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OPERATING SYSTEM Definition An operating system is a program designed to run other programs on a computer.

A computer’s operating system is its most important program. It is considered the backbone of a computer, managing both software and hardware resources. Operating systems are responsible for everything such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop -- it makes sure that, different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.

Multitasking Multitasking operating systems work a little differently. allowing varied parts of one program to be used simultaneously. such as disk operating system (DOS). Realtime operating systems are typically used when computers must react to the consistent input of information without delay. Multithreading Multithreading operating systems are even more different. For example. real-time operating systems may be used in navigation. In fact. Multiprocessing A multiprocessing operating system allows a program to run on more than one central processing unit (CPU) at a time. are not considered real time. at schools. there are some operating systems that are used to allow thousands of people to run programs at the same time. general-purpose operating systems. and even for some home-computing situations. This can come in very handy in some work environments. Real time Real-time operating systems are designed to allow computers to process and respond to input instantly. as they may require seconds or minutes to respond to input. Usually. . This type of operating system may be used for just a few people or hundreds of them. they make it possible to run more than one program at a time.Types of Operating System Multi-user A multiuser operating system enables multiple users to run programs simultaneously.

In batch processing systems. programs are collected. It has built-in support for mobile multimedia formats. When computers in a group work in cooperation. FreeBSD and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. Mobile Operating System Though not a functionally distinct kind of operating system mobile OS is definitely an important mention in the list of operating system types. hence the name batch processing. . Batch Processing Batch processing refers to execution of computer programs in 'batches' without manual intervention. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. Interactive Systems As against this. they make a distributed system.Distributed Operating System An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer is known as a distributed operating system. interactive operating requires user intervention. grouped and processed on a later date. The process cannot be executed in the user's absence. Input data are collected and processed in batches. Windows CE. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. The development of networked computers that could be linked and made to communicate with each other. gave rise to distributed computing. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. There is no prompting the user for inputs as input data are collected in advance for future processing. A mobile OS controls a mobile device and its design supports wireless communication and mobile applications. Tablet PCs and smart phones run on mobile operating systems. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. Embedded System The operating systems designed for being used in embedded computer systems are known as embedded operating systems. IBM's z/OS has batch processing capabilities.

The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter. But the actual process execution may happen under direct control of the processor that is online. For PCs. the batching or grouping of data can be done without user and CPU intervention. As a user. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. SOLARIS. but others are available. the processing is referred to as offline. Functions of Operating System i. Thus. Your choice of operating system. you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands. the most popular operating systems are DOS. it can be done offline. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs. the operating system must have:  A text editor  A translator  An editor of links .Online and Offline Processing In online processing of data. For example. and UNIX. When processes are not executed under direct control of the CPU. determines to a great extent the applications you can run. Let's take the example of batch processing. called application programs. OS/2. therefore. the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files. respectively. can run. BS2000. DOS. such as Linux. Here. BS3000. the user remains in contact with the computer and processes are executed under control of the computer's central processing unit. and Windows. Enabling startup application programs. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. MAC OS.

Standard means of communication between user and computer .Providing protection to program & data & to ensure data security. Resource management .ii. main memory. Error Deletion . storage.Identifying & traffic of errors detected while processing user request to hardware like keyboard error . shortage of memory etc.Loading the program into memory. for efficient use of central processing unit. Security .Maintaining accounts of uses of the resources by different users & generating usable table. vii. . and monitors jobs submitted for execution to ensure the most efficient processing. Plan implementation works according to certain criteria. ix.The OS establishes a standard means of communication between users and their computer systems. It does this by providing a user interface and a standard set of commands that control the hardware. iv. Data management .The resource management function of an OS allocates computer resources such as CPU time. vi. and input and output devices for use.The data management functions of an OS govern the input and output of the data and their location. v. Accounting . Job (task) management . shortage of memory etc. schedules. Program Execution . executing & terminating the program. secondary storage. viii. iii. A job is a collection of one or more related programs and their data. x.The job management function of an OS prepares. controls. and retrieval.