the water will pass through the wetland that will
care Ior sedimentation and nutrient uptake. The puriIied water will then re-circulate
into the built-up zone.
The role oI green areas and street trees in moderating urban climate is clear in general
terms, but apart Irom some incidental discussions about the need Ior a windbreak Ior
cyclists, climate is not an issue in Utrecht, nor in other Dutch cities.
196
Use of green resources
Inside the city, 150 hectares oI green areas are being used as allotment gardens.
Around the city, dairy Iarming on meadowland is the dominant land use. In 1985
there were still 47 Iarms, but many oI them were small hobby Iarms with part- time
Iarmers. Full-time Iarmers increasingly Iace the need to industrialise and expand their
enterprise and this is extremely diIIicult in the urban Iringe that is Iull oI uncertainties
about urban expansion. Several zones in the western and eastern Utrecht Iringe area
are not yet urban and yet are no longer rural. Urban residents enjoy the meadows oI
the open countryside, but do not pay Ior its maintenance. In the Noorderpark, a 5,700
ha. rural area just north oI the city, Iarmers are being paid Ior landscape maintenance
tasks under the legislation oI the 1975 Memorandum on the Relationship between
Nature and Agriculture.
Surveys and monitoring
Utrecht has a long tradition oI volunteer ecologists who explored the ecological trea-
sures oI the city (Maes, 1984). In the preparation oI the 1990 Green Structure Plan,
Farjon, Harms and ScheIIer (1987) carried out the Iirst systematic analysis oI present
and potential plant and animal liIe in the city. In the 1990s, the Iocal point oI green
structure planning shiIted towards improving and establishing ecological corridors.
Green structure planning was Iurther made operational by a project implementation
plan that included budgets Ior an ecological survey prior to major building projects
and Ior monitoring speciIic habitat improvement activities. At the regional scale, the
Province carried out a grid survey oI native plants that was published in 1984. The
km2 grid, however, is inadequate Ior planning purposes.
4 Green structure Planning
Figures 7 and 8 demonstrate the two levels oI green structure planning in Utrecht.
An assessment oI green structure planning practice in the city has been published
(Tjallingii, 2003). The 1990 Green Structure Plan (Gemeente Utrecht, 1990) presents
the core areas and the corridors that connect them. The plan is primarily a strategy to
protect and develop the green Irame oI the city. Figure 8 presents some key images
oI the Singel Restoration Project that restores a missing link in the green structure
around the inner city and is realised as an element oI a huge renewal scheme involv-
ing a shopping centre, railway station and oIIices.
197
198 199
Figure 7. The 1990s Green Structure Plan
198 199
References
Farjon, J. M. J., Harms, W.B. & ScheIIer, M., 1987. Landschapsecologische struc-
tuurschets Utrecht (Outline oI the landscape ecology oI Utrecht), De Dorschkamp,
Wageningen.
Gemeente Utrecht, 1990. Groenstructuurplan (Green Structure Plan), Utrecht.
Hinssen, P. J. W. 1993. Planning, gebruik en beheer van de stedelifke groene ruimte
(Planning, use and management oI urban green areas), IBN-DLO, Wageningen.
Maes, N. C. M. 1984. Natuur en landschap in de stedelifke omgeving van Utrecht
(Nature and landscape in the surroundings oI Utrecht.) Gemeente Utrecht.
Takken, W., Kager, P. A. en H.J. van der Kaay 1999. Terugkeer van endemische
malaria in Nederland uiterst onwaarschijnlijk (Return oI endemic malaria in The
Netherlands extremely improbable). Nederlands Tifdscht voor Geneeskunde 143. pp.
836-838.
Tjallingii, S. P., 2003. Green and Red, Enemies or Allies; the Utrecht experience with
green structure planning. Built Environment. Vol. 29/2: pp. 107-116.
Tjallingii, S. P., Spijker, J. H. & de Vries, C. A., 1995. Ecologisch Stadsbeheer
(An ecological approach to urban management). IBN rapport 163, IBN-DLO,
Wageningen.
Van Bronswijk, J., 1999. Bouwen en ge:ondheid (Building and Health). TU
Eindhoven.
Websites: www.groenstructuurplan.nl; www.utrecht.nl/herstel singelstructuur utrecht
Figure 8. The Singel Restoration Project
200
14 - Vienna
Eva Erhart
Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute Ior Biological Agriculture and Applied Ecology, Vienna,
Austria
eva.erhart¸chello.at
1 Introduction
The City oI Vienna has 1,615,438 inhabitants and it covers a surIace area oI 415
km2 within its administrative boundaries. Green spaces cover 49° oI the city area in
Vienna, compared with 33° as the built-up area and 14° traIIic area. More than one
third oI the green space is covered by Iorests, another third is Iarmland (arable land,
horticultural land and vineyards) and 11° are meadows (mainly Ior recreational use,
on the Danube Island and in the Wienerwald). Only 5° oI the green space are parks
(Realnutzungskartierung, 1997).
2 How have natural and cultural features influenced the development of
green structure in the urban environment?
Vienna is situated at the intersection oI diIIerent landscape types and climatic
regions. From the Wienerwald in the west a series oI terraces descends like steps to
the Danube, where the centre oI the city is situated. In the south, Vienna is bound by
the hills oI the Wienerberg and the Laaer Berg, and in the north by the Bisamberg.
In the northeast, Vienna extends into the plain oI the MarchIeld. Climatically, Vienna
is situated in the transition zone between central European, Pannonic and Alpine cli-
mate. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation in Vienna consists oI mixed deciduous
Iorest (mainly beech, maple, oak and hornbeam) in the western part oI the city and oI
Pannonic vegetation with dry grassland and oak Iorests in the east.
Vienna originates Irom the Roman military camp Vindobona. Around 1150, when
the Austrian margraves Irom the Babenberg dynasty transIerred their residence to
Vienna, it developed into a veritable town. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,
palais with baroque gardens, which were connected to the city by avenues, were built
outside the mediaeval town, which was enclosed by town walls and glacis. In the mid
nineteenth century the old military IortiIications were razed and the city expanded by
incorporating the suburban zones. On the Iormer glacis, the Ringstrasse was built, a
broad, imposing boulevard lined by administrative buildings, museums, theatres and
parks. In the nineteenth century, Vienna grew tremendously Iast. The parts oI the city
originating Irom the second halI oI the nineteenth century are laid out in a dense rect-
angular pattern oI blocks oI buildings, streets and places, with Iew green structures.
In 1905 the Wienerwald, which had been endangered by the rapid expansion oI the
city, was made a protected green zone by decree oI the Vienna City Council. In the
200
1950s to 1970s, the large Iorest areas oI the Lobau, the Bisamberg and the Lainzer
Tiergarten were opened to the public. In the 1970s the Danube Island, an elongated
man-made island, which is very popular as a recreation area today, was created in
the course oI the restructuring oI the hydraulic regulation oI the Danube. In 1996
the Lobau, a large (2,900 ha.) natural riverside Iorest on the southeastern bank oI the
Danube, was declared a national park, together with the adjacent riverside Iorests in
Lower Austria (Auböck and Ruland, 1994; Opll (www.wien.gv.at/history)).
The agricultural land mainly consists oI intensively used arable land on the urban
Iringe, which was cleared oI many oI the hedges surrounding Iields in the past, so that
it represents a rather monotonous landscape, which is unsatisIactory both regarding
agroecology and nature conservation and regarding recreational use (Maurer et al.,
2002).
3 What does this green structure mean for biodiversity, environmental
services and management of flows ?
Biodiversity
The Ilora oI Vienna, with 2,187 wild plant species and subspecies, can be considered
very rich in species. This is mainly due to the location oI Vienna within the border
region oI several large Iloral regions (Central European, Alpic, Pontic, Pannonian and
sub-Mediterranean), comprising substantial proportions oI near wilderness areas (nat-
ural Iorests, wetlands along the Danube, Iormerly extensively used steppe pastures),
as well as arable land, meadows and planted Iorests. In addition, man-made sites
typical oI large cities, such as ruderal vegetation, wasteland, settlement areas, traIIic
areas (railways, docks, streets, channels) and industrial derelict areas (including Ior
commercial and business usage) play an important role (Müllner et al., 2000).
58 species oI mammals, 134 species oI butterIlies and 72 grasshopper species are
living currently in Vienna. Species which inhabit natural woodland, river banks, dry
grassland or other well-structured landscapes are endangered because these types oI
biotopes are diminishing and the remaining biotopes are oIten isolated. A Iurther
reason Ior the endangering oI many species is the use oI pesticides (Sieber and Ulbel,
1998).
Management of flows
Water: Vienna`s drinking water supply originates Ior the largest part Irom moun-
tain springs in the eastern Alps. Only around 3° oI the drinking water comes Irom
groundwater. The groundwater in the city is mainly used Ior industrial and agricul-
tural purposes. There are projects aiming at increasing inIiltration oI rainwater Irom
the rooIs oI residential complexes in order to replenish the groundwater and to reduce
the amount oI storm water going to the sewage treatment plant. About 70 streams
and rivers used to Ilow Irom the eastern Ilanks oI the Wienerwald Iorest through the
city and into the Danube. Many oI them have been overarched to protect the adja-
cent riverbank properties Irom Ilooding and have disappeared completely Irom the
201
cityscape. Today several oI them have been restructured and their riverbed gradually
re-naturalised (www.e-lisa.at).
Air: In Vienna, windy weather is very common, with the main wind direction being
west to northwest. As the natural landscape oI the city opens to the MarchIeld plain
in the east and the Danube provides a natural corridor in this direction, the natural
preconditions Ior a good ventilation oI the city are very Iavourable, so that smog
rarely occurs in Vienna.
Organic matter: In order to close the ecological cycle oI nutrient Ilows, the organic
Iraction oI household waste is collected separately in Vienna (90,423 tonnes in
2002). Applying constant quality control, this waste is then transIormed through
an open windrow composting process; this compost conIorms to high standards.
The largest part oI the compost is used in agriculture on the municipal agricultural
estates, which has enabled some oI the estates to change over to organic Iarming
(www.bestpractices.org).
4 How are the ecological and environmental functions of green structure
considered in land use/landscape planning ? How are the functions being man-
aged to meet ecological and environmental goals ?
The formal planning instruments in Vienna are the building regulations: the com-
prehensive community development plan and the legally binding land use plan. These
two plans are amalgamated into one document. Vienna does not have regional plan-
ning legislation, so the regulations Ior city planning are to be Iound in the building
regulations.
The community development plan and the land use plan provide detailed guidance Ior
the Iuture pattern oI land use in an area by ascribing the area to a certain zone. There
are Iour kinds oI zone: green space, building areas, traIIic areas and special areas.
Vienna`s nature conservation law consists oI several categories with varying degrees
oI protection and there is also a tree preservation law.
Informal planning instruments, which are not established in law, are the Urban
Development Plan 94 (Stadtentwicklungsplan 94, STEP 94), the plan Greenbelt
Vienna 1995 and the Strategic Plan Ior Vienna (1999).
The Urban Development Plan 94 is based on a resolution oI the City Council. It pro-
vides the Iramework Ior the optimum development oI land. The STEP 94 deIines 11
growth axes, along which the city expansion should take place. Between the growth
axes, large green areas, which are connected into a web oI green structures, should
be preserved. In order to implement the ideas oI the STEP 94 plan, a number oI more
detailed plans Ior the green structures were developed. The plan Greenbelt Vienna
1995 shows the network oI green areas, which should Iorm a belt around the built-
up area oI the city. These green areas are linked by green corridors and by areas in
202
203
agricultural use.
Certain measures have been drawn up to protect the green areas mentioned in the plan
Greenbelt Vienna 1995. Designating green areas as protected zones in the greenbelt`,
laid down in the community development plan/land use plan, is the best possible
protection. In such a zone, no building activities are allowed. At present, only part oI
the designated greenbelt is ascribed to protected zones in the greenbelt`. Large areas
are ascribed to rural areas, in which certain building activities are allowed. There is
a great deal oI pressure to change the pattern oI land use as designated in the com-
munity development plan/land use plan oI some oI these areas into building areas.
Green areas are also protected under the nature conservation law. Another means oI
protecting the areas oI the greenbelt is to develop them into woods or parks. Since
trees are protected under the tree preservation law, such areas become protected green
spaces. This measure is used extensively. Furthermore, it was intended that the City
Council should protect some green areas by purchasing them, which has happened in
a Iew cases.
The Strategic Plan Ior Vienna (1999) calls again Ior the realisation oI the Greenbelt
95 plan. It identiIies the measures to be taken and the persons responsible Ior their
implementation. It also calls Ior the provision oI public and additional private Iunding
Ior the purchasing and developing oI green structures.
Figure 1. Greenbelt Vienna 1995 (greenbelt shown in black.
Source: City oI Vienna Dept.18)
204
5 What is presently recorded about ecology in the case study area, by
whom, and how ?
The Municipal Department Ior Nature Conservation (MA 22) has commissioned
numerous studies on environmental and ecological aspects oI the city (www.wien.gv.at/
ma22/pool/). Biotope mapping studies in the built-up areas were conducted in the
late 1980s (Punz, 1990). Habitat surveys covered vegetation and important groups
oI Iauna, such as mammals, birds, reptiles, lizards, beetles, butterIlies and grasshop-
pers. A nature conservation strategy Ior Vienna and concepts Ior the conservation oI
species and their habitats were drawn up (Kutzenberger, 1994). In the 1990s, a bio-
tope-monitoring study was conducted using aerial inIrared photography (1991; 1997;
2000). InIrared photographs oI the total city area were analysed in detail Ior the green
structures and the results were included in the digital city map using GIS (Kellner et
al., 1999). In a study Ecological-Iunctional types oI structures`, the total area oI the
city was divided up according to ecological-Iunctional criteria and was allocated one
oI eight ecological-Iunctional types; this Iormed the basis oI a Iirst proposal Ior taking
diIIerential conservation and development measures (Brandenburg et al., 1994).
Energy levels, materials (in particular carbon), water balances Ior anthropogenic and
natural Ilows, and nutrient balances Ior agriculture have been calculated (Brunner et
al., 1996; Maier et al., 1997; Erhart et al., 2002). The status oI agriculture in Vienna
today has been evaluated Irom the ecological, economic, social and planning points
oI view and options Ior its Iuture development have been deIined (Maurer et al.,
2002).
6 How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning, design
and management processes ? Is there any evidence that these goals have influ-
enced the planning processes within the study area ?
The Urban Development Plan 94 (STEP 94) and the plan Greenbelt Vienna 1995 pro-
vide guidelines on how and where to preserve and extend greenspace in Vienna. Since
1995, the areas Bisamberg (275 ha.) and FlugIeld Aspern (35 ha.) in the north and the
Goldberg (270 ha.), a reIuge Ior endangered plant and animal species in the south oI
the city, have been preserved by designating them protected zones in the greenbelt`
in the community development plan/land use plan. Other green areas have been pro-
tected by their development as Iorests, or parks. However, the pressure to expand the
industrial and traIIic areas poses great challenges Ior the successIul protection oI the
greenbelt in Vienna, particularly in the south oI the city.
A new instrument, the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is being used to
take account oI environmental aspects in city planning. At present, an SEA is being
conducted Ior the area in the northeast oI Vienna, which is to be developed in the next
Iew years (www.wien.gv.at/stadtentwicklung/supernow). The Local Agenda 21 was
started as a platIorm Ior sustainable district development and citizen participation in
the Iields oI ecology, social aIIairs and economy. Within the Iramework oI the Local
204
Agenda 21, citizens also participate in the process oI developing green spaces in their
district (www.agenda21.or.at).
The Iirst steps to implement the nature conservation strategy Ior Vienna and the pro-
grammes Ior the conservation oI important species and their habitats have been taken
at district level (www.wien.gv.at/ma22/netzwerk.htm).
Several approaches aim at implementing ecological goals in agriculture. In the
municipal estates, 50 km. oI windbreak hedges, which reduce wind erosion and
provide habitats Ior many species, were planted. Farmers are encouraged to change
over to organic Iarming through the programme Eco-Iood`, which increases the use
oI organically-grown IoodstuIIs to 30° in the City`s institutions, such as kindergar-
tens, schools, hospitals and old people`s homes. The Contracted Nature Conservation
Programme, Biotope Farmland, rewards Iarmers Ior converting Iarmland into nature
conservation areas by applying appropriate management measures.
References :
Auböck, M. & Ruland, G., 1994. Grùn in Wien. Falter Verlag, Wien.
Brandenburg, C., Dirr, U., Linzer, H., MayerhoIer, R., Moser, F., Schacht, H., Voigt, A. &
WalchhoIer, H. P., 1994: Stadt-òkologische Funktionstvpen. Projektbericht, Wien.
Brunner, P. H., Daxbeck, H., Lampert, C., MorI, L., Obernosterer, R., Rechberger, H. &
Reiner, I., 1996. Der anthropogene Stoffhaushalt der Stadt Wien, Stoffbilan:en. Wiss.
Berichte, Wiener Internationale ZukunItskonIerenz, Bd. 14, Wien.
Erhart, E., Forster, A. & Hartl, W., 2002. Agriculture in Vienna - nutrient balances. pp. 157-
166 in: Magid, J., Granstedt, A., Dyrmundsson, O., Kahiluoto, H. & Ruissen, T. (eds.), Urban
areas - rural areas and recvcling - the organic wav forward? Proceedings NJF Seminar No.
327, Copenhagen.
Kellner, K., Pillmann, W., Sprinzl, G. & WeidenhoIer, R., 1999. BiotopMonitoring Wien.
Komplettdaten über die Vegetationsausstattung Wiens Ilächendeckende ErsterIassung aller
GrünIlächen im dichtverbauten und periurbanen Raum. Studie im AuItrag der MA22.
Kutzenberger, H., 1994. Naturschut:strategien fùr die Stadt: Teil I Eine Naturschutzstrategie
Iür die Stadt Wien. Teil II Konzept Iür ein Arten- und Lebensraumschutzprogramm Stadt
Wien. Studie im AuItrag der MA22.
Maier, R., Punz, W., DörIlinger, A., Eisinger, K., Fussenegger, K., Geisler, A. & GergelyIi,
H., 1997. Der natùrliche Stoffhaushalt als Grundlage einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung Wiens.
Verl. d. Zoologisch-Botanischen Ges. Österr., Wien.
Maurer, L., Meindl, P., Erhart, E., Forster, A., Hartl, W., Kienegger, M., Kromp, B., Weber, G.,
Auer, N., Meyer-Cech, K., Seher, W., Zeiner, S., Hüttler, W., Fischer-Kowalski, M., Nicolini,
M., Gindl, M., Krausmann, F., Blaas, W., & Stoiss, C., 2002. Optionen fùr die Entwicklung
von Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau in Wien. Studie im AuItrag von Bundesministerium Iür
WissenschaIt und Verkehr und MA22.
Punz, W., 1990. Die Biotopkartierung im bebauten Gebiet. pp. 164-166 in: BLUBB (Biotope
LandschaIten Utopien Bewußt Erleben), Ausstellung :ur Wiener Biotopkartierung 1990.
Katalog zur Ausstellung. PID Wien.
Sieber, J. & Ulbel, G., 1998: Geschùt:te Sàugetierarten (ohne Fledermàuse) in Wien.
Artenportraits. Studie im AuItrag der MA22.
205
206
15 - Warsaw
Ewa Kaliszuk
Faculty oI Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw Agricultural University
Poland
ewakaliszuk¸yahoo.com kaliszuk¸alpha.sggw.waw.pl
Introduction
The City oI Warsaw has approximately 1,707,400 inhabitants in a surIace area oI
516.7 km2 (www.warszawa.um.gov.pl). Warsaw is the largest city, the only one with
a population over one million inhabitants. II the Warsaw Agglomeration is imple-
mented, the population will reach 2,100,000 people. The current administrative struc-
ture oI Warsaw was established at the beginning oI 2003, when the city became an
association oI eighteen districts. Each district has limited independence and powers.
The City Council is a major legislative body that controls the spatial planning process
in the city.
Warsaw has a long tradition oI green structure planning that extends back to the
beginning oI the twentieth century. The diIIerent concepts with regard to greenspace
have emerged since then. Almost all oI them have inIluenced the contemporary green
structure oI Warsaw, which covers 36° oI the total city area (Table 1). The transIor-
mation oI the Polish political and economical situation since 1989 has made Warsaw
into a strongly developing city. As an consequence, the attractive green open spaces
1. The surIace area oI Warsaw was enlarged Iorm 494.3 km2 to 516.7 km2 in 2003 but no new sta-
tistical data have been published. Contemporary land use structure data are expected this year
Table 1. Type oI greenstructure oI Warsaw (Cele strategiczne.... 2002)
Type of greenstructure ha º
parks 2895 5.7
municipal parks 171 0.35
Iorest 3838 7.8
municipal Iorest 2716 5.5
residential greenspace 1772 3.5
allotment garden 1454 2.9
botanical garden & zoo 78 0.15
cemeteries 449 0.9
promenades & squares 175 0.35
greenery associated with transportation system 1200 2.4
other greenery 3278 6.75

Total 18026 36.3
Total area oI Warsaw 49428
1
100
206 207
State
The Vistula River is the
main element oI Warsaw`s
green structure. The
northern and southern
parts oI the river are quite
natural and present some
typical Ieatures oI a braid-
ed river like sandbars.
Both banks are covered in
part with riparian Iorest.
The Vistula has an unsym-
metrical valley consisting
oI a Iew terraces on the
western and eastern sides,
and existing systems oI
oxbow lakes, streams and
canals on the most recent
terraces that are also
emphasised by narrow
strips oI riparian Iorest and
bushes.
The edge oI the moraine
plateau is considered one
oI the most valuable ele-
ments oI the natural and
cultural landscape. Its
course is emphasised by
the natural and semi-natu-
ral vegetation communities
that Iorm a rather narrow
but almost continuous
structure to the inner city.
Its southern and northern
parts are connected with
large sections oI Iorest.
Both are protected because
oI their environmental
value.
108 objects - parks, gar-
dens and valuable waste
areas (mostly natural lakes
and their vicinities) and 27
allotment gardens.
Plans for develop-
ment
Some oI these ele-
ments are protected as
natural reserves or as
historical landscape
structures (sandbars,
oxbow lake, canals).
The Vistula valley has
been classiIied as the
European ecological
corridor in ECONET
PL and this decision
inIluences planning
provisions. But there
is still a Iight between
architects and ecolo-
gists about the Iuture
oI the Vistula River
banks, as to whether
they should be green or
built up.
Its provisions are
written in the Study
oI Conditions and
Directions oI Spatial
Planning. They both
regulate and protect the
natural geomorphologi-
cal Iorm and processes,
natural or semi-natural
vegetation, historical
objects and landscape
pattern, and aesthetic
values.
These objects are pro-
tected against any kind
oI inappropriate invest-
ment and changing
their size and status;
it is recommended
that allotment gardens
change their Iunction
into public green open
spaces.
Main natu-
ral green
structure
element
Rivers,
streams,

canals,

lakes
Warsaw
Escarpment
Green areas
Gren structure
pattern
208
have vanished, becoming locations Ior new investments. It these circumstances, the
question oI the role and value oI green structure becomes crucial.
1 How have natural and cultural features influenced the development of
green structure in the urban environment?
The green structure oI Warsaw today relies on natural and historical landscape ele-
ments. Although its dependence on natural structures is weakening as a result oI the
urbanisation processes, the land relieI and hydrological system still create a visible
pattern oI green areas. The River Vistula, the main green structure axis, provides
Warsaw some remnants oI elements oI the natural landscape such as the system
oI oxbow lakes and streams, and banks accompanied by riparian Iorest and dunes,
separated by peat swamps or small ponds (Figure 1). Another crucial element oI
the Warsaw landscape is the Warsaw Escarpment, the edge oI moraine plateau that
stretches through the city almost parallel to the Vistula. Its southern and northern parts
are connected to large stretches oI Iorest. Both are protected because oI their envi-
ronmental value. The northern one, the Kampinoski National Park (one oI the largest
Polish national parks, totalling 356.55 sq. km.) and the southern part, the Kabacki
Forest Nature Reserve, create the Iramework oI regional green structure. They are the
main sources oI alimentation Ior both biodiversity and air regeneration.
The Warsaw Escarpment was recognised as a crucial natural structure in the localisa-
tion oI signiIicant historical landmarks such as the Old Town with the royal castle
and magniIicent residential palaces, parks such as Lazienki, Natolinski or Ujazdowski
Parks and gardens such as the Botanical Garden.
The development oI Warsaw in the eighteenth century, known as the golden age of
citv planning and architecture (Kicinska, 1993) leIt the remnants oI two axes associ-
ated with green spaces that deIined the urban Iabric at that time. Warsaw`s invest-
ment in the nineteenth century in, Ior example, military IortiIications and railways,
has contributed to the development oI contemporary green structure and provides
important environmental services. Vast unbuilt areas have a positive inIluence on the
city`s ventilation and contribute signiIicantly to the overall hydrological balance, Ior
example, through ground water replenishment areas.
For the major part oI the twentieth century Warsaw was located on the western side
oI the moraine plateau, where the urbanisation processes gradually resulted in the
vanishing oI the natural landscape, as well as green structure. Only a Iew patches oI
Iorest, small lakes and streams or just their valleys, remain oI those previous land-
scapes. Now, the major spatial development oI Warsaw has taken place on the eastern
side, because almost every area oI land reserve to the southwest has been used. In
these circumstances, green open spaces without precisely deIined Iunctions became
the best source oI land Ior housing development in that part oI Warsaw.
Green open spaces cover 36.3° oI the total Warsaw area, according to an inventory
carried out in 1997 and updated in 2001. Table 1 presents the main types oI Warsaw
green structure. Three categories oI greenery dominate: Iorests, municipal and nation-
al, cover about 14° oI the surIace area; parks, both municipal as well as owned by
the districts, occupy 6° oI the city and a Iurther 6° has other greenspace without
being precisely deIined (Figure 1). The present green structure oI Warsaw, together
with agricultural land and open water, covers more then 50°. The built-up areas
occupy 28° and are continuing to rise. The most vulnerable land on which to build is
agricultural (about 29.9°) and such ground has vanished rapidly Irom Warsaw over
the last 12 years.
2 What are the benefits of Warsaw`s green structure for biodiversity and
the environment ?
Biodiversity
The Iirst comprehensive mapping oI the real vegetation communities oI Warsaw was
done at the beginning oI the 1980s and then updated in 1998 (Koz¸owska 1999). It has
become an important source oI inIormation Ior nature conservation and protection.
This database oIIers vast possibilities Ior the analysis needed Ior proper city nature
management, Ior example, the degree oI heterogeneity, the direction oI changes oI
communities because oI the eutrophication oI habitats (nitrophilous or calciophilous),
xerotrophication and still growing inIlux oI alien species. It enables the sequence oI
vegetation communities to be controlled, Irom the inner city, where they relate mostly
to land use type, to the Warsaw suburbs where the condition is still determined by the
natural vegetation pattern (Chojnacki 1991).
Besides vegetation surveys, research has been done on zoocenosis. The history oI
Iauna investigation within Warsaw and its vicinities dates back to the end oI the nine-
teenth century, when the surveys oI mammals and aviIauna were done (Luniak 1990
and 2001). The last Iorty years have produced the most intensive and detailed research
on this topic. The best inIormation has been gathered Ior aviIauna. In Warsaw, 247
species oI birds have been recorded (breeding birds and wintering birds are included)
since the mid-1980s, 187 oI them occurred regularly and 131 were regular breeders
(Luniak 2001). The total breeding population in 1990 was estimated at about 154,000-
352,000 pairs, or 300-700 pairs/km2 in the whole Warsaw area. Research carried out
Ior the inner city (52 km2) has shown substantial diIIerences between the number oI
pairs in summer and wintertime. It varied Irom 830-1,590 pairs/km2 in summer to
2,500-4,500 pairs/km2 in winter (Luniak, 2001).
Apart Irom the inventory, detailed research has been undertaken to examine the rela-
tionship between biotopes and existing species. As a result their reIuges have been
identiIied in central districts and in other valuable landscapes, such as the Warsaw
Escarpment or Czerniakowskie Lake (one oI the oxbow lakes). This inIormation is
209
211 210
particularly important Ior the species` survival. Only the protection oI habitats against
urban development can guarantee the existence oI endangered species.
Interesting investigations have also been carried out on other topics, Ior example, on
the behaviour oI butterIlies (Scarce Large Blue Maculinea teleius), rarely seen in
urban areas (Sielezniew and Stankiewicz, 2001), and on the diversity oI insect com-
munities in green areas (Chudzicka and Skibinska 2001). The result oI this research
has become the basis Ior protesting against the development oI a residential area (in
the Bielany district) on the two hectares oI meadows. This piece oI land is on the one
hand a habitat Ior a rare butterIly species, but on the other hand is seen as a priceless
site Ior development by architects and representatives oI local authorities.
Environmental services and management flows
The Vistula River is a major source oI drinking water supplied to inhabitants. 70°
oI the water demands oI Warsaw are provided directly Irom the Vistula (Krajobraz
Warszawski, 2001). Warsaw has also been tapping deep-well water Irom the Oligocene
Iormations Ior more than one hundred years. But the use oI this source is restricted
nowadays because oI a vast decline resulting Irom wasted use oI the Oligocene water
in the 1970s. A major threat concerning drinking water is its quality. Only one sewage
treatment plant
2
Ior eastern Warsaw and a lack oI sewage treatment, mainly in the
Warsaw periphery, have caused signiIicant pollution oI the ground as well as surIace
water.
One oI the key roles oI green space is to improve water circulation and its quality.
Green open spaces slow the water run-oII caused by the storm water drainage system
and contribute to groundwater recharge. There is no Iield research on this topic in
Warsaw, but some attempts have been made to describe and evaluate the condition Ior
hydrological processes (Kaliszuk, 2003). Results Irom this type oI research can make
a good basis Ior the identiIication oI those areas that are crucial to achieve a proper
hydrological balance.
The size and pattern oI green structure inIluences the urban climatic condition signiIi-
cantly. There have been a number oI studies on this topic in diIIerent areas within the
city. The mean air temperature in parks is lower by about 1.40C than in streets, while
the surIace temperature in parks with trees is lower by about 100C than on lawns and
about 120C lower than in granite squares (Czerwieniec and Lewinska, 1996). Thus,
green space minimises the negative phenomenon the heat island eIIect. Each green
open space, except the Iorest, plays a positive role in the ventilation oI Warsaw. Those
located on the outskirts enable wind to enter the city, whereas those which are in the
inner districts accelerate wind velocity (Kuchcik and Blazejczyk, 2001).
Apart Irom the results oI these Iield studies, Warsaw also has a database oI key cli-
matic elements developed in GIS (Kozlowska-Szczesna, Blazejczyk and Krawczyk,
1997).
2. Second sewerage treatment plant Ior western Warsaw is under construction
211
Figure 2. The urban-natural system oI Warsaw
Note: All maps in this paper are copyright oI the City oI Warsaw, Architects Department.
Provisions
This has been divided within the
Study oI Condition and Directions oI
Spatial Planning into Iour categories:
protected areas, recreational, recre-
ational and residential, and others.
Each oI them has their own provi-
sions, according to the particular
environmental, ecological, historical
and social value. The provisions are
written as prohibitions or recom-
mendations. Prohibitions relate to
this kind oI development, which can
cause a deterioration in environmen-
tal values; recommendations Iormu-
late the most appropriate proposal
Ior development oI the ecological
zone, with minimum impact on the
environment.
Its role is to maintain links between
the spread out green areas, or to act
as a buIIer zone oI the most natural
landscapes. Provisions written in the
Study oI Condition indicate green
belts with an established minimum
width (along streams, canals and
roads) and establish the percentage
oI greenery Ior each investment unit,
located in this zone to minimise the
negative inIluence on the valuable
remnants oI the natural landscape.
Its role is to protect areas which
create proper climatic conditions in
Warsaw. It partially covers the eco-
logical zones, mentioned above (Ior-
ests and parks), while wide waste-
land, railroads and highways create
major ventilation passageways.
Zones
Ecological
zone
Ecological
zone -
Auxiliary
system
Air
Ventilation
and
Regenera-
tion sys-
tem
Urban natural system
212
The role oI linear greenspace as an ecological corridor is also under discussion. There
is a lack oI data, but this is regarded as one oI the most important Iunctions oI green
areas (Szulczewska, 1996). The Vistula valley has been classiIied as the European
ecological corridor in the net called ECONET PL (Liro ed. 1995 and 1998). It is not
yet legally binding, so it does not strictly regulate planning decisions. Nevertheless
it is reIlected in almost every planning document and it inIluences planning deci-
sions.
3 How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning, design
and management processes ?
The main challenges for Warsaw`s green structure planning, development and
protection
The inIormation about Warsaw`s environment and ecology gathered during diIIer-
ent research programs should Iorm the basis Ior the development and conservation
oI green structure. There were some attempts to conduct scientiIic research with a
strong practical orientation, and to use them in the Bia¸o¸¸ka district (Szulczewska,
1996). They were Iundamental in the development oI land use, Ior example, by lay-
ing down the proportion oI green structure and housing areas, and they designated
areas Ior green open spaces as well as making recommendations on building design.
UnIortunately, they have never been used. Instead oI a good example oI city devel-
opment with strong environmental awareness, a new, very dense housing district is
being built.
The boom in regional spatial development oI Warsaw city started aIter the political
and economical changes oI the beginning oI the 1990s. To conserve the most valu-
able natural environment and areas crucial Ior proper living conditions in the city,
the urban natural system` concept was implemented in the Warsaw Master Plan oI
1992. Unpropitious administrative conditions (11 independent boroughs) and ineIIec-
tive provisions written Ior the urban natural system` could not preserve these areas.
Some oI them have been lost (Szulczewska and Kaliszuk, 2003). In the new admin-
istrative circumstances where Warsaw is now one community divided into eighteen
districts with limited competition Ior spatial development, the identiIication oI the
urban natural system` is still an important challenge Ior the development oI green
structure in the city. A new version oI the urban natural system` has been identiIied
in a planning document, The Study oI Conditions and Direction oI Spatial Planning,
at the beginning oI 2003. It regulates the pattern and Iunction oI green structure Ior
the whole city. Three key zones have been indicated: The Ecological Zone (Figure 2),
The Ecological Zone - Auxiliary System and The Air Ventilation and Regeneration
System.
The ecological zones are based around key structures within the Warsaw landscape,
such as the Vistula River valley with its remnant natural hydrological system associ-
212
ated with meadows and Iorest, other valuable green open space, Ior example, parks
and gardens, and the remnant natural Iorest located on Warsaw`s edges. Each area that
belongs to this zone has its own designated provisions, according to its ecological,
historical and social values. The provisions are written as prohibitions or recommen-
dations.
The main role oI the Ecological Zone - Auxiliary System is to keep the connection
between spread out green areas, or to be a buIIer zone oI the most natural landscapes
(Figure 2). The third zone, the Air Exchange and Regeneration System aims to protect
areas, creating appropriate climatic conditions in Warsaw.
Besides the provisions written Ior each ecological zone, a separate study is Iormulat-
ing groups oI prohibitions and recommendations Ior particular structural elements
oI the Warsaw landscape. These are green open spaces, the Warsaw Escarpment, the
sports and recreational system, and also a Ilood zone (Uchwala No. XXXVIII/492/
2001). The Iirst group oI provisions relates to 108 careIully deIined areas - parks,
gardens and valuable waste areas (mostly natural lakes and their vicinities), and 27
allotment gardens with a recommendation to change their Iunction into public green
open spaces. These areas are protected against any kind oI inappropriate investment
and change to their size and status.
Apart Irom the Study oI Conditions and Direction oI Spatial Planning, other docu-
ments, related directly to green structure development, are being developed by the
City Council. The latest one is the Strategic Programme Ior Warsaw Green Open
Space Development. It was preceded by the Programme Ior the Protection and
Development oI Green Areas (Lisicki, 1996). The green structure inventory Ior the
whole oI Warsaw was undertaken then. The GIS database provides detailed inIorma-
tion about each green structure element, on what is crucial Ior its protection, conser-
vation and management. The City Council has recently managed to restore one oI the
most important parts oI Warsaw green structure - Ujazdowski Park.
Separate regulations relating to development and management have been written
Ior legally protected areas, nature reserves (eleven indicated up to now), historic
parks and gardens, and Ilood plain areas within Ilood embankments. Each oI them
has appropriate legally binding acts, which are the basis Ior developing the protec-
tion plan. The Nature Protection Act oI 1991 reIers to nature reserves, the Culture
Heritage Protection Act to historic parks and gardens, and the Water Law Act oI 2001
to the Vistula Ilood plain areas within Ilood embankments.
4 Conclusion
The delineation oI the urban natural system in the Study oI the Conditions and
Direction oI Spatial Planning should be considered an achievement and an oppor-
tunity. The provisions detailed Ior these areas give guidelines Ior their development
or even Ior their protection against any changes oI Iunction. However, the same plan
213
generates threats in the light oI green structure planning. Green areas, missed in the
study because oI too general a scale or inappropriate methods oI the system oI iden-
tiIication, may be lost.
The study details only general rules oI the city`s green structure development. It
is up to the planners how the rules should be applied in detailed land use plans and
interpreted Ior a particular part oI the urban natural system. A broad interpretation oI
the provisions, written as prohibitions or recommendation, bears unexpected Iruits,
mostly negative ones - sometimes green rooIs are considered as greenspace, where
the provisions dedicate a certain minimum percentage Ior such areas. As a result,
instead oI greenery associated with residential areas, densely built-up blocks some-
times appear with green rooIs.
References :
Cele strategiczne w zakresie ochrony srodowiska dla miasta Warszawy, 2002. Biuro Zarzadu
Miasta Stolecznego Warszawy. Warszawa.
Chojnacki, J., 1991. Zroznicowanie przestrzenne roslinnosci Warszawy. Wydawnictwa UW,
Warszawa.
Chudzicka, E. and Skibinska, E,. 2001. Alpha and beta diversity oI insect communities in the
greenery oI Warsaw |in| Indykiewicz, P., Barczak, T. and Kaczorowski, G. (ed.) Bioroznorodnosc
i ekologia populacji zwierzecych w srodowiskach zurbanizowanych, Wyd. NICE, Bydgoszcz,
pp.17-28.
Czerwieniec, M. and Lewinska, J.,1996. Zielen w miescie, IGPiK, Warszawa, p. 82.
Kaliszuk, E. (2003) Metody indentyIikacji i oceny systemu przyrodniczego miasta na
przykladzie Warszawy, Rozprawa doktorska wykonana pod kierunkiem proI. dr hab. Czeslawa
Wysockiego, SGGW, Warszawa, 144p. (manuscript).
Kicinska, E.,1993. Cultural landscape oI Warsaw Escarpment Dominant Macro Spatial
Complexes, Research Documents and Conclusions, Landscapes No. 12, The Board Ior the
Preservation oI Historic Gardens and Palaces.
Kozlowska, A.,1999. Roslinnosc rzeczywista Warszawy, niepublikowane materialy Biura
Zarzadu m.st. Warszawy, Warszawa.
Kozlowska-Szczesna T., Blazejczyk, K. and Krawczyk, B., 1997. Bioklimatologia cz¸owieka
metody i ich zastosowanie w badaniach bioklimatu Polski, MonograIie IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa,
p. 199.
Krajobraz Warszawski on the New Spatial Policy, 2001. Urban Planning Architectural
Magazine, The Department oI Spatial and Architectural oI Warsaw City Hall, No.52a, Warsaw.
Liro, A. ed., 1995. Koncepcja krajowej sieci ekologicznej ECONET-Polska. Fundacja IUCN
Poland. Warszawa.
Liro, A. ed., 1998. Strategia wdrazania krajowej sieci ekologicznej ECONET-Polska. Fundacja
IUCN Poland. Warszawa.
Lisicki, P. ,1996. Program Ochrony i Rozwoju Terenow Zieleni w Warszawie, Biuro Zarzadu
m.st. Warszawy, Wydzial Zagospodarowania Przestrzennego, Warszawa.
Luniak, M. and Nowicki, W., 2001. AviIauna oI Warsaw 1962-2000 synopsis oI the inventory
|in| Indykiewicz, P., Barczak, T. and Kaczorowski, G. (ed.) Bioroznorodnosc i ekologia popu-
lacji zwierzecych w srodowiskach zurbanizowanych, Wyd. NICE, Bydgoszcz, pp. 179-183.
214
Luniak, M., 1990. AwiIauna miasta jej sklad, zroznicowanie oraz udzial w procesach ekolog-
icznych, |w| Funkcjonowanie ukladow ekologicznych w warunkach zurbanizowanych, no. 58,
209-229, SGGW-AR, Warszawa.
Sielezniew, M. and Stankiewicz, A. M., 2001. Wystepowanie i ekologia modraszka telejusa,
Maculinea teleius Bgstr. (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) w Warszawie |in| Indykiewicz P., Barczak
T. and Kaczorowski G. (ed.) Bioroznorodnosc i ekologia populacji zwierzecych w srodowiskach
zurbanizowanych, Wyd. NICE, Bydgoszcz, pp. 77-81.
Szulczewska, B., Kaliszuk, E., 2003, Challenges in the Planning and Management oI Green
structure` in Warsaw, Poland, Built Environment, Vol. 29, No. 2, Alexandrine Press, pp. 144-
156.
Szulczewska, B., KaItan, J., 1996. Ksztartowanie Systemu Przyrodniczego Miasta. IGPiK,
Warszawa.
Uchwala Nr XXXVIII/492/2001 Rady Miasta Stolecznego Warszawy z dnia 9 lipca 2001 w
sprawie przyjecia planu zagospodarowania m.st. Warszawy i zatwierdzenia ustalen wiazacych
gminy warszawskie przy sporzadzaniu miejscowych planow zagospodarowania przestrzennego,
Mazow.01.165.2515.
215
216 217
greenway in Hannover, Bielany Forest in Warsaw, users oI green environment in the cities oI
Marseilles and Munich, 'Castel Guido¨ organic Iarm in Rome, Park 'Monceau¨ in Paris,
216 217

