‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪون ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ و ﺳﻠﻮآﻬﻢ اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫*‪The Users of E-publishing and Their Communication Behavior‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺠﻡ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ‪:‬‬
‫‪Jack Meadows‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺼﺎﻡ ﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭ‬
‫‪dr.essamman@yahoo.com‬‬
‫ﻗﺴﻡ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬

‫‪Information Science Department,‬‬
‫‪Loughborough University‬‬

‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫_____________________________________________________‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺤﻴﺔ )ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺠﻡ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮر‪ ،‬ﻋﺼﺎم )ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ(‪ .‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪون ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ و ﺳﻠﻮآﻬﻢ اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬دراﺳﺎت ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎت و‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‪ .‬ﻣﺞ‪ ،13‬ع‪) 3‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ ‪ :(2009‬ص ص ‪.196 – 173‬‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻭﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁﻬﻡ ﻭ ﻓﺌﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻭﺭﻩ ﻭ ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ) ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪* Supplement to the Proceedings ELPUB2006 Conference on Electronic Publishing – Bansko,‬‬
‫‪Bulgaria – June 2006. Available at: http://elpub.scix.net/data/works/att/sup1_elpub2006.content.pdf‬‬

‫)‪(1‬‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪This work talks to the e-publishing in terms of its perceived‬‬
‫‪disadvantages and advantages. It talks also about the studies of users in‬‬
‫‪terms of their characteristics, categories and to their information-seeking‬‬
‫‪behavior, especially to theirs personal factors, and to the Subject-related‬‬
‫‪factors. The work talks also about some related issues, such as usage and‬‬
‫‪finance and different categories of e-publications. Lastly, it talks about the‬‬
‫‪role and forms of formal and informal communications about e-publishing‬‬
‫‪displaying to some examples.‬‬

‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺠﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻬﺩﻩ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ – ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻏﻴﺭﺕ – ﻓﻲ ﻁﹸﺭﻕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻭ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻭ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻑ ﻭ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺘﺎﺤﺔ؛ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺄﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻷﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻤﻭﻗﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻙ ﻤﻴﺩﻭﺯ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺸﻭﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻪ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﻰ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁﻬﻡ ﻭ ﻓﺌﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭ ﻤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﻴﺩﻭﺯ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻭﺭﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ) ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻰ(‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪Introduction :‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺜل‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺍﻓﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﻼﻤﺤﻪ ﻭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻪ‪ .‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻬﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻏﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪ .(21‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻰ‪ -‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻭﺴﻴﻁﺎ ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻨﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﻭ ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻗ‪‬ﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻷﻗﺭﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻤﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ؛ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ؛‬
‫ﻟﻜﻥ ﺴﻴﻅل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻬﺩﻩ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻭ ﻤﺘﻼﺤﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺘﻌﺩ ﺤﻘﺎ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل؛ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻻ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(3‬‬

‫ﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻅ‪ ،‬ﺘﺸﺘﺭﻙ ﻋﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ .‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺸﻬﺩﻫﺎ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﺨﻼل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ؛ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻨﹸﻔﺫﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫)ﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺸﻴﻭﻉ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻭﺘﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺇﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩﺓ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ – ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﺩﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻨﻭﻋﻭﻥ ﻁﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺎل ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‪ ،‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﺎﻤﻼ‬
‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻐﺯﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﺎﻟﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ – ﺭﻏﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ – ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﻭ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻤﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ‪Disadvantage of e-publishing‬‬
‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﻔﻬﻡ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ‪‬ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻗ‪‬ﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(4‬‬

‫ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻟﻪ ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻁﺎ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺸﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺃﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻠﻕ ﻤﻴﺴﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻀﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻌﺩ ﻤﻌﺎ ﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﻌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻑ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺜل‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻀﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻭ ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻻ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل؛ ﺇﺫ ‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻁﻔﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﻊ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻭ ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺒﻁﺄ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻓﻘﺩﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻟﻠﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺘﺫﻴﻴل‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺫﻴﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ؛ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻭﺍﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻭ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﻴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺃﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬

‫)‪(5‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻭل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺭﺠﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺹ )‪ .(17‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﺭﺏ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ )‪.(23‬‬
‫ﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﺎ ﺸﻬﺩﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﻑ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻘﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺠﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﻨﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﺤﺎﻭﻟﻭﺍ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﻜﺂﻟﺔ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ )‪ .(7‬ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺒﻪ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ؛ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺘﺩﺒﻴﺭ ﺼﻴﻐﺘﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻟـ ‪PDF‬ﻭ ‪ HTML‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺒﺭﺯﻫﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺼ‪‬ﻴﻐﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻤﻊ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻭ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺤﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﹸﺫﻜﺭ ﺼﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ؛ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ‬

‫)‪(6‬‬

‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺒﻁﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ )‪ ،(41‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﺭﺠﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ )ﻜﺎﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ )ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ(‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻔﺯﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻬﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل – ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ – ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻨﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﺃﺴﻭﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻭﺤﺩﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﺜل‬
‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻜﺒﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻲ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ .‬ﻤﺜﺎل ﺃﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻴﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﹸﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻌﺜﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺸل ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬
‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ؛ ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﻨﺘﺠﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ؛ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻀﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ؛ ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺠﻭﺠل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻌﻘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻓﻀل؛ ﺇﺫ‬

‫)‪(7‬‬

‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻜﺈﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻤﺕ ﺒﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻅﻤﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺭﺠﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﹸ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺎل ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ‪ .‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺭ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ )‪ .(1‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻬﻭﻥ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ )‪.(40‬‬
‫ﺘﹸﺸﻜل ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺩﻤﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﺃﺼﻴﻼ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺩﺭﺴﻬﺎ ﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻴﻭﺱ؛ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻸﺴﻑ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﻌﻴﺭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺇﻨﺘﺒﺎﻫﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻨﺼﺤﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ )‪ ،(22‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ – ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ – ﺃﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻨﺤﺭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ)‪ .(13‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ )ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ( ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﺨﻴﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻭل ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺼﺎﺌﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﺸﺎﺩﺍﺕ )‪.(28‬‬
‫‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﻠﻕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻭﺭ ﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻟﻭ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫)‪(8‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ )‪ .(30‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗ‪‬ﺒل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻗﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺤﺎﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻭﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻜﻭﻨﻬﻡ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺸﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ )‪.(5‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ‪Advantages of e-publishing‬‬
‫ﻀﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻹﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻌﺎﻤﻠﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭل ﻭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ؛ ﻓﺄﻱ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺘﻌﺩ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﻨﺯﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﺎ ﹲﺘﺸﻌﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﻹﺤﺒﺎﻁ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﺯﻋﻡ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻔﻘﻭﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻤﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻁﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ؛ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯل )‪ .(27 ،41‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﻋﻬﻡ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﺩ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ )‪ .(18‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﻭﻥ‬
‫)‪(9‬‬

‫ﻴﺸﺠﻌﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒ‪‬ﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺄﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻜﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﻁﹸﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺒ‪‬ﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻭ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺯ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ )‪ .(25‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺃﻗل ﻭﻀﻭﺤﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﻊ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ )‪.(9‬‬
‫ﺜﻤﺔ ﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺠﺩل ﺤﻭل ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻟﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺠﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻴﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ‪ %60‬ﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻊ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ)‪(1‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﻠﺼﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺩﺩﺍ ﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﻜﺴﺭ ﺤﺎﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﺼل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼل ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭ ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭ ﺒﺸﻬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺒﺴﻨﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺽ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ – ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل – ﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﻗﺒﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻥ‬

‫)‪(10‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻟﻲ ﺤل ﻭﺴﻁ‪ .‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻷﺤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﻗﺒﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ‬
‫‪ %88‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻭﺒﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻔﻀﻠﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗ‪‬ﺒل ﻨﻅﺭﺍﺌﻬﻡ‬

‫)‪.(32‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺒﻜل ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﺘﺨﻭﻑ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﻭ ﺒﺄﺨﺭ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺤﺘﻲ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ؛ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‪‬ﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺈﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻭ ﹸﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼل ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺤﻴﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺃﺭﺸﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻭﺥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺌل ﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ؛ ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﺴﻤﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺭﺸﻴﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻟﻔﻴﻥ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻁ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺼﻨﻌﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻌﻭﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺩﺍﻭل ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺨﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ‬

