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Main characteristics of Association

Monoj Kumar Singh Deptt. Law. AUS

Association: An association is formed or created by people. It is a social group. Without people there can be no association. It is an organized group. An unorganized group like crowd or mob cannot be an association. Common interest: An association is not merely a collection of individuals. It consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. Accordingly those who have political interests may join political association and those who have religious interests may join religious associations and so on. Cooperative spirit: An association is based on the cooperative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve some definite purposes. For example a political party has to work together as a united group on the basis of cooperation in order to fulfill its objective of coming to power. Organization: Association denotes some kind of organization. An association is known essentially as an organized group. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association. Organization refers to the way in which the statuses and roles are distributed among the members. Regulation of relations: Every association has its own ways and means of regulating the relation of its members. Organization depends on this element of regulation. They may assume written or unwritten forms. Association as agencies: Associations are means or agencies through which their members seek to realize their similar or shared interests. Such social organizations necessarily act not merely through leaders but through officials or representatives as agencies. Associations normally act through agents who are responsible for and to the association. Durability of association: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing associations like the state; family, religious associations etc.Some associations may be temporary in nature.

" Astronomy. InEngels’ words: "Science rebelled against the Church. but none is permanently so. For Trotsky: "Consciousness grew out of the unconscious.’) People have always sought to understand the world they lived in through observing nature and generalising their day-to-day experiences." "Everything flows and nothing stays. The Idealists argue that thought (consciousness) is paramount and that people’s actions stem from abstract thought. with the consequence that age-old beliefs in an inviolable god were rocked. explaining that an understanding of the world has to start not from the ideas which exist in people’s heads in any particular historical period. the organic world out of the inorganic. Later. Aspects of nature may appear to be fixed. "It is not consciousness that determines existence. . in which quantity is transformed into quality. uninterrupted line of progress." (Marx & Engels: ‘The German ideology. but social existence that determines consciousness. The history of philosophy shows a division into two camps – Idealism and Materialism. it has a history. Newton’s theories of gravity and laws of physical motion uncovered the mysteries of movement and mechanics. comes into being. we have a line which is interrupted by sudden and explosive periods in which slow. physics." (Heraclitus) Dialectics is a method of thinking and interpreting the world of both nature and society. oudei menei. Nature is historical at every level. The ‘renaissance’ in the 16th century with its spread of cultural and scientific enquiry was both a cause of and an effect of the early growth of capitalism. devoid of history and material conditions. It is a way of looking at the universe. which sets out from the axiom that everything is in a constant state of change and flux. So instead of a smooth. and. the bourgeoisie could not do without science. psychology out of physiology. the solar system out of the nebulae. material conditions in which these ideas arise. Materialism versus Idealism. but from the real. in a state of equilibrium for a shorter or longer time. Dialectics is the logic of contradiction. and therefore had to join the rebellion. It was Marx and Engels who first fully challenged this conception. changes and develops." Marx and Engels based their materialism upon the ideas and practice of the great materialist philosophers of the 18th century."Panta cwrei. mechanics. No aspect of nature simply exists. Galileo for instance began to discover some of the physical properties of the universe and revealed that the planets revolved around the sun. anatomy and physiology were feverishly developed as separate disciplines. stable. finally ceases to exist. is transformed. Dialectics explains that change and motion involve contradiction and can only take place through contradictions. accumulated changes (quantitative change) undergoes a rapid acceleration. But not only that.

religions and spirits. without which there are no separate ideas. . But at a certain point. deficiencies in the theory are found. as matter undergoing uninterrupted development. Marx turned this confusion on its head. The German philosopher Hegel. was a proponent of the Idealist approach. Marx observed that this ‘enlightenment’ had "cleared men’s minds" for the great French revolution and the age of reason. things and their development were only the realised images of the Idea/God existing somewhere from eternity before the world existed. However. Thought is a product of matter. but also incorporate them in a new form. Some biologists have asserted that this would reveal individual genes shaping behaviour patterns ranging from sexual preference to criminality and even political preference! A consequence would be that a person’s position in society would be largely pre-determined and unalterable. These have to be explained and at a certain point new theories are developed which can account for the exceptions. For example. but on the contrary.The philosopher Hobbes declared that it was impossible to separate thought from matter that thinks. who resurrected dialectics from ancient Greek learning in the early 19th century. Marxists are neither biological nor cultural determinists. in the field of biological evolution." Marxism therefore bases itself upon a materialist view of history. All theories are relative. Flowing from this it is clear that Marxism must reject universal truths. "To me the idea is nothing else than the material world reflected in the human mind. There is a dialectical interaction between our genes and our environment. grasping one side of reality. any attempt to ‘tag’ individual genes for ‘intelligence’ has failed and the attempt to define social position as genetically determined has been exposed as a pure consequence of the ideology of the biologists involved. But the new theories not only supercede the old. But Engels added that "The specific limitation of this materialism lay in its inability to comprehend the universe as a process. To him the thoughts within his brain were not the more or less abstract images of actual things and processes." He and Marx were to fuse the brilliant scientific advances of materialism with dialectical thought. Recently the ‘human genome project’ has enabled the complete mapping out of the structure of the genes which are passed on from one human generation to the next. creating the most revolutionary and far-reaching theory for explaining and changing our world. The material world is real and develops through its own natural laws. Initially they are assumed to possess universal validity and application.