CHAPTER 4
Human issues
Members of Working group 1B .
Kristina Björnberg (co-chair), Bernard Duhem, 1ean-Marie Halleux,
Philippe Hanocq, Karsten 1orgensen, Kimmo Lapintie, Gunilla
Lindholm (co-chair), Lucia Martincigh, Giovanni Scudo, Alexander
St‹hle, Klaus Wagner, Kestutis Zaleckis.
218 219
Human issues, introduction to thematic papers
Gunilla Lindholm
Landscape Architect, DrAgr
Department oI Landscape Planning, Swedish University oI Agricultural Sciences,
Alnarp , Sweden gunilla.lindholm¸lpal.slu.se
In everyday language there is not always made a diIIerence between 'green structure¨
and 'nature¨. This kind oI mixing meanings complicates communication, even when
'natural qualities¨ oI the green structure are most important, which oIten is the case.
'Green structures¨ are Irom one perspective a matrix, developing during ages through
diIIerent land use and urban projects, Irom another perspective a part oI the urban
constructions. What was earlier a Iree growing edge oI a Iarmland, could 50 years later
be a Iramework, combined with gardens and play areas, to a residential area as a part
oI urban green structure.
What is here in short called 'human issues¨ (concerning green structure in urban
planning) includes a wide range oI scientifc and proIessional perspectives, each
and together more or less necessary to understand the scope oI 'Green Structure and
Urban Planning¨. The Iollowing papers are to be seen as examples oI some oI these
perspectives. They diIIer in purpose, method, contents and kind oI results and show
thereby the diIIerent approaches and competence available in the group. The intention
with presenting these examples is not to analyse and separate 'the knowledge on
human issues concerning green structure¨ into completing sectors together Iorming
'the whole¨. Rather, the examples show a Iew oI the islands in a large archipelago oI
relevant knowledge, examples Irom which you can get an impression oI the width and
the variation within this archipelago.
While the WG 'Ecological issues¨ presents results Irom studies with mainly natural
scientifc methods, the WG 'Human issues¨ has a more inclusive approach. Even
including natural science, the 'human angle¨ adds the task to understand this kind oI
thinking, in comparison with research within the social sciences and the humanities.
Also added is the kind oI proIessional thinking and experience-based know-how,
which in practical planning works as a kind oI flter Ior scientifc and ideological input.
The working-group has mainly consisted oI researchers Irom proIessions-oriented
academic environments, i. e. the members have experience Irom two positions,
the discipline-oriented researcher`s and the holistic problem- oriented planning
proIessional`s. The diIIerent theoretic and methodological approaches shown in the
papers, give together an impression oI the necessity oI 'mental mobility¨, an ability to
218 219
change and move between viewpoints and scales, which is characteristic Ior the scope
oI 'Green Structure and Urban Planning¨. The 'human issues¨ includes both the
reasons on an everyday level (How is green structure benefciary Ior human beings,
especially urban citizens?) and on a philosophical level (How do we understand green
structure and why?)
In this overview the choice has been to make short presentations oI the Iollowing
papers, concluding methods and results. As a guideline, each author`s feld oI
research or proIessional occupation is added in brackets. Again, these are examples oI
approaches contributing to development oI the concept 'Green Structure and Urban
Planning¨ to whom could be added several others, e. g. Irom sociology, ethnology and
human geography, to mention some traditional felds oI research, but also the coming
networks Ior 'urban studies¨, mostly cross disciplinary, all relevant areas potentially
paying attention to urban green structure. However, there is a substantial gap between
the large amount oI research felds regarding 'human issues¨ and the very small
amount oI scholars actually taking the step to relate these felds oI knowledge to the
environmental tasks, including planning the development oI cities.
The similarities and discrepancies between the regions and countries in Europe are not
explicitly discussed in the papers. To some extent though, they have been mentioned
during the working groups work. A signifcant example oI diIIerent benefts oI green
structure is the role oI thermal comIort (see Scudo). In the northern countries hedges
and tree rows are oIten used as wind shelter, while in the southern parts oI Europe,
the shadowing Iunction may be the most important. Also diIIerences between various
cultures, according to land owning and land use, recreational habits (see Werquin)
and use oI public space have been discussed as well as diIIerences between urban and
rural citizens, 'indigenous¨ people and immigrants and not the least, contextual socio-
economic structures.

Presentation of following papers
The urban green structure mirrors the relationship between man and nature, in history
and contemporary. While urban citizens up until the 19:th century enjoyed refned and
cultivated pieces oI 'domestic¨ nature within the towns, a great change in attitude
took place in the 20:th century. For several more or less integrated reasons (leisure
time, tourism, environmental consciousness, urban migration, Iunctionalism) the
dominating attitude changed into Iavouring 'the natural¨. Karsten Jorgensen outlines,
in his paper 'The Origins of Urban Green Structures`, historical roots oI to-days
ideas oI 'green structure¨; public parks, park ways and park systems, nature in cities,
garden cities and green belts, being earlier concepts, brought together in 'green
planning¨ Irom the 1960:ies, later supported by motives Irom landscape ecology and
the international directives Ior biological diversity. (Garden history)
In his paper 'The Bird and the Beast¨, Kimmo Lapintie addresses the conceptual,
220
221
philosophical Irameworks used in both planning and planning research. He point out
that behind the common dichotomies (red/green, man-made/natural, etc.) there is a
more Iundamental dualism between rationality and unreason (metaphorically 'the
bird and the beast¨) oIten neglected in planning discourse, although it is the very
basis Ior the legitimacy oI planning. He maintains that the dimension oI unreason,
the unmanageable and the uncontrollable in urban development, should be accepted,
since no policies or communicative practices can be supposed to bridge the gap
between reason and unreason. (Urban planning, Philosophy)
The ambition to reach general knowledge oI environmental preIerences and ideals
is in this material handled in diIIerent ways. While Patrik Grahn et al in 'Healthv
environments` have used large statistic materials to learn how the use oI parks is
aIIected Irom the Iorm and contents oI them, and also linked medical statistics to
peoples actual distance Irom home to nearest green area, Kestutis Zaleckis has used
quite another approach in 'The role of the green-structure in creation of preferred
environment`. By discriminating between 'green spaces¨ and 'green structure¨
he describes the structuring activity as the very possibility to create preIerred
environments, meaning that the characteristics oI preIerred environments cannot
be achieved by single objects but by the linking oI parts Iorming the environments
strived Ior. (Landscape architecture)
Related to the use oI green space Ior recreation, Ann-Caroll Werquin has collected
several studies and datas about Marseilles. Only a brieI summary oI this paper is in
this book, showing how practises have changed in the last decades, and how mobility
Iacilities allow people to use a large variety oI spaces in the whole city region. Still,
green areas are expected near to home: 'Even iI we do not use them, we want them to
be there.¨ (Urban planning)
The environment`s physical infuence on the human body is one oI the issues studied
to grasp the importance oI climate control, by vegetation or by built constructions.
Gianni Scudo present in 'Thermal comfort¨ one in urban planning oIten Iorgotten
variable and 'thermal comIort indexes¨ as a Ior green structuring purposes important
feld oI research. (Architecture)
Environmental preIerences can be measured as the willingness to pay Ior a real estate
or residential area. Jean-Marie Halleux shows in Valuing the green structure the
possibilities with 'The Hedonic Price Method`, a way to use economic valuation
oI environmental qualities. The paper categorizes two scale analyses: the residential
property scale and the neighbourhood scale. At the neighbourhood scale, green
equipments are related to both, aesthetic and recreational benefts. The paper also
tackles the context issue, the cultural preIerences issue and the importance oI design.
(Economic geography)
Klaus Wagner presents a study Irom Austria, 'Qualities of agricultural land`,
220
221
exploring potential possibilities within evaluating and combining the possible
Iunctions oI agricultural land, especially in and near urban areas. The six studied
Iunctions are production, recreation, habitats, resource protection, hazard damage
protection, and spatial structuring. (Land use planning)
In 'The greenerv in some French new towns`, by Bernard Duhem and Ann-Caroll
Werquin, is evaluated the experiences Irom a period when green structure was a main
topic as never else in France (a Iact that coincide with most countries in Europe, ed.
com.). Globally seen, the new town concept has been heavily criticized. However,
it could be important to learn Irom this very spread and comparable experiments.
Especially concerning green space adjacent to home environments, as well as green
structure as a base Ior urban development (together with traIfc and service structure),
the new towns own qualities oIten unIair Iorgotten, due to Irequent social problems in
these areas. (Urban planning)
The values oI urban green space is oIten hard to point out in an adequate way Ior
urban planning purposes. Alexander St‹hle has been part oI a pioneer project in
Stockholm, Sweden, where large inventories and inquiries has been the Ioundation oI
a 'Sociotop map`, used Ior describing the user values in a spatial Iorm. In the same
way as diIIerent biotopes are mapped Ior nature conservation purposes, the human use
oI public space is mapped as a tool Ior urban planners to consider this use as values in
the urban environment. (Landscape planning)
The Iunction oI green structure to promote sustainable mobility, is explored by Lucia
Martincigh in 'A green-network. The integration of the green structure and the non
motori:ed transport modesŁ network.` The paper concludes some general guidelines,
useIul to accomplish links and synergy eIIects by combining and integrating
pedestrian network and green structure. This ambition demands accuracy in studying
the local situations, understanding the advantages as well as the hindrances Ior this
integration. To increase pedestrian mobility it is necessary with networks that are both
comIortable and enjoyable.
Finally, Philippe Hanocq`s paper 'Practices in planning and design of urban green
areas (Belgium)` contributes with outlining the proIessional/social situations where
the discussion about alternative developments take place. II the above presentations
are examples oI various R&D works, Hanoque gives examples oI projects in diIIerent
scale, showing the width within what is counted as relevant Iacts and relevant values,
depending on scale level and type oI project: (1) Implementation oI green areas
through strategic planning at the global city scale; (2) A development project Ior a
brand new neighbourhood based on the creation oI a structuring green area; and (3)
The design oI a development project in an existing green area. The cases presented are
processed in Belgian context, oIIering opportunities Ior comparing with the situation
and proIessional habits in other countries. (Landscape Architecture/Urban Planning)
222 223
Reñection: Professional know-how versus scientiüc results - are
they compatible?
'Human issues¨ are, compared with 'ecological issues¨, rich in experience Irom
hundreds oI years oI gardening as well as landscape planning Ior various human
purposes. At the same time, the feld is somewhat starving oI inputs Irom the scientifc
world, a Iact that complicates a general discussion on 'Green Structure and Urban
Planning¨, regardless oI local context, history and economy. Still, as the work in this
Action has shown, there are many common aspects and themes, IruitIul to discuss
in international groups like this. One conclusion could be that it is important, in this
situation, to point out the signifcance oI the overview on a meta level, legitimating
an input oI Ethics and Rhetoric, to sort out the interesting similarities as well as
discrepancies, concerning views and perspectives on green structure. This concerns
not least the problem with a just consideration oI arguments based on humanistic
knowledge, compared to those based on natural scientifc knowledge. This
consideration could never be anything else than a 'human issue¨.
222 223
The history of urban green structures
Karsten 1orgensen
Department oI Land Use and Landscape Planning Agricultural University oI Norway
karsten.jorgensen¸ilp.nlh.no
Introduction
Urban green structures have developed as an integrated concept in urban planning
during the last Iew decades in Europe. Today this concept has the potential oI
becoming a general and legitimate part oI all urban planning. This is a relatively recent
phenomenon, it is thereIore oI interest to review its historical roots. As a background
Ior analysis oI Iuture potentials oI urban greenstructure, it is important to know where
the ideas come Irom, and what lessons can be learnt Irom the earlier phases oI this
development.
The history oI urban green structures is related to the history oI garden art, and
especially to the development oI public parks in the 19th century. The public parks
came, at least partially, as a reaction to the general urbanization and the poor living
conditions resulting Irom this. The public parks were regarded as important Iactors
both Ior public hygiene and Ior general moral, and 'nature¨ was regarded as central in
both cases. Today the urban greenstructures are valued both Ior their social, spatial and
technical importance, but Irom a diIIerent point oI view: they are important ecological
Iactors; they are important Ior natural biotopes in the city. The concept oI nature, and
the ideas about its infuence on people, has undergone a similar development, Irom a
romantic, anthropomorphic, aesthetic view oI nature to a biocentric, ecological view.
In this paper, I will look at the development oI the urban green structures Irom this
point oI view, and as a conclusion I will discuss some oI the main ideological Ieatures
oI the early development, that may still be oI some relevance today. It is obvious that
the way urban green structures are regarded in society, is closely related to the concept
oI nature, or, more precisely, to the general attitude towards nature.
The rise of public parks
The history oI garden art is generally a history oI private gardens until the late 18th
century, when the idea oI the public park is born
1
. The earliest theoretical work in
which the public park ('Jolksgarten¨) is described and defned, is 'Theorie der
Gartenkunst¨, published 1779 1785 by Christian Cay HirschIeld, a Danish-
German proIessor oI Philosophy at the University oI Kiel
2
. His work was
224 225
infuential and taken up by many who were closer to the practice oI planning
urban green during the Iollowing decades. He obviously also hit the ':eitgeist¨
quite well with his theories. This is illustrated by the development that Iollowed:
during the 19th century, public parks were built in virtually all major cities, not
only on Europe, but also in America, and even a Iew in Japan
3
. Also other
public arenas like newspapers and public organizations were developed during
this period, and the message Irom the French revolution in 1779 'Ireedom,
equality and brotherhood¨ challenged the ruling classes throughout Europe,
and enhanced the development towards more public parks, although not in
France in the frst place. The defnitions oI a public park are many, here is the
Iunctional aspect emphasized: a public park is open to the general public and
designed to meet their social needs and accommodate Ior their outdoor activities.
HirschIeld describes the public park in his book, and develops a program Ior
its contents. He Iocuses on its potential value Ior the general well-being and
education oI the people. The recreational purposes are emphasized and the
eIIects upon the working population oI nature and oI escaping the stressIul
urban environments are described as being oI great importance. He goes on
to describe the social values oI a public garden: 'The different classes will,
bv here getting closer to each other, on the one hand obtain a more respectful
and modest attitude to each other, and on the other hand more friendliness and
explicit kindness to each other. Evervone will here get their unhindered right to
enfov the nature.¨ He goes on to describe the need Ior a certain type oI artworks in
the public parks: 'Buildings with pictures Irom the history oI the nation, statues
oI dead heroes, and memorials oI important deeds with instructive inscriptions
can be elegantly established in appropriate places with very Iavorable eIIects.¨
What is important here is not the description oI the physical lay-out oI the
park, which more or less Iollowed the predominant romantic landscape style,
but the explicit social and educational intentions behind the 'Volksgarten¨ or
the public park. HirschIeld states that all cities should have parks like this
in order to educate the general public to value the nature as well as national
heroes and their Iellow citizens, also when they belong to a diIIerent social
class. And that 'nature¨ plays an important role in this educational project.
Public parks in Europe
In Germany, The Englische Garten in Munich is among the earliest public parks in
this sense oI the word. It was commissioned by the rather unpopular Elector Carl
Theodor in 1789 to reduce the dissatisIaction among people, probably as a direct
result oI the French Revolution, and in any case inspired by HirschIelds work. The
designer was Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell, who was one oI the most infuential
224 225
landscape gardeners oI the time. The park is built on Iormer military grounds and
covers a large proportion oI central Munich. The style is, as the name says, the English
landscape style, and there are many reIerences to HirschIeld`s recommendations in
the design. Also Peter Joseph Lenne picked up these ideas and reIerred to HirschIeld
in his text: 'Uber die anlage einesVolksgarten bei der Stadt Magdeburg¨ aIter having
designed the Klosterbergegarten, also one oI the earliest public gardens in Germany
oI some size. The ideas were taken Iurther by Gustav Meyer, Lenne`s pupil and
later partner at the 'Preussische Gartenlàhranstalt¨ established by Lenne in 1826.
Meyer also designed the Humboldthain and Treptower Park in Berlin around 1870.
The English landscape style garden emerging in the early 18th century was in the
frst place related to the phase oI Enlightenment; the irregularity was to refect the
principles oI enlightened tolerance
4
. When the public parks were developed in the
19th century they were built in a similar style. The landscape style was intended to
have the Iavorable eIIects that the people who strolled around in these close to nature-
like surroundings, interspersed with monuments oI diIIerent kinds, would experience
themselves as liberated and independent members oI civilized humanity etc. With
inspiration Irom Rousseau`s nature romanticism, eIIects related to public health and
moral was added to the intentions oI the public parks.
Public parks generally were developed as a reaction to urbanization. Especially in
England the industrialization had led to a drastic reduction oI living conditions in
cities. High disease and death rates Iorced through political reIorms, and in 1833 the
Select Committee on Public Walks was established, in order 'to consider the best
means oI securing Open Spaces in the vicinity oI populous towns as Public Walks and
Places oI Exercise, calculated to promote the Health and ComIort oI the Inhabitants¨.
The committee concluded the same year in a report to the Parliament that there was a
great need Ior public parks where the workers could walk with their Iamilies on their
Iree day, in order to improve their health
5
. The landscape gardener and horticultural
writer John Claudius Loudon became the major advocate Ior public gardens early in
the 19th century in England, e.g. in his 'Encyclopedia oI Gardening¨ Irom 1822 and
in several other publications. Like HirschIeld, he was engaged in the public parks`
infuence on public hygiene and moral, but he also had an even greater vision: In
1829 he published 'Hints on Breathing Places for the Metropolis, and for Countrv
Towns and Jillages, on hxed Principles¨ which was no less than a green belt plan Ior
London, introducing 'breathing zones¨ Ior the metropolitan area
6
. This early attempt
to incorporate the public park idea into a greater vision oI the urban development
was never realized, but may have acted as an inspiration Ior next major step in this
development. II we regard HirschIeld`s theory and the frst generation oI 'Jolksgàrten¨
as the frst step, the second came with Frederick Law Olmsted`s planning oI systems
oI interrelated parks in North America.
226 227
The development towards park systems
In England and elsewhere in Europe, the development oI public parks continued
throughout the 19th century. In Paris some parks belonging to the aristocracy beIore
the revolution were turned into public parks aIter 1789. With the mid 19th century
plans oI Baron Haussmann (1809-1891) together with landscape architect J.P.Barillet-
Deschamps (1824-73) and the engineer J.C.A. Alphand (1817-1891), parks like Bois
de Boulogne, Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, Parc Monceau and Parc Montsouris became
important elements in the modernization oI the city, together with the so-called
'Boulevards¨ broad streets with extensive plantings oI trees
7
. A major contribution
in England was Joseph Paxton`s Birkenhead Park in Liverpool, developed in 1843-47
by the municipality oI Liverpool, as a direct result oI the Select Committee`s work.
Frederick Law Olmsted was a young American, with a background as a journalist
and 'scientifc Iarmer¨ in New York, employing principles published by Loudon in
his 'Gardeners Magazine¨ and other journals. Olmsted gave up scientifc Iarming
and traveled to Europe in 1850. There he arrived in Liverpool, and immediately
became Iascinated with the recently opened Birkenhead Park, and especially its
social implications: 'The poorest British peasant is as free to enfov it ...as the British
Queen.¨, he wrote later. From 1855 to 1857 he was editor oI a journal oI literature and
political commentary. He spent six months oI this time living in Europe visiting many
public parks
8
. In his writing he strongly argued Ior the value oI such parks close to the
city, so that citizens could easily enjoy the green areas, lawns, trees, light and shade,
shut out Irom the city, even when being almost in the city centre.
Olmsted and the American ÐRctmyc{uÑ
In 1858 Olmsted won the competition Ior the design oI Central Park together with
Calvert Vaux. The development oI Central Park was a major breakthrough Ior
the development oI public parks, not only in America, but also worldwide. It was
immediately reIerred to by major writers on public parks
9
. The development oI park
systems built in cities like New York, Boston and Chicago, put America up Iront as
the main reIerence in the development oI public parks
10
. A new development was
the separation oI diIIerent types oI traIfc; in Central Park this is done by separating
the pedestrian Irom the commercial traIfc vertically, using the so-called 'arches¨;
bridges or tunnels that enabled people to walk through the park without having to
cross a carriageway in the same level. Olmsted and Vaux designed many more public
parks, and in 1868 they were asked to make a park design Ior BuIIalo. Olmsted was
shown three alternative sites, and he suggested that the city bought all three, and said
he would design a system oI parks and interconnecting 'parkways¨. These parkways
were defned by Olmsted as 'broad thoroughfares planted with trees and designed
with special reference to recreation as well as for common trafhc,¨
11
and acted as
extensions oI the park experience. Up to 70 meters in width, the parkways were much
broader than the normal streets oI the city and provided separate lanes Ior diIIerent
226 227
types and directions oI traIfc. Areas oI turI planted with rows oI overarching elms
created park-like environments. Spacious circles marked junctures where parkways
came together or where they encountered major city streets. Olmsted and Vaux
reIerred to the Paris Boulevards developed under Haussmann, and they also visited
Paris and met with Alphand, while working with the BuIIalo project
12
. In 1870 he
wrote what may be considered as a program Ior green structure planning:
'the dutv of arranging new trunk routes of communication between it and the distant
parts of the town existing and forecasted. These mav be either narrow informal
elongations of the park, varving sav from two to hve hundred feet in width, and
radiating irregularlv from it, or . . . formal parkwavs. Thev should be so planned and
constructed as never to be noisv and seldom crowded. If possible, also, thev should
be branched or reticulated with other wavs of a similar class, so that no part of the
town should hnallv be manv minutes walk from some one of them, and thev should
be made interesting bv a process of planting and decoration, so that in necessarilv
passing through them, whether in going to or from the park, or to and from business,
some substantial recreative advantage mav be incidentallv gained`
13

Nature in cities
Parallel with the BuIIalo project, Olmsted and Vaux also designed the Riverside Estate
in Illinois, demonstrating the emphasis they put on the private green as being a part oI
the total green structure. The Riverside is a community oI single-Iamily housing with
big gardens; roads and housing areas laid out according to the terrain. There are no
right angle road crossings, a design principle creating more public land, and 'private
land with a public Iunction: as transition area between private and public¨. At the same
time Olmsted and Vaux worked on the plan Ior the Niagara Falls State Reserve, where
they not only preserved the natural qualities oI the site, but also removed a Iactory and
an amusement park and restored the natural scene. Later Olmsted designed the Emerald
Necklace, a park system Ior Boston. Throughout his career Olmsted points towards
Iuture green structure planning; he was engaged in the Conservation Movement
14
and
the development oI the National Parks, as well as with the City BeautiIul Movement
15
,
that actually based much oI its ideology on Olmsted`s work.
Garden cities and green belts
The Englishman Ebenezer Howard had studied Olmsted`s projects like the Riverside
Estate and the Boston park system. He was skeptical to the speculation in properties he
saw in these areas, but also very inspired by their green values. He had also studied the
social experiments oI Robert Owen in New Lanark, Scotland, and the garden village
oI George Cadbury
16
near Birmingham, and when he put together these experiences
he wrote the book 'Garden Cities of Tomorrow¨
17
Howard`s theory prescribes a
certain maximum size oI the garden cities, in case a city grows beyond this size, there
228 229
should be 'satellite¨ towns¨ around the 'mother city¨, and around each city there
should be a green belt, in order to contain the city growth as well as providing a green
environment Ior the city. Several 'garden cities¨ were built in England and elsewhere
with reIerence to this theory. In the second halI oI the 20th century Howard`s theory
was accomplished to a higher degree, Iollowing Patrick Abercrombie`s 'Greater
London Plan oI 1944
18
.
The concept oI nature that is being demonstrated in the green belt philosophy is more
Iunctional and technical than earlier ideas about nature`s good infuence. Nature is
related to specifc roles or Iunctions in the city. Green belt philosophy is quite close
to green structure philosophy in this respect; it is the operational values oI green
areas that are in Iocus. The Iunctional view is also expressed by other pioneers
in urban planning, like Camillo Sitte, who published 'Der Stàdtebau nach seinen
kùnstlerischen Grundsàt:en¨ (City Planning According to Its Artistic Principles) in
1889. Here he distinguishes between two Iunctions oI city green: the 'decorative¨
and the 'hygienic¨
19
. Also Patrick Geddes engaged in the green and sustainable
development oI cities, he proposed among other things a park system Ior DunIermline
in 1904. He was also among the frst to take the proIessional title oI landscape
architecture in Europe.
The infuence oI green belts and garden city planning had many interesting results
around the globe, and in general they made people`s environment greener and more
interesting. One such example is the park development in Stockholm during the
1940ies and 50ies. Holger Blom, who took over as head gardener in Stockholm in
1938, developed what he called a 'Park Program¨, inspired by both the Olmsted
heritage and Le Corbusier`s 'park in city¨. The 'Park Program¨ defned the parks
as crucial urban elements, both Ior their climatic eIIects, their Iunctional and social
values, and their roles in preservation oI cultural and natural monuments. He
introduced the so-called 'play-sculptures¨ and the results oI this period have become
Iamous as the 'Stockholm style¨. In Copenhagen the 'Finger Plan¨ ensured access
to green areas throughout the city. Similarly, the 1934 the plan Ior the Oslo-region
put down principles Ior a network oI green corridors that have had strong impacts on
planning up till today.
Third and fourth generations of public parks
In the early 20th century athletic competition was taken up by the worker`s unions
and organized sport was turned into a mass culture. Sports grounds and stadiums oI
diIIerent kinds became integrated parts oI most public parks built during the frst halI
oI the 20th century, and in some cases even the main content. Famous examples are
Stadtpark Hamburg Irom 1910 and Bos Park in Amsterdam Irom 1934. In Oslo, the
'Jigelandsparken¨, mainly a sculpture garden, built in the 1920ies and 30ies, also
contains several sports grounds and swimming pools. Another major green area in
Oslo, the Ekebergåsen, purchased by the municipality in the 1890ies to meet the needs
228 229
oI the growing population oI workers, is still today the arena oI the Norway Cup, the
world`s biggest Iootball tournament. This phenomenon seems to be consistent enough
to be named the 'third generation¨ oI public parks, Iollowing the two mentioned
earlier in this paper.
A Iourth type has emerged during the last Iew decades, where the Iocus is put on
cultural or natural monuments, either historical or contemporary. This new type has
sometimes been developed in connection with garden Iairs or Olympics etc, like
the park system oI Barcelona, Iollowing the 1992 Olympic Games. In other cases
it is based on an increased Iocus on management oI cultural monuments. The most
prominent examples oI this new type oI parks are the so-called 'ecological parks¨ like
the Naturpark Südgelände in Berlin and the Duisberg Süd development in Germany
built in Iormer industrial zones, where some oI the rusting machines and buildings are
silent witnesses oI Iormer activity. The contrasts created by the natural or sometimes
more pastoral scenes Iramed by industrial relics are striking, and contains the
underlying message that 'nature heals the wounds oI civilization¨, maybe creating
some kind oI hope Ior a more ecological balanced urban liIe.
Green structure and urban planning
The Greenbelt and Public Park developments created a good basis Ior a more
comprehensive green planning, and in the 1960ies the frst attempts oI a 'green
plan¨ were made, e.g. in the 'Grùnplanung Darmstadt¨ by Günter Grzimek
20
. In
the 1980ies and 90ies we have seen new attempts in urban planning where ecology
was taken more explicitly into account, e.g. Iocusing on biotopes and corridors Ior
the movement oI Iauna and fora in the city, as well as on participation planning.
Another idea was the use oI the concept oI 'balancing interventions¨ to ensure a
more ecologically sound development. In Berlin the 'Grünordnungsplan¨ states that
interventions that harm areas with a high ecological value, like a green garden or a
lake, should be avoided. In cases where they have to be implemented, they should
be 'balanced¨ with a replacement oI the harmed area.
21
These ideas are related to
the concept oI 'ecological Iootprint¨, which Iocuses on the total impact oI human
activities, measured by the quantity oI 'natural area¨ needed to 'neutralize¨ a certain
activity; e.g. to puriIy the pollution caused by the activity.
All these ideas contribute to the Iocus on nature and natural elements in the city. This
is oI course important, and there is, as we have seen, a long tradition Ior this Iocus
in urban design. But the main problem Ior green structure planning today seems to
be that greenery is still seen as an antithesis to urbanity, and green structure planning
is thus diIfcult to integrate into urban planning. What is needed today is thereIore
a planning concept where the total green structure, private or public, is regarded
as an integrated part oI the urban Iabric, and as a 'tool¨ Ior urban development. A
tool not in the sense oI an instrument to control the development, but the contrary:
an uncontrollable Iait acompli` that may enrich urbanity. A green structure may
230 231
contribute to the reconciliation oI the split between the quest Ior control and the need
Ior individual Ireedom that has haunted modernity throughout its history.
A renewed interest in the ideas oI those who contributed to the history oI public parks
and greenbelts may bring back this Iocus in urban development. The urban planners
may thus see how green areas have been regarded as crucial and integrated elements in
the city Irom the rise oI urban planning, and the green planners may see how the green
structure oI a city has a value beyond the ecological perspective. Nature is not only a
part oI our physical surroundings, and thus subject to physical and biological Iorces.
The concept also refects the way we categorize the world, and thus has a cultural
dimension that goes much deeper than e.g. the historical value oI a park. When
HirschIeld and his contemporaries suggested that nature in cities have a Iavorable
eIIect on people`s moral, they may have had this in mind.
Notes :
1. Also in earlier times there have been examples oI public urban green areas oI diIIerent kinds; e.g.
the medieval commons or the so-called pleasure gardens as well as the accessible promenades oI
royal parks in the 17
th
and 18
th
centuries; what was new in the 19
th
century, apart Irom the broad
scale on which this was accomplished, was the Iact that the public parks now were deliberately
designed Ior the beneft oI the general public, and to an increasing extent on publicly owned
ground.
2. The OxIord Companion to Gardens, OxIord University Press 1986, p 457.
3. In Kyoto and Tokyo public parks were developed around 1870 on Iormer imperial grounds, as a
result oI the opening towards the west during the Meiji Era.
4. See: Hermand, Jost: 'Rousseau, Goethe, Humboldt: Their Infuence on Later Advocates oI the
Nature Garden¨ in 'Nature and Ideology¨ edited by Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim (Dumbarton
Oaks 1997)
5. Nolin, Catharina: 'Till stadsbornas nytta och Iörlustande Den oIIentlige parken I Sverige under
1800-talet¨ p.33 (on public parks in Sweden in the 19th century)
6. This was 69 years beIore Ebenezer Howard`s Iamous Green Belt proposal. See Tom Turner`s
article on this story on London Landscape Web http://www.londonlandscape.gre.ac.uk/
1829.htm
7. The work in Paris was published in Alphand`s book 'Les Promenades de Paris¨ 1867-73. An
English 'equivalent¨ oI this book was 'Parks, Promenades and Gardens oI Paris, described and
considered in relation to the wants oI our own cities and oI public and private gardens¨ published
by William Robinson in 1869. Olmsted corresponded with Robinson, and was interested in his ideas
about nature.
8. According to the head gardener in Englischer Garten in Munich, Olmsted visited this park no less
than three times during this period.
9. E.g. Gustav Meyer in his ¨Lehrbuch der schönen Gartenkunst¨ published 1860, lists as examples
oI public parks, Bois de Boulogne in Paris, Tiergarten in Berlin and Central Park in New York
10. In e.g. the 1914 volume oI the leading Norwegian art journal 'Kunst og Kultur¨ there is
one issue on garden art with two articles about urban development and public parks in America
by landscape architect I.O.Nickelsen: 'Byer med trær, lekepladser og blomster¨ and proIessor
oI history oI art Harry Fett: 'Amerikanske lekeplasser¨ clearly indicating America as the most
interesting place in this feld.
11. See (online) http://www.Iredericklawolmsted.com/LiIeIrame.htm
12. See (online) http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online¸books/mcclelland/mcclelland2b.htm
Although Haussmann (and Alphand?) had even more ambitious visions oI a system oI interconnected
230 231
green areas than what was realized, e.g. a 250 meter wide greenway encircling the city, the main
Iocus oI the Paris development was to improve technical inIrastructure.
13. From Olmsted`s pamphlet Public Parks and the Enlargement oI Towns, 1870
14. Olmsted`s preliminary report to Yosemite Valley Commission has become Iamous Ior its
contribution to the understanding oI the conservation movement.
15. Frederick Law Olmsted was one oI the Iounders oI the movement in the 1890ies, and his son
Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. led the movement through its peak years in the frst decade oI the 20th
century.
16. Robert Owen developed a worker`s village in New Lanark in Scotland, and wrote about the ideal
city looking like a park dispersed with houses early in the 19th century. George Cadbury developed
the Bourneville garden village Ior workers in the Birmingham slum in the 1890ies, where a Village
Trust was set up to avoid speculation.
17. The title oI the 1898 edition was, interestingly:¨ To Morrow: A peaceIul path to real reIorm¨. It
became a best-seller; within less than a year, 'The Garden City Association¨ was established, and
within ten years it had resulted in suIfcient interest and economical support to start the building oI
Letchworth - the frst garden city, designed by Howard`s Iriends and members oI the Garden City
Association, Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker. It was the second edition oI the book in 1902 that
got the Iamous title: 'Garden cities oI tomorrow¨.
18. See Lucey, Norman, 1973, (online) http://www.rickmansworthherts.Ireeserve.co.uk/
howard1.htm#sna
19. These historical notions and their equivalents today are discussed in Lundgren, Alm,
Elisabeth (2002): 'Stadslandskapets obrukade ressurs¨ (The unused resource oI the urban land-
scape) Chalmers Tekniska Hogskola, Goteborg
20. See 'Grünplanung Darmstadt : Plan Iyr den Ausbau eines Grynfæchensystems als Beitrag
zum Bauleitplan der Stadt Darmstadt, abgeleitet aus dem Bestand, den Voraussetzungen und
langIristigen Notwendigheiten¨ by Günter Grzimek, Darmstadt, Roether 1965. Also discussed by
WinIrid Jerney in TOPOS 2003/08
21. See description oI this in: Skärbäck E. Balanserad samhällsbyggnad, Stad och Land Nr. 147:
1997
References :
Alm, Elisabeth, 2002. Stadslandskapets obrukade resurs, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola,
Goteborg
Berglund, Ulla, 1996. Perspektiv på stadens natur Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm
Hauxner, Malene,1993. Fantasiens have Arkitektens Iorlag, Kobenhavn
Hermand, Jost, 1997. 'Rousseau, Goethe, Humboldt: Their Infuence on Later Advocates oI
the Nature Garden¨ in Nature and Ideologv edited by Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, Dumbarton
Oaks
Jellicoe, GeoIIrey & Susan, 1986. The Oxford Companion to Gardens, OxIord University
Press
Nolin, Catharina: Till stadsbornas nytta och Iörlustande Den oIIentlige parken I Sverige
under 1800-talet
Skärbäck Erik, Balanserad samhällsbyggnad, Stad och Land Nr. 147:1997
232 233
The Bird and the Beast
Philosophical concepts and dichotomies in planning of the
urban green
Kimmo Lapintie
Urban Planning and Design Department oI Architecture, Helsinki University oI
Technology, Finland kimmo.lapintie¸hut.f
1 Introduction
When green is made into an object in urban and regional planning, what is actually
happening? Usually this is conceptualised as a technical, architectural, ecological or
political problem, dealing with e.g. which concepts are useIul Ior planners and other
practitioners (green belts, green fngers, green structures, etc.), how do parks and
green areas contribute to the cityscape, how should the urban green areas be managed,
or what kind oI policy measures should be applied to ensure equal distribution oI
recreational values or to prevent ecological damage. How could we justiIy, then, the
use oI philosophy in this context?
I will not argue that philosophy as a basic` discipline studying ontological,
epistemological or ethical issues should provide a Iramework or Ioundation Ior more
specifc and more practical disciplines. I shall rather argue that there is a philosophy
oI sorts embedded in the most practical disciplines, such as planning, in the sense that
they are using conceptual Irameworks that are rooted in various historical discourses
pervaded by philosophical concepts. Since these conceptualisations are only partly
open and refective, the role oI philosophy (as a proIessional discipline addressing
conceptual problems as well as problems oI argumentation) is to provide both
interpretation and criticique oI these conceptual Irameworks.
My intention in this paper is to Iollow some oI the paths related to the concepts used
in planning, in an attempt to point at some oI the blind spots oI planning thought, that
is, problems systematically avoided by both planning theories and practice. I am thus
particularly interested in where planning constructs an artifcial comprehensiveness
and consistency. These Iables, as well as the openly presented problems`, are suitable
targets Ior philosophical analysis and critique, and they are also illustrative oI the
potential useIulness oI philosophy in this context.
The discussion in this paper is based the theoretical work done in our project
Governing LiIe in Helsinki University oI Technology, which is Iunded by the
Academy oI Finland.
232 233
2 Dualisms and Totalitarisms
Judging Irom the most common concepts used in urban planning and design, these
disciplines and practices seem to be no less dependent than other disciplines on some oI
the basic dualisms oI western thought. Planning is itselI oIten connected to rationality
not only by the advocates oI the theories oI rational-comprehensive planning
1
.,
but also by their critics who support the so-called communicative turn in planning
2