‫)‪(11‬‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻜﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃَﻥ ﹸﺘﺭﺴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺭﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺩﻗﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻘﺒﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﺒﻭﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻴﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻀﻭﺤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ )‪(19‬؛ ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺴﻠﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺭ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻷﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﻟﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺸﻬﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭ ﺘﻅﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻷﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ؛ ﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺘﻌﺫﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻴﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ )ﻜﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ( ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻗل ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ )‪(17‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺩﻟﻰ‬

‫)‪(12‬‬

‫ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻴﻥ – ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ – ﻓﻲ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻜﻡ ﺃﺤﺒﻭﺍ ﻋﻤل ﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻟﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ)‪.(15‬‬
‫ﻴﺄﻤل ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺞ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺃﻟﻭﺍﺡ ﺍﻷﻟﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻴﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻭﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺴﺘﺩﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻁﻴﺌﺎ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺸﻬﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺃﻤﺭﺍ ‪‬ﻤﺸﺎﻋﺎ؛ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺭﺴﺎل ﺃﻱ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ )‪ .(38‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل‬
‫ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺭﻏﺒﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤل ﻭﺼﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻟﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ)‪(15‬؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﺭ ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺤﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻌﺎ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﺍﻩ ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺎ ﻭ ﻤﺎﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻁﺏ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(13‬‬

‫ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ƒ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻭﻥ ﺒﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﻨﺒﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ )ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‪ ... ،‬ﺍﻟﺦ( ﺇﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﻤﺢ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺘﺤﻤﺱ ‪ ،enthused‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﺩﺩﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻋﺩﺩﺍ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‪journal-‬‬
‫‪.focused‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ‪.topic-focused‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻁ ‪.article-focused‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻭل ‪ ،binger‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺠﻭل ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺒﺤﻭﺯﺘﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﻜﺸﻑ‪ ،explorer‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﻀﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻪ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‪.(29)window- shppers‬‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻤﺔ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬
‫)‪(14‬‬

‫ﺒﺎﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ )‪ .(16‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻗﺭﺀﻭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺭﺀﻭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ )‪ .(36‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ – ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ‪ -‬ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﺘﻁﺎﺒﻘﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﻋﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩﺍ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻋﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻟﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﻐﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻗل ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﻜل ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺘﻴﻥ؛‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺘﻌﺩل – ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ – ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻟﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺘﻪ ﺤﻴﺎل‬
‫ﺃﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ ﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﻴﻤﺜل ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻟﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺠﺢ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬

‫)‪(15‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻠﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ )‪ .(37‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﺒﻁﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺸﺘﻐﺎل ﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﻟﻬﺎ )‪ .(24‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻻﺤﻘﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟـ ‪ 35‬ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻟـ ‪ 35‬ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ )ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺘﻔﻀﻴل ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺇﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻙ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﺠﺎﺤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺠ‪‬ﺭﻴﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﺭﻫﻡ )‪ .(36‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻋﺯﻱ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﻥ ﻟﺩﻱ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﹸﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺠﻨﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺠﻨﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻼﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ )‪ .(3‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻬﻡ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ )‪ .(4‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ )ﻜﻤﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ( ﻤﻊ‬

‫)‪(16‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﺴﻨﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ )‪ .(34‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻤﺎﺜل‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺭﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺴﻨﺎ )‪.(6‬‬
‫ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ – ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺍ – ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻙ – ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ – ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺤﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺸل ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ – ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ُﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻗﺒل ﺃﺤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ – ﺇﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺎ ﺤﻴﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﺍﺌﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ )‪.(13‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺅﻜﺩ ﻜﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺒﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻺﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ – ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻭﻑ ‪‬ﻴﻨﺎﻗﺵ‬
‫ﻻﺤﻘﺎ – ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻐﺯﻯ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ُﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻴﻼ ﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﺍﺌﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ)‪.(9‬‬