Metaphysics translated into politics becomes a justification for the status quo. Everything is in a constant state of flux and change. the development of all past and present forms of society would show that at certain periods in history when the mode of production has come into acute conflict with the mode of exchange. The forms of class struggle have changed through different historical epochs." (Engels: ‘Anti-Duhring’. dialectically." Around us in the natural world are illustrations of the dialectical development of our Earth and space itself. all change. all reality is matter in motion. the evolution of society and thought itself. But mathematically a straight line is merely a special sort of curve. while no geologist or vulcanologist can function without having an understanding of the basic and interlinked laws of the dialectic – the law of quantity into quality. Nothing in life is static. Both can be treated using a single general mathematical equation.A breakthrough that has revolutionised our understanding of human behaviour. wars and revolutionary movements have followed. revealing that environmental influences must be vastly more powerful in shaping the way humans act. just because their civilisation was not yet advanced enough to dissect and analyse nature in its separate parts. In the words of the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus: "All things flow. clothing itself in the straightjacket of metaphysics (formal logic). just as they spoke prose long before the term prose existed.) Dialectics is the philosophy of motion. What is dialectical thinking? " Men thought dialectically long before they knew what dialectics was. scientists recently discovered we possess far fewer genes than previously thought. Astronomers are transfixed as super-telescopes allow us to witness the birth and death of distant stars. the interpenetration of opposites and the negation of the negation. Explained in a Marxist manner. In everyday life we often need to distinguish between curved and straight lines. but the . The roots of dialectical thought can be traced back to the ancient Greeks who. The dialectical method of analysis enables us to study natural phenomena. But though capitalist or bourgeois society uses the dialectical method in its pursuit of scientific advance. In mathematics a dialectical approach is indispensable. the idea that evolution proceeds unchangingly at a snail’s pace. in its connections. in the fields of philosophy and economy it stubbornly seeks to refute dialectics. as processes of development based upon motion and contradiction. We also learn how at a specific temperature. solid ice changes to liquid water then at a higher temperature to steam – a gas – and that the three apparently different substances are actually different manifestations of the motion of the same water molecules. viewed nature as a whole. It is not hard to see why.

but as soon as we go into complex questions formal logic proves inadequate. what character will the recession have. Basing itself upon rigid classification techniques and seeing things as static entities. while more importantly it contains in its technological potential. The laws of the dialectic . but for Marxists the two categories merge. All realities have more than one side to them. The capitalist class or bourgeoisie (as Marx described it) must therefore hide the materialist conception of history from us. What stage has British capitalism reached. But viewing it dialectically as a bourgeois society in an advanced stage of development. but to the mistakes of tyrant kings and tsars and the bloodthirsty ambitions of ruthless men like Cromwell. what is the role of New Labour. how powerful is the working class. it is a useful tool in our day to day lives. not of motion. Metaphysical thought is often described as the science of things. Trotsky compared formal logic to dialectics using the analogy of a photograph and a moving film. The formal logician operates within the limitation of three laws: The Law of Identity – where A is equal to A The Law of Contradiction – where A cannot be equal to non-A The Law of Excluded Middle – where A must be equal to A. mix and melt into each other all the time. but does not let us see things in their connections. or must not be equal to A. where and when do we expect big industrial struggles to break out… all these questions and many more can only be answered by analysing society dialectically. Marxists use the dialectical method in order to clarify perspectives. the seeds for a Socialist planned economy. For instance we can say ours is a capitalist society and all will agree. Great social revolutions are attributed not to the struggle between classes. The former has its uses. This example is not abstract. Robespierre and Lenin to name three of their special bete noirs. we have to add that it still possesses remnants of feudalism. Formal logic sees cause and effect as opposites.fundamental struggle over the division of the surplus value between exploiter and exploited forms a continuous line from the early slave societies to the present day. extolling instead the acts of great men (and occasionally women!) who it is claimed have changed history.