ReIerences to Habermasian communicative rationalitv
3
reveal an attempt to maintain
the rational core in planning thought, although it is admitted to be more complicated
in the dialogical, process view oI planning. The same can be said oI the concepts
management and strategv widely used in contemporary planning discourse. They are
both clearly related to the rational core: iI we want to manage something, we want to
keep or give it an order, or to prevent it Irom chaos. Strategic action is clearly rational
and reasonable action aimed at certain objectives or at least it is a reasonable orientation
in the current situation and the awareness oI the diIIerent alternatives Ior action.
Rationality is, thus, considered both useIul and good, or even necessary Ior planning oI
the urban environment. And since the city is nowadays understood as part and parcel oI
its regional and even global environment, the traditional dichotomy between the city oI
order` and the surrounding wilderness` has disappeared, together with the crumbling
oI the ancient walls and city gates. But this does not mean that rationality would have
lost its opposition. Without something to fght against, without non-rationalitv or
unreason, planning would hardly make any sense. But what is this non-rationality Ior
planning? Is it simply non-planned environment or development, as the understanding
oI the whole territory as the proper object oI planning would suggest? II so, we would
have to understand how this constitutes a threat to our communities and societies.
This is one oI the questions we have to keep in mind, since it belongs to the
questions that, as I suggested above, have been systematically avoided by both
planning theorists and practitioners. The reason Ior this is evident: II we would
have to characterize the opposite oI planned as something that is simply non-
planned, but still should be managed by planning, planning would immediately
start to seem totalitarian. The necessity oI legitimation would Iollow: In what
sense, against what kind oI danger, is planning legitimate in this ever larger area oI
jurisprudence? What is the social or natural contract behind the planning reason?
On the other hand, there is another dichotomy, more simple and concrete, yet equally
dangerous in its implications. This is the dichotomy oI red and green, the construction
oI buildings and inIrastructure, on the one hand, and the natural environment, on the
other. This pair oI concepts has taken many Iorms, but the dualistic implication is
evident in each case. When cities are growing, they are 'taking over their surrounding
natural areas¨, 'penetrating into virgin land¨, or 'destroying the last pieces oI urban
nature.¨ II the city is a rational artefact, a man-made object or structure, do the green
and natural areas it potentially threatens represent nature, nature independent or
distinct Irom human activity? The bedrock, the sea, the Iertile soil, they have all been
234 235
there Ior thousands or millions oI years, and they can only be destroyed, not usually
constructed by human activity. Are we dealing with a man/nature dualism here?
Some would immediately object that there is very little oI the original nature
leIt on our globe: Even the wilderness is oIten the object oI some Iorm oI
management. Conservation oI natural areas is one oI the key Iunctions oI planning.
So iI management and planning reIer to rationality and the presence oI man,
nature is not the conceptual opposite oI planning. Conversely, we could point
out that nature is omnipresent in the most urban oI the environments: there are
hundreds oI species in the concrete desert oI the city, and the air, humidity and
temperature oI the city are all dependent on the natural Ieatures oI the urban site.
But this is not the point. The very Iact that we keep using dichotomies like
red/green, growth/green or planning/green structure reveals that there is an
important dualism behind our way oI thinking about natural and built-up
areas. The natural areas, in spite oI their being subjected to planning and green
management, are never totallv man-made, and the urban environment, in spite
oI the dozens oI species that biologists are able to distinguish Irom our stoned
stairs, is never totally nature. The opposites oI our basic dualistic concepts can
never be totally wiped out, either by rationalistic or by naturalistic totalisations.
My interpretation is that we are not simply dealing with dualistic concept pairs,
such as man/nature or rationality/irrationality, which would correspond to planning
concepts such as red/green or planning/non-planning. We are rather concerned with a
hidden dualism, which is in Iact hidden behind apparent dualisms. The point oI much
oI our activities is to try to solve` the problems` inherent in the apparent dualisms or
controversies. This activity is oI a totalising nature, since it attempts to hide the other,
more crucial dualism vainly, since the activity is itselI based and motivated by the
existence oI this dualism. I shall discuss this original and crucial dualism metaphorically
'The Bird and the Beast¨. This is a reIerence, on the one hand, to AlIred Hitchcoch`s
horror picture The Birds, and to Michel Foucault`s discussion oI unreason and bestiality.
BeIore that, however, let me give a short illustration oI these totalitarian dualisms`.
What seems to be the motivation behind introducing conceptual dichotomies such as
urban growth and green (as we have done in our GREENSCOM-project) or green
structure and urban planning (as we have done in our COST-action)? There are clearly
real and potential conficts and controversies between the conservation oI natural areas
and habitats, on the one hand, and fnding new sites Ior construction, on the other.
Conservation has traditionally been seen as the weaker party, but its weight has become
more signifcant as the environmental arguments and policies have won both local and
global acceptance. This dichotomy, thus, seems to be the problem, the apparent dualism
between growth and green, and it is supposed to be solved by concepts, arguments and
policies that avoid taking sides. The concept oI sustainability belongs to this category
234 235
oI concepts, as it includes both development and thus construction, but also the long-
term benefts oI green areas Ior the citizens and the Iuture economy oI the city, as well as
biodiversity. Sometimes even an economic concept, such as willingness-to-pay, might
do. The objective oI our research activity, in cases like this, seems to be to bridge the
gap between the opposites oI this apparent dualism, to communicate between them.
But why is this dualism apparent, and what is the more Iundamental dualism behind
it? There are, in Iact, two possible interpretations oI this situation. Actually the word
urban growth is itselI a metaphor, giving an appearance oI naturalness, unavoidability
and productivity to human construction. It is a naturalisation oI something that is
in Iact the result oI political decision-making and deliberate human action, which
does not simply grow`. In a sense, then, the concept seems to be on a par with the
concept oI green, which is also growing. This has clearly been a rhetorical way oI
supporting urban growth. But this naturalness, despite its successIul history, is
no longer the concept that will communicate between the two. In Iact, the reason
why urban growth is naturalised is related to the argument that unmanaged urban
growth is dangerous, that it needs planning. Growth is not here an integrating but
a Irightening dimension, a symptom oI the existence oI non-rationality and chaos.
The communication between growth and green will thus be based on something
else. It must be shown that there is a common rationality behind conservation and
development, between construction oI housing and construction oI green areas, and
between economy and ecology. And surely these arguments can be put Iorward: good
green structure networks contribute to the long-term economic viability oI cities,
as well as to the real estate prices. Ecological management oI green areas will save
energy and money Ior the city administration
4
, and giving people the possibility to
take care oI some common green areas
5
does the same. The problems seem to be
related to how these arguments can be explained to the citizens, or how could we
measure the benefts and costs in the long run. The rest is simply political bargaining:
How shall we fnance the necessary measures and distribute the costs and benefts?
This is only apparently easy, however, just because it is so easy. It does not represent
the actual problem, nor does it even explain why such a problem has appeared. The
actual and diIfcult conficts between urban construction and the conservation oI natural
areas that we can see in many contemporary cities are not only based on problems oI
calculation or lack oI argumentative skills. They are related to the Iact that iI rationality
is the communicative bridge between growth and green, then it clearly cannot give
anv voice to its opposite, the non-reason, the unexplained, the unmanageable. The
principle oI rationality is that whereoI one cannot speak, thereoI one must be silent`,
as the early Wittgenstein put it
6
. Non-rationality is certainly something that we cannot
speak with, since our word represents our Logos, our reason. But even Wittgenstein
in his young arrogance did not assume that what we can speak oI is all there is
7
236 237
3 Governing the Desire and the Will to Power
II we want to address this basic dualism between reason and its opposite, we are natu-
rally led to the original Platonic distinction between the reason oI the philosophers
and the desire oI the majority oI people, so eloquently argued Ior in the Republic. For
Plato, the desire (oI children, women, slaves, and even the less worthy part oI the Iree
men) did not only desire, but it wanted to govern both the individual man and the state,
although this would have had catastrophic consequences (432d). This will-to-power oI
the unworthy, governed and kept inside its proper borders, is not only interesting as an
important tradition in Western political thought and as an object oI the anti-totalitarian
modern critiques.
8
This will-to-power is also interesting, since it openly addresses
the above-mentioned problem oI legitimacy: II the unworthy have a will-to-power,
they actually Iorm the basic danger that legitimises the use oI rational governance by
the wise. The wise, on the other hand, are those who have access to true knowledge,
and who are, in spite oI the Iact that they have thereby Ireed themselves Irom earthly
desires, chosen to turn to their countrymen and govern them. Consequently, this con-
ception also explains the necessity and persistence oI this original dualism: since the
rational men do not desire themselves, the rational state will need the unworthy, it will
need their desiring and will-to-power, in order to Iunction properly. Hence the ever-
present coexistence oI both the energy Irom desire and the legitimate governance oI it.
Now it would be interesting to compare this by now politically incorrect` Ieature oI
classical thought to the modern selI-understanding oI the planners` role in society. The
disinterested benevolence oI the planning expert can easily Iind its roots in the phi-
losopher-king, as well as the vested interests oI the stakeholders will remind us oI the
desire and the will-to-power oI the unworthy majority. But the pictures are not entire-
ly equivalent. What is missing in the modern, politically correct conception oI gover-
nance, is the original and persistent dualism between the rationality oI the governor
and the unreason oI the governed. II the classical ecologv was based on the rational
governance (logos) oI the household (oikos) and its lesser members (women, slaves,
children), the modern concept oI ecology is a totalitarian concept: everything is sub-
jected to the priority oI the ecosystem. The rational governance oI the oikos is project-
ed onto the natural environment, which has now become the very model oI rationality.
But iI nature is thus rationalized, the only place that remains Ior unreason
is the human mind (as already with Plato) and the irrational Iorces oI the mob, the
unorganised multitude oI the unwise people. But even here the dualism is hidden
underneath a host oI totalitarian concepts: social and cultural sustainability, communi-
cative rationality, public interest, general will. These are all grand ideas and principles
that no one can question or oppose, least oI all Irom the point oI view oI individual or
group desire. They are meant to communicate between the governor and the governed,
but all they can do is to hide the original dualism. The point was, namely, that one
cannot communicate with unreason. It can only be silenced, controlled or destroyed.
236 237
The disappearance oI unreason Irom the intellectual landscape oI Western thought
has, however, attracted the interest oI many philosophers and social theorists. An
illuminating example is Michel Foucault`s analysis oI the history oI madness, which
he deliberately wrote not as a history oI mental illness but rather as the development
and disappearance oI unreason (deraison). In other words, he depicted madness-as-
illness as only one moment in the history oI silencing unreason, oI taking Irom it the
right to speak-Ior-itselI. 'The language oI psychiatry, which is a monologue oI reason
about madness, has been established only on the basis oI such a silence. I have not
tried to write the history oI that language, but rather the archaeology oI that silence.¨
9
But can one really write an archaeologv oI silence? This problem was imme-
diately noticed by Jacques Derrida: 'Is not an archaeology, even oI silence, a
logic, that is, an organized language, a project, a sentence, a syntax, a work?¨
10

And Iurther : 'Since the revolution against reason, Irom the moment it is
articulated, can operate only within reason, it always has the limited scope oI
what is called, precisely in the language oI the department oI internal aIIairs,
a disturbance.¨
11
II unreason, thus, cannot as a whole be given a legitimate
voice in the history and in society, then its role will necessarily be reduced to
a breaking oI social order, to a problem one cannot understand, to a demand
one cannot justiIy, that is, to disturbance.
4 Designing a cage for the love-birds?
But iI one cannot make science (logos) oI unreason, could one perhaps show
it(mimesis)? Indeed, we do have a whole genre oI monster-images, representing the
ever-present unmanageable and uncommunicable element oI our metaphysics. These
extend Irom the King Kong to Hitchcock`s The Birds, and they are usually based
on a juxtaposition between scientifc reason (and the respective management and
exploitation) oI our Western culture and a sudden appearance oI the monster: a fock
oI violent birds, an enormous monkey or Godzilla, or even a group oI people gone
crazy, the mob. The Birds is emblematic in this respect: the flm starts with two love-
birds in a cage, and it ends with a Dystopia oI a world that has made man a reIugee in
his own` city: There can be no communication, no negotiation between him and the
destructive fock oI birds.
While the contemporary flm seems to be more interested in Dystopia, urban planning
and design are still stuck with their Utopian tradition. The birth oI modern planning
was connected to the unmanageable growth oI the industrial city, and it produced
a host oI moral colonies` oI reason: the city beautiIul, the garden city, the urban
village, the Iunctional city, the organic city, the ecological city (Lapintie 1996). In
a sense, we have been designing cages Ior the love-birds, and tried our best to close
our consciousness Irom the beast. But since urban design is inherently connected to
mimesis, we may assume that this is not the end oI the story.
238 239
We may now end these refections by discussing what this conclusion means Ior
urban planning and design practice. As I wrote in the beginning, the relevance oI
philosophical analysis in practical disciplines like planning and design is based on
a critical refection oI the conceptual structure and the metaphysical and ontological
assumptions behind these disciplines (and, oI course, behind the concept oI discipline
itselI). It is oI course quite common Ior a practitioner to deny that there would be any
need oI such refection, that what is needed is simply more data, more indicators, and
more advanced tools Ior action. While there are undeniable merits in such a practical
attitude, it is also evident that the unrefective practitioner is dangerously on his own
iI the cage is opened, and the birds decide to fy away.
notes :
1.The roots oI the rational-comprehensive planning theory are not oIten discussed, since the theory is
used as a common enemy against which its alternatives (such as incrementalism and communicative
planning theories) are measured. Andreas Faludi (1987), however, gives the honour oI Iormulating
rational planning theory to Edward BanIield, in Meyerson & BanIield (1955). Faludi`s own Iormula-
tion is given in Faludi (1974).
2. Healey (1996), Sager (1994)
3. Habermas (1984)
4. For this argument, see, e.g. Hough (1985).
5. I am reIerring to a case study Irom the Greenscom-project dealing with management contracts in the
city oI Utrecht.
6.Tractatus n:o 7.
7. Tractatus n:o 6.522
8. Karl Popper`s liberalist critique against Plato`s Utopianism (Popper 1971), against which he put
Iorward his innocent-looking piecemeal social engineering,` is a case in point.
9. Foucault (1973), pp. x-xi.
10. Derrida (1985) p. 35.
11. Ibid. p. 36.
References :
Derrida, Jacques (1985) Writing and DiIIerence. Routledge: Surray
Faludi, Andreas, 1973, Planning Theory. Glasgow: Pergamon Press.
Faludi, Andreas, 1987, A Decision-Centred View oI Environmental Planning. Exeter:
Pergamon Press.
Flyvbjerg, Ben,t 2001, Making Social Science Matter. Why social inquiry Iails and how it can
succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Foucault, Michel, 1973, Madness and Civilization. A History oI Insanity in the Age oI Reason.
Vintage Books.
Habermas, Jürgen, 1984, The Theory oI Communicative Action. Volume 1: Reason and the
Rationalization oI Society. Boston: Beacon.
Habermas, Jürgen, 1987a, The Theory oI Communicative Action. Volume 2: LiIeworld and
System: A Critique oI Functionalist Reason. Boston: Beacon.
Healey, Patsy, 1996, The Communicative Turn in Planning Theory and Its Implications Ior
Spatial Strategy Formation. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 1996, vol. 23,
n:o 23, 217-234.
Hough, Michael, 1995, Cities and Natural Process. London: Routledge.
238 239
Lapintie, Kimmo, 1996, Paradise Lost. Rationality, Freedom and Ecology in the City. Housing
& Enviroment n° 2, The Unit Ior Research into Housing and the Environment, The University
oI Tampere.
Meyerson, Martin & Banfeld, Edward, 1955, Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest.
London: Free Press, Collier-MacMillan Ltd
Popper, Karl, 1971, The Open Society and Its Enemies. Princeton.
Sager, Tore, 1994, Communicative Planning Theory. Gateshead: Avebury.
Sokal, Alan, 1996a, Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a TransIormative Hermeneutics oI
Quantum Gravity. Social Text, n° 46/47, spring/summer 1996, ss. 217-252.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1973, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Padstow: Routledge & Kegan
Paul.
240 241
Eight experienced qualities in urban open spaces
Patrik Grahn, Associate ProIessor in Landscape Architecture,
Ulrika A Stigsdotter, Lecturer in Landscape Architecture,
Ann-Margreth Berggren-Bärring, Lecturer in Landscape Architecture,
All above at the Swedish University oI Agricultural Sciences, Department oI Landscape
Planning, PO Box 58, S-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Introduction
When recreation areas today are analysed and described, Ior instance at the prospect
oI exploitation, it is clear Irom the political debate that the decision-makers have
not been given a Iair chance oI assessing the importance oI such areas to the town
population (Grahn, 1991). The qualities in urban green areas are most oIten not
appropriately accounted Ior in maps and documents, Iorming the basis Ior diIIerent
kinds oI decisions. When urban green areas are described, there are no values presented
reIerring to people`s preIerences, needs and /or health. This paper aims at understanding
why certain parks are Irequently visited, whereas other parks hardly attract anyone. We
presume that the Irequently used and preIerred urban parks embrace qualities oI certain
importance and role, qualities in the shape oI certain characteristics, having a more or
less archetypical characteristic.
Background
Constantly we communicate with the world around us, but not only with words. The
sur-rounding environment conIronting us tells us how to behave, both by instinct and
by conditioning. A high quality park must be able to communicate with the visitor on
many levels, Ior example through sight, smell and hearing. ProIessionals in the sphere
oI architecture speak oI the semiotics oI buildings, maintaining that people quickly
learn to read what the constructed environment has to say, Ior example, about power,
sanctity, and value (Morris, 1971; Ras-mussen, 1986). In this case, it is primarily a
question oI conditioned behaviour. From early experiments, we know that man react by
refex to Gestalts (Schuster & Beisl, 1981), such ac circles and axes. Carl Gustav Jung
(1964), the Iounder oI the analytic psychology maintains that we also react by refex to
inherited symbols, archetypes, which we can fnd when in a more or less unconscious
state, as in dreams. The archetypes show us how to relate to the world around us.
More recent research by Ulrich (1984), Coss (1991), Öhman (2001), and others shows
that there are inborn refexes warning us oI things that may jeopardize our saIety, like
spiders, snakes, and great heights. There may even exist inborn attitudes towards
240 241
odours and sounds. Moreover, man develops constancies (size, colour etc) very early
in childhood to be able to perceive and understand the surrounding world (Atkinson
et al 1996). Here, inborn refexes and conditioned behaviour co-operate. Could it be,
that man has inborn, or partly inborn concepts oI experienced qualities in nature and
in nature-like environments? Could it also be, that man has this kind oI concepts oI
experienced qualities towards more cultural phenomena? And iI so, is it possible that
we as researchers in landscape architecture can detect these kinds oI concepts, which
could be a kind oI archetypical concepts?
Human health and urban parks
For thousands oI years there have been ideas to the eIIect that human health and well-
being will be infuenced in a positive way by his spending time in natural surroundings;
wild nature as well as enclosed gardens (KnopI, 1987; Gerlach-Spriggs et al., 1998;
Cooper Marcus & Barnes, 1999). Benefcial properties are attributed to natural
daylight, Iresh air and greenery. However, it was not until 1984 that the frst report
about the measurable eIIects oI nature`s infuence on health was published (Ulrich,
1984). This study was soon Iollowed by others (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Ulrich 1999;
Grahn, 1993, 1994). An important aspect is the infu-ence oI parks on human health.
Parks enhance powers oI concentration, lower stress levels and alleviate irritation
(Grahn & Stigsdotter, 2003). A simple stroll in a park may strengthens the muscles,
provide Iresh air and daylight; all-important Iactors Ior a healthy liIe (Ibid.).
Research about the impact oI the physical environment on people`s health and well-
being was Iormerly carried out in isolation by diIIerent research disciplines, such as
medicine, en-vironmental psychology, and in recent years landscape architecture. Now
days a change can be noticed. Collaboration transcending proIessions and research
boundaries takes place in Sweden as well as in other parts oI the world (Stigsdotter &
Grahn, 2003).
From a theoretical design and landscape architectural point oI view it is important to
show that one benefts Irom actually spending time in a natural environment or park,
while also trying to fnd an answer to the questions oI how and why one benefts.
Are there better and worse nature/park environments, and in that case, what is it that
constitutes the diIIerences? Studies have shown that the design oI the outdoor areas is
oI utmost importance, whether the health eIIects will appear or not. Examples can be
seen in kindergartens (Grahn, 1996, 2003, Grahn et al 2000), in homes Ior old people
(Grahn & Bengtsson, 2004, Ottosson & Grahn, 2004) and in institutions Ior sick
people (Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002, 2003, Ulrich 1999). From the studies cited in the
sentence above, one can draw the conclusion that certain char-acteristics in the design
seem to support the health eIIects.
242 243
Urban open green areas in the city promoting health effects
The principle oI triangulation has been our main approach in this research program.
It implies that to gain reliable knowledge about a problem, one must illuminate that
problem Irom diI-Ierent directions. To reach this goal, we make use oI quantitative
as well as qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods concern questions oI
'how much¨; these include questionnaire studies using fxed alternatives. Qualitative
questions deal with the contents oI the phenomenon; these studies involve diaries,
deep interviews and Iocus groups. We also make use oI methods lying somewhere
between the purely quantitative and qualitative, such as multivariate cluster and Iactor
analyses, which are quantitative with regard to data collection methods, but qualitative
with regard to analysis procedures and concept development.
To get knowledge about how people use and experience urban open green spaces,
we chose to contact key-people, responsible Ior outdoor activities in diIIerent kind oI
organizations. That way, we could get a broad picture oI the needs diIIerent people
in the society experience. Organizations are units in the society, which have been
intentionally constructed to obtain social, cultural, religious, politic or other human
purposes, which distinguish them Irom units like Iamilies and companies. The
organizations are oI two separate kinds: Public organizations, such as kindergartens,
schools, hospitals, old people`s care and home. Associations like po-litical
organisations, churches, sports organisations, cultural organizations, scouts and nature
organizations. Our hypothesis is, that key people Irom organizations can give a good
picture oI the needs people Ieel in the whole society, in depth and in great detail: old
people as well as children, poor people as well as the rich.
The study takes place in three Swedish cities, oI the same magnitude: Lund, in the
South oI Sweden, Västerås and Uppsala in the Stockholm region. All three cities
have a medieval background, are cathedral cities with universities and large high-
technological companies. That implies that the three cities are Iairly similar concerning
socio-demography (Berggren-Bärring & Grahn, 1995b). The green structure, however,
diIIers in these three cities. The diIIerences between them as regards availability oI
green areas are striking: Lund is a Iairly compact city oI continental European Iormat,
with only approximately 770 hectares oI green areas. Västerås, situated in a more
patchy landscape, has about 2 780 hectares oI green areas. Part oI Uppsala lies within
a large Iorest, while the rest spreads out over a plain. The inhabitants have 6 210
hectares oI green area at their disposal (Ibid).
A total oI 39 key-persons Irom the Iour kinds oI organisations Irom the three cities
oI Lund, Västerås and Uppsala were asked to keep a diary oI all oI their out-door
activities Ior one year. Those who had been responsible Ior keeping the diaries during
the year were then inter-viewed in great detail. They were asked why they preIerred
242 243
to visit certain places, which qualities attracted them. In this interview, they described
the qualities, not only in words, but also in drawings, maps, sketches and photos.
Besides this qualitative study, we started a large quantitative one. That study
attempts to re-veal the complex relationships between the use oI parks and park
qualities by analysing quan-tifed and classifed parameters, one by one as well as in
combinations.
The parameters consist oI 51 qualities, collected Irom 86 diIIerent studies oI people`s
preIerences and habits, concerning urban parks (Grahn, 1985, Grahn & Sorte 1985,
Berggren-Bärring & Grahn, 1995a, Berggren-Bärring & Grahn, 1995b, Grahn et al
2000). About one third oI these studies had a quantitative approach; questionnaires
with pre-coded questions. Approximately one third had a more qualitative approach,
with semi-structured interviews, sometimes combined with observations. Nearly one
third had a more pure qualitative approach, with deep interviews and observations.
The 51 parameters were used in a questionnaire to the organisations in the three
cities. We got a total oI 1 600 individual evaluations oI the urban open green spaces.
A computer-based geographical inIormation system has been an important tool in the
analysis and synthesis oI data. All individual evaluations were stored in a database,
which were analysed using the sta-tistical soItware SAS (SAS Statistics 1996), and the
database soItware Ingres integrated with the GIS soItware Strings (INGRES Tabular
Data Base & The STRINGS System, 1987).
Result :
The impact of access to many green urban open spaces
What are the implications oI the huge diIIerences between the three cities, concerning
the amount oI green urban open spaces people have access to? One would assume
that most oI the square metres oI green area in Lund would be utilized. This is not the
case. Just over 70 ° oI the area is used in Lund and Västerås, whereas 89 ° is made
use oI in Uppsala, which has the largest area. As regards the number oI urban open
green spaces, 51 ° oI the single urban open green spaces in Lund are visited, 60 ° in
Västerås and 65 ° in Uppsala. A large part oI the smallest green urban open spaces ·
1 ha, are not visited at all. In the size class 0-1 ha, only a third are visited. On the other
hand, most oI the larger green areas are visited in all three cities.
Comparisons between the use oI parks in Lund and Uppsala show that in Uppsala,
almost ten times the areas is used, twice as many green areas are visited and three
times as many visits are made, than in Lund. Västerås takes an approximate middle
placing in these comparisons.
Experienced qualities in urban open green spaces
Which interesting Ieatures do popular parks have in common and what is missing in
not popular or not Irequently visited parks? From the diary-entries, it was seen that
244 245
the qualities could be divided into certain classes, where each type or class satisfes
special needs. One can thus speak oI types oI needs and types oI qualities, which are
intimately connected with each other to give a certain experience. The characteristics
are illustrated in drawings and photo-graphs, and could be grouped together to a
limited number.
In the quantitative study, the visitors had been asked to state the qualities, which
determined their choice oI green area, and how strong these qualities were in the area
chosen. In the questionnaire, the respondents were asked to indicate what open space
qualities they considered to be oI importance to their activities. Treating the 51 listed
qualities by Iactor and cluster analysis, shows that it is possible to distinguish eight
diIIerent concepts. These concepts were decisive when it came to choice oI urban
open green space, and they could easily be Iound again in the qualitative study, written
in the diaries and illustrated in the drawings and photos. We interpreted these concepts
as eight room characteristics, in the urban open green spaces.
Certain room characteristics are more popular than others. These characteristics
consist oI symbols maniIesting themselves through many diIIerent sensations via
sight, hearing, loco-motion, etc. Table 1 below gives a brieI presentation oI the room
characteristics.
The Eight Nature/
Garden Room
Characteristics
Characteristics oI the Nature/Garden Room
1. Serene Peace, silence and care. Sounds oI wind, water, birds and
insects.
No rubbish, no weed, no disturbing people.
2. Wild Fascination with wild nature. Plants seem selI-sown. Lichen-
and moss-grown rocks, old paths.
3. Rich in
Species
A room oIIering a variety oI species oI animals and plants.

4. Space A room oIIering a restIul Ieeling oI ¨entering another world`¨
a coherent whole, like a beech Iorest.
5. The Common A green, open place admitting oI vistas and stay.
6. The Pleasure
Garden
An enclosed, saIe and secluded place, where you can relax and
be yourselI and also experiment and play.
7. Festive A meeting place Ior Iestivity and pleasure.
8. Culture A historical place oIIering Iascination with the course oI time.
Table 1: Characteristics oI the eight Nature/Garden rooms. (Modifed version oI table 1, page
66 in Stigsdotter, U. & Grahn, P. 2002. What Makes a Garden a Healing Garden? Jour-nal oI
Therapeutic Horticulture Vol 13, pp 60-69.)
244 245
Relationships between experienced characteristics and the size of urban open
green spaces
Clear relationships were Iound between these qualities and the size oI the green areas
in each town. As regards the Iestive and the culture characteristics, the relationship
was Iairly similar in all oI the three cities studied. There were no striking diIIerences
as regards the pleasure garden and the common either. When we compared wild,
rich in species, space and serene in the three cities, the diIIerences are striking and
are shown to be clearly statistically signifcant. In Uppsala and Västerås, these room
characteristics are associated with large green areas, and are quite common. In Lund,
these characteristics are allotted to relatively small green areas, but as a rule they are
associated with the largest green areas oI the city. Green areas with these Iour room
characteristics are Iar less usual in Lund.
The most popular everyday activities, such as taking a walk, exercise, outings, physical
games, and just relaxing - enjoying birds, fowers and butterfies, are encouraged by
large parks with the experienced qualities wild, rich in species, space and serene. The
young as well as the old citizen would appear to have a great need Ior these areas.
With regard to the size oI the areas, it was Iound that two size classes oI green areas
were the most visited, in all three cities: 1-5 hectares and 10-50 hectares. The Iormer
Iavours culture and Iestive, the latter serene, space, rich in species and wild. However,
the optimal area Ior certain activities was signifcantly bigger. It was activities, which
are more sensitive to distur-bances Irom other people, noise or traIfc, such as out-in-
the-wild activities: scouting or col-lecting berries and mushrooms. Here, the optimal
area was about 100 hectares.
Relationships between experienced characteristics and the shape and form of
urban open green spaces
The shape and area oI a park are oIten seen as important Iactors infuencing the way
people experience and use parks. We have developed a measure oI shape called the
'balance quo-tient¨, to be used as a parameter in our analyses. The results reveal a
complex pattern, though some conclusions can be drawn: We discerned that a large
proportion oI the parks least vis-ited, consisted oI elongated areas. The importance
oI shape is more pronounced in parks smaller than one hectare. The signifcance oI
the Iorm Iactor was also Iound to be valid in size classes over one hectare, but this
signifcance decreased relatively rapidly the larger the area studied. Children are
particular sensitive to the shape oI small parks, since it clearly infuences on their
play. The experienced characteristics most sensitive to the shape and Iorm are serene,
space, rich in species and wild, they are associated with shapes more round and kept
together. In the smallest parks, almost no activities take place besides 'passing by¨ iI
the shape is elongated or lobed.
246
Picture 1. Different shapes of parks. The left shape has got the lowest quotient and the
right shape the highest. (Pictures by A-M Berggren-Bärring)
Summary and conclusion
The characteristics communicate directly with the visitor. The room characteristics
Serene, Space, Rich in Species and to some extent Culture appeal to many people. It is
oI particular interest that they also appeal to the most ill and vulnerable persons; those
who strive to fnd balance with themselves. The room characteristics The Common
and The Pleasure Garden usually appeal to those who are somewhat less stressed and
vulnerable, either those who wish to observe other people carrying out activities or
those who wish to carry out the activities themselves. The Festive fnally appeals to
some stressed persons but Irightens others (Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002, 2003). Most oI
the room characteristics require more natural areas with large masses oI growth such
as tall trees and many kinds oI plants.
On closer study oI which individual green areas were most preIerred by most groups
oI visi-tors, it was Iound that these areas included older city parks, centrally located
woods and parks near bathing spots and beaches. Analyses show that all these most
preIerred urban open green spaces contain many experienced characteristics, which in
turn encourage many activities. The conclusion drawn is that large, lush, varied green
urban open spaces must be developed in the cities, iI the aim is to have people spend
time out oI doors. II the aim oI the society is to promote the health oI the citizens, the
increase oI the use oI urban open green spaces would be a good means. With that,
the opportunities to exercise and to restore Irom stress would increase. However, our
results indicate that the Iollowing must have a high priority iI the use oI green open
spaces will increase. Especially the smaller neighborhood urban open green spaces
must:
D" Be located near the homes
D" Have a shape round or kept together
D" Have several room characteristics in the design
Acknowledgement: This study was made possible by the fnancial support oI Formas,
246
the Swedish Research Council Ior Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial
Planning, grant no 2001-0252
References :
Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J. & Nolen-Hoeksma, S. 1996. Hilgards
Introduction to Psvchologv. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Berggren-Bärring A-M. & Grahn, P. 1995a. Importance of the single park area on experienced
characteristics. Ecological Aspects of Green Areas in Urban Environments. IFPRA World
Congress. Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium. 3-8 September 1995, Chapter 5, pp110.
Berggren-Bärring, A-M & Grahn, P. 1995b. Grònstrukturens betvdelse fòr anvàndningen.
SLU, Institutionen Iör landskapsplanering, Rapport 95:3. Alnarp, Ultuna
Cooper Marcus, C. & Barnes, M. (Eds.). 1999. Healing gardens. Therapeutic benehts and
design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Coss RG 1991. Evolutionary Persistence oI Memory-Like Processes. Concepts in
Neuroscience, vol. 2: 129-168.
Gerlach-Spriggs, N., KauIman, R.E., & Warner, S.B. 1998. Restorative gardens. The healing
landscape. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Grahn, P. 1985 Hur brukas tàtortens frivtor ? SLU, Institutionen Iör landskapsplanering,
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Grahn, 1989. Att uppleva parken. SLU, Institutionen Iör landskapsplanering, Rapport 89:6.
Alnarp.
Grahn, P. 1991. Om parkers betydelse. (Doktorsavhandling) Stad & Land nr 93. Alnarp.
Grahn, P. 1993. Planera Iör bättre hälsa! In Planera fòr en bàrkraftig utveckling.
ByggIorskningsrådet, Stockholm. Sid.109-121.
Grahn, P. 1994. Greenstructures - The importance Ior health oI nature areas and parks.
European Regional Planning, 56: 89-112 Council oI Europe Press, Strasbourg, ISBN 92-871-
2501-5
Grahn, P. 1996. Wild nature makes children healthy. Journal of Swedish Building Research,
No 4 pp 16-18.
Grahn, P. 2003. Trädgården tiden, lusten och varat. Blücher, G. & Graninger, G. Finns det
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Linköping, sid 97-126.
Grahn, P. 2000. Bra rekreationsområden behövs i närmiljön. Motion och Idrott - fòrdelar eller
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red) Studentlitteratur, Lund, in press.
Grahn, P. & Berggren-Bärring, A-M. 1995. Experiencing parks. Man`s basic underlying
concepts oI qualities and activities and their impact on park design. Ecological Aspects of
Green Areas in Urban Environments. IF-PRA World Congress Antwerp Flanders Belgium 3-8
September 1995, Chapter 5, pp 97-101.
Grahn, P. Mårtensson, F. Lindblad, B. Nilsson, P. & Ekman, A. 2000. Borns udeleg. Betingelser
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248
249
Role of the urban green structure in creation of
preferred urban environment
Ph D. K.Zaleckis,
Institute oI Architecture and Construction, Lithuania;
kzalecki¸takas.lt
Introduction
One oI the most important actualities and tasks Ior urban planning today is creation oI
sustainable environments. The search Ior sustainability oI urban environment means
a search Ior both higher and new qualities oI townscape as well. Concerning the
character oI spatial planning these new qualities depend on the Iollowing things:
D" New planning methods that let to create more Iunctional spatial models and
structures;
D" New Iunctions assigned to planned spaces;
D" New models and concepts Ior urban planning.
Creation oI an urban green structure can help to add some new qualities to or to
improve the old ones oI an urban environment. Why? The term 'structure¨ means
location and order oI related parts within one organism or system. Complex mind
says that system is more then just a mechanical sum oI its parts. Any system has a
new quality that was not presented in its single part, e.g. like a human body and its
parts. According to the analogy oI the abduction logic we can assert that iI the urban
green structure or system is created, then it should be able to perIorm some additional
Iunctions that are not perIormed by a single ore dispersed green areas.
It is well known Irom the practice and planning experience that the green structure
(iI it is understood as a sum oI green areas that are territorially connected to each
other and are acting together) can improve recreational, social and ecological qualities
oI an urban environment. Dgukfgu" vjcv" kv" ecp" jgnr" vq" etgcvg" c" rtghgttgf." oqtg"
ru{ejqnqikecnn{" ceegrvcdng" wtdcp" gpxktqpogpv" cv" c" yjqng" ekv{" uecng0 This paper
summarizes both some theoretical premises and empirical remarks concerning the
green structure and creation oI preIerred urban environment. The common aim oI the
paper is to show that the both creation oI preIerred urban environment and the usage
oI the green structure Ior that purpose are worth oI consideration.
Theoretical premises for creation of preferred environment
The objective oI urban planning is to create a spatial and Iunctional model oI
environment what meets the human needs and creates optimal conditions Ior the
existence oI both society and individuals. The Iollowing fndings oI environmental
psychology are very important Ior the spatial urban planning and its priorities:
D" There exists a human need to live in preIerred environment: 'People tend to
seek out places where they Ieel"eqorgvgpv"cpf"eqpÝfgpv, places where they
can make sense oI the environment while also being engaged with it¨. II this
need is not satisfed it leads to the long time stress Iollowed by decreased
ability to work and loss oI any motivation as a result oI stress. 'Along with
the common environmental stressors . some defne stress as the Iailure oI
preIerence, including in the defnition such eqipkvkxg"uvtguuqtu"cu"rtqnqpigf"
wpegtvckpv{."ncem"qh"rtgfkevcdknkv{"cpf"uvkownwu"qxgtnqcf¨.
D" The characteristics that make the environment 'preIerred¨ are determined by
the diIIerent researchers and could be summarized as Iollowing: no visual
stress production, legibility, coherence, complexity and mysteriousness.
These defnitions will be explained later in the terms oI urban design.
D" The important Ieatures oI conceptual perception are determined. The whole
big spatial structures and complexes are perceived conceptually only. We
can perceive jus parts oI a complex directly and visually. When we become
conscious about something in conceptual way we create a mental map or
model oI that object. The higher mental Iunctions as imagination and long time
memory are used Ior creation oI the mental model. All models are simplifed
and changed iI comparing to refected reality. This is true Ior the mental city
model as well. The main Ieatures oI the mental city model are Iollowing: 1. It
is simplifed, distorted and supplemented with additional elements; 2. Whole
city is created in imagination when a part oI it is visually perceived (even iI
this part and a city are seen Ior the frs time); 3. The mental map replaces a
material environment Ior our brain in many situations.