‫)‪(17‬‬

‫ƒ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻁﺏ ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻟﺘﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺸﺠﻊ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻠﻜﻴﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﻭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﺠﺎﺤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺭﺸﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻗﺒل ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺭﺸﻴﻑ ﻴﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻤﻼﺀﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ)‪ .(36‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻜﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﻭﺠﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل؛‬
‫ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻴﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ – ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬
‫– ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﻴﻥ )‪ .(20‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻴﻘﻊ ﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ )‪ .(13‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؛ ﻓﻐﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ –‬
‫)‪(18‬‬

‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﻬﺎ – ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺒﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻹﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺘﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜﺱ ﺇﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺠ‪‬ﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻴﻥ )‪ .(36‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻴﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺸﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﺩﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﺩﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺴﻠﻔﻨﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻤﺜل‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺈﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺼل ﺒﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﺎ ‪ -‬ﺼﻭﺭ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻭ‪‬ﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺒﻬﺎ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ؛ ﻓﻠﻘﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﻔﺤﺎ ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ُﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻭﻟﻨﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ‪ %82‬ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ %78‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪ %60‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ )‪ .(40‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ‬

‫)‪(19‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ‪ ،‬ﺇﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻥ – ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻥ‬
‫– ﻭﺠﺩ ﺇﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺸﻌﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﺈﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺃﻗل ﻋﻨﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )‪ .(13‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﺎﺫﺒﺎ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻨﺸﺭ ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺯﺍﻟﺕ ﺘﺤﻅﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﺒﻁﺄ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺜﻤﺔ ﺸﻜﻭﻙ ﻗﺩ ﻋﺎﺭﻀﺕ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﻡ ﻟﻸﺭﺸﻴﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴ‪‬ﺘﺎﺡ ﺤﻘﺎ ﻭ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﻬل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺩ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺩﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﻨﺸﺄﺕ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻬﺩﺌﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻭﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬
‫ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺸﻬﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺘﻘﻠﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻴﻨﻤﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ )‪ .(31‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺒﻴﻥ ﻟﻡ‬
‫ﻴﻌﺩ ﻴﺭﻭﺍ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻻﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﻡ ﺇﻤﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ)‪ .(32‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ )ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ( ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻨﻔﺱ‬
‫)‪(20‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ(؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺘﻤﻴل ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺠﺫﺒﺎ ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﺩﻩ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺜل ﻤﻊ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ‪،20/80‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ )ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪ %20‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟـ ‪ %80‬ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﻔﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ؛ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺄﻜﺒﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ؛ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺴﺎﺌﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﺴﻤﻭﺤﺎ ﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻤﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻁﻭﺍل ﺃﻴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺔ )‪.(35‬‬
‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻗﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻫﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‪ .‬ﺃﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﻜﻬﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﺠﻨﺒﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻲ ﺠﻨﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺠﺎﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻤل ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺘﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻬﻡ ﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺇﻨﺨﺭﺍﻁﻬﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻﺤﻅﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ‬

‫)‪(21‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻠﺜﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺃُﺨﺫﺕ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻭﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪ 5 – 1‬ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺎ )‪ .(42‬ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل‬
‫ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩﺓ ﻗﺩ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻤﻥ ‪ %4‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2001‬ﺇﻟﻲ ‪ %18‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪،(32) 2004‬‬
‫ﺤﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻗ ﹺﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻡ ﻴﺘﺼﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴ ﹸﺘﻘﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻗﺒل‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﻨﺎﺸﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺀ )‪ .(42‬ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺭﻑ ﺒـ "ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺤﺭ"؛ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻨﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺯﻭﺍ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ ﻤﺠﺎﻨﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﻟﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻤل ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺸﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺍ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ؛ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺌﻘﺎ ﻴﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻌﻘﻴﺩﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻟﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﻤل )‪.(10‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺭﻜﺯﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻜل ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺘﺎﺡ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺸﺭ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﻭ ﺒﻜﺜﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫)‪(22‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ؛ ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬
‫ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻁﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ُﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻨﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻻ ﻨﺨﻔﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻅﻤﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺘﻔﻀل ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ )‪ .(2‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻻ ﺒﺄﺱ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ )ﺒﺸﻜل ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻜﺭﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭ‪ ،‬ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻁﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ‬
‫ﻴﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻤﺎ ﺘﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻵﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻹﺤﻼل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﻠﻰ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺠﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬
‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻻ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﻭ‬