The law of quantity and quality Just as a scientist is familiar with the concept of things altering their quality at certain quantitative points (water into steam at boiling point). there was still a potential for the planned economy to grow. From conception to death there is never a moment when our physical development is still."Dialectics is nothing more than the science of the general laws of motion and development of nature. etc. We analyse the build-up of class conflict and at all times intervene in the workers’ movement to build the ideas of Socialism to take advantage of these sudden changes and sharp turns. apparent disinterest in political struggle. The friction between the classes can and does create episodic periods of sharpened struggle leading to political and social crises. low levels of industrial action. Trotsky’s maxim that a planned economy needs workers’ control as a body needs oxygen became more . On the surface there can be apparent stability. but a quantitative build-up of frustration and antagonism towards capitalism can break out suddenly. For many years we characterised the Stalinist bureaucracy in the former Soviet Union as a relative fetter upon the growth of the planned economy. By this we meant that despite the waste and corruption of the bureaucrats. wars and revolutions. Marxists however view events in an all-sided manner. creating entirely new conditions for struggle and catching the bosses and their New Labour echoes completely by surprise. what do the tools look like and how do they assist us in challenging capitalism and changing society? Marx and Engels elaborated three broad and interconnected laws of dialectics. We are always evolving our ideas. usually after the event." (Engels: ‘Anti-Duhring. evolutionary manner. Neither are our thoughts and mental growth.’) BASED UPON the laws of motion. Our bodies and our thoughts are continually changing. albeit less efficiently than had the working class been in charge. each of which is continually at work and give us the insight into how society develops and what theoretical and practical tasks confront us as revolutionaries seeking to build the forces to overthrow capitalism. For a whole period the class struggle may appear to be at a low-ebb. This law is vulgarly recognised by even some bourgeois philosophers who. so too an observation of the evolution of class societies illustrates the same law. dialectics enables us to see things in their connection. human society and thought. The law does not always denote a progression of course." It has enormous consequences for Marxists. refer sadly to "the straw that broke the camel’s back. Society does not develop in a slow. By the 1960s command-style rule from the Kremlin was struggling to cope with the fresh challenges of a more technically advanced form of economy. But how specifically do dialectics apply in relation to a study of society? What are the general laws of dialectical materialism beyond the primary idea that everything changes? If dialectics is the theoretical toolkit of Marxists.

A moderate trade union leader may surprise himself or herself however and become much more "militant" than intended. with workers feeling intimidated by the threat of widespread unemployment. That is the essence of 1917". a peasant war – that is. political parties and social movements is not scientifically pre-ordained. workers can go on the offensive not only in order to recapture past gains that have been lost. The role of individuals. The Interpenetration of Opposites Dialectics applied to the class struggle does not have the same degree of precision as it does in the science laboratory. Application of the law of interpenetrating opposites is crucial in our clarification of the stage at which capitalism has reached. It is not slump alone. The very opposite may be the case. Trotsky illustrated this law in his analysis of the forces which made the Russian Revolution in 1917: "In order to realise the Soviet State. A society in economic. A trade union leader might be a repected left-winger.relevant than ever. a movement characteristic of the dawn of bourgeois development – and a proletarian insurrection. there was required a drawing together and mutual penetration of two factors belonging to completely different economic species.) This "combined and uneven development" illustrates the complex manner in which societies develop. . We observed this change and concluded that the bureaucracy had gone from being a relative fetter to an absolute fetter. but to win new victories around pay and conditions. A point was being rapidly reached where either the working class would have to overthrow the incubus of bureaucracy and carry through a political revolution. From a study of all the declining economic statistics coming out of the USSR we began to draw theoretical rounded-out conclusions. In a boom. but may capitulate when faced with a determined onslaught from the bosses. when faced with mass pressure from below. the movement signaling its decline. (History of the Russian Revolution. political and social crisis where the bureaucratic caste has become absolutely incapable of further playing any progressive role cannot stay in absolute stasis. Within every economic growth of capitalism are the seeds of future recession and vice versa. The triumph of the latter with Yeltsin undoing all the remaining gains of the 1917 revolution marked a qualitative defeat for the working class in Russia and everywhere else. Quantity had turned into quality. this possibility was predicted by Trotsky over 50 years earlier. which causes workers to rebel against the class system. its future direction and our responses. or there would occur a social counter-revolution leading to the restoration of capitalism. There are no absolutes in the class struggle! We often stress for instance that boom and slump are not antithetical categories as crude GCSE textbooks proclaim.