The frst Ieature oI the mental city model means that imagination and long time memory
could add some new things to the mental city model. The second Ieature means two
things: a) Human psychological reactions to urban environment are infuenced not
only by visually perceived objects but by a wide environmental context; b) We have
some kind oI pre-image in our imagination even beIore the real perception oI the
city starts, e.g.: human will imagine a whole city even iI he (she) will be 'dropped¨ in
the point within unknown city. The third Ieature is very important iI we speak about
the emotional, psychological attitude to environment. It means that human reactions
and responses could be based on the mental image but not the real environment (iI we
speak about reactions at the whole city level).
The main conclusions made on the base oI these fndings oI the environmental
psychology are the Iollowing:
D" We should take into consideration the psychological needs oI human beings
when the spatial model oI a city is created. The whole city should be Iormed
as the preIerred environment not the local spaces only.
250
D" We should create the preIerred urban complex by creating and shaping the
commonly imagined mental model oI a city but not the material environment
directly. This common mental image oI city is described and researched by
K.Lynch.
D" The criteria oI no visual stress production, legibility, coherence, complexity
and mysteriousness should be used Ior evaluation and creation oI preIerred
urban environment
Another one important question Ior the topic is: how culture and society infuence
these mental images? This question is quiet important because the imagination and
long time memory are the higher mental Iunctions and culture plays an important
role in their Iormation. Vjg"cffkvkqpcn"korqtvcpv"uvcvgogpvu"eqpukfgtkpi"rtghgtgpeg"
qh"vjg"gpxktqpogpv, could be made in the context oI the theories oI M.Cole (cultural
historical psychology), C.G.Jung (analytical psychology) and semiotics:
D" There exists a high probability that culture makes an infuence on the standard
oI preIerred environment by supplementation oI culturally determined images
and schemes oI an ideal city some kind oI an archetype (we are 'instructed¨
what and how to imagine by culture).
D" Despite the probable signifcance oI the archetype it is believable that these
cultural schemes could not be used as a fnal and desired model Ior creation
and evaluation oI the preIerred urban spaces because:
D" The city is too complicated and its model is Iormed by many Iactors that
are not under control oI planner oIten.
D" The common mental image oI city could be researched and Iormed just
with quiet low degree oI probability.
D" The cultural images oIten are to simplifed, symbolic and schematic to be
applied in the urban planning as the fnal models.
D" The objective oI town planning could not be a fnal spatial model oI city
absolutely similar to the 'ideal¨ and preIerred urban environment. The
objective is to make the environment more similar to the cultural image iI
comparing to the present situation. Creation oI the preIerred urban space
should be a permanent process.
A lot oI more detailed theoretical and practical research should be done Ior the test,
Iurther development and implementation oI these theoretical discursive fndings into
practice. The most actual topics Ior the Iurther research:
D" Relations between culture and the criteria oI preIerred environment.
D" Images oI preIerred urban space in a specifc culture.
D" Korqtvcpeg" cpf" rquukdknkvkgu" qh" dqvj" vjg" ogvjqfu" qh" urcvkcn" rncppkpi" cpf"
urcvkcn"uwduvtwevwtgu"*g0i0"itggp"uvtwevwtg+"kp"etgcvkqp"qh"vjg"rtghgttgf"wtdcp"
gpxktqpogpv0 This research should go Irom 'bottom to top¨ theoretical
conclusions should be made on the base oI practical study. This method will
give the best and the most obvious results.
251
Green structure and preferred urban environment (Kaunas case)
PreIerred environment is psychologically acceptable environment. This term could
be applied to both visually and eqpegrvwcnn{" rgtegkxgf environments. Could be the
green structure considered as probably enough useIul Ior the purpose oI creation oI
the preIerred urban environment at the scale oI conceptual perception? How could
the green structure make the urban environment more preIerred and how it should be
planned to perIorm such a Iunction? Some preliminary conclusions and guidelines
could be made on the base oI a specifc analysis oI Kaunas case. The selection is
reasoned by the specifc urban Ieatures: Kaunas is a typical soviet town with big and
monotonous areas that are flled up by the typical many-fat houses. The problems oI
psychological acceptance are oI high actuality there. In such a situation the possible
useIulness oI the green structure should be seen very clearly.
The analysis Ior both fnalization oI the hypothesis and more detailed conclusions is
made on the base oI evaluation oI the possible role oI the continuous green structure
and its elements (as green belts, parks, etc.) Ior the key Ieatures oI the preIerred
environment at the level oI a whole Kaunas city image.


The main characteristics of the image of Kaunas:
D" The image is Iragmented. It is possible to state with a high probability that
some parts oI the image will not be imagined as parts oI the city.
D" Domination oI the one centerdistrict.
D" The spatial characteristics oI districts are very similar: it is a result oI soviet
urbanization.
D" The districts are Iormed by boundaries and some landmarks in many cases. It
is true because the districts are very similar to each other and only boundaries
and very signifcant landmarks let to imagine some similar areas as diIIerent
districts oI the image.
D" The net oI ways plays a vital role in the integration oI the image. It is so
because oI the mono-centric structure oI the image.
252
Can the continuous green structure make this city image more preIerred? Important
premise: each environment should have the Ieatures oI the preIerred environment
more or less expressed. In opposite case, such environment will not be conceptually
perceivable. This Iact could be illustrated by the Iollowing example: legibility is one
oI the key-Ieatures oI the preIerred environment; according to K.Lynch`s defnitions
we can say that iI an urban environment is not legible, then the city image could not
be created and a city could not be conceptually perceived.
Results of the analysis of green structure role for the preference of Kaunas city
image:
No visual stress production. This Ieature oI a spatial environment means that visually
perceived space 'isn`t either too diverse or too monotonous¨. The criteria Ior such an
ideal space depend on the neurophysiologic characteristics oI the human nervous
system. This Ieature depends on the visually perceived environment and should not be
applied to the image oI city. Despite that this Ieature should be considered when the
preIerence oI a visually perceivable environment is analyzed.
Legibility. It is 'the inIerence that one can explore an environment without becoming
lost¨. From the point oI the city image it`s the possibility to fnd, notice, perceive, and
distinguish the potential elements oI city image Irom the background. II environment
is not legible, then the common city image could not be created or imagined. This
Ieature is should be applied to the physical environment and visually perceived space
as well, but not to the image.
Coherence. 'It`s the sense that all parts oI (conceptually) perceived environment
make a one unit¨. From the point oI the city image coherence should depend on the
three characteristics oI the image (these characteristics make an essence oI perceivable
integrated order in opposition to unperceivable disintegrated chaos):
D" Continuousness of the image. In Kaunas case, it depends on the network
oI ways very much because the way is a place where the 'creation¨ oI the
city image starts: people see and remember the most distinguished elements
oI an environment while they move through a city. These memories are
used Ior 'creation¨ oI the mental city image later. Greenbelts can play an
important role in creation oI the more preIerred environment in Kaunas
case. For example by making clear connections between the center and the
autonomous districts oI the image.
D" Clear separation of parts (districts) of the image. The green slops oI
the rivers are very important Ior separation oI the similar areas in Kaunas.
Without these slops-boundaries there would be just a one big district in the
image oI Kaunas.
D" Hierarchy. Role oI the green structure isn`t very big in this case directly,
but the green slops make a great visual background Ior some very important
253
landmarks in the image oI city. In their turn these landmarks are very important
Ior perception oI the center and legibility oI the image.
The culture can make an infuence on the kind oI hierarchy and the ways oI integration
what will be more preIerred that the other but it is a theme oI another research.
Complexity. 'Environment is complex iI it contains enough variety to make it worth
to learn about¨. In the term oI city image it could be described as diversity oI types
oI elements in the image. The properties oI human perception should be taken into
consideration when the complexity is researched. We construct the mental image oI
environment Irom the pairs oI oppositions. It is the Iundamental Ieature oI perception.
Environment without the perceivable oppositions will be not complex. The city image
should be made in the same way and its diversity depends on the clear presence
(necessary condition) and number oI the pairs oI oppositions.
Culture can determine the kind, number and spatial relations between the oppositions.
The role oI the green structure could be very important here because, according to
Jacques le GoII, nature is understood as a natural opposition Ior urban environment
in the European culture. There the green structure makes the image more complex by
Iorming a Iew, quiet important green districts in the image oI Kaunas.
Mysteriousness. It is 'the prospect oI gaining more inIormation about environment¨.
Mysteriousness oI the city image depends on two things. The frst one is a permanent
ability to discover something new in a city: e.g. to fnd some kind oI 'terra incognita¨
in the image. The second one is a representation oI an unpredictable 'chaos¨ (with
a proper emotional attitude to it) as an opposition to a well known and predictable
order. It could be produced in two ways: both as a one part oI the perceived spatial
oppositions and as 'chaotization¨ oI structure oI the image. An understanding and
symbols oI chaos depend on cultural infuence very much. The green structure helps
to produce these eIIects by creating a green districts in the image oI Kaunas.
Conclusion : The case oI Kaunas, shows that greenstructure can play the signifcant
role in creation oI more preIerred image oI city. It is important Ior the assurance oI the
all key Ieatures that are 'Ieeled¨ through the image oI city.
Examples what the green structure can give:
D" Green boundaries Ior the separation and creation oI the districts in the city
image (coherence oI the image);
D" Greenbelts Ior the better integration and continuousness oI the image
(coherence);
D" Green districts Ior the bigger complexity and mysteriousness oI the image;
D" Green background Ior the landmarks (better legibility oI environment and
coherence oI the image).
254
Resume
On the base oI presented discourse it could be concluded (with a high enough
probability) that the green structure can help signifcantly in creation oI the more
preIerred urban environment. The term 'green structure¨ means the system that is
perIorming some additional Iunctions iI compared to a single green area. In such a
case the creation oI more preIerred image oI a city could be one oI the additional
Iunctions oI the urban green structure. The experience and results oI Kaunas case
confrm the main thesis oI this paper and could be used as the preliminary guidelines
in an urban planning.
References :

Chandler D., 1994, Semiotics for beginners |www document|. (Http://www.aber.ac.uk/
media/Documents/S4B/)
Cole M. , 1996, Cultural psvchologv, The Belknap Press oI Harvard University Press,
Massachusetts, and London, England.
Le GoII J. , 1977. La Civilisation de loccident mfidieval (the civilisation oI the
Mediaeval West). Arthaud, Paris.
De Jung R. , 1999, Environmental psychology. Enciklopedia of Environmental
Science. Hingman, MA: Kluver Academic Publishers.
Europos mentaliteto istorifa (History oI european mentality), Vilnius. Aidai, 1998.
Kavaliauskas P. , 1992, Metodologiniai kraŽtotvarkos pagrindai. Vilnius,
'Academia'.
Lynch K. , 1960, The image of the citv, Cambridge: MIT press.
255
256 257
Leisure activities and natural spaces
Additional information from enquiries,
nationally and locally (Marseilles)
Ann-Caroll Werquin
Atelier Thales Consultancy, France, wthales¸club-internet.Ir
More leisure activities and more commuting
· Commuting Ior leisure has been on the increase in France in recent decades, more
so than other activities. New types oI leisure have developed, the radius oI amenities
that can be used has increased very quickly, and spare time activities can take place
not only at the weekend but also during the week.
· So, even in a city like Marseilles where a mass exodus Irom the city at the weekend
is a long-standing and cultural habit, mostly Ior visiting parents in the countryside,
such mobility is increasing and proximity does not have the same signiIicance
nowadays.
· Leisure time is synonymous with pleasure, amusement, diversity (activities,
places), increasing one`s knowledge, keeping others company, individual Ireedom
and development (both Ior adults and children), but the actual pursuit oI leisure is
variable, as it oIten depends on the income oI the Iamily. The less well oII have to
apply the brakes on themselves or on their children, having Iew leisure opportunities
despite the wish to engage in them.
A large part of the demand relates to the proximity of natural` spaces
· Trips to all natural` spaces not Iar Irom the city are now three times more numerous
than ten years ago. All natural spaces are visited places, ranging Irom the ones oIIer-
ing amenities such as the nearby regional natural park oI the Camargue to the wild`
ones, with no special layout, in more mountainous areas, quite Iar away, or behind
the coastal strip. They are regarded as a kind oI public park oI the metropolis.
· On Sundays visiting a huge shopping centre (the largest in France, called Plan de
Campagne) is also a popular activity; this is open 24 hours a day and can be cat-
egorised as shopping Ior Iun, with varied outlets such as coIIee shops and sport
playgrounds Ior all. It is quite a meeting place Ior some people.
· Festivals and others cultural exhibitions (Ior example, pop concerts Ior young peo-
ple, municipal events open to everyone, markets and Iairs oI all sorts) are also on the
increase, attracting huge crowds, probably due to the decline in social relationships
oI the new suburban way oI liIe.
256 257
Urban public gardens bring quality into daily life,
even when they are not visited
· In the densely-populated core oI this Mediterranean city, open spaces and large busy
streets are visited more oIten than public gardens. Many oI the public gardens were
created in the 1970s to modernise the post war city. Now some oI them are losing
users, especially small public gardens within the city, (69° oI inhabitants never go
at all), and virtually one person out oI every two says they never visit urban parks.
However, in response to the question: 'II, in the Iuture, the municipality could have
a large open space in the city centre, what use would you like to be given priority?¨
51.5° oI inhabitants preIerred the layout oI a big public garden, while only 14.8°
voted Ior the second best choice oI a leisure centre. A public garden is considered a
priority Ior enhancing the quality oI liIe and quality oI neighbourhoods. The demand
is higher when people have lower incomes (70°) or are retired (50°).
· The beaches in the municipality oI Marseilles, which were created over twenty years
ago within the city centre and are reachable by underground, attract one third oI all
leisure trips, while representing only ten per cent oI the city`s public green spaces.
They are virtually an entertainment park with lots oI events and a wide choice oI
games; they are as popular as the Marseilles Iootball stadium (which is very well
supported) and have also a select clientele. They are gaining visitors all year round,
showing that leisure activities can also be located within the city and be successIul.
Natural and attractive places within the city centre can be very successful
· Having to drive quite a long way Ior leisure does not put users oII and sometimes it
is necessary (Ior example, when escorting children to activities or going to see rela-
tives). Inhabitants oIten want to have a better choice and to be in wilder surround-
ings, but iI the choice oI natural places within the city boundaries is enhanced, they
gain more visitors, reducing the need Ior commuting and relieving the pressure on
natural spaces beyond the city boundaries.
Public garden oI Maison blanche` (previously a bastide` estate , Iun` surI at la Pointe Rouge`,
the very successIul Prado` beaches created in the eighties
259
· The most recent green space that has been developed in Marseilles is a large and
quite natural urban park (100 ha). This park, together with the beaches and a new
public garden which has been created as a trend-setter Ior urban renewal in the craIt
and industrial sector, have demonstrated by their success that green and human
qualities are to be Iound within the urban Iabric, even though the demand is going
to get ever greater in the Iuture.
References :
Agence d`urbanisme de l`agglomeration marseillaise, 1980. Enqu‒te auprfls des habi-
tants de lhvpercentre (Enquiry concerning inner city inhabitants), Marseille, Agam.
Bordreuil, J. S., 1988. La civilitfi tiflde (Unenthusiastic civil behaviour), Universite
de Provence.
Demouchy, G., 1995. Les quatre elements (The Iour elements), Monuments histo-
riques, 198, and Structure verte, blanche et bleue : les pratiques contemporaines de
nature en Ionction des saisons dans la region urbaine de Marseille, (current experi-
ences oI the role oI the seasons in Marseilles` urban area), unpublished, 2001.
Ville de Marseille, Direction de l`ecologie et des espaces verts, 1999. Parcs et
Jardins, opuscule de presentation (Parks and Gardens in Marseilles. Includes statis-
tics on commuting).
Fevreur, J. F., Des fiquipements publics urbains au service de la qualitfi de la vie. les
espaces verts , lexemple du parc Pastrfi a Marseille (Public amenities provide qual-
ity oI liIe; the case oI Park Pastre in Marseilles), IAR, Universite d`Aix-Marseille,
n.d., Cete d`Aix.
Darris, G., 2000. Usages sociaux et reprfisentations des lieux du temps libfirfi dans
lagglomfiration de Lorient, (Social uses and images oI leisure places in Lorient`s city
region), PUCA.
PUCA (Plan Urbanisme Construction Architecture), 1998. La Jille fimergente,
Constats pour renouveler les lignes daction publiques (The outskirts, elements in
the renewal oI public lines oI action), PUCA.
258
259
Environmental comfort in green urban spaces :
an introduction to design tools
Giovanni Scudo
Dpt oI Built Environment Sciences and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Italy,
gianni.scudo¸polimi.it
1 Introduction
Understanding how is possible to plan and design outdoor urban green spaces Ior a
better environmental comIort is one aim oI the bioclimatic approach to urban design.
Green structures play a determinant role in mitigating the microclimate oI grey urban
structures and in the same time they are open to moulding dynamically urban spaces
(streets, courts, squares etc.) Sun, wind, heat and water vapour with their daily and
seasonal rhythms and perIormances sustain and stimulate pleasant and comIortable
outdoor activities.
Thermal comIort is a complex adaptative process which involves integrated physical,
physiological and psychological adaptation. Up till now it was studied mainly Irom
a physical/physiological. The result was a large discrepancy between what people
perceive and quantitative evaluation oI comIort made by experts through diIIerent
comIort or bioclimatological indexes
1

Furthermore the calculation oI such indexes in the context oI microscale urban
environment is a task to be done by expert and oIten it is very expensive in time and
money because it requires detailed microclimatic date Irom Iield survey and complex
computer simulation.
Research in progress is trying to overcome this discrepancy and to elaborate comIort
indexes close to people perception and thereIore useIul to urban design (Nikoloupolou
2001, SaGAcites 2002).
2 Thermal comfort adaptation in urban spaces ~niches¨
While indoor environment tend to have relatively steady and controllable (by building
and mechanical services) thermal, radiative and convective conditions, the outdoor
one is deIined by a great daily and seasonal variations oI much less controllable
Figure 1: Comparison oI
the Actual Sensation Votes
(ASV) obtained Irom the
questionnaires with the
Predicted Mean Votes (PMV)
Ior Athens, calculated Irom the
mathematical model, Ior each
interviewee.
260 261
microclimatic parameters (mainly solar radiation and wind ), which aIIect the energy
budget oI the body and thereIore its thermal comIort.
From a physiological point oI view, human body does not have sensors to perceive
the single climatic parameters. For thermoregulation it can only consider the tem-
peratures oI the skin and oI the blood which are directly inIluenced by the integrated
eIIect oI all climatic parameters which strictly interact and aIIect each others. As an
example, in winter sunny environment with little wind the mean radiant temperature
as the same importance as the air temperature, and its importance can grows in sum-
mer : in Mediterranean countries MRT can easily reach 60-70°C with air temperature
oI about 30-35 °C. In windy environment air temp. is Iar more important than radiant
temperature because convective heat exchange dominates. (Höppe)
The physiological approach is accounting about 50° oI the variation in thermal per-
ception; the other 50° cannot be measured only by physical parameters. Thermal
sensation is strictly interwoven with the global sensorial perception ( gestalt percep-
tion) and thereIore it is determined by physical, physiological and psychological
adaptation processes.
Physical adaptation involve all the changes people make in order to adjust themselves
to the great diIIerences oI the environment or to modiIy the environments to their
needs. The process involves changing cloth levels, posture, metabolic heat with the
consumption oI cold or hot dinks or changing position which is the eIIective and more
common way oI avoiding discomIort in outdoor spaces.
Physiological adaptation implies changes in the physiological response due to a
repeated exposure to a stimulus which lead to a gradual decreased strain Irom such
exposure mainly in extreme environments.
Human response to physical stimuli is not in direct relation to their magnitude, but
depends how people elaborate in a cognitive way the inIormation received Irom the
environment. ThereIore psychological adaptation is play a determinant role mainly
in outdoor spaces The main psychological Iactors inIluence thermal perception are
(Nikolopulou and Steemers 2003) :
- Expectation, that is what the environment should be like, rather than what it actu-
ally: it is related to experience and based on the deviation oI thermal sensation oI the
past day or season. ('for this time of the vear I would prefer it warmer or cooler¨)
- Experience, in short or long term, guides actions to cope with variable thermal
environments
- Time of exposure. DiscomIort is not perceive as negative iI the person anticipates
that it is shot-lived, such as getting out oI a warm car to enter a building in winter.
- Perceived control. It is widely acknowledge that people who have a high degree oI
control over a source oI discomIort, tolerate greater variations, and reduce the nega-
tive response. The issue oI Iree choice is very important in outdoor space; people
waiting Ior an appointment or to catch a tram report much more dissatisIaction with
260 261
thermal environment than people in the space Ior leisure and thereIore Iree to move
when they want. (Wolhwill)
- Naturalness. In environment Iree Irom artiIiciality people seems to tolerate wider
changes in microclimate.
3 Green structure contribution to the outdoor comfort
Along with the mentioned psychological parameters, the 'naturalness¨ ( increased by
'green and blue structures¨ ) oI the urban space inIluence in a positive way comIort
perception through urban climate mitigation.
The contribution oI large green structures to urban microclimate mitigation ( urban
Iorest, green belt, large parks etc.) is quite well known ( Bernatsky Chandler, Horbert
and Kirkgeorg, Mayer and Matzarakis, Monaco, Oke, Santamouris, Yoshino)
The mitigation oI small green urban structures is relatively less known due to the
morphological variety oI urban spaces -shape and orientation which generates the
mosaic oI microclimates inside an urban context. (Wilmers 1988 , Gomez, Raeissi
and Taheri, SAGAcites)
The main variables urban designers can really control (and which is dominant in
Mediterranean urban spaces) is the radiation Iield : short-wave or solar radiation
(direct, diIIused and reIlected) and long wave or 'terrestrial radiation¨ (Irom the sky,
the ground and objects above ground).
Urban green structure play a Iundamental role in radiation control.
II we compare a street s with and without vegetation the diIIerence oI air tempera-
ture is very low, let`s say about 1 °C, but the diIIerence oI mean radiant temperature
(MRT), due to the shaded and unshed surIaces temperature diIIerences and to the
low leaI temperature) is very high: during summer in N-S oriented streets the MRT
diIIerence can be up to 30 °C which means to be almost in comIort in vegetated
streets ( Ochoa de la Torre, Scudo and Ochoa de la Torre, Mayer, and Matzarakis). A
large contribution to lowering the radiant temperature is given also by green surIaces
(either green walls and /or loan).
4 Design tools
Only In the last 20 years the transIer oI knowledge Irom climatological and bio-
meteorological studies to urban & architectural design tools has begun to take place
(Chandler, Grupo de Termotecnia, Gomez, Raiessi, Santamouris) and guidelines,
(Akbari H. et al., Grupo de Termotecnia , Katzshener), simpliIied methods (Brown
and Gillespie, Dessi 2001, Ochoa 1999, Katzschener, Rayman) and simulation pro-
grammes were developed (Solene, Envimet , Williamson and Errel).
One oI the main problem Iacing outdoor comIort indexes is how to oI MRT - Mean
Radiant Temperature. MRT is the whole radiant balance body- environment : short
waves ( sun ) and long waves radiations ( terrestrial ¹ sky ) exchanges which depend
on view Iactors associated with sky and surIace temperatures which has great varia-
tions in time and space depending on urban topography and materials.
MRT can be calculated with many programmes at diIIerent level oI complexity. The
262
more interesting are the ones designers and planners can use ( Brown and Gillespie,
Rayman, RUROS guidelines, etc).
InIrared remote sensing images can be oI some help to get inIormation on surIace
temperature, but the very low resolution needed Ior urban microclimate design (· 10
m) limit its use also Ior economic reasons.
It is important anyway to stress that the diIIerent simpliIied programmes based on
thermal indexes are not an absolute evaluation oI outside thermal comIort or strain.
They give designers the direction where proposed solutions are going to .
The work carried out by ROROS
2
give designers a cluster oI simpliIied tools : nomo-
grams to evaluate mean AVS -Actual Sensation Vote- and radiant conditions in early
design stage, a methodology Ior thermal comIort mapping, guidelines Ior visual and
acoustic comIort in urban spaces.
4.1 Thermal comfort index and nomograms
From Iield survey and measured data, models Ior the calculation oI ASV where
elaborated Ior the diIIerent Cities ( Copenhagen, Cambridge, Kassel, Freiburg, Milan,
Athens, Thessaloniki), then graphs (nomograms) giving a mean ASV have been
plotted, according to a combined ASV model
developed Ior diIIerent climatic areas.
The urban designer can calculate or estimate
the ASV value corresponding to the climatic
conditions oI the area oI interest, using either
the model`s equation or nomograms and then
enter this value in a set oI curves to obtain the
percentage oI users that would Ieel comIort-
able.
4.2 Simplified evaluation of radiant conditions in urban spaces
A simpliIied graphic method to evaluate radiant conditions in urban context has been
developed on the basis oI computer simulations perIormed using the soItware Solene
(Teller). The output oI the method is an approximate evaluation oI MRT, which can
be easily utilised to calculate
comIort indices such as PET or
similar.
The model considers diIIerent
spatial conIigurations Ior street
Figure 2: Ratio oI people Ieeling comIortable Ior
diIIerent ASVs, Ior the diIIerent cities, in summer
Figure 3: Variation oI MRT in the
reIerence streets EW orientation- in
the midday, summer season
and square corners. eIIect. Continuously changing radiant conditions were divided
into Iive periods oI the day. For every period the values oI MRT in shade or in the
sun have been evaluated. In these periods the radiant conditions are considered
constant, being the variations controlled by physical and psychological adaptation
mechanisms.
4.3 Thermal comfort mapping and zoning
A methodology Ior drawing microclimatic thermal comIort maps to be applied to any
site in a relatively simple and eIIective way was developed. The main meteorological
parameters used are solar radiation and wind : their spatial distribution are mapped
with the use oI morphological models ( i.e. Townscope Ior short ware radiation), data
Irom city meteo and Iield measures.
The thermal comIort zones derive Irom the overlapping oI the thematic layers 'radia-
tion pattern¨ and 'wind pattern¨ calibrated by Iield measures and sky view Iactor
analysis.
From the comIort maps a comparison and assessment between diIIerent alternative
design conceptions can be achieved, which Iollows the needs oI urban design.
The mapping procedure can be used in diIIerent kinds oI urban planning processes,
especially at the scale oI neighbourhood and open space planning.
4.4 Visual comfort in urban spaces
In people`s minds, a successIul open space is oIten associated with a positive visual
experience.
Within the RUROS research, 'visual comIort¨ has been addressed using a more tech-
nical approach borrowed Irom lighting design studies. To ensure 'visual comIort¨,
adequate illuminance levels, measured in lux, have to be provided throughout the
space, while preventing glare sensations. More precisely, disability or discomIort
glare occurs when the Iield oI view contains either great luminance values, measured
in cd.m-2, or great luminance contrasts.
The luminous appearance oI speciIic urban space through Europe, deIined as
Luminous Sensation Vote ( LSV) evaluated on a 5- Point scale ( Irom 'very dark¨ to
very bright¨) was indagated through interviews and measures oI illuminance levels.
Figure 4: Basic
structure oI thermal
comIort zoning
Figure 5: Thermal
comIort zoning Ior
BahnhoIsplatz
263
Surprisingly even with very low illuminance levels very Iew
negative votes were recorded.
Also Daylight penetration within the urban Iabric has been
recognized as an important quality Iactor that required means
oI preservation especially in very dense cities.
4.5 Sound Environment and Acoustic Comfort in Urban Spaces
EIIects oI architectural changes and urban design options on the sound Iield oI urban
squares have been studied using computer models developed at the University oI
SheIIield .Typical results are summarised in some graphs considering square size,
building height and aspect ratio, as well as boundary absorption. DiIIerent graphs
give general design advices such as when the square side is doubled the SPL is typi-
cally 6-9dB lower in the Iar Iield,
Further advises are on the use oI green Iacades Iaçades which increase boundary diI-
Iusion oI incident sound and also boundary absorption thus reducing noise Iurther. or
in improving soundscape quality reducing SPL around 65 dBA do diIIuse active and
passive soundmark (live music and running water).
notes :
1. Energy balance equation indexes based on two node model :
EIIective Temperature ET ( Gagge et al. 1971), Physiological Equivalent temperature PET
- ( Hoppe 1999), New Standard EIIective Temperature SET and OUT¸SET ( J. Picup, R. de
Dear, 2000)
Energy balance equation based on one node model :
Perceived Temperature (PT ). ( Vinet, Jendrintzky)
Thermal ComIort Model ( Grupo de Termotecnia)
COMIort FormulA-COMFA, simpliIied model developed mailny Ior Landscape use. (Brown
and Gillespie)
Universal Thermal Climate Index ( UTCI). Is is going to be elaborated by Internatioonal
Society oI Biometereology and will take into account both physical-physiogical and psicho-
logical Iactors ( Hoppe 2002).
264
Figure 6: (Top) stereographic projection oI the obstructions as seen Ior a
single point within the open space shown on the above site plan (coloured
in green)
(Bottom) multistereographic projection computed Ior the whole site. The
grey level indicates the site area Iraction that has open access to a given
direction in the sky vault.
Figure 7 : EIIect oI square height. The basic square
confguration is 50x50m, 20m high, and absorption
coeIfcient 0.1
2. RUROS : Redescovering Urban Realm in Open Spaces. The project is a part oI Key Action
4 'City oI Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage¨ Irom the programme 'Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development¨ within the FiIth Framework Programme oI the EU
References :
Akbari H., Davis S., Dorsano S., Huang J., Winnett S., 1992. Cooling our Communitv
A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Coloured Surfacing, USA EPA- OIIice oI Policy
Analysis Climate Change Division
Bernartzsky A., 1978. Tree Ecologv and Preservation, Elsivier ScientiIic Publiscing Company,
Amsterdam
Brown, R.D., Gillespie, T.J., 1995. Microclimatic Landscape Design, John Wiley & Sons,
New York,
Dessi V., 2002. Peoples behaviour in an open space as design indicator, Design with the envi-
ronment, PLEA 2002, Proceedings oI the 19th International ConIerence, Toulouse France,
July 2002
Chandler T., 1976. Urban Climatology and its relevance to urban design, W.M.O. n. 438
Envimet web site: http://www.geographie.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/agklima/envimet/ (Ior inIorma-
tion contact M. Bruse: michael.bruse¸rub.de)
Gägge AP., et al., 1971. An EIIective Temperature Scale Based on a Simple Model oI Human
Physiological Regulatory Response. ASHRAE Trans. 77:247-257
Gomez F. et al., 1998. The green zones in bioclimatic studies oI Mediterranean city,
Proceedings PLEA 98 'Environmental Friendlv Cities`, Lisbon, June 1998.
Grupo de Termotecnia, Dpto de Ingegneria Energetica y Mecanica de Fluidos, Universitad
de Sevilla,, 1992. Control climatico en espacios abiertos (climatic control in public spaces),
Ciemat, Madrid
Katzshner L., Bosch U., Rottgen M., 2002. Behaviour oI people in open space in dependency
oI thermal comIort conditions. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference PLEA,
Toulouse, July 2002
Horbert M., Kirchgeorg A., 1982. Climatic and air hygienic aspects in the plannong oI the
inner-city open spaces: Berliner grosser tiergarten, Energv and Building, Vol. 5 no.1
Höppe P., 2002. DiIIerent aspects oI assessing indoor and outdoor thermal comIort, Energv
and Building, 34 pp. 661-665.
Mayer H., Matzarakis A., 1997. The urban heat island seen Irom the angle oI human biome-
teorology, Proceeding of International Svmposium on monitoring and management of urban
heat island, Fufisawa, November 1997.
Nikolopoulou M., Steemers K., 2003. Thermal ConIort in Otudoor Urban Spaces:
Understanding the Human parameter, Energv and Building, 35 ( 2003) 95-101.
Nikolopoulou M., 2002. Microclimate and comIort conditions in urban spaces: an intricate
relationship, PLEA 2002, Design with the environment, Proceedings of the 19th International
Conference, Toulouse France, July 2002
Ochoa De La Torre J.M., 1999. La vegetation como instrumento para el control climatico, tesi
di dottorato, Universitat Politecnica De Catalunya, Facolta di Architettura, 1999.
Ochoa De la Torre J.M., Serra R., 1998. Microclimatic analysis oI some urban scenarios,
Proceedings PLEA 98, Environmental Friendlv Cities, Lisbon, June 1998.
Oke T.R., 1998. Streets design and urban canopy layer climate, in Energv and Buidings n°11,
Elsevier, 1998.
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267
Oke ,T.R., 1987. Boundarv laver Climates, 2nd Edition, Routledge, London
Pickup J., de Dear R., 2000. An outdoor thermal comIort index (OUT¸SET*)-part one-
the model and its assumption.In: Biometeorology and urban climatology at the turn oI the
millennium.De Dear, Kalma, Oke and Auliciems ( Eds). WMO, WCASP-50, WMO/TD-
No1026, Geneva, 2000, pp. 279-283.
Rayman web site: http://www.miI.uni-Ireiburg.de/rayman/
RUROS, 2004. (Rediscovering the Urban Realm and Open Spaces) guidelines (Iorthcoming
summer 2004). Website: http://alpha.cres.gr/ruros/
Raeissi S, Taheri M., 1999. Energy saving by proper tree plantation, Building and Environment
34 pp. 564-570.
SAGACites, 2002. Jers un Svstflme dAide a la Gestion des Ambiences urbaines (towards
a system helping managing urban atmosphere), MENTR Direction de la Technologie, 99,
V0532 Rapport Final, mandataire GRECO-EAT & EAPB, 20.02.02
Santamouris M., 2001. The role oI green spaces, in: Santamouris M.( Editor), Energv and
Climate in the Urban Built Environment, James &James, London
Scudo G., Ochoa De la Torre J.M, Verde Benessere, Strumenti progettuali e conoscenze di
base per la mitigazione del microclima negli spazi urbani.Esselibri, Napoli, 2003
Solene. Web site: www.cerma.archi.Ir/
Teller j., 1998. Design tools for outdoor comfort assessment, EPIC98, Lvon, 19-21 November
1998
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Valuing green structures
The use of hedonic models to assess the influence of
green structures on residential property values
1ean-Marie Halleux
Department oI Economic Geography, University oI Liege, Belgium
Jean-Marie.Halleux¸ulg.ac.be
1 Introduction
It has now been recognised that there is a research gap in the Iield oI urban planning
where the economics oI green structures within cities and urban regions is concerned.
By dealing with the issue oI the inIluence oI green structures on residential property
values, our work tackles one aspect oI this wide and important issue. DiIIerent tech-
niques can be used to evaluate Iinancially the environmental amenities. Perhaps the
most common are travel costs, contingent valuations and hedonic prices (More et al.,
1988; Facchini, 1994). In this article we concentrate on a literature review oI hedonic
price models (HPM).
The Iundamental principle oI HPM is that the utility provided by heterogeneous
goods is based upon the utility yielded by their various characteristics, rather than
by the goods themselves (Lancaster, 1966). This idea can be applied to a property by
describing it as a vector Z oI n attributes (z1 ... zn). When HPM is applied to the study
oI housing markets, a distinction is made between two types oI housing attributes:
those that are dwelling-speciIic (size, number oI rooms, etc.) and location-speciIic
(Wilkinson, 1973). Within the location attributes, it has generally been accepted that
there is a need to distinguish between global accessibility within the urban Iield and
neighbourhood quality. Neighbourhood quality is a term used to encompass a wide
range oI inIluences: measures oI local amenities (school, shopping centre, etc.), mea-
sures oI the socio-economic status oI the neighbourhood, and measures oI the quality
oI the residential environment, Ior example, the view or access to open spaces, such
as parks and beaches.
The hedonic theory is based on the idea that, Ior composite heterogeneous goods,
there exists a Iunction P(Z), which, Ior each good, relates the vector oI attributes Z to
a price P (Rosen, 1974). This market clearing Iunction is called the hedonic Iunction.
In a competitive market, buyers and sellers take the hedonic Iunction as given. In the
hedonic theory, the hedonic Iunction results Irom the interplay between housing sup-
ply and demand. The hedonic price Iunction is, thereIore, the equilibrium oI both the
bid prices and oIIer prices. In this context the hedonic price oI a speciIic attribute does
not depend on an intrinsic worth. Rather, this value results Irom demand and supply
interactions on the entire market. Since the price oI a property is a consequence oI the
price oI its housing attributes, P(Z) can be estimated Irom observations oI the prices
and attribute 'bundles¨ oI diIIerent houses. In practice, this can be realised by using
the statistical tool oI multiple regression.
In this paper, we combine the results oI HPM to analyse how attributes related to
green elements within the urban environment inIluence residential prices. The general
hypothesis is that green structures have a positive impact on prices. Beyond this cen-
tral assumption, a major aim oI the research is to speciIy which environmental Iactors
actually contribute the most to the prices or, in other words, contribute the most to
the quality oI urban liIe. In this short article, we Iocus mainly on the results rather
than on methodological issues. However, Ior the interested reader, a longer version
oI our bibliographic analysis can be Iound on the website Ior 'Green Structure and
Urban Planning¨ Cost C11 action . In order to keep the present article to a reasonable
size, we have chosen not to incorporate the numerous bibliographic reIerences. The
cited bibliography is limited, thereIore, to a short selection. The longer bibliography
is available on the Cost C11 website.
2 The effects and performances of green structures on the basis of
HPM literature
As stated in the Introduction, when HPM is applied to study housing markets, a tra-
ditional distinction is made between dwelling-speciIic attributes and location-speciIic
attributes (accessibility and neighbourhood quality). In relation to the eIIects oI green
structures, according to the HPM literature the Iirst point to note is that green struc-
tures are actually related to both types oI attributes. Although most oI the studies are
related to the neighbourhood scale, several researchers have also tackled the impact
oI the green elements at the scale oI the residential property.
The HPM literature has also Iound that, like any other land uses, green land uses can
actually be a source oI both positive and negative inIluences. Although negative inIlu-
ences related to green structures are generally negligible, it is underlined by the lit-
erature that in some circumstances, a green structure can result in a loss oI value. For
example, some authors state that proper maintenance is essential to sustain the Ilow
oI green beneIits, since a deteriorating park may become a social sore point within a
neighbourhood, and may, as a consequence, prompt decision makers to consider it Ior
non-park development options (More et al., 1988). Similarly, it is also recognised that
heavily used public parks may have a negative impact on adjacent houses and may
even decrease their prices (Tyrväinen, 1999). In this speciIic context, negative eIIects
are more important than positive eIIects.
In terms oI positive impacts, our bibliographic review shows that, at the neighbour-
hood scale, two kinds oI perIormance are usually considered when green structure
inIluences are appraised using HPM: the aesthetic impact, and accessibility as related
to recreational beneIits.
268
An important Ieature oI the HPM analysis on the eIIects and perIormances oI green
structure is that they are local, i.e. based on local housing markets, urban structures
and cultural preIerences. Great caution is needed, thereIore, in the transIer oI HPM
results, since demand varies greatly in diIIerent areas oI Europe, both in terms oI
aesthetic perIormances and recreational perIormances. For instance, it can be risky to
transIer the results oI Nordic research on Iorest aesthetics to central Europe, where
demands Ior quality in urban greens diIIer as a result oI cultural diIIerences and his-
tory oI land use (Tyrväinen, 1999). Furthermore, as tastes and practices vary, there are
also diIIerences in the characteristics that make a recreational site attractive in each
country or even region within a country.
3 Aesthetic performances as measured at the scale of the individual
property
In the USA, research on the inIluence oI trees as measured on the residential prop-
erty scale has been conducted since the 1970s (Anderson & H.K. Cordell, 1985 and
1988). This kind oI research is related to the dwelling-speciIic attributes, rather than
to location-speciIic attributes (neighbourhood quality). In terms oI perIormance, it is
mostly the aesthetic oI green that is assessed, as we expect trees to raise the value oI
residential property mainly Ior aesthetic reasons (trees make the property look more
attractive). However, trees in the Iront garden or yard also provide shade, noise abate-
ment, privacy, a wildliIe habitat, and wind reduction.
From the research undertaken we can conclude that, Ior similar houses, a signiIicant
change in the tree landscaping oI plots can lead to a selling price increase Irom 5° to
15°. In order to explain this variability the key element seems to be the vegetation
abundance in the neighbourhoods. In Iact, the lowest increases were Iound in areas
with abundant vegetation in the surroundings. This conclusion is in line with the
theoretical meaning oI hedonic prices. As stated above, hedonic prices are not actu-
ally dependent upon an intrinsic worth, but are dependent on the result oI demand
and supply interactions. II urban vegetation is abundant, it is consistent with a lower
market value, although the intrinsic worth in terms oI quality oI liIe will continue
to be present.
The Iact that green aesthetics as measured at the residential property scale has a posi-
tive eIIect on house prices can be related to the important and problematic issue oI
urban sprawl. This relationship correlates with a residential mobility analysis where
the search Ior natural amenities acts as a centriIugal Iorce within the sprawl process.
However, compared with the collective green structures located in traditional urban
Iabrics, individual greening at the plot scale generates numerous planning problems,
since it leads to diIIuse urbanisation and low density, rather than to qualitative com-
pactness.
In the USA, because wooded lots sell at higher prices and also more quickly than
houses on cleared lots, house builders are now conscious oI the added value generated
269
by trees. ThereIore, they have abandoned the practice oI clearing all trees Irom the lot
beIore construction begins. Trees are oIten leIt in relatively undisturbed buIIer zones
between properties, ensuring that a greater proportion survive the construction pro-
cess. However, only time will tell whether the trees remaining on these lots will sur-
vive the numerous stresses and abuses they suIIer during the construction process.
According to some American research, tree species were taken into account and the
valuation diIIerences between hardwoods and pines analysed. The general conclu-
sion is that hardwoods are slightly more valuable than pines, but that each contrib-
utes substantially to property values. Similar results were Iound in Finland and the
UK (Garrod & Willis, 1992a and b; Tyrväinen, 1997), where researchers Iound a
signiIicant positive relationship between broad-leaved woodlands and house prices,
but a signiIicant negative relationship between mature coniIerous Iorests and house
prices. This situation makes sense in that dense, mature coniIerous Iorests may not
be appreciated close to a house in high latitudes, because oI the shading eIIect. The
direct conclusion is that environmental beneIits could be increased substantially with
proper management. Near houses it is better to decrease the relative proportion oI
mature coniIers and plant deciduous or low-growing trees instead.
4 Aesthetic performances at the neighbourhood scale
Some American and European research has concluded that a direct window view onto
a park or open space can easily increase house prices by 5° - 10°; it should be noted
that these Iigures are only based on the aesthetic perIormances and, thereIore, do not
integrate other impacts on price related to the accessibility to recreational sites. On
the other hand, the inIluence oI the speciIic perIormance oI the direct view cannot
be demonstrated in some other research. For instance, an analysis oI several Dutch
towns sheds some doubts on the impact oI the aesthetics oI trees, as this hypothesis
has only been veriIied statistically in 5 tests out oI 14 case studies (Luttik & Zijlstra,
1997; Luttik, 2000). To understand this ambiguity, it should be noted that the impact
hypothesis has not been veriIied in several cities where the green planning had been
very eIIective. Indeed, as stated above when outlining the theoretical development oI
HPM, the price oI an attribute is not dependent upon an intrinsic worth, but on the
result oI demand and supply. In the Dutch towns where green structures have been
widely developed, it is plausible, thereIore, that the abundance oI urban green leads
to minimising their market value. From this point oI view, a negative impact result
can be the consequence oI eIIective planning and an absence oI green shortage. But
despite the decreasing market value, green intrinsic perIormances related to the qual-
ity oI urban liIe are still eIIective.
The same Dutch study also concluded that water aesthetics had an important impact
on price, resulting in a substantial increase in house prices up to 28° Ior houses
270
with a garden Iacing water, especially iI this water was connected to a sizeable lake.
Other research also conIirms the important aesthetic impact oI water, which also cor-
relates with the Iindings oI landscape psychologists. As water is a highly prized ele-
ment in the landscape, bodies oI water can be recommended readily Ior inclusion in
town development programmes.
Some research developed on the aesthetic perIormance also tackled the issue oI the
inIluence oI a park`s attributes (More et al., 1988). Here, the major conclusion is that
parks that concentrate on open space may be more eIIective at maximising property
values than parks that oIIer sports Iacilities. This result underlines the need Ior the
thoughtIul landscaping and designing. In Iact, design is necessary in order to optimise
on site recreational beneIits and external aesthetic beneIits. OI particular concern is
the zone oI interaction where the park and its surroundings meet. BuIIers oI natural
vegetation can screen high-use Iacilities Irom surrounding properties, both to reduce
the negative impacts oI use and to enhance the experiential quality Ior users by
screening out traIIic sights and sounds.
5 Recreational benefits at the neighbourhood scale
In the reviewed publications, aesthetic perIormances are rarely diIIerentiated clearly
Irom the recreational beneIits. From a methodological point oI view, substantial pre-
cautions are actually needed to achieve this diIIerentiation. Such precautions have
been taken in the study oI the Finnish town oI Salo (Tyrväinen & Miettinen, 2000),
where researchers Iound an aesthetic impact related to a window view onto Iorest
oI + 5° and a recreational impact oI + 6°. When both eIIects are aggregated, an
added value higher than 10° is achieved.
An analysis oI CardiII, Wales also managed to distinguish aesthetic and recreational
inIluences (OrIord, 1999). From this research, we observe that both eIIects seem to
have a similar inIluence on price. In CardiII it was Iound that in some oI its immediate
vicinities, the major city park (Bute Park) leads to a price increase oI 40°. However,
this very high premium declines rapidly a Iew streets away, halving to around 20°,
when the aesthetic perIormance has disappeared. Another interesting CardiII result is
the Iact that Bute Park`s inIluence is dependent on the neighbourhood`s characteris-
tics. More precisely, the research has Iound that in low-density areas, this inIluence is
much lower than the 40° previously stated. This is consistent with the Iact that access
to open space is less valued where density is low.
The catchment area oI a recreational green structure is dependent on its attributes: the
more the structure is attractive, the Iurther people will travel to visit the site. In order
to explain the maximum distance people are willing to travel to green spaces, the size
is oIten taken into account. For instance, on the basis oI Belgian and French surveys,
some maximal distances have been estimated: + 1,000 meters Ior a park larger than 30
hectares; + 500 meters Ior a park between 10 and 30 hectares; + 250 meters Ior a park
271
smaller than 10 hectares. Theoretically, other attributes also determine the attractive-
ness oI each recreation area, Ior instance, landscape Ieatures, Iacilities, accessibility
and other available areas. Following the hypothesis that the spatial conIiguration oI
the inIluence on price due to a green structure is related to the extent oI its catchment
area, it is logical to consider that the inIluence on price will expand with the attrac-
tiveness oI the park (measured, Ior instance, by the size). To our knowledge, studies
do not exist on the double relationships between the attributes oI green structures
and the spatial conIiguration oI both the catchment area and house price inIluence.
Nevertheless, some HPM results conIirm the likely hypothesis that bigger parks have
wider inIluences. For instance, the results oI the CardiII study show that the impact oI
green structures on house prices is indeed dependent upon the size oI the parks, with
the largest park oI the city (Bute Park) having a much more important impact than the
smaller ones. This analysis is also interesting concerning the inIluence oI the small-
est parks, as it shows that very small parks have only a positive inIluence on those
properties with a view oI them. As the small parks do not actually oIIer recreational
possibilities, this conclusion validates the concept that it is appropriate to distinguish
aesthetic perIormances Irom recreational perIormances.
6 Conclusion
According to the literature review on hedonic models used to assess the inIluences oI
green structures on residential property values, the general hypothesis about the posi-
tive impact oI green is conIirmed. More precisely, the Iact that green structures are
linked positively with utility Iunctions is related to two major kinds oI perIormances:
aesthetic perIormances and recreational perIormances. OI course, this result strength-
ens the position oI green structure in the policy decision process. However, in the
Netherlands, Ior instance, this general hypothesis has only been partially conIirmed,
probably owing to the Iact that green planning has been signiIicant in that country. As
the implicit price is the result oI demand and supply, the abundance oI urban green
leads to a minimising oI their market values, although intrinsic perIormances will, oI
course, continue to be present.
Beyond the central hypothesis oI the positive eIIect oI green structures on property
levels, this literature review also enables us to underline some speciIic environmental
Iactors that contribute to the quality oI urban liIe. For instance, as stated in diIIerent
researches, the presence oI water Ieatures seems to be particularly appreciated, which
leads to recommendations Ior the inclusion oI bodies oI water in town development
programmes. The role oI park design has also been highlighted. As shown by diIIerent
HPM research, it is actually useIul to create buIIers oI natural vegetation to reduce the
negative impacts oI sport and recreational usage. A third green management recom-
mendation relates to the shading eIIect oI certain trees, as HPM studies have shown
that coniIerous trees should not be planted near houses, and that deciduous or low-
growing trees should be used instead.
272
HPM results can also be analysed in relation to urban sprawl. Firstly, it is interesting
to notice that the positive eIIects oI green structures on residential prices conIirm the
relationship between suburbanisation and searches Ior natural amenities. Clearly, as
households are willing to live in a green environment, this can very easily lead to a
diIIuse sprawl, iI green qualities cannot be Iound within traditional urban Iabrics. At
the same time it is also essential to note that, while suburban settlements are triggered
by the search Ior natural amenities and homogeneous green landscapes, new out-oI-
town developments tend to aIIect those very Ieatures adversely, as they can lead to
both the Iragmentation and decrease in the percentage oI open space available.
References :
Anderson, L. M. & Cordell, H. K., 1985. Residential Property Values Improved by Landscaping
with Trees, Southern Journal of Applied Forestrv, 9, pp. 162-166.
Anderson, L. M. & Cordell H. K., 1988. InIluence oI Trees on Residential Property Values
in Athens, Georgia (U.S.A.): A survey based on Actual Sales Prices, Landscape and Urban
Planning, 15, pp. 153-164.
Facchini, F., 1995. Economie et paysage: la place de la gestion politique (Economy and land-
scape: the importance oI policy), LEspace Gfiographique, 4, pp. 319-327.
Garrod, G. D. & Willis K. G., 1992a. Valuing Goods` Characteristics: an Application oI the
Hedonic Price Method to Environmental Attributes, Journal of Environmental Managment,
34, pp. 59-76.
Garrod, G. D. & Willis K. G., 1992b. The environment economic impact oI woodland: a two-
stage hedonic price model oI the amenity value oI Iorestry in Britain, Applied Economics, 24,
pp. 715-728.
Lancaster, K. J., 1966. A new approach oI consumer theory, Journal of Political Economv,
Vol. 74, pp. 132-157.
Luttik, J., 2000. The value oI trees, water and open spaces as reIlected by house prices in the
Netherlands, Landscape and Urban Planning, 48, pp. 161-167.
Luttik, J. & Zijlstra, M., 1997. Woongenot heeft een prifs. Het waardeverhogend effect van een
groene en waterrifke omgeving op de hui:enprifs (A nice living environment costs money. The
value oI trees, water and open spaces as reIlected by house prices), DLO, Staring Centrum,
Rapport 562, Wageningen.
More, A. T., Stevens, T. & Allen, P. G., 1988. Valuation oI Urban Parks, Landscape and Urban
Planning, 15, pp. 139-152.
OrIord, S., 1999. Jaluing the Built Environment. GIS and house price analvsis, Ashgate,
Aldershot - BrookIield USA - Singapore - Sydney.
Rosen, S., 1974. Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product diIIerentiation in pure competi-
tion, Journal of Political Economv, 1, pp. 347-363.
Tyrväinen, L., 1997. The amenity value oI the urban Iorest: an application oI the hedonic pric-
ing method, Landscape and Urban Planning, 37, pp. 211-222.
Tyrväinen, L., 1999. Monetarv valuation of urban forest amenities in Finland, Research Paper,
Finnish Forest Research Institute, n° 739.
Tyrväinen, L. & Miettinen, A., 2000. Property prices and Urban Forests Amenities, Journal of
Environmental Economics and Management, 39, pp. 205-223.
Wilkinson, R. K., 1973. Measuring the determinants oI relative house prices, Environment and
Planning, Vol. 5, pp. 357-367.
273
274
Qualities of agricultural land
evaluation of its multifunctionality
Klaus Wagner
Federal Institute oI Agricultural Economics, Vienna, Austria
klaus.wagner¸awi.bmlIuw.gv.at, www.awi.bmlIuw.gv.at
1 Introduction
Experts on regional planning complain about the lack oI awareness concerning the
economic use oI agricultural land. Calls Ior a better protection oI agricultural land have
been raised at national and international (Austrian ConIerence on Regional Planning,
OECD), political and scientiIic levels. A project within an INTERREG IIC project
undertaken by the Federal Institute oI Agricultural Economics in Vienna contributes to
a more sustainable and economic use oI agricultural land, which is oIten seen as just
a residual area, aIter all other social demands on space have been satisIied. The trend
towards segregation into regions, with intensive production, and towards extensively
used regions, oIten reducing agricultural purposes to just production, or even giving
up agricultural land use altogether - also shows the need Ior a careIul planning system,
especially in regions which are under extreme pressure Irom other land uses. But the
agricultural landscape and the green structure have various other Iunctions besides the
production oI Iood and raw materials, which should be made clear to the public. For
example, the eIIects oI agricultural land use:
· on water and soil are expressed in the Resource Protection Function
· on the protection oI objects such as settlements are expressed in the Hazard Damage
Protection Iunction
· on the diversity oI species are expressed in the Habitat Function
· on the amenity oI the landscape and the suitability Ior recreation are expressed in
the Recreation Function
· to segregate diIIerent, intrusive exploitations, such as industrial plants near settle-
ments, are expressed in the Spatial Structuring Function.
2 Evaluation model
The sectoral and transnational co-ordinated system oI the evaluation oI landscape
Iunctions shows the eIIects oI agriculture on these Iunctions. It was applied Ior the
evaluation oI agricultural areas in the model region oI MarchIeld, which is located in
the eastern part oI Austria, surrounding Vienna. ConIlicts are increasing in this region
because oI diIIerent competing land users:
· intensive agricultural production with irrigation
· ground water overloaded with nitrate
· the distribution oI woodland and the risk oI wind erosion
274
· expansion oI built-up areas near Vienna
· increasing traIIic volume
· mining (gravel, oil and gas).
The units used Ior evaluation are agro-Iunctional` land units, which are homogenous
in the type oI landscape, in natural conditions, in land use and in administration.
Because oI the complexity oI these Iunctions they were divided into sub Iunctions`,
which were evaluated by criteria and indicators. For each agro-Iunctional unit the six
agricultural Iunctions were evaluated on a scale oI values Irom 0 to 5 (Figure 1).
2.1 Production
Every agricultural land use that aIIects monetary earnings must be taken into consid-
eration in the evaluation oI production. In the case oI the model region, MarchIeld,
only the production oI IeedstuIIs and renewable resources plays a major role. In the
Austrian soil map 1:25.000 the value oI the soil and other indicators such as climate,
slope and water conditions are expressed in the indicator soil value Ior arable land
and grassland, which was classiIied on a scale Irom 1 to 5 due to the distribution oI
diIIerent soil values in the agro-Iunctional land units. Although production is only one
Iunction, it is in a special position because without it all the other Iunctions would
disappear, or would have a completely diIIerent look.
2.2 Resource protection
Resource protection has been divided into an evaluation oI the protection oI soil,
water and air. The natural conditions, Ior example, the risks oI erosion and oI leaking,
precipitation and slope have been viewed in conjunction with the given agricultural
land use, diIIerentiated in speciIic land-use groups and indicating areas at lower or
higher risk oI soil erosion or leaking. Combining these indicators gives pointers to the
positive or negative contribution made by agriculture to the protection oI resources.
275
Figure 1:
Scheme
Ior evalu-
ation
oI agri-
cultural
areas
2.3 Hazard damage protection
Hazard damage protection should be evaluated Irom the point oI view oI objects that
have to be protected, Ior example, Irom avalanches, landslides, Ialling rocks, Ilood-
ing, and wind. This Iunction is more important in the evaluation oI Iorests and also
more important in other regions than in the model region. So the contribution oI agri-
cultural land use was low throughout all the land units under evaluation.
2.4 Habitat function
The evaluation oI the habitat Iunction has been based both on an assessment oI the
diversity oI land use in the agricultural areas, using the number oI diIIerent Iields in
the land units as an indicator, and on an evaluation oI the biodiversity oI the agri-
cultural landscape, using the structure and stability as indicators (number and age oI
landscape elements).
2.5 Recreation
This Iunction has been evaluated based on the demand Ior recreational areas (depen-
dent on the number oI inhabitants in the surrounding land units) and on the suitability
or attraction oI the land units Ior recreation (dependent on the landscape elements and
boundaries).
2.6 Spatial structure
The Iunction oI spatial structuring includes aspects oI the arrangement oI diIIerent
land uses and the need Ior visual or spatial buIIer zones, and has been evaluated due
to the length oI borderlines oI diIIerent land uses, which include a potential Ior con-
Ilict.
3 Results
Figure 2 shows a compilation oI the agricultural evaluation oI all Iunctions Ior the
24 agro-Iunctional land units in the region oI MarchIeld. Even in this small project
region (seven communities), which is quite homogeneous in land use and landscape
compared to other regions, signiIicant diIIerences in the importance and intensity oI
the Iunctions occur.
· In the northeastern part (hilly zones in Auersthal) the Iunctions are very much
linked. The Iunctions oI production, habitat and recreation, and the Iunction oI
space structure score highly.
· But in WeikendorI (higher terrace) only the Iunction oI production is oI high value.
In this case the agricultural and regional policy should determine whether measures
should be taken to increase the value oI other Iunctions.
· In the surrounding areas oI settlements the Iunctions oI recreation and oI space
structure have a higher priority. In some cases the Iunction oI production is given a
very low priority, but the high values oI the other Iunctions indicate the considerable
importance oI such open areas among built-up areas and woodland.
276
The results oI this uniIorm and integrated evaluation process oI agriculture, Iorestry
and water management are compiled in a common map, as a contribution towards
maintaining the diIIerent Iunctions oI landscape and to avoid conIlict between the
diIIerent land use categories. The evaluation process can also be a basis Ior discus-
sion oI Iuture developments, Ior the harmonisation oI sectoral policies and Ior the
simulation oI the eIIects oI diIIerent land use scenarios, such as reIorestation at the
scale oI 1:50,000.
In an international context a more general approach to the evaluation process needs to
be adopted to Iacilitate the assessment oI various green spaces with all their Iunctions.
International and inter-sectoral agreed Iunctions provide the overall link to express
and compare the social value oI green structures.
For more inIormation about the international project, Natural Resources, see http:
//www.naturalresources.de/
4 The experiences of the COST C11 working group
Agricultural areas serve various purposes. Nowadays globalisation makes us careless
about our Iood supply: it will be produced somewhere in the world. But iI we think
about the projected increase in the world population, this will not necessarily be the
case in say 50 or 100 years` time. The same applies where Iood saIety and animal
welIare, and regional cycles Ior sustainability are concerned. ThereIore, one impor-
tant aspect in the discussion oI green structures is the protection oI natural resources,
not only Ior ecological reasons, but also with a view to saving at least the remaining
277
Figure 2 : Results oI evaluation oI agro-Iunctional land units
279
resources with potential Ior Iood supply. In addition, the production oI Iood and raw
materials provides a link to the other Iunctions mentioned in Section 2.; their interde-
pendence needs to be borne in mind.
The preservation oI open spaces always Iocuses on economic constraints. Green
spaces in cities can only be kept iI there are no more important economic interests in
these areas. For instance:
· iI they cannot be built on because oI natural conditions, as in SheIIield
· iI they are conserved because oI private interest with adequate capital in the back-
ground, as in the case oI the bastides in Marseilles, or
· when they become natural areas again once the economic interest in the areas has
declined, as happened in the areas oI the steel industry in SheIIield and the soda
industry in Marseilles.
ThereIore, not only has the economic value oI the land to be documented very clearly,
but also the overall ecological and social value oI green spaces, in arguing Ior their
conservation or management. Only then does the community have the political
background to retain green spaces, especially agricultural areas, on strategic` sites:
Ior example, the agricultural areas in the city oI Breda, which can only be managed
because the city bought these areas oI high interest Ior ideological reasons (teaching,
therapy, and awareness oI nature and Iood production).
The market regulates the landscape management and the conservation oI the amenity
oI the landscape only in regions oI special economic interest (Ior example, tourism).
When tourism is not a driving Iorce, then current social and environmental problems
can be tackled together to enable satisIactory solutions to be achieved in the case oI
landscape management and the unemployed (Ior example, in the U.K. and France).
But this works only within a relatively stable economic Iramework, because in times
oI recession clothes and Iood are regarded as more important than a well-tended
lawn.
Green spaces are subject to mid and long-term trends and have to be adapted in their
use and design accordingly. Changes in use take place automatically, but with some
planning and managing the new structures will be more eIIicient and better adapted.
This concerns the change oI use Irom built-up areas to green spaces and also the diI-
Ierent uses within the categories oI green spaces, Ior example, Irom agricultural areas
to parks or golI courses, Irom keeping cattle to keeping horses, and Irom meadows or
cereals to more intensive Iruit and vegetable growing in the urban Iringe.
References :
GreiI, F., PIusterschmid, S. and Wagner, K., 2002. Agricultural Development Plan, in:
Planning Ior Sustainability, Eisenbeiss, R., Buerger-Arndt, R. (eds.), Kessel, Remagen,
Oberwinter, 2002. (www.naturalresources.de)
GreiI, F., PIusterschmid, S and Wagner, K., 2002. Beitràge :ur Landwirtschaftlichen
Raumplanung (complex description oI the methods oI evaluating agricultural Iunctions and an
empirical example in German with an English summary), SchriItenreihe der Bundesanstalt
Iür AgrarwirtschaIt No. 93, Vienna, 2002
278
279
The greenery in some French new towns
Bernard Duhem
1
, Ann Caroll Werquin
2