‫)‪(23‬‬

‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻨﺤﺘﺎﺠﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﻭﻡ ﻭ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ )ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﺭﺍﻥ(‪ .‬ﻓﻰ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ )‪(8‬؛ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬
‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻜﺘﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺒﻐﻼﻑ ﺴﻤﻴﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘل ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺘﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺃﺨﺭ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤل ﺤﻭﺍﺸﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﻭ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩﻓﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻤﻼﺌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﻘﻨﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﻭ ﻋﺸﺭﻭﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻨﻭﻋﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ‪ .‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺴﺒﺒﺎ ﺃﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻱ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ‬

‫)‪(24‬‬

‫ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﹸﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ؛ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺘﺎﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻴﻔﻀﻠﻭﻥ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﻭ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻤﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃُﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ‪ ،1999‬ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ )‪.(33‬‬
‫ﺘﻤﺩﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺜﻨﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻓﺘﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﹸﺴﺦ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺤﺩﺜﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺇﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟ ﹸﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺼ‪‬ﻤﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻐﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻟﻠﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺜﺒﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻜﻡ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺄﻟﻭﻓﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻘﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﻟﻸﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻑ‪ .‬ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻙ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟـ ﺒﻲ ﺒﻰ ﺴﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺠﻠﺘﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻺﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻯ ﻤﺘﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻑ‬
‫)ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ( ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬

‫)‪(25‬‬

‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﺍﻩ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ؛ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺫﺍﺕ ﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻌﻤﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ )‪.(14‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺨﻁﺎ ﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺌل ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻴﻨﺘﺸﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﻗﻭﺓ – ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ –‬
‫ﺇﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻤﺎﺯﺍل ﻤﻤﻜﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁﺎ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺩ‪‬ﻗﻕ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺎ )ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ(‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃُﻨﺘﺞ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﺫﺍﺘﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻘل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻭ ﺘﹸﺤﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺩ ﺒﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻭ ﺘﺘﺭﺃﻯ ﻏﹸﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﺩﺭﺏ ﻁﻭﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻤﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺘﺼﺎل ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﻭ ﺒﺈﺸﻜﺎل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺒ ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫)‪(26‬‬

‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺘﻑ ﻟﻺﺘﺼﺎل ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺠل‪ .‬ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﺎ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺘﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻤﻴل ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻗﺒل‬
‫ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺭﻜﺯﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎﺘﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎل‪ ،‬ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﺫﻜﻴﺭ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ – ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻋﻲ – ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻱ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻻ ﻭﻋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺜﺎﻻ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺘﹸﺭﺘﺏ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﺎ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩﺍ ﻭ ﺘﹸﻜﺘﺏ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻤﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﹸﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﺴﺎ ﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﻬل ﻓﻲ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻤﻼﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻜل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻜﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺸﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻀﻴﻑ ﺤﻤﻼ ﺯﺍﺌﺩﺍ‬

‫)‪(27‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ )‪ .(11‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺼﻨﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺈﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻟﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻘﻡ ‪ ،RSS‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﻴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ )‪ .(12‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﺤﻑ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻟﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻭﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤ‪‬ﺩﻗﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻻ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺃﺤﺩﻯ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤ‪‬ﺩﻗﻘﺎ ﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﺤﻜﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺒل ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺭﺌﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺕ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬
‫ﺒﺄﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍ ﻤﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺘﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‪ .‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(28‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹸ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﺴﻬل ﺒﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺘﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ )‪ .(23‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻨﻅﺎﻤﺎ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺎ ﻭ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺼﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻗﺒل ﺘﻭﺠﻬﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺎ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺤﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻻ ﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﺇﻻ ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺍ‪ .‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺝ؛ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺒﻐﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ؛ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻭﺠﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﻟﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‪ .‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺀ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻫﺠﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﻬﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻐﻠﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭ‪‬ﺠﺩ ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻴﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‬

‫)‪(29‬‬

‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺼﺎﻨﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﺤﺭﺍﺒﺎ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﻭ ﻤﻐﻴﺭﺍ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺩﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺴﺒل ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺴﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺴﺘﻜﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻴﻘﺭﺭﻭﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻨﻤﻭ ﻭ ﻴﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(30‬‬

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