’) In the realm of science." (Engels: ‘Dialectics of Nature. history and thought". law of development of nature. the embryo of which is already contained in class society. explicitly or implicitly. the negation of the negation deals with development through contradictions which appear to annul. then its present geological. Apparently unrelated scientific disciplines have come to share visions and methodologies reflecting the real connectedness of our living universe. only to later become negated in its turn. prevails throughout nature. Thus what is ‘necessary’ in one time and place becomes ‘unnecessary’ in another. was forced by experience to arrive unconsciously at a dialectical position. its plants and animals too. before once again coming into contact and being partially negated by the limits of the market economy. or negate a previous fact.. only to be transformed into something else. Everything. only to become partially destroyed by episodic crises of over-production. Great wealth is created in the boom. Capitalism’s economic cycle illustrates this law. But everything perishes. The first human societies were classless societies based on the co-operation of the tribe. writing before the time of Marx and Engels and who believed in a supreme being. must be something that had come . He argued that if the earth was something that had come into being. The material basis exists now to replace the bosses’ system with socialism. but can never be realised until the working class negates capitalism. geographical and climatic states. Modern private ownership of the means of production and the nation state. theory. which assimilate and build upon previously acquired methods of production. does so out of necessity. Dialectical Materialism as a revolutionary theory "Dialectics. so-called objective dialectics. which exists. Everything creates its opposite. now serve only to fetter and undermine the productive forces and threaten all the previous gains of human development. These were negated by the emergence of class societies basing themselves upon the developing material levels of wealth. which are the basic features of class society and originally marked a great step forward. These in turn create afresh the conditions for new booms. Even the idealist philosopher Kant. or form of existence.The Negation of the Negation Described by Engels as "an extremely general. the dialectical method continues to vindicate itself as a vital tool for progress. and for this very reason extremely farreaching and important. which is destined to overcome and negate it.

Towards a Socialist World. The theory of PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIA takes this idea a stage forward. But while he argued that "nature does not make a leap". rests on a unification of the two classical (apparently contradictory) concepts of wave motion and particle motion to produce a new deeper understanding of the nature of reality. maintaining that the development or appearance of a new species can be. This theory deals with rapid and sudden speciation and mass extinction of species. it is now widely accepted that rate of evolutionary change can vary enormously.’) . in terms of geological time. the theory on which all modern technology is based.into being. In particular. the revolutionary significance of which was immediately understood by Marx and Engels. but in changes in the modes of production and exchange. Theories of fundamental particles find themselves working on concepts which bridge the contradiction between matter and the space-time in which matter moves. If this was the case." (Engels: ‘Socialism: Utopian & Scientific. then earth must have had a history not only of co-existence in space but also a succession in time. the debates now raging among neo-Darwinists are about whether or not leaps take place and the nature of them. Quantum mechanics. has itself become enriched and a more profound confirmation of dialectics of nature as a result of further study and practice. in the same way as Darwin spoke of the struggle for existence of individual varieties within a single species. They are to be sought not in the philosophy. not in men’s brains. In a brilliant endorsement of dialectics as the science of sharp turns and sudden changes as opposed to gradualist development. Darwin demonstrated how evolution develops through natural selection. instantaneous breaking an apprarently stable equilibrium. GENE FLOW (the introduction of new genes into a population by immigration of breeding individuals) and GENETIC DRIFT (random gene changes in a population due to its limited size) as well as natural selection. Modern scientific theories rest on a dialectic view of nature. Darwin’s theory of evolution. new concepts such as MUTATION (the spontaneous formation of new variations in genetic make-up). creating outrage among those for whom "God" determined all. " …the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are to be sought. not in man’s better insight into eternal truth and justice. but in the economics of each particular epoch. have begun to be studied. Incorporating the science of genetics.

Although the development of giant corporations straddling continents and the existence of computer technologies underline the potential for the world planning of production and trade.6 billion have neither cash nor credit to buy much of anything.DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM is not a dull theory to be pondered over by erudite academics in their studies. Of the six billion people on Earth. illuminates our path. through the building of a mighty Socialist force. each driven by definite motives and desires. Our task is to harness the indefatigable energy of the workers worldwide to throw off our exploitation. . Great social revolutions in the past have been carried out by emerging minorities who best articulated the new economic and political needs of the rising class. The dialectical method applied to every stage of the class struggle. It is a guide to action. at best. assists us in turning our ideas into a material force and brings closer the day when men and women can pass over from the realm of necessity into the realm of human freedom. History is made by conscious men and women. it is an indispensable tool. For young workers and students seeking to understand capitalism and more importantly change it. Standing in our way is diseased capitalism. The so-called New World Order is daily proving to be less harmonious than the old one. The struggle for Socialism is qualitatively different as it involves the conscious participation of the majority – the world’s working class and oppressed masses. productivity and profit at our expense. window shoppers. almost 3. A majority of people on the planet remain. capitalism remains a system based on wasteful competition between nation states where rival multinationals fight to improve market share.