1. French Ministry Ior Public Works, France
Bernard.Duhem¸equipement.gouv.Ir
2. Thales consultancy, France wthales¸club-internet.Ir
1 New towns in French planning
1.1 Background
In the 1960s the French government decided to create new towns. 'The drawing up
of Structure Plans for Paris and others large French metropolitan areas shows the
necessitv of creating reallv new urban settlements in order to create a human, well-
functioning and controlled urban development,¨ stated the Prime Minister Georges
Pompidou (4/04/1966).
This major action addressed such questions as traIIic jams in the capital, underground
utilities in the outskirts, speculation with rising land prices, and, above all, the need
to create a better liveability Ior inhabitants and relationships with a pleasant environ-
ment and places oI leisure. The strategy oI new towns involved experimenting with
the renewing oI practices (in civic design, in management) and tools.
Five new towns exist in the Paris region and Iour in the other Regions, close to large
cities. The Parisian new towns are thirty kilometres Irom the centre oI Paris, near
water-leisure centres located on the rivers and adjacent to motorways junctions.
The views on the Regional reshaping have proved to be relevant: they had an eIIective
role in addressing metropolitan congestion and general spatial segregation, with the
result that a balanced development was ensured and new towns are now urban centres
Ior very large perimeters.
The new towns are structured bodies, neither satellites nor autonomous, but rather
they now Iorm a planned nucleus in a polycentric city-region, oIIering good acces-
sibility, dynamics in the employment market, and a large range oI amenities.
1.2 The major part played by State in the creation of real towns
New towns were created beIore the laws on decentralisation intervened. Municipalities
were not convinced about such an approach in which, moreover, they were losing some
oI their own power in urban planning. They Ielt reluctant about the State`s involve-
ment in laying-out and planning the space, and were concerned about the high density
designated Ior the housing stock oI the town centres; they wanted to regain their Iull
role. The State maintained its leadership oI the development, however, organising the
overall strategy and designating the perimeters Ior the built-up area and also Ior the
provision oI green belt status Ior each new town, in eIIect taking decisions Ior the
whole project. This role was made easier by direct central government investment or
Iunding and by speciIic legal, administrative and Iinancial tools, which proved highly
eIIective.
Protected Regional Natural Parks were also created adjacent to the new towns.
Two oI the Parisian parks are Iocused on here, in particular as they relate to green
structures and urban planning, as these topics Iormed a major part oI the innovative
ideas that were developed and yet had not been studied in depth.
1.3 Well-organised towns
The challenge at the outset was to create signiIicant urban nodes located on Ilat
cultivated land, in large greened areas dominating the rivers. The centres were built
according to Iunctional rigid` drawings, alternating strong pieces oI architecture with
corridors Ior traIIic and green spaces. The tower blocks oI apartments, with innova-
tive architectural Iorms, were a testimony to the strong assumption oI modern values
and the need to encourage use oI public transport and local amenities; the numer-
ous green parks and natural spaces were meant to demonstrate that the urban nodes
were each separate Irom one another. The backbone oI the urban settlements was the
new system oI major roads designed by engineers with whom the planners had to
combine, and which gave that rigid shape that was diIIicult to overcome aIterwards.
Greenways` Iree Irom cars were included in the Iirst new build; these have retained
their qualities in daily liIe.
1.4 Difficulties, especially in social development
New towns had diIIiculties to overcome Irom the beginning. The planners` view was
to have high density and modern architecture in the town centre, resulting in a vibrant
inner city where many people would live together (and where people could prom-
enade side by side in the outdoor spaces). This idealistic view had stiII competition
Irom the overwhelming success oI owner-occupier detached houses, also Iavoured
by State policy. Due to this competition and to a long period oI economic depres-
sion, selling the Ilats in tower blocks proved to be diIIicult and increasingly the given
balance between social housing and the Iree market, and between rented and owner-
occupied property was not respected. As a result, the apartment blocks in high-density
central neighbourhoods are now more dedicated to low-income residents than had
been predicted. New towns in general are above the regional average in the proportion
oI less well-oII residents, a development that has resulted in some quarters in poverty
(with the local population experiencing diIIiculties including unemployment, unrest
and Ieelings oI insecurity), which is being combated but nevertheless is responsible
Ior an overall Ialse perception about urban density and the compact city.
2 Features of the new towns: high density and green at the same
time
2.1 Not as high density as usually thought
Residents view new towns as high-density localities (almost too much so), which is
280
not actually true according to the number oI inhabitants and jobs per hectare. The
sense oI high density comes Irom the vistas oI tall buildings and housing blocks with
a similar number oI residents per block. Tall buildings that are seemingly hallmarks
in some town centres have been caught up in the conIusion between high density, the
poverty oI the residents and the lack oI comIort in the actual housing. This has led to a
global misjudgement about high density. The overall average density is low compared
to Paris, a continuous built canvas, which, with an average oI Iive-storied blocks and
a lot oI jobs available, has double the number oI city dwellers/jobs compared to the
most high-density oI new towns.
Urban density could not be adopted to the extent that had been planned originally,
in the implemented Iorms that are now criticised. Subject to a good level oI public
utilities, densiIication could be experimented within the new towns on the land still
available Ior urbanisation, but it was mainly viewed with suspicion locally.
Another hallmark the density oI new towns related to the high internal density oI
housing (several members per Iamily per dwelling). The number oI large Iamilies
living there was the highest in the Ile-de-France Region (3.09 residents per dwelling
in 1999).
2.2 A central part played by the green structure
The increasing need Ior nearby green spaces and leisure-places was Ioreseen. The
greenspace provision was regarded as important. 50-100 square metres oI green sur-
Iace per capita was required and greenery was to be widely dispersed: parks reaching
the centre, large treed avenues, numerous small greened squares, green corridors sep-
arating the neighbourhoods and preserved cultivation surrounding the whole area.
Due to the paradoxical elements: tall, landmark buildings in the centre, the omnipres-
ence oI green, residents Ielt uncomIortable when having to give an overall image oI
their cities and to choose between saying whether they were high density (pejorative)
or green (valuable). Both points oI view expressed their Ieelings.
Furthermore, the large extent oI green spaces integrated within the most high-density
sectors was not in itselI a Iactor oI quality oI liIe: the green spaces themselves could
not counteract the all too obvious urban design and architecture. The rigid` appear-
ance dominated. In addition, the large urban parks very close to the less well-oII
residents created problems, since they were viewed as part oI the out oI Iavour` area
by other residents, and so they did not provide as many opportunities Ior relaxation
as envisaged.
2.3 New towns have an acquired knowledge about the compact urban fabric and
comfort
Several models oI the urban Iabric were tested (with layout principles and densities
varying Irom one new town to another), in order to get varied neighbourhoods and to
get a balance between blocks oI apartments and one-Iamily houses (not rejected but
with no suburban sprawl), with a strong requirement Ior the green qualities necessary
Ior both Iorms oI housing to value urban comIort in modern liIe.
281
The many options about neighbourhoods and green advantages in housing were quot-
ed as good conditions by all inhabitants both the well-oII and the poorest Iamilies
as shown in research studies.
3 Green structure and human issues: findings from Evry and Cergy,
two of the Parisian new towns
3.1 Global findings, green components are part of the qualities
The green structures oI the new towns are highly regarded, demonstrating a well-
designed environment. They are not the hallmark oI a new town but contribute to its
liveability and strengthen the image oI some popular sectors, even iI they cannot do
much to help those out oI Iavour (see section 1 above).
In contrast to most oI the planning principles oI the original concept, which gave a
rigid urban Iorm and were abandoned and replaced by a traditional urban canvas,
(making architecture, new streets and public spaces look like the Parisian`s ones and
mixing pedestrians and cars), the large provision oI green spaces and the way oI
using green components has proved long lasting. Real, separate parks (not just green
wedges surrounding housing blocks), pocket gardens Ior the use oI nearby residents,
green corridors (cultivated, treed or natural) with greenways allowing cycling or
walking, are all means Ior improving the quality oI liIe. Road aesthetics, also widely
used, may emphasise an image oI a tidy and green city iI done well, slowing traIIic
down and not Iragmenting the urban canvas.
Giving green character is nonetheless transIorming nowadays: there is more use
made oI the site`s values, oI the existing green lines, to correct the anonymous image
(the international style Iavoured in the 1970s) and to retain some cultural Ieatures.
For example, reinIorcing the link to the river and re-creating orchard and meadow
grassland, or having a harbour, with caIes and restaurants making it a most attractive
place.
What was also very relevant in the planning and was successIul in the making oI the
place was the importance oI creating leisure opportunities, oI all kinds. For relaxation,
sport, Iun and games, whether based on the river or enjoying large landscapes and
quiet rural preserved environments within the Natural Parks (one is within touching
distance oI Cergy: the Vexin Irançais`, oIIering various opportunities Ior walking
and entertainment. There is not one in Evry, but the new town owns a protected green
belt and is not Iar Irom two large Iorests open to the public). The context oI natural
and cultivated surroundings continues to be one oI the main attractive Ieatures oI the
new towns.
3.2 Human issues resulting from the research : qualities noted by residents
· Balconies increase the overall feeling of well-being
Large balconies were common in the Iirst generation housing blocks, supposedly
substituting Ior the advantages oI a small garden by saving the soil. An innovative
282
architectural programme oI high-density apartments, built in 1972, all social (rented)
housing by then, ranged Irom six to eleven storeys (and 242 inhabitants per hectare).
Some blocks comprised two hundred dwellings, leading to considerable management
diIIiculties in the common entrances and stairs, and a global negative assessment.
On the other hand, these dwellings were said to be particularly pleasant because oI
the provision oI a balcony, an external room oI Iourteen square metres, with a good
Ieeling oI privacy (because oI skilled design work on the base plan). The interviewed
residents highlighted the main advantages oI the balconies as being an increase in
the liveability oI the dwelling and an improvement in their general well-being. They
spoke oI having a real rest due to:
· Iacilitating a special contact with nature
· giving the opportunity Ior a personal touch in decoration and gardening (not com-
monly provided in rented Ilats)
· keeping some distance Irom the next-door neighbours oI the blocks (important when
there was too little social mix and many noisy youngsters).
̋ A large range of green is valued in the urban environment
The vocabulary used to describe green` in the speciIic development process oI the
new town was extensive (trees along streets or promenades, hedges or shrubs sepa-
rating the paths Irom the roads, cultivated land, woods and lawn occupying the cor-
ridors, allotments, orchards, etc.) It was much appreciated. All this green was said
by the diIIerent residents (oI Ilats or houses, in ownership or rented housing) to be
improving the climate (less hot in summer) and the air quality. River banks were also
valued highly in everyday liIe.
̋ External spaces nearby improve housing conditions
The diversity in size and arrangement oI gardens and green areas nearby was regarded
as a luxury. The wide range oI external spaces, private, semi-public or public, small or
large, covered by grass, wooded or Iarmland, Ior recreation or contemplation, some-
times dedicated to a special use (Ior example, a kindergarten or sport), did bring to
all kind oI residents a better sense oI liveability, inasmuch as it was to be Iound in the
proximity oI homes or not Iar away and well connected by green networks, especially
important Ior kindergartens, and places to play games.
All residents approved oI:
· the cycle tracks and pedestrian network, greened, Ior saIety and pleasure, even
enabling the creation oI personal links between the people and the trees.
· the urban integration. The greenery oI the new town allied with the image oI large,
low-density parts, was quite an idealistic image Ior a considerable range oI residents.
The extended view oI Iarmland outside the perimeter oI the new town was said to
help people to 'breathe¨. The generally green aspect made it easier Ior people com-
ing Irom the countryside or the provincial towns to adapt to the large metropolis.
New towns were oIten their Iirst residence in the Paris Region.
283
· in addition to their usual roles, the large parks were good places to send youngsters,
away Irom high-density or low-rise housing and preventing conIlicts due to noise
and constant movement.
̋ Some types of green spaces influence social relations, depending on the type of
dwellings and the lay out
High-density/low-rise urban Iorms were experimented with quite widely and with
success in the new towns, although the idea itselI was somewhat rejected by the
inhabitants (terraced houses are uncommon in France; urban traditional Iorms are
mainly blocks oI apartments or detached houses, a deep-seated tradition).
These Iorms combine the advantages oI individual green spaces, a nice environment
and social relations. In one oI these units (small blocks oI Ilats, some looking like ter-
raced houses, 206 inhabitants per hectare), the existing private gardens were too tiny
Ior children`s games, Ior having Iriends or relatives, or even Ior growing vegetables.
But they were an important means oI enlarging the dwellings, being an extra room`
Ior dirty work, to enjoy Iine weather on your own, to Iill with Ilowers (they were
oIten densely Iilled, even with small ponds and lots oI Ilowers). The best way to ben-
eIit was just to look, because in these spaces you could hear a lot oI talking outside.
Public grounds in the vicinity were the real place Ior games and social relations. A
public square, usually a hard surIace and centrally located in the lay out oI the plan,
and where shops and the bus stop were, was quoted as being the heart` oI the unit,
giving the neighbourhood the importance oI a village. The elderly spent time there,
whereas children played and congregated in the streets and on the large pedestrian
paths. Residents spoke oI having both the qualities oI a social liIe and oI the natural
environment.
Numerous semi-public small green squares provide Iacilities Ior mothers and chil-
dren. Most sectors oI the new towns are built on the model oI small neighbourhoods
and divided into small units arranged around semi-public green spaces. Flats Ior large
284
French new towns oI Evry (the so-called Pyramids buildings`) and Cergy-Pontoise (public
open space oI Le Grand Axe`)
Iamilies Iacing these plots oI green allowed the residents to let young children play
outside, even when going out to do some local shopping (asking other local people to
keep a keen eye on them). Such social relations involved Iamilies living in the same
squares and were limited by close proximity.
Only larger gardens in low-density areas oI the new town (around 37 inhabitants per
hectare) were used as a playground Ior the children (where they could invite their
Iriends), and Ior social contacts (having relatives Ior a barbecue, etc.). They gave a
higher level oI pleasure and comIort, even iI they did not provide the total quietness
that Iamilies had thought beIore coming. These gardens were less oI a display, being
Iull oI grass and trees, including Iruit trees, and with green hedges. Social relations
existed between Iamilies, inviting the others Ior a drink and so on. Children could
Ieel alone or isolated, however (and also some oI the occupiers); home liIe could be
diIIicult when both parents worked.
̋ Satisfaction for the green spaces but a desire to move when living in some of
the social dwellings
In some way, new towns propose an urban liIe in high-density cities minimising the
inorganic` aspects oI the environment and oIIering individual and collective activi-
ties in green areas.
The interviews undertaken by diIIerent types oI Iamilies and in varying dwellings,
Ilats and individual houses, both cheap and expensive, showed satisIaction about
green structures. The social housing beneIited Irom the advantages oI a small area oI
external space (garden or balcony) and oI useIul vegetated public spaces, which were
appreciated by a large range oI residents.
The burden oI too many social problems had become predominant in the high-density
social housing blocks oI some neighbourhoods. When housed there, Iamilies said that
they would move as soon as they could aIIord it. Some oI the lower- density develop-
ments were more highly regarded. Yet some recent developments involving Ilats to
rent or property where the social composition was balanced careIully and urban Iorms
were skilIully mixed, show the way oI having compact and attractive cities.
Conclusion : Green structure cannot cure all problems
To conclude it can be said that new towns accelerated the making oI greener cities,
invented new procedures Ior regional planning, were a broad Iield Ior experimenta-
tion, and they Iound the way to provide varied private, public or semi-public green
spaces even in high-density housing and are still relevant places to learn Irom today.
They produced insights into a rich vocabulary Ior green` and in pleasant surround-
ings and natural spaces at people`s disposal, and improving living conditions. But,
when social diIIiculties are particularly severe, the green qualities oI the environment
are not suIIicient to help.
285
287
Annex
Data on the two new towns oI Evry and Cergy-Pontoise
Statistics 1999 (1) EVRY CERGY-PONTOISE
Number oI inhabitants 80,500 178,700
Density oI inhabitants per hectare (1999) 26.4 22
Total perimeter oI new town (hectares) 3,049 8,102
SurIace Ior parks 280.9 (9.2°) 1245.8 (15.4°)
SurIace Ior blocks oI Ilats 314 (10°) 326,3 (4°)
SurIace Ior individuals 416 (13°) 1888.6 (23°)
Cultivated land 501.7 1838.3
SurIace oI large inIrastructures 325.7 248.7
(1. Irom the board Ior new towns)
References :
Cadiou, N., Fouchier, V., 1997. Les densitfis de la ville nouvelle dEvrv (Densities in the new
town oI Evry), Ministere de l`Equipement.
Fouchier, V., 1997. Les densitfis urbaines et le dfiveloppement durable, Le cas de l`Ile-de-
France et des villes nouvelles (Urban densities and sustainability, the case oI the Ile-de-France
region and oI the new towns), SGVN.
Demangeon, A., 2000. Analvse de deux cas de densitfi qui ne se voient pas (Analysis oI
two cases oI successIul high density), Ecole d`architecture de Versailles, Ministere de
l`Equipement, des Transports et du logement, DGUHC-PUCA (Plan Urbanisme Construction
Architecture.
Grennscom (European research programme on communication about green structures),
Auclair, E., Vanoni, D., 2002. France, Case Studv. Cergv-Pontoise.
Fouchier, V., 1999. Maîtriser l`etalement urbain (Controlling urban sprawl), Revue 2001
PLUS, 49,.
Roullier, J-E., ,1989, Jilles nouvelles en France (New towns in France), Paris, Economica.
Werquin, A-C., Ministere de l`Equipement, des Transports et du Logement, Ministere de
l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, , 1999. Jille et ficologie, bilan dun pro-
gramme de recherche 1992-1999 (Assessment oI a research programme, the city and ecology)
PUCA, DGUHC.
Web site http://www.villes-nouvelles.equipement.gouv.Ir
286
287
Urban planning for a quality dense green struc-
ture, Stockholm sociotop map and park pro-
gramme
Alexander St‹hle
landscape architect, Phd-student at the School oI Architecture in Stockholm and Ior-
mer green structure planner at the Stockholm City Planning Administration, Sweden.
alexander.stahle¸arch.kth.se
1 Complex planning conditions
Sweden`s capital Stockholm is today recognised as one oI the most attractive and
beautiIul metropolitan areas in Europe. Politics say, 'save¨ and 'grow¨. This is the
situation urban planners Iace: 'promote urban growth while sustaining the city`s
attractivity¨. This challenge is solved, and not solved, diIIerently on diIIerent planning
levels. In the Stockholm Regional Plan (RUFS 2001) regional nodes Ior development
are identiIied as well as the important regional green structure: the 'green wedges¨
that connect the countryside with city centre. The 'wedge¨ concept stands in clear
conIlict with the Regional Plan`s highway plans. The Stockholm City Plan (ÖP-99)
Ior the central municipality says, 'build the city inwards¨, which is an overall in-Iill
strategy in semi central brownIields and public transport nodes. The City Plan also
contains enhancing the characteristic cityscape and saving the existing green structure.
The City Plan does not say anything about how a new green structure can be changed
or should be developed. On the local level detailed plans Ior single plots, (so called
'voids¨) are developed, oIten on green spaces, promoted by building companies, but
with a clear lack oI understanding oI the local public.
Fig 1. Development areas in the Regional plan, the City plan and Local plans
2 Planning policies based on public dialogue
What is missing in urban planning today is thus, an interIace between municipal and
local planning levels and constructive dialogue with stakeholders and the public,
especially about green structure. A green structure that will be aIIected by the planned
regional and municipal development, and not thoroughly planned local plot develop-
ments. To Iace this complex polarisation oI urban interests (save and/or grow) the
Stockholm municipality is developing new planning guidelines, a Park Programme,
partly based on new concepts Ior public interests, the 'sociotop¨. The Sociotop Map
is developed Irom public dialogue, and made Ior planning on city district level (scale
1:10 000), connecting municipal and local levels, city plan and detailed plans. The
urban (green structure) planning is with these tools made to Iocus on qualities and
possibilities oI developing qualities, to deal with growth and open up Ior qualitative
change.
3 The sociotop idea and mapping method
The 'sociotop¨ concept was developed by me and my colleague Anders Sandberg
at the Strategic Department oI the Planning Administration in Stockholm in 2000
1
,
to complement the accepted concept oI the 'biotop¨ (ecologically deIined environ-
ment). We preliminary deIine sociotop, with support Irom environmental psychology,
social anthropology, architecture theory, and phenomenology, as 'The commonly
experienced and used (liIe world) place oI a speciIic culture¨. The concept raises the
questions 'For whom?¨, 'For what?¨ and 'Where?¨. A sociotop map oI a city district
describes the common everyday liIe qualities oI open space, green, grey or blue,
public or private. The 'speciIic culture¨ is in this case the citizens oI Stockholm. The
map is created in the Iollowing way:
1) First open spaces ~ 1 ha are deIined and named, on basis oI basic city-landscape
categories like parks, nature, squares, shores and quays. Also open spaces · 1ha in
built-up areas are deIined depending on density.
2) Secondly, proIessionals (landscape architects) value the open spaces by observa-
tion with protocols, developed Irom international and national research on open space
liIe and evaluations. Park experts as Ior example park- and garden historians are also
engaged.
3) Thirdly, the citizens get the opportunity to value their parks and inIluence the
Sociotop Map through several ¨dialogue activities¨, partly administered by the city
district administrations. On short questionnaires about ¨Iavourite outdoor places¨
posted to adults and personnel at day nurseries and pre-schools, published in the local
news paper, webbIorms at the city district`s websites, interviews and Iocus groups
with youths, adults and elderly people the diIIerent place qualities oI the public are
collected. Environmental psychologist Maria Nordström at Stockholm University
288
developed the latest questionnaires and interview guides. Since 1996 the Stockholm
municipality has carried out 30 inquiries on park and open space qualities and use.
4) This dialogue inIormation is compiled together with the proIessional registrations
into 20 quality-concepts or 'socio-cultural values¨. Then every speciIic place is reg-
istered with its speciIic composition oI values into a sociotop map. The compilation
oI public and expert place inIormation is done through various cross-checkings, place
to place, quality to quality. The quality-concepts are deliberately made to a simple
everyday language (e.g. play, picnic, swimming etc) to work as an interIace, a tool
Ior communication, between the 'public¨ and the 'planner¨. The GIS-based map can
now be used Ior green structure analyses in various urban planning projects.
4 Parks and nature support urban life
Our investigations oI the public opinion and peoples activities conIirm that parks and
nature in the city support urban liIe. Green space supplies the citizens with liIe quali-
ties on shorter (play, peaceIulness etc.) and longer (Iorests, events etc.), distances.
Municipal decisions, mass media, as well as scientiIic and municipal inquiries sug-
gest that this will also be the case in the city`s metropolitan Iuture, that there will be
a need oI:
· peace and relaxation Ior stressed urban inhabitants,
· a diversity oI public meeting places Ior cultural integration,
· a 'second¨ living room Ior people in conIined quarters,
· places Ior inIormal meetings and reIlection Ior businessmen and researchers,
· places Ior the non-organised sports Ior spontaneous activities that complement the
organised elite,
· activity space Ior a sedentary and over-weight city population,
· environments Ior children to discover the world,
· active and social places Ior youths,
· understanding oI ecology, climate and our biological heredity in a world dominated
by the computer screen,
· cleaning the polluted city air,
· maintaining historical places and developing local identity oI the place to counter
globalisation, and
· creating public arenas Ior contemporary art and garden design.
All this can support the city and constitute the basis Ior economic growth, iI also
accessibility, saIety and comIort are taken into account. People and businesses will
choose Stockholm, not only Ior work, shopping, culture and service, but also because
the city has a good distribution oI open space, parks and nature.
5 In-fills mean new green structure
An attractive growing city creates a pressure on urban planning and in-Iill strategies.
289
290
The common response oI the public to in-Iills is green area protection and conserva-
tion, which is an expression oI the areas` great importance. But it is not possible, nor
desirable, to conserve a city, as it is constantly changing and growing. In-Iills and
new dwellings must be related to the supply oI open space qualities oI a project`s
surroundings and oI a city district as a hole. Urban planners and park planners must
look at green space as changeable and moveable, and possible to reconstruct. By
reshaping and creating new green structure at the same time as new buildings and
roads are built, the urban environment can gain in quality, even iI the quantity oI
green space is reduced. The Iact is that buildings (and the people in them) can Iavour
parks as meeting places, but also create peaceIulness, iI located as noise abatement
against heavy traIIic. It is all about making a quality denser city. That kind oI city has
a good distribution oI open space because open space make the city into a diversiIied
environment Ior many liIestyles. Good parks in the inner city also counteract 'urban
sprawl¨, which aIIect many European cities today.
6 Policies and guidelines in the park programme
The Stockholm Park Programme (under developement 2003) is a comprehensive
policy and strategy Ior green space development, partly based on the sociotop-map,
and designed to be an integrated tool in urban planning and design.
The Park Programme has three main goals: 1) good distribution oI parks, 2) sustain-
able park environment and 3) rich park culture. The Iirst goal is turned into dynamic
planning guidelines oI two sorts, qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative
guidelines (B) summarises policies and recommendations Irom the European com-
mission`s Expert Group on the Urban Environment, the Nordic Council oI Ministers,
the National Board oI Housing, Building and Planning and the OIIice oI Regional
Planning and Urban Transportation in Stockholm. The qualitative guidelines (A) are
Irom the Sociotop work in Stockholm, and can be regarded as adapting the European,
national and regional guidelines to the local context.
Fig.2 Stockholm Green Structure Planning System
GOOD DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS
A) Quality dense...
Within 200 m (very close): green oasis, play, peaceIulness, sit in the sun, walking
Within 500 m (close): Ilowers, lively place, picnic, soccer
Within 1 km (on distance): swimming, Iarming, events, Iishing, sledge slope, skating,
Iorest, history, view, water contact, wild nature
B) ...green structure
Within 1 km Nature reserve ~50ha
Within 500 m City district park 5-50ha,
Within 200 m Park block 1-5ha
These guidelines can promote the discussion in the urban planning process about how
a good distribution oI park qualities is IulIilled and what spaces and which places are
needed Ior this object. The overall goal should be a quality dense green structure.
Three main strategies are described in the Park Programme, to reach this goal. The
Iirst is expansion, which means expanding open space due to lack oI space Ior devel-
oping qualities. Second is concentration, which means renewing existing open space
and/or reducing the amount oI open space while improving the leIt over open space.
Concentration has also to do with increasing accessibility, which concerns possibili-
ties to reach a place (e.g. children), the public character oI the place (e.g. economical
interests) and the possibility to walk through the place (e.g. handicapped). The last is
maintenance, which means maintaining well Iunctioning spaces and structures.
Experience show that some qualities, open spaces, need speciIic locations such as
swimming and view. Qualities like peaceIulness and childrens` playing are diIIicult
to superimpose in a park and demand speciIic spaces. Sunbathing and walking can
on the other hand be more easily integrated into a park. Now, quality dense parks
become attractive, which creates high attendance rates, which increases wear and tear.
Sustainability is thus dependent on park size and maintenance. II the green areas are
to remain green and retain their qualities they have to be big enough. At the same time
they have to be a part oI a well-connected green structure to be accessible and simul-
taneously Iunction as a sustainable ecosystem. QualiIied maintenance is crucial.
7 Co-ordination and dialogue between stakeholders
There are many stakeholders that run the public green areas in Stockholm today.
Future green structure planning, projects and maintenance thus demands a dynamic
dialogue between politicians, administrators, keepers, experts and the public to
ensure a quality dense green structure. It is a question oI co-operation and mutual
understanding. It is no use building a good park iI it is not kept well, and it is no use
maintaining a bad park. The users Iirst oI all decide what is 'good¨ or 'bad¨.
291
8 Work in progress and future
The Sociotop Map and the Park Programme guidelines have already been used in
several urban planning projects. In the NW Kungsholmen area (a brown Iield
- development area deIined in the City Plan, also a part oI an inner city district)
analyses oI the 'supply oI parks¨ where made. They resulted in a proposed new park
at the waterIront (today a parking lot, Iirst meant to be housing) and new dwellings
(on existing green space) along a highway to reduce traIIic noise in a reduced, but
improved park. In one case where the urban planners did not take the Sociotop Map in
to consideration (they suggested housing on a very valuable park), the public response
to the plan was so Iierce that the planners had to withdraw their proposal.
Another example is a Iill-in project in the old hospital area oI Sabbatsberg in the inner
city, where the park beside the area oI development had to be improved, with a higher
density oI qualities, due to green space reduction in the city district as a hole. Finally,
analyses oI the dense inner city district oI Östermalm (liked by the 'urbanist¨-archi-
tects) showed that the city district basically IulIilled the guidelines, which is a due to
a good green structure (planning)
2
.
notes :
1.The sociotop concept has also been used by the swedish social psychologist Lars Dencik to
describe children`s social liIe space, networks etc. It has also been used by the German land-
scape architect Werner Nohl to describe types oI urban settlements and their social structure.
Both scientists say that they have used the concept within their own research and that there
does not exist any commonly or scientiIically accepted deIinition.
2. The sociotop model has begun to get attention in other Urban Planning Administrations in
Sweden. E.g. the sociotop-model is starting to be used and promoted by the OIIice oI Regional
Planning and Urban Transportation as a planning tool Ior the 'green wedges¨. (See the report
'Upplevelsevärden¨, in Swedish.) The municipality oI the second biggest city in Sweden
Gothenburg has recently started to make a sociotop map, that in the long run will result in a
new locally based park programme Ior urban development. Six or seven other municipalities
are discussing to begin a sociotop mapping. In Stockholm up until today about 10 maps/
292
Fig.3 Proposals Ior NW Kungsholmen beIore (leIt) and aIter (right) the sociotopwork.
plans/projects has been carried out with the sociotop map and model as a base. Around 20 are
planned or on going in September 2002.
References :
Boverket (National Board oI Housing, Building and Planning). 1999. Gròna omr‹den
i planeringen (Swedish)
Expert group on the Urban Environment, European commission. 2001. Towards a
local sustainabilitv European common indicators
Nordiska ministerrådet (The Nordic Council oI Ministers). 1996. Friluftsliv trenger
mer enn areealer. Tema Nord 1996.591 (Norwegian)
Regionplane- och traIikkontoret (The OIIice oI Regional Planning and Urban
Transportation). 2001. Regionplan Regional utvecklingsplan fòr Stockholms làn
RUFS 2001. Stockholms läns landsting (Swedish)
Regionplane- och traIikkontoret (The OIIice oI Regional Planning and Urban
Transportation). 2001. Upplevelsevärden Sociala kvaliteter i den regionala grön-
strukturen. Stockholms làns landsting, Rapport 2001:4 (Swedish)
Regionplane- och traIikkontoret (The OIIice oI Regional Planning and Urban
Transportation). 1996. Grönstrukturen i Stockholmsregionen. Stockholms làns land-
sting (Swedish)
Stadsbyggnadskontoret. 2001. Stockholms òversiktsplan 1999 ÖP99. Stockholms
stad (Swedish)
Ståhle, A. 2000. Sociotop som redskap i grönområdesplanering. Stockholms stadsby-
ggnadskontor. Rapport SBK 2000:4 (Swedish)
Ståhle, A. & Sandberg, A. 2002. Sociotopkarta fòr parker och andra frivtor i
Stockholms innerstad. Stockholms stadsbvggnadskontor. Rapport SBK 2002:2
(Swedish)
Ståhle, A. & Sandberg, A. 2003. Sociotophandboken. Stockholms stadsbvggnadskon-
tor. Rapport SBK 2003:2 (Swedish)
293
294
A green-network
The integration of the green structure and
the non motorized transport modes` network
Lucia Martincigh
Technology oI Architecture, Department oI Design and Study oI the Architecture,
University oI Rome Tre, Rome, Italy martinci¸uniroma3.it
Introduction
Many researches were Iunded by the European Commission to promote sustainable
mobility in the IV and V F.P.; some were related to the improvement oI the urban
structure to promote non motorized transport modes, and in particular cycling and
walking, Ior covering short distances inside the cities.
1
In the Iirst researches, saIety was the most deepened aspect, while the other require-
ments were touched only on the surIace, but the latest researches went much more in
depth on the issue, trying to understand what had to be changed in the urban environ-
ment to make it more suitable to pedestrians` and cyclists` expectations.
In these Iew notes, I`ll deal with pedestrian mobility themes, Iocusing on the relation
between natural Ieatures and walking environment, to point out which is the role that
the green structure, under its many diIIerent Iorms, plays, or could play, Ior improving
such urban outdoor spaces.
I will point out which are the main problems related to this aspect, and the suggested
solutions, reIerring to some oI the results oI the researches I have participated to, and
in particular oI PROMPT.
2

It is necessary a premise: here walking is not considered as a leisure activity but as a
transport mode and the 'human issues¨ perspective is considered, instrumentally, as
the leading one.
The methodology
To understand which were the most important aspects to Iace Iirst, it was used a dou-
ble approach: a technical one matched with a social sciences one, that makes possible
to check the consistency among experts` and users` points oI view, between objective
data and subjective Ieelings. ThereIore, Ior understanding which are the actual prob-
lems, and also eventual qualities, various methods and tools, Irom rigorous scientiIic
criteria to subjective assessments, depending on the case, were applied in selected
case studies.
The methodology obviously is based on the collaboration oI experts with diIIer-
ent backgrounds and on the interIacing oI the techniques used in the various Iields
involved in the project.
By the analysis oI various requirement classes and environment perIormances: acces-
294
sibility, saIety, comIort, attractiveness and oIIer oI intermodality, and by the interIace
between demand and oIIer, many detailed problems came out; an interrelation matrix
highlighted their recurrence and eventual interIerences, showing how to group them
in classes oI problems; these classes contain at the same time the physical, social
and psychological issues, which contribute to the inappropriateness oI the pedestrian
urban environment. Such grouping takes to think in an holistic way to solutions sat-
isIying contemporarily diIIerent requirements and involving various Ieatures oI the
outdoor environment.
The problem: the lack or insufficiency of natural features
Among the various classes oI problems, one is strictly connected to the topic at
hand: 'lack or insuIIiciency oI natural Ieatures¨. Such shortage was detected by the
researchers on the base oI survey and data analysis and through the involvement, by
various means, oI the dwellers. From the experts` enquiry resulted that: the percent-
age oI green areas (parks and gardens; trees, bushes, hedges, green surIaces along the
paths) in some case was not adequate; the distance oI the parks Irom the residences
was sometimes too long to be walked easily; the green spaces didn`t constitute a
structure and the density oI the green network, iI existing, was very low; generally,
the green value oI the places was not enhanced by proper lighting at night; the green-
ery was not characterized by a good variety oI species; the quiet paths in the nature
were missing or were straight and long, without sense oI space; the water sources
were lacking or had a bad aspect; the maintenance oI all the green or blue spaces was
very low; and Iinally, there was a lack oI animal liIe.
The dwellers detected most oI the over said problems, underlining the lack oI vegeta-
tion in general and, Ior the existing green areas, their distance Irom home, their design
sometime too Iormal to be used, the lack or bad look oI water sources, but above all
the scarce lighting and the lack oI security, the lack oI maintenance and the invasion
oI dog droppings, the lack oI drinking Iountains. People`s mental maps and in depth
interviews put clearly in evidence also the various roles played by the green Iactor,
when present.
The 'lack or insuIIiciency oI natural Ieatures¨ has some relation with other classes
oI problems as: 'shortage oI pedestrian spaces physically and socially appropriate¨;
'low maintenance and management oI open spaces¨; 'lack and unaptness oI light-
ing¨; 'lack, deIiciency or distance oI everyday services, Iacilities and commercial
activities¨; 'physical, visual and psychological interIerence with vehicular mobility¨;
'insuIIiciency or lack oI Ieatures increasing the Ieeling oI identity and orientation¨;
'bothersome environment¨; 'lack oI security¨.
ThereIore to the problems concerning the lack oI green, others have to be added, per-
taining to other classes, but concerning the wrong use oI green elements in relation
to the activity oI walking and to people requirements. Badly located trees, or other
greenery, causing bottlenecks, have to be blamed Ior the scarce accessibility along the
295
walkways. Some Ieatures are to be blamed Ior the lack oI saIety oI use by pedestrians,
above all by the most vulnerable ones (disabled people, elderly and children): the
incorrect plantation oI trees causes their roots to bump or break the pavement, creat-
ing an uneven surIace on the walkways; the Iallen rotten leaves, leIt on the pavement,
Iorm a slippery carpet; the choice oI evergreen trees along the walkways, in very cold
climate, shadowing the pavement, maintains it icy longer. Badly located trees, bushes
or hedges next to junctions, diminishing the visibility oI people crossing, above all oI
children, have to be blamed Ior the lack oI saIety by car traIIic accidents. The trees`
Ioliage sometimes shades the lighting causing problems oI visibility and oI personal
saIety. Wrong species or bad locations oI trees are to be blamed Ior bad thermal com-
Iort in summer or in winter.
People detected also other problems, not directly related to the issue, but that could be
possibly solved by natural Ieatures: the lack oI space Ior children to play in, the lack
oI elements helping orientation, the presence oI long detours in their daily itineraries,
oI unshielded large parking areas, oI bad dimensional relation between buildings`
height and streets` width, oI bothersome noise levels, oI disturbing smells.
The solution: pedestrian network plus green structure
For answering to the 'lack or insuIIiciency oI natural Ieatures¨, considered Irom the
pedestrian mobility perspective, many solutions have been proposed; by a careIul
analysis and integration oI the concepts that were behind them, it was possible to
arrange some oI these solutions in a Iramework that Ioreshadows a possible scenario,
suggesting what to do and how to do it, and tracing a broad outline oI applicable
measures; these suggestions can be tailored, time by time, to the speciIic case`s envi-
ronmental and technical Ieatures.
For making walking a more and more appealing mode oI transport, the shiIt needs to
be characterized by some additional value. The alternation oI built and open spaces, iI
densely interconnected, can constitute a varied and interesting sequence that appeals
to pedestrians; iI green and blue structures are integrated to the grey ones, a network
oI pleasant and comIortable paths, usable to reach on Ioot various parts oI the city,
can become an alternative to the car Ior short trips.
This envisagement is supported by the approach to street design proposed by PIARC
Technical Committee on Roads in Urban Areas
3
. The streets, being elements oI urban
design, have many Iunctions to perIorm; they are related to traIIic, urban planning,
social, ecological and economic aspects, and can be combined depending on the spe-
ciIic street role and Ieatures. Here is interesting to consider the integration oI three
prevalent Iunctions: the signiIicance oI the street within the townscape, the street as
an appropriate space to host walking and its backing social and recreational activities,
the street as regulator oI microclimate and as ecological corridor.
People wish to have a variety oI paths in their neighbourhood or town to use depend-
ing on their needs and moods: lively or quiet, among activities or in the nature. For
oIIering a varied and becoming itinerary, the pedestrian network, in some sections,
296
could overlap with the green structure and become a green network. It is then neces-
sary to veriIy iI and how these two systems can be integrated Ior creating an alterna-
tive green network: an archipelago oI larger and smaller islands, more or less green,
joined by a system oI isthmus, more or less large and green, that hosts pedestrians
together with some kind oI plant and animal liIe
Actually, this could be done using squares, widenings and walkways that could be
made greenish and put in sequence with the various green areas that are in the city,
public or private, with the aim to constitute appropriate itineraries Ior non motorized
mobility, leading to everyday liIe attraction poles. Such network, Iormed oI diIIerent
types oI spaces: parks and paved spaces with some green, large wooded areas and
small patches oI grass, rows oI overarched trees lining the streets and green Iacades,
lawns and green rooIs, places where man`s presence is rare and others where it is
very high, depending on their location in the town, reaches two aims: shorter, more
appealing and comIortable paths Ior everyday shiIts, and more green in the city. Such
synergy could cause besides the mutual beneIits also other consequences; Ior example
the added value oI the green could win some people resistance to walk, at least Ior '30
minutes a day¨, as suggested by the WHO campaign Ior a better health.
The Iocus is then on which could be the possibilities, and the limits, oI making the
green spaces, existing inside the 'city oI stone¨, interact with the spaces in which
people walk, or should walk.
The design of the green network
Pedestrians are not an homogeneous group and then both complains and desires diI-
Ier, depending on their gender and age, travel habits and cultural background, and
some times are not compatible; it is then important to deIine priorities and check
compatibilities to determine an achievable satisIaction level, based on a diIIerentiated
design oI the space that makes it usable and enjoyable by diIIerent users.
People`s problems, wishes and hints are all very important Ior deIining some Iirst
technical suggestions congruent with all the expressed requirements, as the bright
and the dark sides oI the green spaces, Ior considering all the positive or negative
consequences oI the vegetation use on the urban environment; they should be put
in a check list to be used at the beginning, or at the end, oI the project, to be sure oI
considering all the involved aspects.
The theoretic network has to identiIy with the real situation, making use oI the urban
environment propositions oIIered time by time. The possible coexistence between
natural and human liIe, will have diIIerent prevalence oI the two depending on the
types oI green and grey spaces, and oI their characteristics. The Ieatures oI the net-
work and oI its paths are related to the over said Iunctions and belong to diIIerent
categories. Some oI them are related to objective parameters, as dimension, morphol-
ogy, architectural and natural elements, materials, colours etc., others are related to
perceptive, thence subjective, aspects. The latter are very important to be considered
Ior the wished added value oI the network. The Iollowing indications are both quan-
297
titative and qualitative, and consider various requirements at the same time, even iI
reIerring mainly to one.
Some general guidelines
The green network must be dense so to be easily reached by every dweller who wants
to move on Ioot Ior reaching the various attraction poles, among which also the areas
Iorming the green structure; they have thereIore to be at about Iour hundred meters
one Irom the other. This is a way to make the green arrive also into the core oI the
city. The links to the nodes oI the system must be as short as possible, use the exist-
ing green areas or skirt water sources (rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, sea etc.)
or be designed on purpose. A value equal or less than 1.4 Ior the ratio oI the 'actual
distance¨ to 'beeline¨ guarantees a good eIIiciency oI the network as regards acces-
sibility; to this aim, shortcuts can be planned using public parks and gardens, but also
private green spaces, as inner courtyards.
The links have to be designed as linear green spaces to be used by all classes oI users,
Ior everyday needs or Ior recreation, as paths to green nodes, public services, attrac-
tion poles and transport interchange points. II they have to Iacilitate besides walking
also moving around, resting, talking, playing etc., they have to be equipped with
various Iacilities and present various typologies oI vegetation, Ior creating a relaxing
atmosphere, Ior supporting unoIIicial meeting places and social relation. To this aim,
the minimum width has to be around six/seven meters, preIerably more whenever
possible. Adjacent private green, iI designed with loose borders, becomes part oI the
greenscape oI the pedestrian path, a transition element between open public and built
private space; appropriate conventions with private owners can be a useIul tool to
gain more visual width.
These links have to guarantee comIort (thermal, visual, acoustic, olIactory, tactile,
respiratory, hygienic etc.) to pedestrians. Vegetation to this aim can help very much
iI well studied; besides providing shadow to the users, it inIluences the gradient oI
temperature as well as the hygrometry, and improves the ventilation in summer; it can
be used to cut the wind and to oIIer some kind oI shelter against the rain in colder
climate. It is though very important to design Ior all the seasons, or at least Ior the
ones that present heavier problems; in temperate climate the use oI deciduous trees
seems preIerable on pedestrian paths. Moreover, to avoid the various problems men-
tioned ahead, beIore making any choice it is important to check the sun height and
path, the trees` height and growth time, the Ioliage width and density, the length oI the
leaIy period and the space occupied by the roots. Hedges and espaliers can shield the
direct contact with pollutants, above all Ior children, and, integrating speciIic techni-
cal devices, can also diminish noise. Natural elements, as scented green species and
sweet-smelling Ilowers, running and gurgling water, singing birds and rustling Ioliage
can help blind people to orientate and can be used to disguise bothersome aspects oI
the environment, as bad odours and traIIic noise. Together with the green colour, they
298
communicate at psychological level a Ieeling oI Ireshness and serenity.
This green network, using diIIerent kind oI vegetation, can help the Ilora and Iauna
regeneration, and increase people direct contact, and thence knowledge oI natural liIe,
and possibility oI exercising the Iive senses. In choosing the green species though, it
has to be considered that some can cause an allergy, and then at least the ones that are
the most dangerous Ior people have to be avoided. At the same time, also the ones that
are not resistant to the man attempts, as exhaust emissions, no watering and exploited
soil, have not to be used, at least Ior the lines oI trees along the roads. It is always
important to remember that the project concerns the coexistence oI nature and man,
and then it is needed a good balance among positive and negative aspects oI both;
Ior example the choice oI the type oI vegetation has to be made considering to attract
birds species that are good insect and parasite eaters but do not worsen path hygienic
conditions. Some areas oI lawn could be reserved Ior dogs, both Ior their exercise,
without interIering with children security, and Ior their bodily needs, without Iouling
the pedestrian paths and areas.
The green network can have an inIluence also at a larger scale; tree lined streets and
appropriate location oI squares and gardens improve also the environment microcli-
mate on its whole; linear green paths, iI wide enough and richly planted, can act as
buIIer zones among residences and street activities and traIIic, Iiltering and abating,
a little bit, air and acoustic pollution.
For the eIIiciency oI the mobility system, the green links must guarantee the continu-
ity oI the itinerary at the crossings with vehicular traIIic; Ior people walking in such
idyllic environment, unexpected conIlict points are very dangerous; it becomes then a
must to give priority to pedestrians also at crossings and to make this evident Ior car
drivers by design, perhaps 'green¨.
For the townscape Iunction, the orientation and the visual appeal oI the paths are very
important; thereIore their design, besides making use oI the various built environ-
ment characteristics, can make use also oI the green environment qualities. Spatial
hierarchy improves the legibility oI the urban structure, thereIore diIIerent scales oI
green spaces with diIIerent characteristics and use should be planned; the adventure
quality oI the spaces can be achieved by the variety oI the landscape and its details,
by the various green species and types oI water sources. The seasonal variations oI the
vegetation, that relate people to the natural cycles and to the Ilowing oI time, help to
develop local identity. Orientation and sense oI belonging are helped by landmarks in
the streetscape, which can be built or made by natural elements: a wood, a beautiIul
big tree or a gorgeous Ilowering bush can play the same role than a square, a steeple
or a statue. Too wide spaces can be re-balanced to become at human scale by the use
oI tree lines, bushes, hedges and Ilowerbeds. Green wings along the path can shield
traIIic and the view oI big parking lots.
The presence oI more green has also many psychological eIIects, the most important
being the decrease oI urban stress, but can also make people Ieel in danger. In the
design, it is very important to Ioster the Ieeling oI security by paying very much atten-
299
300
tion to the shielding eIIect oI the green elements and to the importance oI an appropri-
ate lighting to compensate it. Some physical or visual continuity between the green
path and the adjacent space must always be kept; no too long stretches oI path, Iar
away Irom lived in buildings that create a permeable interIace with windows, doors,
lights, have to be planned; the type oI lights and their location have to be chosen in
accordance with the green elements project, that has to be made Iirst to meet the other
requirements.
Lighting is one oI the main aspects oI the green network design, because it has many
roles: it improves accessibility and saIety oI use along the paths, and saIety Irom traI-
Iic accidents at the eventual junctions; it communicates a sense oI personal security;
Iinally, it enhances the qualities oI the surrounding natural landscape. In making such
lighting project it is needed a high expertise Ior maintaining a good visual comIort
Ior the users, without glaring, light pollution towards the sky and too much inconve-
nience Ior animal nightliIe.
To sum up, the chosen solutions must be appropriate to the path three-dimensional
space, must satisIy the requirements, but must also leave to people some Ireedom in
interpreting the places and in ideating possible uses.
The conditions
The dimension and the impact oI the green spaces, the choice oI vegetation and its
relevance, the use oI water and presence oI Iacilities depend on the width oI the space
that is at disposal, or that can be acquired. Also abandoned areas can be reused Ior the
scope, as railway tracks, industrial sites, decontaminated tips etc.
For the success oI the project and oI the implementation, three more aspects have to
be considered. First, the need to put together diIIerent disciplines and expertise, Ior
handling the integrated approach oI the design, and to Iind a common language and
shared values to be achieved. Second, the need to Iace the maintenance oI the green
Figure 1: Structuring the green network
Figure 2: A proposal Ior an integrated net-
work (Laurea Degree Thesis, proI. Lucia
Martincigh, student Alessandra Mannetti)
network already at design stage; thereIore in the choice oI the vegetation species,
many aspects have to be considered: the use oI autochthonous plants (iI they dem-
onstrated to be able to survive to the actual urban environment and worse liIe condi-
tions), the watering and cultivation needs, etc. II the green spaces show to be derelict,
people desert them at once, not only because they are not beautiIul anymore, but also
because they are Ielt at once dangerous. Third, the need to involve the citizens in the
process, with two aims: to arise their awareness on the topic, and to have dwellers
and managers participating to the development oI the project, to the Iinancing and to
the maintenance.
Notes :
1. ADONIS, CAPTURE, DUMAS, OPIUM, PRIVILEGE, PROMISING, STAIRS, WalCyng
IV F.P. ; ECOCITY, ISHTAR, PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SUTRA, TRANSPLUS
in the cluster LUTR V F.P.
2. PROMPT new means to PROMote Pedestrian TraIIic in cities¨ (2000 2003), E.C. V
Framework Programme (Key Action 'The City oI Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage) co-ordi-
nator : Kari Rahuala, VTT, FI, partners: Lucia Martincigh, DiPSA, I; Willie Huessler, IBV,
CH, Liv Ovstedal, SinteI, N, Philippe Hanocq, LGU-CRAU, B, Catia Rennesson, CERTU, F,
Bernard Patrice, CETE, F. http://prompt.vtt.Ii
3. PIARC Technical Committee on Roads in Urban Areas, 'The urban road network design
New approaches¨, report, 1991.
References :
Alexander, C. et al.,1977. A Pattern Language, OxIord University press, New York,
New York State, USA
Beer, A.R. and Higgins, C., 2000. Environmental Planning for Site Development,
E&FN SPON, London, GB,
Gehl, J., 1991. Jita in citta. Spa:io urbano e rela:ioni sociali (Livet mellem usen),
Maggioli Editore, Rimini, I
Gunnarsson, S.O., 1995. Problems and needs oI pedestrians, in: IAQSST Research,
Vol.19, n.2,
Lynch, K., 1971. Limmagine della citta (The image of the citv), Marsilio Editori,
Padova, I
Lynch, K., 1971. Site planning, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Lynch, K., 1996. Progettare la citta La qualita della forma urbana (A theory oI
good city Iorm), ETASLIBRI, Milano, I,
Martincigh, L., 2002. Urban Quality and design Ior pedestrians, in: Fleury, D.,
edited by, A citv for pedestrians . policv making and implementation, Final Report
COST Action C6, OIIice Ior OIIicial Pubblications oI the European Communities,
Luxembourg,
ZaIIagnini, M., edited by, 1994. Architettura a misura duomo (Architecture at man
size), Pitagora Editrice Bologna, Bologna, I.
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302
Practices in planning and design of
urban green areas in Belgium
Philippe Hanocq
Architect, Engineer and Urban planner
Research centre Ior land use and urban planning
University oI Liege, Belgium p.hanocq¸ulg.ac.be
In most developed and urbanised nations, the green areas are in a permanent dialectic
relationship with the built areas. It is noticeable that natural and urbanised spaces
are the contrasted but complementary Iacets oI a unique development process, oI a
same 'rationality¨ producing comparable human arteIacts. So, the (sterile) opposition
between the 2 types oI 'produced¨ landscapes (natural and built) seems a rearguard
question, since green areas are more or less considered, in theory at least, as essen-
tial components oI the urban development whatever its scale and its purpose may be
(Irom the global town`s project to the particular square`s development project).
Nevertheless, considering the competition between urban Iunctionalities and other
Iinancial stakes, green areas are extremely vulnerable and generally under valued so
that each development project requires in Iact particularly convincing argument in
order to create or simply maintain such areas, or even to introduce them as a crucial
component oI the project.
Through concrete examples oI planning and design at 3 diIIerent scales in Belgium,
this paper tries to put into the light a maximum oI elements contributing to such argu-
ment.
First case : Implementation of green areas through strategic planning
at the global city scale
EUPEN is a middle-
sized town (East oI
Belgium) character-
ised by a relatively
dense central area,
but at the same time,
green open Iields are still existing inside or at the Iringe oI this central area.
302
Early nineties, the local authorities decided to control the town development, Iaced
with a strong pressure Ior new urbanisation, an economic mutation Irom industry to
services and a great demand Ior new equipment. Leaning on strategic urban planning,
it was argued that the existing green / blue structures could be an important compo-
nent oI the municipal development project. So, a green / blue network system was
planned and designed, Ior which the main development lines are the Iollowing :
· A major role oI the green / blue network is to oIIer EASY and ATTRACTIVE
CONNECTIONS Ior pedestrians and cyclists to the main amenities oI the city and to
link the multiIunctional central area with the surrounding residential areas and with
the natural sites on the outside. For this, green paths are planned on existing vacant
Iields in the valleys (thalweg) oI the small rivers and streams crossing the city in
order to Iind low slope and to guarantee accessibility and continuity oI the itineraries
across the central area and to the outside.
· It was decided to enlarge as much as possible these basic green / blue network, in
order to provide not only Iunctional links but also a nice quiet place Ior the dwellers,
at the scale oI the city, inviting Ior promenade, social live and eco-education Ior the
children. So a concept oI structuring 'LINEAR PARKS¨ serving all the neighbour-
hoods across the city was proposed.
· The very sloping hillsides were 'naturally¨ included in the green network, with the
ambition to re-build through greenery, LANDSCAPE COHERENCE and the previ-
ously destroyed legibility oI the rivers sites.
· The building oI 'VEGETAL SCENERY¨ is a crucial point oI the project. The vegeta-
tion is structured by sequences, Irom Iully organised landscapes in the central area
(either on the model oI 'English parks¨ with exotic plants / trees or plantation oI old
varieties oI Iruit trees remaining the previous orchards. The harvesting oI the Iruits
is by the way an occasion Ior attractive seasonal entertainment among the children
and the city dwellers), to semi-natural and natural landscapes at the Iringe oI the city
and outside, at the junction with protected natural zones.
· The city, already owner oI some parts oI these Iields, is trying to own some new
strategic plots and also to negotiate the re-development into green areas oI potential
Iuture industrial wastelands in the valleys (restoration oI brownIields), in order to
anticipate the modiIications in the industrial structure and to constitute some land
reserves Ior programmed public equipment and eventually housing, while maintain-
ing suIIicient green open areas.
· In some cases, particularly in the central area, the parks are partially used to promote
new housing development in order to prevent Ilight oI the dwellers to the outskirts.
It was assumed that such a green, quiet environment could be particularly attractive
Ior top oI the range housing, while valuing the green areas iI the implementation
was adapted (new buildings are planned to surround the green area and to showing
'noble Iaçades¨ instead oI rear oI buildings.
· The green structure is supposed to IulIil Iunctional, landscape and patrimonial roles
but also to have positive ecological / environmental impact. A part oI the green areas
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304
intends to host wild animal live. Some parts are also voluntary maintained as 'natu-
ral Ilooding areas¨ related to the rivers and in connection with still existing nature
reserves at the Iringe oI the city. The entire park areas are also permeable surIaces,
used to Ieed the water table.
· The green structure is as Iar as possible extended to the next streets in order to
improve the visual environment Ior the dwellers and to attract them to use regularly
the green connections as pedestrians or cyclists, having at the same time a positive
impact on the motorised traIIic.
· Finally, the green network is supposed to answer to this question : 'how to manage
the growth oI the city in order to maintain a cohesion between the oldest and the
newest developments through providing attractive and comIortable public green
areas ?¨
Second case : A development project for a brand new planned neighbourhood
based on the creation of a structuring green area
ROCOURT is a district in the
expanding periphery oI the city
oI Liege.
Very recently, the concerned
municipalities agreed to plan
on this area a brand new neigh-
bourhood on huge industrial
wastelands (150 hectares previously coal mining area), comprising dense housing
(generally multi storeys housing), craIt industries, public equipment and structuring
green areas in order to restore a minimum oI COHERENCE to the whole site and to
oIIer ADEQUATE CONNECTIONS between these new neighbourhood to the other
parts oI the conurbation.
In Iact, the Iollowing argument was developed :
· A 'GREEN LINK¨ dedicated to pedestrians and cyclists is aiming to structure the
whole area. It connects two green landmarks : a major regional path network dedi-
cated to not motorised users established on ancient railway tracks on one hand and
a green old slag heap (now a nature reserve) on the other hand. The centre oI the
municipality oI Ans can be reached, by Ioot or cycle, via this link (¹/- 1 Km). The
green area is an eIIective Iunctional link Ior not motorised users but it is at the
same time an obstacle (even a block) Ior the motorised ones (through traIIic is not
allowed across the green area).
· Along this Green Link, a big area mixing housing and activities is planned. A
main challenge was then to oIIer a GRATIFYING IMAGE as well as an INTERNAL
COHESION to the whole project. Indeed, this zone is actually suIIering oI bad envi-
ronmental and poor social liIe conditions. The public areas are poor and very sparse.
Vegetation is limited to private properties (gardens), to industrial wastelands and to
motorway embankments, and thereIore not accessible. The 'mineralization¨ oI large
areas (extended parking lots, roads, huge buildings) creates an inhospitable 'micro-
climate¨ : excessive ventilation, dust, aggressive dryness, reverberation and heat in
summer, cold in winter etc. The noise oI the motorised traIIic is too loud. The idea
was then to provide a large, quiet and beautiIul public green area and to organise
the housing (¹/- 2000 additional households) and the activities around it. The green
area was presented as a real opportunity and a necessary basic condition in order to
attract people and activities and so to induce urbanization.
· Moreover, the green area was an opportunity to optimise the COMFORT oI the
Iuture residents. It deIines compartments more or less independent, in order to cre-
ate 'close rooms¨ Iavourable to social liIe and also in order to avoid disturbances
between Iunctions (Ior instance housing and industry) or Irom the traIIic pollutions.
Here again, the visual coherence comes Irom the green area, supposed to soIten the
great architectural diIIerences between residential and industrial buildings.
· The green area is a WITNESS OF THE HISTORY oI the site (cultural role) : it inte-
grates the old water pumping system oI the coal mines (a pond is planned to remain
these ancient utilities).
· Moreover, the green area has also a TECHNICAL / ECOLOGICAL ROLE : it inte-
grates public networks notably the sewage disposal and a main drink water collector
supplying the whole city oI Liege.
· At least, it is intended to extend the concept oI the spatial greenery into the architec-
tural models used to build the housing and equipment buildings (concept oI 'vegetal
Iaçades¨).
This project shows that a structured green public space doesn`t result of ~chance¨,
using here and there some leIt Iallow lands. The maintenance and the development
oI such green structure are mostly due to a municipal willpower leaning on a general
development project and here translated into planning and design documents.
These documents generally deIine the way oI using the green spaces, the necessary
connections to realize, the development process, the means dedicated to the devel-
opment and the maintenance oI the green structure, the relationships with the other
urban Iunctionalities .
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306
Third case : The design of a development project in an existing green area
At the Iringe oI the city
core oI Liege, the site
is located on a wooded
hill sustaining since the
last war a great extend
oI urbanisation, due to a
perIorming communica-
tion network as well as to
the development oI major
equipment. It became
in the last 40 years a
privileged development
axe both Ior business/
research activities and
housing, in addition to the academic activities (new university campus).
This is an INTERESTING but also CONTROVERSIAL problem Ior our purpose : is it
desirable to 'urbanise¨ such green Iields close to the city and iI yes how to develop
this wooded site while avoiding to destroy what constitutes its actual resources : its
greenery ? This already old debate Iound a new lease oI liIe leaning on the principles
oI 'sustainability¨, some people playing with the ambiguity oI the concepts in order
to clearly pit urbanisation against environmental preservation.
The solutions to this debate aren`t simple and are always the result oI a negotiation
between opposite interests. They are also the result oI a political will and a social
demand, which are not always so clearly deIined and may vary Irom time to time.
In this precise case, we had in one hand :
· An expressed POLITICAL WILL to preserve the green areas as a 'sanctuary¨ mainly
Ior ecological reason : it is assumed that the site is an important link Ior Iauna and
Ilora and thereIore Ior biodiversity, as a part oI the ecological network. In the nine-
ties, the site was thereIore ranked by the municipality among others as a green pres-
ervation zone, in a document called 'Municipal Nature Development Program¨.
· An expressed SOCIAL DEMAND oI the dwellers Ior maintaining such green areas,
which are perceived as an added value Ior the surrounding housing estates and which
are nowadays used as public Iields even iI private. The reasons oI such demand are
here mainly aesthetic and economic, even iI sometimes tinged with the NIMBY
syndrome.
On the other hand, we had :
· The same expressed POLITICAL WILL (expressed both by municipal and regional
authorities) to greet new activities and population near to the existing city cores
in order to avoid the Ilight oI these to Iurther outskirts ; the arguments here are
mainly land-use planning, public finances and ecology. So in the eighties, the site
was ranked as a reserve Ior urbanisation by the regional authorities (with the total
agreement oI the municipality) in the so called 'Regional Land-use Plan¨. It is Iully
equipped with energy, adduction and sewage technical networks.
· An expressed SOCIAL DEMAND oI some parts oI the citizens to live in such per-
ceived gratiIying environment, next to the city, employment opportunities and ser-
vices ; the arguments are here economic, aesthetic and sociologic.
· Expressed INVESTORS WILL (public and private) : the arguments are here purely
economic. The research / business park is managed by a public body (Provincial
Authority ¹ University) searching Ior extension opportunities (with additional
employment). The owner oI the site is a private real estate company Ior which the
existing demand (activities ¹ housing) is a real opportunity.
The public authority Iinally decides that it wasn`t opportune to purely reject this
development project, but taking account oI the oppositions, the promoter has accepted
drastic conditions to implement his project, notably the maintenance oI 'suIIicient¨
greenery, used as the main component oI the environment and as the link between the
buildings and between the public and private areas.
The regulation is Iully used to maintain and even develop a green wooded landscape,
without putting a strain on public budget, Ior instance :
· Obligatory mix between low and middle density, either single houses on large plots,
or collective housing in relatively small buildings (2 to 4 storeys). The single houses
are implemented relatively Iar Irom the streets (~ 10 m) and the prospects between 2
buildings are larger than usual (~ 10 m), in order to maintain as many trees as pos-
sible in Iront oI the houses and laterally. The owner oI a plot is contractually linked
with the municipality in order to maintain some trees appointed by the administra-
tion or to plant exclusively some vegetal species. The architectural models used Ior
the collective buildings are supposed to oIIer a maximal integration to the natural
environment (use oI vegetal Iaçades and rooIs, use oI wood as building material,
obligatory quickset edge between public and private domains).
· The project comprises plots Ior an extension oI the business park. These are very
large and deep in order to create a large wooded buIIer zone(~25 m) between
'exclusive¨ Iunctions (housing and business activities). This buIIer zone is acces-
sible to the public (pedestrian paths are implemented in it, but its maintenance
remains private. A continuous vegetal Iront is obligatory maintained between the
street and the buildings.
· The project also comprises green public equipment (public playground on the
ancient sand quarry : ¹/- 3.25 hectares) and green public paths generously sized.
Moreover, the streets are also generously planted with trees remaining the 'alleys¨
still existing in the surroundings. The public access to the site is thereIore largely
improved, so that many citizens can enjoy this particular atmosphere oI 'civilised
Iorest¨.
307
309
Conclusion
The developers and the political authorities can use a range oI tools to argue in Iavour
oI (re)insertion oI public open green spaces inside or at the Iringe oI the cities. In this
prospect, the most relevant arguments, converging to lay down that urban green areas
are essential links towards urban sustainability, seem to be :
· Economic arguments, especially the positive impact oI green areas on residential
property values ;
· Social arguments, particularly the meeting and cultural exchanges opportunities
encouraging social integration and also the well-being oI a community appreciating
to live in a desirable and gratiIying environment ;
· Public health arguments, both physical and mental, pushing Iorward beneIicial
physical exercises opportunities as well as the capabilities to get back in touch with
one`s inner selI and to de-stress ;
· Cultural arguments, learning about nature and history ;
· Environmental arguments, considering biodiversity, bio-climate and reduction oI
pollutions, reduction oI motorised travels, regeneration oI Iood and water resources,
maintenance oI biological and landscapes diversity
The here presented examples show that the implementation oI new green areas or
simply the maintenance oI the existing ones, in a context oI strong concurrence
between urban Iunctions and divergent interests between operators (including politi-
cal authorities and citizens), is always a dialectic process involving such relevant
logic arguments as tools Ior negotiation with the economic Iorces, particularly with
the land-owners which are obligatory involved in a democratic planning process. This
process involves also :
· A political agreement at every decisional level on the opportunity to develop /
maintain green areas Ior community purposes and common interest ; This can only
be reached iI the here above arguments are suIIiciently convincing Iaced to opposite
arguments (Ior instance public Iinances, saIety, .) ;
· A relative social consensus about such development considering strong economic
pressures (employment, cheap housing, .) and egoistic demands, besides real
cultural, aesthetic, environmental concerns. Here again, the same argument may
be used contradictory. InIormation and participation seem here obligatory steps to
reach such a relative consensus
Above all, each situation is speciIic and every project has to be treated at the right
scale, so that the arguments in Iavour or in disIavour oI green areas development may
vary and aren`t easily adaptable Irom one case to the other, as showed in the above
presented cases. Particularly, the ~greenery project¨ isn`t only a project treating
of functions and rationality and but is also a project treating of harmony and
emotions.
308
309
Green structure` - the term discussion
Ewa Kaliszuk
1
and Barbara Szulczewska
2
1. Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty oI Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,
Poland; ewakaliszuk¸yahoo.com kaliszuk¸alpha.sggw.waw.pl
2. Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty oI Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,
Poland; barbaras¸zd.com.pl szulczewska¸alpha.sggw.waw.pl
In European countries many terms have been applied in order to deIine parts oI urban
space covered mostly by vegetation and predominantly perIorming recreational Iunc-
tions. Among others these are terms: green space`, open space`, green open space`,
pattern oI green areas`, Iramework oI green areas`, green inIrastructure`, system
oI green areas`.
These terms have reIlected the evolution that has taken place in (as) regards to under-
standing the role oI these types oI areas in cities. Today the idea oI the system is con-
sidered as dominant in planning practice. It has become a point oI departure as plans
are drawn up. To emphasise the importance oI this approach, urban planners have
tended to use the terms system`, Iramework` or pattern`.
The COST`s participants decided to use a new term green structure` (to be written
in one or two words). By this term they wish to convey to the public a message what
are or should be the main Ieatures oI the contemporary green spaces in the city. These
spaces should be developed in order to Iorm a structure (which elements are discussed
below) penetrating the whole city such way as it IulIils many Iunctions in a similar
way like the technical inIrastructure does.
As the term green structure` is not Iormally approved in any country and also not very
widely used, the problem oI deIinition has appeared. Since the beginning oI the Action
the assumption has been set to let the term be deIined during Iour years oI co-opera-
tion, while diIIerent aspects oI the structure and case studies oI diIIerent cities would
have been presented. The broad discussion among COST`s participants concerning the
problem deIinition is available on the Action`s webside (http://www.map21ltd.com/
COSTC11).
This discussion reveals that depending on diIIerent proIessional background and inter-
est the COST`s participants tend to consider and understand the green structure in
slightly diIIerent way. As a result oI co-operation there has been worked out an agree-
ment that green structure should be understood and deIined in Iollowing aspects:
Green structure` as an idea a concept that can be used to indicate the position
oI green areas in the urban landscape (according to MoU ). Green structure is also a
planning concept that is an attempt to integrate better green issues in urban land use
planning and urban design. Its intention should be a development oI planning and
management tools Ior a structural role oI green areas in the urban Iabric. Several
dimensions oI the green structure concept should be considered:
· the spatial dimension: all land oI the urban landscape that is neither covered nor
sealed including Ior instance parks, play grounds, sport Iields, allotments, private
gardens, green spaces oI housing districts, industrial properties as well as along
streets and railroads.
· the ecological dimension: Ilora and Iauna and their habitats. Urban hydrology and
climate.
· the cultural dimension: history, identity, green as design elements.
· the social dimension: recreation, health, leisure and pedagogical meaning.
Green structure` as an object - the pattern, contents and composition oI the sum oI
vegetation, non-paved soil and non-tubed water in urban areas. But all mentioned ele-
ments should be treated as a system because it can perIorm some additional Iunctions
as a system, besides the Iunctions perIormed by single green areas. Green structure in
wider approach encompasses all urban open spaces, Irom designated public to private
open spaces (residential, commercial, industrial and services), including accessory
urban open spaces, e.g. along roads and railway lines. These open spaces which are
non vegetated (not green) sometimes are important Ior recreation, environmental
improvement, wildliIe and urban character. What should be underlined in some
European cities (with well developed residential areas) a signiIicant stress is put on
private gardens that has become a very important element oI the green structure.
Green structure` as an multifunctional entity - since the beginning oI the Action
this aspect has been most obvious. In MoU the Iollowing Iunctions have been indi-
cated:
· social - sport and recreation that can contribute to the communication system Iirst
oI all Ior walking and bicycling;
· ecological in details: contributing to the biodiversity through creating habitats Ior
plants and animals, as well as assuring their movement, creating urban mesocli-
mate, improving air quality and perIorming water retention Iunction;
· structural green structure pattern can shape the urban landscape e.g. through the
green Iingers, green rings or green islands (archipelago).
These reveals the problem oI green structure multiIunctionality. Each Iunctions
needs its own particular condition to make this Iunction perIorm. Every single green
structure element plays particular Iunction according to its own condition like envi-
ronmental characteristic, ecological potential and neighbourhood conditions. Thus, to
connect these areas automatically is not enough so as to make them perIorm. In order
to secure ecological connections diIIerent conditions have to be analysed than in the
case oI recreational Iunctions. On the other hand connectivity is not so vital in the
structural role, however thanks to particular green structure elements like green cor-
310
ridors, it could be accomplished as a side eIIect. In this perspective the green structure
appears as constructed Irom several layers which represent Iunctions and not always
embedded exactly the same areas.
Green structure` as a quality an important aim oI green structure development
is to improve quality oI urban space and environment. This space must satisIy needs
oI the urban society consisted oI individuals with diIIerent ways oI liIe and speciIic
Ireedoms oI choice. Green structure can contribute successIully to create rich envi-
ronment with high level oI aesthetic excellence.
Green structure` as an action - 'to structure in a green way¨, i. e. to structure urban
areas Ior sustainable development by establishing a proportion between the grey and
green city. This meaning includes also all activities that are essential to create condi-
tions Ior green areas to perIorm their vital role Ior the quality oI urban liIe. Time, as
a vital Iactor, must be considered in green structure development and protection. It is
a very long period between the moment oI the taken decision and the moment when
the particular green structure element is mature enough to start playing its Iunction.
However, a very little time is needed to redevelop particular green structure element
as build up area (densiIication process). Because oI that a stable and clear policy is
required in order to establish the general green structure concept Ior the whole city
(regional context is most welcome). Green structure planning is considered as a main
instrument oI this policy. It is a mechanism which deals with how green structure
might be planned in a spatial sense, and then how they might be designed, managed
and maintained Ior the beneIit oI the local population. The multi-scale approach
should be adopted : regional scale (ecological and recreational connections), city
scale (general directions and the main goal), local (design according to speciIic situa-
tion oI each place with all its involved elements like space characteristics/conditions,
its history and landmarks, as well as uses and social composition).
311
312
Conclusions
(about Human issues concerning green structure and urban planning)
Gunilla Lindholm gunilla.lindholm¸lpal.slu.se
The possibility to integrate 'green structure¨ in the concept oI sustainable develop-
ment, in urban areas, relies on the potential to merge this idea with other planning
ideals, including urban densiIication. The uniIying aspects in this COST Action has
been the idea that green structure can make a diIIerence in urban planning and the
awareness that green structure is needed in the Iuture to guarantee a healthy urban
environment. Despite these underlying agreements there are, however, diIIering
ideas oI what the most urging issues are and how these shall be solved both on a
theoretical and on a policy level. The Action has been oI great value Ior collecting
important reasons and arguments Ior green structure, both Irom a theoretical and Irom
an empirical point oI view, and also Ior showing examples oI best practice Irom the
diIIerent parts oI Europe. DiIIerent local and regional geography is connected with
diIIerent possibilities, beneIits, problems and threats concerning green structure These
diIIerences have made clear, that the distinctive Ieatures oI a town or city district are
as important to consider as the general Iunctions and beneIits. 'The green structure
Iingerprint¨ is, in the best oI worlds, composed to articulate a certain urban identity,
together with IulIilling generally proved Iunctions and eIIects.
Seen as a whole, the green structure carries connections to countryside, waters and
nature reserves, ameliorates urban climate, supports biological diversity and gives
orientation in the urban structure. As urban elements, parks, greenways and waterways
could be the answer to lots oI needs and Iunctions, as shown elsewhere in this report.
In the micro-scale vegetation on rooIs, Iacades, as well as solitary bushes and trees,
can have great importance, both Ior experiential aspects, wellbeing, Ieeling oI saIety
and comIort, and Ior a sustainable management oI the urban landscape.
Life quality aspects - a powerful driving force for human`s choices
Within densely built up areas there is a Iair base Ior collective transportation. Short
distances indicates also good conditions Ior non-motorized transportation, whereIore
there seems to be reasonable to believe car traIIic to decrease in dense areas. However,
this statement has shown hard to prove. There is research indicating recreational car
trips to increase in dense urban areas. There is also research showing that densiIying
cities by building in green and brown in-between areas, has none or marginal eIIects
on travel distances and car transportations. Thus, going by car can be understood, not
as an eIIective mode Ior transport Irom A to B, but as a way to enhance ones owns
quality oI liIe. II it is not taken Ior granted that human beings are rational and eIIective
312
Irom a global point oI view, but Irom a personal, when choosing transport equipment
then it is more reasonable to discuss transportation with a 'liIe quality perspective¨.
II the battery oI arguments against car traIIic is shot, not against the hazards con-
nected with discharges oI CO2, but against more 'touchable¨ environmental hazards,
more connected with liIe quality in urban environments, there will be Iound several
Iacts pointing away Irom 'the compact city¨ as a simpliIied solution, to a city with
an interwoven green structure, made up by green areas and elements with diIIerent
Iunctions and use.
· Health is promoted by proximity to accessible green areas.
· Social interaction is promoted by a green structure with nodes integrating
districts.
· Children, elderly and other groups with speciIic demands on outdoor envi-
ronment, beneIit Irom a multiIunctional green structure including design Ior
speciIic needs.
· Green structure could provide an environmental Iriendly inIra structure, Ior
non-motorized transportation.
· Private housing economy proIits Irom public economy, green structure rais-
ing house prizes.
This kind oI Iacts is useIul in urban planning but has to be implemented in the local
context. There are no general truths about what kind oI green areas is most Iavored
and used, so that the beneIits oI a green structure can be IulIilled. In the woodland
countries in the north, there is oIten a wish to clear outdoor areas Irom trees, to get
more sunlight in the open space. In the Mediterranean countries, on the contrary, it is
oI outmost concern to shade outdoor areas (and Iacades) with trees, not to get to hot
and sunny open space. Customs and traditions inIluence the private actions.
To influence urban planning, design and management
The communicative turn in urban planning is established within the academic world,
but not always on the municipal arenas all around Europe. The need Ior Iurther
research and examples, to Iind ways Ior mutual understanding and creative coopera-
tion, Ior public views and expert views, will be extensive Ior yet a period. To see
'green structure and urban planning¨ Irom the point oI view oI 'human issues¨, is
to take seriously that we are not to Iind the truth, but to handle Iacts, perspectives,
rationalities, circumstances and ideas. 'The green structure concept¨ demands more
oI argumentation and speciIic solutions Ior diIIerent situations, to achieve agreements
and economic sustainability.
Not the least to achieve agreements, the speciIic design solution is oI vital impor-
tance, eIIecting expectations as well as willingness to pay. Negotiations between land
owners and public as well as private users and managers can be inIluenced both Ior
313
314
Irom brainstorm ¨important human
issues¨ Dec 4th 2004
314
the better and Ior the worse according to what resulting environment is presented by
the landscape and urban designers.
Management oI parks and green areas has changed during the hundred years oI public
green space, Irom an activity encompassing lots oI competent workers, to a highly
eIIicient mechanised activity, with Iew employers. With increasing costs Ior health
care and education, municipals tend to choke the 'less important¨ expenses, resulting
in a less dynamic, less diverse green environment. To IulIil the aims oI an ambitious
and creative urban planning and design, it is oI absolute importance to include also
the long-time management.
Summing up
The working group Ior human issues has achieved an increased awareness on:
· the importance oI stressing green structure as multiIunctional, interdisciplinary,
multilevel, multiperspectivic issues, which could not be isolated, but have to be
linked to social and ecological politically burning questions to be taken seriously.
· the diIIerences between countries, regions, organizations and individuals, regarding
understanding oI the problems but also planning experiences.
· the importance oI a human perspective Ior progress in understanding the role oI
green structure within urban planning
· the urgent need oI knowledge is not Iirst oI all more Iacts and data, but more under-
standing and training, to communicate and handle Iacts, perspectives, rationalities,
circumstances and ideas oI green structure, within speciIic situations
315
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316 317
316 317

CHAPTER 5
Policies for ~green structure and
urban planning¨
Members of Working group 2 :
Karen Attwell, Marleen Buizer, 1orge Martinez Chapa,
Unn Ellefsen, Matti Eronen, Carolyn Harrison,
Ann Van Herzele, Hermann Knoflacher, Björn Malbert,
Maurizio Meriggi, Bettina Oppermann (chair), Erik Plathe,
Barbara Szulczewska, Ann Caroll Werquin.
318
Introduction
Bettina Oppermann
1

and Carolyn Harrison
2
1. University oI Hannover, Germany bettina.oppermann¸iIps.uni-hannover.de
2.Department oI Geography, University College London, England
c.harrison¸geog.ucl.ac.uk
The objective oI the working group has been to engage with the 'world behind
the plans¨ by asking questions about the processes oI green structure planning. We
ask, Ior example, what decision makers regard as important in this process? What
constraints experts meet when they seek to promote urban green structures? And, how
can ordinary people inIluence decisions about green spaces and environments that
have a material impact on their quality oI liIe?
Though the planning system is very important as a Irame and sets the context oI
planning decisions, we decided that our analysis has to take a dynamic perspective
since laws and regulations are constantly tested and under review. (The website
is the best place to Iind the main planning Iramework oI each country). It was a
deliberate decision not to deIine the term green structure at the beginning oI the WG2
programme. Instead we made the assumption that a deIinition would emerge at the
end oI the program through a discussion and analysis oI our chosen examples and
problems.
The group chose a Iramework Ior analysing policy instruments Ior green structure
planning (public ownership, regulation, incentives) that oIIers an inter-actionist
rather than a technical or structural approach to planning policy development
and implementation. The particular Iramework we have employed is that oI Van
Tatenhove, Arts and Leroy (2000). This approach emphasises the role oI discourse
and actor coalitions in the development oI policy arrangements rather than the Iormal
development and implementation oI given policies.
Discourse coalitions involve individuals and institutions that pursue a common
policy objective based on shared argumentation - even though their knowledge,
skills, resources and interests diIIer. Hence, rather than understanding environmental
decision-making as a rational and technical process which privileges the knowledge
and skills oI experts such as planners and consultants, this approach understands
planning as a Iunction oI the actions oI individuals and wider Iorces in society such
as institutions, power, knowledge and Iinancial resources that act on each other. In
this inter-active process new discourse coalitions are Iormed, new rules (Iormal and
inIormal) are made and new resources and knowledge are mobilised. Sometimes too
old discourses, coalitions or rules are drawn on and regain inIluence but in a new way.
Working separately and together these relationships inIluence how green structures
318
become inserted into the planning process and inIluence the potential oI green
structures as drivers oI policy and political change.
This report applies to case studies Ior green structure planning in 11 European cities.
We deIine the chosen Iramework through a series oI questions about discourses,
actor coalitions, knowledge and resources oI all kind that are mobilised over time in
policy arrangements Ior green structure planning. Telling the 'story behind the plan¨
we automatically reIer to actors, the power play and the rules oI the issue at stake.
The chosen cases exempliIy and throw light on policy arrangements at regional,
metropolitan and local levels and illustrate how the special context oI every case has
importance.
The cases Iocus on diIIerent environmental resources such as rivers, parks and open
spaces, diIIerent political systems and geographical regions. For example, in southern
Europe the city and regional scales are analysed Ior Madrid, Marseilles and Milan.
For central and eastern Europe the cities oI Munich and Warsaw Iocus on the role
oI rivers and river corridors in green structure planning while the cases oI Ghent
(Belgium) and the Randstad in the Netherlands reveal how regional and local policy
arrangements act to pursue new green structure initiatives relating to Iorests and
Iarmland Ior nature conservation. The cities oI Gothenburg, Aarhus, Helsinki and
SheIIield in northern Europe oIIer insight into innovative Iorms oI policy making at
the city and local scales.
The choice oI cases reported on was a pragmatic one made on the basis oI
personal knowledge, interviews with key actors and access to policy documents.
They are presented in an order
that draws our attention Iirst
to the city region, then to the
metropolitan area Iinally to the
neighbourhood and site speciIic
level. Given the premises oI the
policy arrangement approach
however, it is inevitable that the
analysis and interpretation oI
each case involves consideration
oI several spatial scales Irom the
international/regional to the local.
For example, in some cases new
Iunding resources at the EU level
have prompted change at regional
and metropolitan levels, while the
319
Countries participating in COST C11 are grey shaded
Sheffield
Breda Ghent Breda Gothenburg
Breda Ghent Breda Ghent
Madrid
Warsaw
Munich
Milan
Marseilles
Biesland polder
Field trips
Policy studies
Helsinki

Fig.1: Case studies Irom 11 countries in
Europe
320
Iinancial stringency experienced by all nation states and public authorities during
the early 1990s precipitated a new range oI incentive based policies and locally
negotiated solutions that Impacted on green structure planning.
Policy arrangements as a framework for comparative analysis
As conceived by Van Tatenhove et al. (2004) policy arrangements are the temporary`
stabilisation oI both the substance and organisation oI a policy domain in what is
an ongoing process oI change. Through examining the interaction between Iour
dimensions oI policy evolution, namely: policy coalitions, resources, rules oI the
game`, and policy discourses, it is possible to highlight how policy innovations are
initiated and stabilised (see Figure 2). Analysed in terms oI these Iour dimensions
innovations may be introduced through new coalitions oI actors, whereas in other
cases they are initiated through new discourses, or reinIorced by rules and resources
that precipitate a chain reaction in all aspects oI policy making. Eventually this
chain reaction stabilises in a coherent policy arrangement. Conceived in this way the
Iramework provides a means oI analysing and interpreting change and continuity in
environmental policies.
Van Tatenhove and his colleagues link the process oI environmental policy
arrangements with wider changes in political modernisation that have been
experienced in Europe in the twentieth century. In particular their studies suggest
that the traditional demarcation between the state, the market and civil society has
been breached in the latter part oI the twentieth century period such that many more
actors and institutions are now involved in the political domain oI environmental
planning and decision making. As a result, political processes involving both Iormal
and inIormal networks are now involved in the production and distribution oI power
and meaning (discourses) that shape public liIe.
Our task in the working group was to extend the Iramework oIIered by Van Tatenhove
to a range oI spatial scales relevant to green structure planning in cities and their
surrounding regions. The overall objective was to analyse and interpret the substance
and organisation oI diIIerent policy arrangements so that innovations in green structure
planning could be identiIied, lessons drawn and shared. The existing diversity oI
Fig.2. Policy
Arrangement Frame
(Tatenhove et al.
2000, p. 56)
policy arrangements Ior green structure planning suggests that new approaches have
gained ground and coexist alongside traditional interventionist measures. From the
ecological perspective top-down approaches may perIorm well, especially when they
are combined with modern means oI public participation practices designed to explain
why conservation oI cultural or biological heritage is necessary (Marseilles). Wider
changes in social attitudes have seen new coalitions oI actors working together to
ensure that policy development address issues oI long term, sustainable environmental
quality. In some European countries this social change has seen a more integrated
approach to urban development in which consideration oI social, environmental
and economic Iunctions oI green structures has become a pre-requisite oI city-wide
policies, neighbourhood regeneration programmes and individual projects, rather than
an aIterthought. Lastly, calls at the European level to stem urban expansion through
a process oI urban densiIication pose a particular problem Ior the maintenance oI
green structures, their environmental qualities and ecological Iunctions. For example,
river corridors and other wildliIe habitats such as Iorests transcend urban boundaries
and require large-scale ecosystem approaches that sit uncomIortably with policy
arrangements that oIten divorce the city and the countryside Irom each other.
Although the case studies diIIer In scale and substance they nevertheless reveal a
close interplay between policy arrangements and processes oI political and ecological
modernisation suggested by Tatenhove et al. (2000). In what Iollows the outcomes oI
our analysis are grouped under three headlines that lead in our opinion to three main
Iields oI Iuture research.
What counts as green structure?
Today green structures comprise a wide range oI diIIerent land-use types such as parks,
Iorests, Iarmland, derelict land, canals and engineered rivers, together with a range
oI more naturalistic Ieatures and vegetation types such as valleys and river terraces,
ridges and cliIIs, Ienlands and heathland that make up the green inIrastructure oI a city
or region. Together these elements Iorm an observable pattern In the urban landscape
and at the same time they Iunction together to support a range oI a environmental
and social beneIits. On the basis oI the cases reviewed It Is clear that many WG2
participants, more or less consciously, stressed that the main attribute oI the green
InIra-structure resided In those Iunctions perIormed thanks to the connectivity oI
green structure elements. II this InIra-structure Is too Iragmented then the ecological
and social Iunctions perIorm sub-optimally and the areas themselves are not perceived
to be oI value by citizens or politicians. But In practice green structures IdentiIied and
plotted` on Iormal plans are sometimes not 'green¨ in reality and, vice versa, grey
structures such as housing and commercial areas sometimes IulIil important green
Iunctions Ior the well being oI the citizens. So, the Iormal green structure Iound on
plans is not necessarily identical with the actual green structure oI a city or a city
region. The experiences oI participants In WG2 suggest that a systematic review oI
the connectivity oI green spaces and green InIrastructures Is a new task Ior municipal
321
authorities seeking to Improve both the ecological Iunctions oI the city and the quality
oI liIe oI residents, workers and visitors.
While the range oI land uses and green elements contributing to green structures
has widened, It Is also clear that the reduction oI public Iunding allocated to green
structures has had an equally damaging eIIect on the ability oI green spaces to IulIil
their multiple Iunctions. On the one hand, It Is easy to assume that green structures
maintain themselves - they need no clipping and trimming. On the other hand
numerous studies show that green structures perIorm their environmental and social
Iunctions eIIectively only iI they are well maintained. The challenge Ior municipalities
Is to Iind Innovative ways oI Iunding the kind oI sensitive management practices
required to maintain high quality green spaces whether In housing developments,
city extensions or existing parks. In particular, explicit discussion oI the real costs oI
designing and maintaining high quality green structures needs to be undertaken during
the early planning stages oI urban re-development and new edge oI city extensions.
Without explicit attention and agreement oI these costs It Is diIIicult to promote new
mechanisms Ior sustaining high quality green structures or to enlist new partners in
their design and Iuture management.
In the countryside around towns Iarmers, Ioresters and property developers are
welcomed as new partners who through their own activities contribute to the design
and maintenance oI high quality, cultural landscapes. The Iormative role oI these
primary land users In supporting green structures Is already recognised at a regional
level (Ticino, Madrid, Biesland, Ghent), and by better integrating Iarming and Iorestry
with planning Ior urban growth, ecological and recreational needs oI the city and city
residents could also be met more eIIectively. However, within the city boundary the
contribution primary land uses and land users can make to green structures is neither
recognised nor expected by city authorities persuaded oI the development Imperative.
Moreover In these circumstances even when new actors like voluntary bodies and
NGOs seek to promote looser Iorms oI development that Incorporate green structures,
as In SheIIield, existing rules oI the game` make it diIIicult Ior these alternative
discourses and practices to gain legitimacy. So, while the competence and interests
oI new actors can inIluence the material character oI green structures and widen the
Involvement oI local communities - residents and businesses - In managing local
environments, involving these new actors In the green structure planning process
also presents new challenges. In particular we need to know more about the Interests
and environmental and social values oI commercial actors and Institutions II green
structures both within the city and the surrounding countryside are to be secured
The need for concerted activities to promote and deliver green structures within
devolved planning systems.
Planners are used to working within a diIIerentiated model oI decision-making that
acknowledges the need Ior acting at diIIerent levels (vertical structure) and across
322
diIIerent sectors (horizontal structure). On the positive side this system allows the
division oI planning work so that decisions are devolved to the lowest appropriate
level (principle oI subsidiarity). On the other hand devolution oI responsibilities to
the lowest level can lead to problems oI legitimacy and accountability especially
when green structures transcend administrative and political boundaries. Hence green
structures are organisational challenges Ior planners, politicians and the public as well
as material concerns.
Natural areas and administrative boundaries are oIten not congruent with each
other. A top-down-approach would perhaps enhance opportunities Ior achieving
a greater Iit between administrative and natural systems, but this is an unrealistic
ideal. In some cases where established administrative and political boundaries have
conIormed with natural units, political change has seen this unity dismembered,
only Ior a later period oI political change to re-establish It (Madrid, Warsaw). In
many cases cooperative approaches are now regarded as a more Ilexible way oI
dealing with Iragmented administrative bodies. Our studies reveal that consistent
with the ecological modernisation thesis, cooperative institutions or networks have
become more accepted in the political arena, but the process oI handling co-operation
requires new skills and practices that address questions oI legitimacy, equity and
accountability.
For example, new planning techniques or instruments are needed to overcome sectoral
boundaries between activities such as housing, transport and leisure that Impinge
on green structures, and the problem oI spatial Iit required Ior green structures
that transcend administrative boundaries, The project-oriented way oI planning
enhances pragmatic and integrative views and values but lacks a strategic overview
oI the cumulative Impact oI several separate development projects. Undoubtedly
the renewal oI old industrial technical inIrastructures like communication corridors
and waterways, the rebuilding and redesign oI 'derelict buildings¨ and 'derelict
landscapes¨ oIIer potential Ior integrative approaches to green structure planning.
But In many cases the widening oI the planning scale (Irom city to region or region
to country) together with the enlargement oI inIrastructures such as airports, business
parks, motorways etc. leads to a loss oI green space (Munich, Ticino). In practice the
positive and negative impacts oI densiIication strategies Ior green structures are not
necessarily balanced.
Clear changes are to be seen with new actors and institutions entering or seeking
to enter the planning process. However, existing planning systems are not designed
to actively involve all those actors who seek to participate. In practice inIormal
instruments are used to accommodate new actors in the planning process. But while
our case studies show that eIIorts to involve stakeholder groups have become more
common, InIormal procedures oIten lack transparency and accountability, and many
ordinary people who are not members oI organised groups are leIt out oI the game`.
Their concerns are oIten only given voice when intermediate actors working on
323
their behalI are systematically enlisted Into the planning process (SheIIield) or when
Individual planning oIIicers take on this role (Aarhus).
The chosen policy cases represent diIIerent levels or scales oI planning. On the one
hand many researchers and practitioners hold onto the ideal embedded In the principle
oI subsidiary so that discussions about projects occur at the right` level or scale. On
the other hand the principle oI subsidiarity will only work properly iI the right` body
is established and Is Invested with the authority to conduct the task in hand. In the
case oI green structure policy the municipality should be considered to be 'the most
responsible ¨ institution. But within Europe as a whole, the regional level has also
become more InIluential and our cases demonstrate that many Individual actors and
Institutions - not just planning proIessionals - have to play the game` on diIIerent
levels` and scales at the same time. As a result It Is not clear whether existing policy
arrangements Ior green structure planning are equally eIIective at all spatial scales or
whether new arrangements are required to deal with these scalar eIIects.
Time and dynamics are central issues in the development of green discourses,
strategies and visions
Time is a vital Iactor in green structure development and protection. There is a very
long period between the moment a decision is taken to design, conserve, or enhance
a green space and the moment when the particular green structure element is mature
enough to start playing its Iull Iunctional role. However, very little time is needed to
redevelop an open space or derelict area as part oI a densiIication process. Because oI
these lag eIIects and the ever-present threat oI development in urban areas, a resilient
and coherent policy is required in order to establish the green structure matrix Ior the
whole city or region.
History reveals that green structures in urban planning are an issue oI tradition
and modernism at the same time. Pattern strategies like 'green Iingers¨ (Helsinki,
Munich), 'green wedges¨ (Warsaw), 'green belts¨ (Munich, Marseilles, SheIIield)
are a constant issue oI debate. Also visions like the 'dense city¨, the 'city oI short
distances¨, 'green city¨ etc. rise, disappear and reappear as well as discourses like
'wilderness or design¨, 'culture or nature¨ (Marseilles) or 'rich south against poor
north, or vice versa¨ (Madrid, Munich) 'shrinking or booming city¨, 'sustainable
city¨ (Aarhus) etc. Our experience shows that multiple discourses, strategies and
visions coexist in cities throughout Europe and that Iew visions have proved resilient
to change. In practice planners have to cope with a plurality oI issues and values, and
they are In a unique position to learn Irom each other and Iind the open window`
through which greenstructure plans can be promoted and placed Iirmly on the political
and public agenda.
But addressing the overall shiIt Irom government to governance that the policy
arrangements model highlights does not sit easily with the proIessionalism planners
are currently expected to exhibit.. In the context oI green structure planning a new
proIessionalism is required that promotes green structure planning s in a number
324
oI ways. For example, by operating In a proactive rather than a restrictive way; by
IdentiIying the positive contributions oI greenstructures to city liIe; by combining
Iormal with inIormal instruments oI public Involvement, and by establishing Iinancial
and social incentives Ior designing, maintaining and monitoring high quality green
structures. Approached In this way the promotion oI green structures as part oI the
on-going process oI urban growth and renewal Is seen to present conceptual, material
and organisational challenges Ior city planners, politicians and residents alike. Our
case studies show that green areas continue to be lost or degraded through the urban
development process, but other studies show that Innovative practices are also
emerging. From these cases we gain Insights about how political and social processes
are enmeshed In the promotion oI green structure planning - including the roles
proIessional planners are now expected to play.
New actions should promote better understanding of green structures
· Because a broader range oI land-use types is perceived to contribute to green
structures today, new actors, especially private and non governmental actors have
entered the planning process. We need to learn more about the interests and values
oI these actors (private landowners, Iarmers and Ioresters, businesses and the service
sectors etc. ).
· Because we need concerted activities to promote green structures within devolved
and complex planning systems we should know more about how municipalities use
traditional and new instruments to achieve eIIective and equitable outcomes. Do
classic restrictive policy instruments go easily together with discourse-oriented Iorms
or is compatibility only achievable through radical reIorms?
· Because time and dynamics are central issues in the development oI green
discourses, strategies and visions, the relevance oI process oriented planning and
management strategies must be accepted. We should invest more in the training oI
planners especially by oIIering direct experience oI developing and conducting new
processes oI public involvement and decision-making.
DiIIerent planning systems (plans and procedures) in Europe are more or less
supportive oI green structure planning. In this COST Action we haven`t managed to
analyse them in detail in order to Iind solutions that could be recommended as 'the
best practice¨. OI enduring concern to participants In WG2 is the question oI how
green structure Iunctions are to be managed In an Integrative and Iair way - especially
when these Iunctions collide and work against each other, e.g. ecological versus
aesthetic Iunctions; recreational versus ecological ones etc; high density development
versus looser urban Iorms. We oIIer no material guidelines Ior action; rather action
should be born out oI awareness and insight. But In terms oI good governance a
general recommendation is to open up the process oI decision-making by taking
more proactive steps to better InIorm the public oI planning proposals early on In the
process, by designing procedures oI public Involvement that are Iair and just, and by
monitoring the outcomes oI planning procedures so that Iuture decisions about green
structures are evidence based.
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326
Interregional, regional or inter-municipal level
and scale of green structure arrangements in Italy
The Park of river Ticino valley, regional parks
network for the ~urban region¨ of Milan
Maurizio Meriggi
Politechnico di Milano, Italy, grecomeriggi¸tiscalinet.it
The green structure oI the city and region oI Milan is mainly represented by the
Lombardy system oI regional parks oI which the Park oI Ticino Valley represents
one oI the most important in regard to dimension, position and richness oI natural
and architectural monuments. The disposition oI the regional parks in the surrounding
oI Milan reIlects the geographical morphology oI the area. Two north-south Ilowing
rivers Iorm the valleys oI Ticino and Adda, cross the Padanian plane and divide the
Milan region in west and east. Milan area is Iormed in the north by the Prealps and
the Alps and in the south by the great agricultural area, where resurging waters come
Irom the Alps. In a process oI almost 30 years since the beginning oI the 70s the banks
area oI the two main rivers together with parts oI the southern land and the woods and
mountains in the north oI Milan had been transIormed in a network oI Regional Parks
to realise a wide green belt Ior the city oI Milan and its conurbation area.
The Ticino valley shows a great biodiversity and represents an ecological corridor
between central Europe and the Mediterranean area. Nevertheless the valley is settled
in the middle oI one oI the most urbanised areas in Europe (Milan region, nearly 3.5
million oI inhabitants the southern end oI the 'Blue Banana¨) characterised by vari-
ous Iorms oI sprawl phenomena.
The area oI the Regional Park oI Ticino is characterized by
· natural woodland areas used in the past as 'hunting reservoirs¨;
· wide agricultural areas in the south; canals on both sides oI the river oI which those
in the east are used as waterways since medieval times and as place Ior building
Villas Ior Milanese nobility since XVI century ('Sistema dei Navigli¨);
· other canals Ior hydroelectric production and industries and Ior agriculture (Canale
Villoresi, XIX century, Canale Industriale, 1900-1940);
· three medium sized historical and industrial cities (Pavia, Vigevano, Gallarate with
almost 80 000 inhabitants each) and several small sized cities;
· two ancient monasteries with a wide possession oI land;
· the Malpensa airport (intercontinental hub Ior northern Italy);
· three highways, some state and provincial roads and Iour railways crossing the
river.
In 1974 the Ticino valley Irom the Lake Maggiore until the River Po (on an area that
gradually grew until 90 640 hectares, with a linear shape oI nearly 110 km) had been
326
transIormed in the Lombard Ticino Valley Regional Park, including the territory oI
47 municipalities (with 430 000 inhabitants) touching the area oI three provinces
(Varese, Milan, Pavia).
So the image oI the Regional Park Network results as a complex pattern oI 'natural¨
and 'agricultural¨ areas with huge inIrastructures, historical cities and modern metro-
politan peripheries shared between diIIerent levels oI administration Irom municipal
to provincial until regional scale. On another perspective the Park Network represents
also a sort oI articulated and rich museum oI landscape, architectural monuments and
historical inIrastructures with consequent problems oI heritage conservation under the
control oI national legislation.
Planning system: The Italian system oI environmental planning is based substantially
on: cataloguing oI areas Ior environmental limitations, identiIied by the Regions
(through Regional Territorial Landscape Plans); management and design oI green
areas at a local municipal level (through Master Plans and various Iorms oI Detail
Plans).
The coordination between landscape planning on a regional scale and planning on a
municipal scale is carried out by the Territorial Coordination Plans (Piano Territoriale
di Coordinamento PTC).
The planning and management oI the Regional Parks is based on the PTC. The Plan
has, when adopted the eIIect oI a declaration oI general public interest and urgency,
and oI the impossibility oI postponing the interventions speciIied in it. It replaces at
all levels landscape, territorial or urban plans or any other planning instrument. On
the legal point oI view the Regional Parks represent a 'consortium¨ between munici-
palities and provinces.
1 Policy discourses
The public discourse evolves since many years pointing out the 'challenge¨ to pre-
serve a 'natural area¨ in the middle oI the most urbanised territory oI northern Italy.
The Iirst great discourse on the green structure in Milan area rose in 1967 with a
movement in Pavia (the Cambridge oI Lombardy) asking Ior a 'deIence¨ oI the sur-
vived natural area oI the River Ticino Irom the increasing conurbation and urbaniza-
tion phenomena. In this time the discourse about 'preservation oI natural areas¨ was
running together with the other emerging discourse oI the 'conservation and restora-
tion oI historical city centers¨ (Centri Storici). Between 1974 and 1978 a regional law
established the 'Lombard Regional Park oI Ticino Valley¨ (the Iirst regional park in
Italy).
During this process the discourse gradually passed Irom the idea oI 'deIence oI
nature and historical heritage against urbanization and industrialization¨ to the idea
oI 'challenge to integrate industrial development and urbanization with nature and
landscape preservation¨. The way to translate the 'idea oI the challenge¨ into a
real political instrument was the Territorial Coordination Plan (Piano Territoriale
di Coordinamento, PTC), that plays the role oI a 'large scale planning institution¨
directly controlled by all the municipalities being part oI the Ticino Park.
327
Today the discourse oI 'challenge¨ began to retire once again back to the discourse oI
'deIence¨, because oI the contradictions oI the development in the urban Region oI
Milan. Economic increase and new inIrastructure Iacilities are Ioreseen, Ior example
the enlargement oI Malpensa Hub or the realisation oI new high capacity railways
connecting the airport with Turin-Lugano-Milano and new highways connecting the
airport with Pavia. Next to this, the new Fair oI Milan in the area oI the Iormer oil
reIinery oI Rho-Pero near Sempione is in construction, Iollowed by the need oI other
new highways partly crossing the area oI the park. All these inIrastructure improve-
ments result in attracting local investors and with the consequence oI producing con-
Ilicts with the local administration, that supports the Park.
But green structure was seen as a Iorm oI regulation oI the territorial balance at
regional level by the administrative body. During the Iormation oI the Park Network
an important event was represented by the Iact that a great part oI the members oI the
regional administration were specialists and not mere politicians occupying a seat.
The body was elected with the institution oI the regional government in Italy since
1970 (but the Regional administration started to have a Iull delegation oI power Irom
the State only in 1977). Two are the great problems oI the governance oI the territory
in the metropolitan areas oI northern Italy: on one hand, is the extreme administrative
Iragmentation oI the land in small municipalities with the consequential diIIiculty oI
coordination oI single, small scale master plans and their integration into large scale
plans and programmes; on the hand, is the extreme aggressive, intense and deregu-
lated development oI the metropolitan areas.
The great discourse oI 'innovation¨ within the regional administration in Lombardy
was the idea to match better administrative political territories with the natural-mor-
phological territories: including rivers crossing the plane, the pre-alpine woods and
mountains in the north and the great agricultural plane at the south oI Milan. Following
the example oI the Ticino Park, these administrative units were identiIied as 'green
structures¨ Ior 'Milan urban region area¨ and instituted as 'Regional Parks¨. The
remarkable Iact oI this action was that, with a lack oI 'large scale planning¨ because
oI the great lateness oI the Regions (Regioni) in this Iield, the Lombard administra-
tors should use tools oI 'green structure¨ planning to create a new tool Ior 'grey struc-
ture planning¨. In this sense this 'park strategy¨ was seen not only as a way to provide
green structures Ior the city and the region oI Milan, but also as a 'chance¨ to quit
irrational Iorms oI governance in the territory at the metropolitan scale. This strategy
was extended to the whole Lombardy region to Iorm a system that grew gradually in
the 80s and 90s covering almost 20° oI the regional territory (4 481 26 km2 Iorming
the Network oI 22 Regional Parks distributed on the river valleys crossing the plane
and on the mountains in a region oI 23 851 km2.)
2 Coalitions and influence
University and public opinion. During the starting phase oI the construction oI the
Ticino Park in the seventies, the most important and successIul coalition was the
328
association between the university and public opinion. The public opinion was mainly
represented by the inhabitants oI the area and the cities belonging to the park. They
had organised themselves in a local association (civic associations, environmental
associations). The intellectuals and specialists Irom the university were coming
Irom diIIerent branches human issues, urban planning, biology and ecology. In the
sparkling atmosphere oI the seventies the two parts oI the coalition met thanks to
the mediation oI the local political organization and with the oIIicial support oI the
leIt political parties. The Park was Iounded thanks to a petition addressed to the just
born regional administration (Regione). AIter the institutionalisation oI the Park the
coalition survived in an institutional Irame: the park administration represented by the
Assembly oI the Consortium (Assemblea Consortile) is constituted by a council oI the
delegates Irom the municipalities and Irom the provinces. This Assemblea Consortile
commissioned to Universities investigations, studies and symposia on the Park, e.g.
on the economic transIormation oI the area. At the same time the environmental asso-
ciation collaborates with the Park in volunteer monitoring and maintenance. This kind
oI collaboration is quite an exception in the urban planning practise in Italy.
Public opinion, professional specialists, regional administration. AIter the success
oI the Ticino Park, and its governmental instrument, the Territorial Coordination Plan,
worked out in many other municipalities in Lombardy - under the pressure oI the local
public opinion. They commited themselves to proIessional studies oI planners Ior the
realisation oI regional parks. At the same time the regional administration supported
this kind oI initiatives because the Park Coordination Territorial Plan was meeting a
requirement oI national legislation. This kind oI plan was transmitted Irom the State
to the Regions. So, during the eighties and the Iirst halI oI the nineties the policy oI
the 'regional parks¨ had been strongly supported by the Region, realising a strong
coalition between diIIerent levels oI administration (regional, provincial, municipal)
with the agreement oI local associations. Today this coalition became more Ieeble
because the Region plays the role oI a mediator between the Parks and has to deal
with strong local economic Iorces asking Ior more Ireedom oI action and loosend
restrictions oI the park ties.
Coalition private investors, public opinion, administration. This kind oI coalition
represents the new approach in the last decade and shows the evolution oI Iormer
coalitions. Another example is to be seen nowadays in the project oI the Locarno-
Venice navigation line trough the waterways net oI Navigli. The project is promoted
by the the old local association oI the Friends oI the Navigli (Amici dei Navigli ), by
the Swiss municipality oI Locarno at the Lake Maggiore and by private enterprises
with the aim to build port structures, waterways and Iacilities Ior boats. This naviga-
tion line exists since the medieval time until the last century. I was totally demised in
the sixties. The initiative meets the sympathy and the interest oI many local munici-
palities because they see the possibility oI an economical grow with tourist activities
in their territory. In this way the initiative tries to create a coalition by winning popu-
329
lar support, administration on various levels, the interest oI intellectuals and proIes-
sionals, various operators with economical interests as well as two countries.
Coalition of peripheries against centre.
Notwithstanding many studies and debates show, that the structure oI the region is
still almost monocentrical. Since the post-war reconstruction a regional balance has
not been Iound Ior the urban development oI Milan area. Few 'central areas¨ mostly
within the city oI Milan are able to attract most qualiIied Iunctions thanks to the high
level oI accessibility. Many peripheral areas in the region are characterized by an
uncontrolled grow oI residential settlements. Among those peripheries are many areas
oI the Ticino Park, whose inhabitants commute everyday to Milan. A Ieeling oI hostil-
ity against the city oI Milan became obvious in the 'regional peripheries¨, because
all unattractive Iunctions (some industry, logistic, etc.) are situated in the territories
oI the Park. Development is depending on the realisation oI new great inIrastructure
Iacilities as the hub oI Malpensa or the high capacity railways. In a certain sense the
Regional Park represents a coalition oI the peripheries against the centre but nowa-
days many municipalities in the Ticino Park are in a great dilemma: on one hand, the
realisation oI some new highways gives more accessibility; on the other hand is at
stake the quality oI the environment that represents one great resources oI the area.
3 Distribution of power and resources
The importance of the local agreement. As seen beIore the success oI this kind oI
'regional¨ green structures depends much on a negotiated agreement within local
inhabitants and other actors. For the people living in the area, especially the river with
all its attractions belongs to the local heritage since generations. The esteem oI the
park depends much on the support and direct involvement oI the local population. The
Iew that opposed to the Park had been Iarmers who were suIIering Irom restrictions
oI their activities. Others were the owners oI the quarries who had to stop their activi-
ties in the river bed. Nevertheless aIter a while the Iarmers committed themselves to
adequate activities within the park regulations. They were helped with some Iacilities
to improve the quality oI their products and perIorm better on the global market. AIter
almost 25 years oI existence oI the Park and nowadays oI an insecure local support Ior
the Institution oI the Park some municipalities start to suIIer a little oI the constraints
oI the Territorial Coordination Plan Ior local urban development. They want to meet
the new economical chances Ior the area represented by the Malpensa hub with the
consequential attraction oI investments, work opportunities, etc.
The power of the big companies. In the case oI Ticino Park the great company
(partly public) SEA (Societa Esercizi Aeroportuali) plays an important role and
has nowadays the power to administrate the Malpensa airport and Linate airport in
Lombardy as well as some other airports in South America. The plan oI the hub, with
330
the third track and some new service centres nearby the airport and the promise oI an
increase oI business in the area represent a stake able to pursue some municipalities oI
the Park to renounce to the environmental quality in the name oI economical progress.
Naturally in this game is not evolved only the SEA, but other companies too, that are
interested in activities to increase industrial growth in the area oI Malpensa.
Regional administration as a mediator. In the last years the Region has promoted
the Iormation oI the regional green structure with its Iormal legitimation and has now
changed its role. Instead oI representing a real pole oI power it started to play the
role oI mediator among diIIerent interests: on the one hand, investors and companies
requiring Ireedom oI initiative and less limitations in the regional green structures;
on the other hand, the Parks administration tries to deIend the position reached with
the evolution oI regional and national legislation in thirty years oI political debate on
green structures. In this lack oI authority private interests, included those oI the big
company SEA, seem to have won the Iirst round: some 'natural areas¨ had been can-
celled by the national government Irom the list oI the 'national natural areas¨. This
represents a hard strike to the integrity oI the Regional Parks Network that has lost a
certain level oI protection. This meant the re-opening oI negotiations about the status
oI the regional green structure.
4 Rules of the game
Considering the up mentioned phenomena it can be deduced that one oI the most
important rules oI the game is that any initiative relating to maintain the regional
green structure must look Ior the agreement with the local population. First oI all
because oI a technical problem: the Assemblea Consortile oI the Park is constituted
by legal delegates oI the municipalities within the Park boundary, and the master
plan oI the Park (PTC) is in the end the only Iormal instrument oI governing land use
(PTC is an instrument that gives indications that must be included in the local master
plan). On the other hand because oI structural problems: the institution oI the Park
depends much on the wish oI the local public opinion and oI local society. Every day
the administration oI the Park is invaded by an enormous quantity oI questions and
requires oI all kind Irom local people. They must try to satisIy these wishes, otherwise
they risk to loose the local consent that is at the base oI their existence.
In the last development oI the game, inIluenced by the liberalism that characterised
the Italian political liIe oI the last years, local regional power declines. New rules
seem to be required. In October 2002 the Park oI Ticino received an hard strike with
the cancellation oI the status oI 'natural area¨ oI his woodlans Irom the national list
oI protected areas (the Regional Parks includes some parts that are also under the
protection oI the National Low on Protected Areas that represent the most restrictive
Iorm oI tie in the Italian legislation). At the same time the Park had been declared
as Monument and Heritage oI Humanity by the UNESCO. These ambiguous events
represent new rules oI the game, accepting contradictive activities without coordinat-
ing them with a planning instrument.
331
332
The integration of urban forest discourse in spa-
tial planning, Belgium
The Ghent Park Forest` case study
Ann Van Herzele
VUB-Human Ecology, Free University Brussells, Belgium
ann.vanherzele¸vub.ac.be
1 Introduction
An inIluential discourse over the last decade in spatial policy in Flanders (the northern
autonomous region oI Belgium) concerns the creation oI Iorests near cities and towns.
Large-scale Iorests are seen as the best strategy Ior providing the urban dwellers with
green spaces Ior recreation, Ior sustaining a variety oI ecological Iunctions and as an
instrument that could limit the urban sprawl.
This case study aims to explore how this originally sector-based discourse could
receive its prominence in current land-use debates and even came to produce a new
set oI spatial practices Ior shaping the rural-urban interIace. To this end, the Iocus oI
the case study was particularly on the discourse-actor relationships, which have car-
ried Iorward the strategic idea.
2 The rise of urban forest discourse
While policy discourse on the creation oI urban Iorests was established in the 1990s,
its emergence is to be situated in the wider institutional and proIessional debate on
Iorestry since the early 1970s. At that time, open space in Flanders was increasingly
under threat oI urbanisation and its eIIects. Despite protecting actions by the state such
as Iorest acquisition in some instances, in many other cases, inappropriate and weak
legislation have constrained public authorities to eIIectively take action.
During the 1970s and 1980s, a small circle oI Iorestry experts (mostly in the Flemish
Forestry Association), have made considerable eIIorts Ior attracting policy attention
to three key messages: Iorest conservation, Iorest expansion and multi-Iunctionality.
Despite their successes in initiating some important changes in established institu-
tional rules, they did not succeed in changing the discouraging position oI Iorests in
actual land-use policies.
In the run-up to important reIorms in the spatial planning system Ior Flanders, Ior-
est policy took an increasingly strategic direction. In the context oI the conIerence
Towards a Greenspace Strategy Ior Flanders` (1988) a clear strategy Ior Iorest expan-
sion was discussed. The problem oI Iorest shortage in Flanders was Iramed as the
incapacity oI the existing Iorests to provide the desired multi-Iunctionality (economic,
ecological, environmental, social). As a structured way oI presentation, this storyline`
held together a whole machinery oI arguments meant to justiIy and motivate the need
332
oI Iorest expansion, especially in densely populated and scarcely Iorested areas. (Van
Herzele, Iorthcoming)
In 1993, the storyline was included in the Long Term Forestry Plan Ior Flanders,
which also introduced the term urban Iorests`. With this strategic policy document
the Iorestry sector could position itselI as a well-prepared and convincing partner
in the negotiation process around the Spatial Structure Plan Ior Flanders (SSPF). In
1997, with the Iormal approval oI the SSPF, a Iorest expansion target oI 10.000 ha
was included in regional spatial policy. The Flemish government was given the task
to designate the areas Ior Iorest expansion in the regional land use plans.
The Flemish Iorest administration developed a Iorest expansion programme dividing
the required aIIorestation target over the sub-regions oI Flanders, taking into account
the actual inequality oI Iorest distribution. It was particularly the aim to provide each
city and town in Flanders with an urban Iorest. A series oI scientiIic` studies were
advanced aimed at Iinding the best locations Ior these Iorests. The results are current-
ly being used in the negotiations Ior the integration oI urban Iorest projects proposals
in the regional land-use plans, which are prepared in the Iramework oI the processes
Ior the delineation oI urban areas in Flanders.
3 The Ghent Park Forest project
In 1995, the Flemish Iorest administration, together with the Province oI East-
Flanders, launched a location study Ior a 200-300 ha Iorest near Ghent. It was decided
to preIerably spend this spatial budget` Ior the realisation oI one unbroken Iorest unit
(100 ha being the minimum norm according to the Long Term Plan Forestry). The
study adopted a scientiIically sound` method by means oI multi-criteria analysis. As
a result, the Kastelensite` (castle area) was selected (Fig. 1) because oI its potential
to border the residential development oI city, to reinIorce the historical characteristics
oI the castles in this area and because oI the presence oI Iorest in history.
In 1999, a EU Iunded LiIe Environment project was started with the prime objec-
tive to create a Iirm societal support base Ior the Ghent urban Iorest. The project
333
Fig. 1. Location oI the
Ghent case study area in
relation to the
city centre. (Source: De
Vreese et al., 2004)
initiators (Flemish Iorest administration, province oI East-Flanders, Flemish Forestry
Association) Iormed the Bossanova` alliance. They rapidly gained the support oI
Flemish green party members and the local nature movement, which particularly
endorsed the ecological Iunction oI the urban Iorest.
In the same period the Spatial Structure Plan Ior Ghent was in the making. Two prepa-
ratory studies (1999) calculated the actual Iorest shortage in Ghent with the standard
oI 100m2 Iorest per inhabitant, reIerring to the Long Term Forestry Plan. The plan-
ners took the Iorest need into account, however, they rather started Irom a structure-
based vision emphasising the preservation and connection oI open spaces. Moreover,
in the city`s view the enhancement oI the urban quality oI liIe was a major concern. In
this context the concept oI the Iour groenpolen` (large multi-Iunctional greenspaces
in the urban periphery) was made, as a main part oI the city`s green structure. The
Kastelensite was included as one oI these areas.
AIter the elections (October 2000), the new political coalition oI Ghent declared its
engagement Ior the realisation oI the Iour groenpolen` in its governmental agree-
ment (2001-2006). The creation oI an urban Iorest was Ioreseen in three oI the
locations. UnIortunate to Bossanova and its supporters, this was not the case Ior
the Kastelensite`, Ior which the 'preservation in its present landscape values¨ was
among the action points oI the political coalition.
Increasingly aware oI the importance attached to the actual landscape, Bossanova
decided to change the name oI the project Irom Urban Iorest` into Park Iorest`
(December 2000). In the same period, the opportunity arose to relaunch the project`s
strategy. The project was integrated in the planning process Ior the delineation oI
the urban area oI Ghent (led by the Flemish Spatial Division). A procedure Ior the
regional land use plan was started with the aim to develop an urban landscape park`
oI 1 200 ha, which, besides about 300 ha new aIIorestation, also included a 10-15 ha
business area. The process was Iollowed by a group oI oIIicials Irom various regional
administrations (including the Divisions oI Monuments & Landscapes, Land, Nature),
as well as the three municipalities involved.
Among the widened group oI administrative representatives, a discussion was started
on the urban Iorest`s image, which led to the choice Ior dividing the desired Iorest
expansion over several units. The preparatory study Ior the land-use plan (September
2001) included a structural sketch, designing the 1 200 ha area as a landscape mosaic
oI diIIerent land-uses, including Iarmland, Iorest, conservation and habitat creation
areas (Fig. 2) The total Iorest cover was estimated one-third oI the area and split up
into a variety oI diIIerent Iorest sizes, ranging Irom three core Iorests` to numerous
small Iorest patches spread over the area.
While the above concept brought the public administration and politicians to agree-
ment, the uncertainties among local people were growing. In October-November
2002 inIormation meetings Ior the wider publics were held. Recurring concerns
334
were about various inconveniences, saIety, privacy, etc. OI course, also many oI the
aIIected Iarmers were present and strongly contested the legal insecurities. A main
controversy, moreover, dealt with the business area in the plan.
Based on the preparatory study and aIter negotiations with the aIIected landowners/
Iarmers, in Summer 2003 the draIt regional land use plan was Iinished. AIter this,
the local authorities were consulted and the plan was adapted to their remarks. The
Iormal procedure includes a public consultation aIter the approval by the Flemish
government oI the draIt plan. However, in June 2004, in Iront oI the elections Ior the
Flemish parliament, the Minister oI environment reIused to put his signature because
the plan showed too many deIiciencies and his political (green) party could not agree
with the business area. As local green party members had positioned themselves in the
contestation against this area, it was also said that the disapproval was made entirely
with electoral advantage in mind.
4 Discourses
The largely target-led and criteria-driven urban Iorest discourse is actively linked with
the notion oI multi-Iunctional Iorestry`. In this concept the Iorest is being treated
primarily in Iunctional terms (as resource and amenity), which Iocus on those aspects
oI the Iorest involved in the provision oI economic, ecological, environmental and
social goods and services. According to the Long Term Plan Forestry, Ior IulIilling
its multiple Iunctions a Iorest must preIerably have a surIace area oI 500 ha, and an
absolute minimum oI 100 ha.
In contrast with the broad Iunctionality oI the urban Iorest, other open space land-use
were assigned a much more narrow Iunction. For example, in the location studies,
traditional economic criteria are being used Ior agriculture. Underlying this approach
is also the assumption that agriculture is not strong enough to resist to urbanisation,
and is neither able to capture the expected recreational pressure.
335
Figure 2. Structural
sketch Ior the proj-
ect area (Source:
De Vreese et al.,
2004)
In the 1990s, urban Iorest discourse Iound stronger evidence in the context oI the
emerging structure planning` discourse, aiming to counteract the continuous urbani-
sation pressure on the countryside by promoting a concentration oI development in
the cities. Accordingly, and in the Iace oI the reality oI urban outIlow, themes oI urban
quality oI liIe gained an increasingly prominent place on the political agendas (Van
Herzele and Wiedemann, 2003). Hence, urban Iorest discourse was strengthened with
the message that urban Iorests will improve urban liIe and prevent people to leave
the cities.
In the case oI the Ghent Park Forest, the urban Iorest storyline and its supporters
were able to impose the aIIorestation targets in the regional land use plan. However,
the urban Iorest image did not maintain unchanged during the process. With dividing
the Iorest area into smaller units, the preparatory study Ior the regional land-use plan
brought about a to Ioresters new Iorest image. Furthermore, by embedding these Ior-
est units into a larger mosaic oI land-uses, also the concept oI multi-Iunctionality was
given a broader meaning, relating the Iorest Iunctions to housing and other nearby
land-uses (Van Herzele, Iorthcoming).
The case also shows that the success was less evident, when urban Iorest discourse
came to interIere with local realities. The message as a whole continued to be Iunda-
mentally contested: Why the urban Iorest will be planned here? Is there a need Ior Ior-
est at all? Is society asking Ior Iorest? Though it was not surprising that the aIIected
Iarmers were strongly contesting the occupation oI their land, the logic oI reshaping
the open landscape into a dense Iorest was not Iully understood more generally.
While Iunctional` expert-based arguments prevailed in the oIIicials` presentations,
non-resource values that encompass beauty, cultural heritage, Ieeling saIe, seemed to
be important to the public. However, these were mainly considered as a resistance to
change, as too personal or less relevant.
5 Actor coalitions
In the course oI the process Irom discourse creation to site planning, the circle oI
actors involved has widened. In the planning process oI the Ghent Park Forest vari-
ous new coalitions were established. The project was initiated by the earlier men-
tioned Bossanova` coalition, aimed at Iacilitating the implementation oI the project.
Shortly aIter, the (sectoral) project was integrated in the spatial planning process
Ior the regional land-use plan (coordinated and led by the regional Spatial Planning
Division).
In this context sub-coalitions were Iormed, Ior example, between the Flemish Iorest
administration and the Flemish Land Agency, the latter having much expertise in
agricultural matters.
These project-based coalitions agglomerating around speciIic time-dated tasks have
undoubtedly contributed to the coherence and eIIiciency oI the plan-making as well
as in engendering the required political support. On the other hand, this approach
336
also seemed to cause internal power conIlicts, alienation oI the aIIected Iarmers and a
lack oI transparency to the wider public. Furthermore, the interIerence oI the project
with other processes and their policy coalitions (the structure plan Ior Ghent and the
delineation plan Ior the urban area oI Ghent) seemed to make the picture even more
complicated and conIusing. It was also unclear who was to be expected to communi-
cate with the public.
6 Distribution of resources
The urban Iorest discourse is actively generating various types oI new resources: pre-
paratory studies, a strong set oI instruments and budgets Ior eIIective implementation.
In 2000, the Flemish government installed a special Forest Expansion Unit`. It is the
aim to acquire up to 1000 ha land Ior aIIorestation per year. The earlier mentioned
location studies` are meant to provide the required (objective`) knowledge base Ior
selecting the best locations Ior the creation oI urban Iorests. In order to Iacilitate the
implementation oI new urban Iorest projects, including the Ghent Park Forest, more
detailed inventory studies are being made, Ior example, agro-economic investiga-
tions. Various instruments Ior the acquisition oI land are currently considered, such as
right oI pre-emption, land exchange and compulsory purchase. In addition, increasing
investments are being made Ior building the needed public support`. For the Park
Forest Ghent various projects were launched to be supportive to this aim (De Vreese
et al., 2004).
7 Rules of the game
The urban Iorest discourse attributes a dominant role to central governmental actors.
This is also reIlected in the organisation oI the three step strategic process oI urban
Iorest projects: 1. location phase (in the Iormat oI a scientiIic` study); 2. concept
phase (with the involvement oI various public actors); 3. implementation phase (with
the involvement oI the aIIected local people and the broader publics). The argument
Ior keeping the Iirst steps oI decision-making out oI wider social debate was Iramed as
the need to let prevail common over personal interests (Nachtergaele et al., 2002).
It was Bossanova`s clear intention to involve the public in the implementation oI the
Park Forest project (e.g. through a series oI interactive thematic workshops Ior the
design). However, this was constrained through the integration oI the urban Iorest
project in the Iormal planning procedure Ior the regional land use plan, which does
not include communication` as a structural element. In the Iace oI this, it was not
possible to initiate a constructive debate with the wider publics.
While the integration oI the urban Iorest project in a Iormal process oI land-use plan-
ning has provided legitimacy to urban Iorest discourse, has widened the circle oI
actors involved and has Iacilitated the development oI appropriate instruments Ior
land acquisition, on the other hand, the Iormal process appeared to be too slow, not
Ilexible enough and to heavily depending on political bargaining, Ior appropriately
dealing with local expectations, concerns and insecurities.
337
339
8 Conclusion
In this case, discourse-actor relationships were most important in transIorming policy
rhetoric and practice.
The case illustrates how a Iorest-directed discourse (regional level: Iorest expansion,
multi-Iunctional Iorestry) could be reconciled with a city-directed discourse (munici-
pal level: urban structure, quality oI liIe) has resulted in a powerIul combination, but
that this combination has dismissed alternative discourses, which could lead to a more
place-directed approach. The integration oI place-based approaches that acknowl-
edge local people-landscape interactions (Van Herzele, 2004) with approaches that
acknowledge the eIIects on diIIerent Iunctional levels as well as the wider public
interests remains a contentious issue and an important challenge Ior urban greenspace
planning (Van Herzele, 2001, Van Herzele et al., 2004).
It is positive, however, to discover that in this case, the widened Park Forest con-
cept has proven to provide a larger discursive space`, holding interesting challenges
Ior cross-sectoral collaboration, including local Iarmers and other stakeholders as
key players into new actor coalitions Ior the Park Forest`s design and management.
HopeIully, governmental actors will shiIt their role Irom decision-makers to Iacilita-
tors oI a renewed process.
References :
De Vreese R., Van Herzele A. Konijnendijk C.C., 2004. Case Studv Ghent Report.
NeighbourWoods. EU FiIth Framework Programme QLK5-2001-00165.
Nachtergaele J., De Vreese R., Vanhaeren R., Van Slycken J., 2002. Realizing Urban
Forests in Flanders : a Policy Perspective. In: COST Action E12 Urban Forests and
Trees, Proceedings Ṅ2. European Commission, Directorate-General Ior Research
EUR 19861.
Van Herzele A. 2001. Challenges oI Neighbourhood Participation in City Scale Urban
Greenspace Planning. in: COST Action E12 Urban Forests and Trees, Proceedings
Ṅ2. European Commission, Directorate-General Ior Research EUR 19861.
Van Herzele A. 2004., Local Knowledge in Action: Valuing NonproIessional
Reasoning in the Planning Process. Journal of Planning Education and Research 22:
1-16 (article in press).
Van Herzele A. Wiedemann T. De Clercq E. 2004. Through the Lens oI Social
Inclusiveness: Strategic Planning Ior Urban Forests. 7th IUFRO European Forum on
Urban Forestrv, Stockholm, May 22-27,
2004.
Van Herzele A. (Iorthc.). A Forest Ior Each City and Town: Storylines in the Policy
Debate Ior Urban Forests in Flanders. Forthcoming article.
338
339
Green structure planning in Madrid city and
metropolitan area
1orge Martinez Chapa
Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, Spain jmchapa¸mIom.es
General information
The establishment oI Madrid as the capital city oI Spain took place in the 16th cen-
tury, when king Philip II established the court in Madrid on a permanent basis. Prior
to that moment, Madrid was but a small village with a strategic interest being located
right in the centre oI the country.
Despite the lack oI natural resources, the continental climate was healthy, the topog-
raphy allowed an easy extension oI the city towards the east, and the closeness to the
Guadarrama Sierra determined the existence oI hydraulic resources and thereIore oI
an interesting scenery and vegetation north-west oI the Iormer village. Although the
Manzanares River, running along the centre oI Madrid, is a low water level river,
abundant subterranean waters ensure the supply oI water Ior the new capital city.
The green natural areas are located mostly in an arch stretching between the north and
west oI Madrid. The rest is dry and lacks vegetation consequently leading to a quite
unproductive agriculture. Only along the banks oI the Henares and Jarama rivers and
specially the Tajo (located 50 km south oI Madrid) there is vegetation and the pos-
sibility Ior agriculture with irrigation Iacilities.
Madrid grew consistently during the 19th and 20th centuries, reaching a million
inhabitants in 1930. Due to the emigration Irom rural areas to the big cities since
1950, the capital, and especially oI the metropolitan area, began intensively to grow.
The big growth oI the metropolitan area took place in the decade 1960/1970, with a
rapidly industrialisation, which made the periphery grow Iaster than the centre. From
1975 onwards, the growth oI the capital decreased and it even lost population, while
the metropolitan area continued to gain inhabitants but at a more moderate speed. At
present the Madrid municipality has 2 938 723 inhabitants
1

1.The current planning legislation in Madrid Autonomous Community is constituted by the Territorial
Policies oI 1995 and the Land Law approved in 2001. The Master Plan is the most important instru-
ment in urban planning that covers the whole municipality. This last Law establishes the Iollowing land
reserves Ior green areas :
- Master Plan: 20 m2/100 built m2, Ior general assignment.
- Development Plan: 15m2/100 built m2, Ior local assignment.
The state legislation approved aIter the Constitution oI 1987 only gives some standards that aIIect plan-
ning (property rights, land appraisal, expropriating guarantees, etc.), but cannot regulate speciIic urban
planning that concerns to Autonomous Communities. The current Madrid municipality Master Plan was
approved in 1997. It sets up the structure oI green areas, among other speciIications, since there is not
a speciIic plan Ior this matter. There is not an integral plan oI whole territory oI Madrid. The Urban
structure results Irom the sum oI many Master Plans oI smaller municipalities.
The province oI Madrid is one oI 17 Autonomous Communities that constitute the
Spanish State. It has a small surIace respect to other Autonomous Communities,
although it counts with a high rate oI population. Most oI the population is concen-
trated in the city oI Madrid and its metropolitan area, in the province is no other city
with more than 50 000 inhabitants.
Madrid is a very compact city that has grown in a radial way (except Ior the north-
west area Iull oI natural beauties), using a territory that allows smooth urban develop-
ment due to a gentle topography. No physical barriers must be overcome or natural
elements be preserved, since the big natural green areas are concentrated in the north-
west arch oI Madrid city.
1 General description of the case. Natural green areas, urban and
metropolitan parks
In this arch along the Manzanares River the 'Casa de Campo¨ and the 'Monte del
Pardo¨ are located. Both oI them constitute the big green natural areas in Madrid
capital city, and have usually been protected Irom the developing processes because
they are part oI the Royal Trust as Hunting Grounds.
The 1 722 ha 'Casa de Campo¨ is a natural park oI public use since 1931 when it was
transIerred to Madrid`s town council. It is the biggest park in Madrid and the busi-
est (apart Irom the Retiro Park oI a historical nature) Ior it even is provided with an
underground line inside. The southern part oI the park has suIIered Irom damages due
to new installations in the IiIties such as a Country Fair, an Amusement Park or the
Zoo. These leisure inIrastructures have diminished its surIace and its original charac-
ter. Nevertheless, it has also been enlarged linking it with the adjoining municipality
oI Pozuelo (Somosaguas Park). In general the park is in a bad state due to an over
utilization and the lack oI maintenance.
The 46 728 ha 'Monte del Pardo¨ is a green natural space that stretches to the north-
west, linked with the 'Regional Park oI the Manzanares Upper Bassin¨. It is a part
oI the green wedge extending Irom the centre oI Madrid to the Guadarrama Sierra.
It belongs to the National Trust, an organisation that administers the Iormer Crown
assets. Only a small part oI its surIace is Ior public use, the rest constitutes a reserve
Ior autochtonous Ilora and Iauna whose protection is ensured due to its special status
and to the Iinancial resources destined Ior its conservation. This green structure is
linked with the ¨Casa de Campo¨ due to the existence oI some sport areas oI private
use, such as the 'Country Club¨ or the 'Puerta de Hierro GolI Club¨.
The 130 ha 'Parque del Retiro¨ is the main historical garden in Madrid. It belonged to
the Royal Trust as a garden oI the 'Buen Retiro Palace¨ during the 18th century and in
1869 its property was transIerred to Madrid`s city council. Due to its over utilization
and to its poor maintenance and surveillance, it is a bit damaged. The ban oI the traIIic
inside the park improved its environmental status already, but due to policies oI eas-
340
ing the traIIic around the park, the accesses Ior pedestrians is not very comIortable.
The adjoining Botanical Garden, as well as the 'Capricho Garden¨ which is located
in the outskirts and was recently acquired by Madrid`s city council, constitute exam-
ples oI 18th century gardens. Although they are Ior public use, Their access is also
restricted, though they show a good state oI conservation.
During the past century, another interesting park was created in Madrid: it is the West
Park that, together with the Debod Temple Gardens, is sited on the slope between the
city and the river thus creating an itinerary oI green areas that despite some uneven-
ness reaches the 'Casa de Campo¨ and the north-west green wedge.
As a result oI the recent urban planning eIIorts over the last years several parks,
some oI great importance, have been created, like the 'Juan Carlos the First Park¨,
located north-east oI Madrid near the 'Capricho Garden¨, or the 'Polvoranca Park¨
in Leganes, located in the metropolitan area south-west oI Madrid.
Two metropolitan parks oI great interest are projects oI urban planning now: The
Manzanares linear park, under construction now, will occupy a surIace oI 500 ha
along the Manzanares river banks south oI Madrid between the ring road M-30 and
the edge oI Madrid municipality. The park is equipped and will recycle Iormer dumps.
Most oI the surIace has been expropriated. The Valdebebas Park is still to be carried