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**Alan Edelman and Gilbert Strang
**

1. INTRODUCTION. Every polynomial of degree n has n roots; every continuous function on [0, 1] attains its maximum; every real symmetric matrix has a complete set of orthonormaleigenvectors. "General theorems" are a big part of the mathematics we know. We can hardly resist the urge to generalize further! Remove hypotheses, make the theorem tighter and more difficult, include more functions, move into Hilbert space, .... It's in our nature. The other extreme in mathematics might be called the "particularcase." One specific function or group or matrix becomes special. It obeys the general rules, like everyone else. At the same time it has some little twist that connects familiar objects in a neat way. This paper is about an extremely particular case. The familiar object is Pascal's triangle. The little twist begins by putting that triangle of binomial coefficients into a matrix. Three different matrices-symmetric, lower triangular, and upper triangularcan hold Pascal's triangle in a convenient way. Truncationproduces n x n matrices Sn and Ln and U--the pattern is visible for n = 4: 11

12

1 3 1 4

1 1] 4 3 6 10 10 20

L

1

1

L4--

2 1 3

1

1 3

U4 [

123

1

We mention first a very specific fact: the determinant of every Sn, is 1. (If we had emphasized that det L, = 1 and det U, = 1, you'd write to the Editor. Too special!) Determinants are often a surface reflection of a deeper property within a matrix. That is true here, and the connection between the three matrices is quickly revealed. It holds for every n:

S equals L times U

and then (det S) = (det L) (det U) = 1. This identity S = LU is an instance of one of the four great matrix factorizations of linear algebra [13, p. 544]: 1. Triangular times triangular: A = LU from Gaussian elimination. 2. Orthogonal times triangular: A = QR from Gram-Schmidt. 3. Orthogonal times diagonal times orthogonal: A = UEVT with the singular values in E. 4. Diagonalization: A = SAS-' with eigenvalues in A and eigenvectors in S. Symmetric matrices allow S-1 = ST, with orthonormal eigenvectors and real eigenvalues. In A = LU, the triangular U is the goal of elimination. The pivots lie on its diagonal (those are ratios det An/ det An-1, so the pivots for Pascal are all ones). We reach U by March 2004] MATRICES PASCAL 189

89]. This article will offer four (or maybe 4 + E) proofs of S = LU. Any number k from 0 to min(i. The reader can guess that the last proof is our favorite. Second proof: S.j) Z()() ik k=0 k ( _ ii) i +J. Thirdproof: Pascal's recursion generates all three matrices. The binomial identity that equates Sij with E LikUkj naturally comes first-but it gives no hint of the "source" of S = LU. Then the (i. we seek to verify that Ukj SLik =i k=O \/ / (i i Sij (1) Separate i + j objects into two groups. x. They come from thinking about different ways to approach Pascal's triangle: First proof: The binomial coefficients satisfy the right identity. The path-counting proof (which multiplies matrices by gluing graphs) is more appealing.k objects from the first group and k from the second group. x2." Multiplying row i of L times column j of U = LT. respectively. For a symmetric positive definite matrix. Fourthproof: The coefficients of (1 + x)n have a functional meaning. and U arise in the multipole method [7]-one of the "top ten algorithms of the twentieth century. 190 ASSOCIATION AMERICA [Monthly 111 OF @ THEMATHEMATICAL . so the total count agrees with equation (1): min(i. k)th entry of L is ( ) = "i choose k. The binomial coefficients are zero when k > i and k > j. You see that the urge to generalize is truly irresistible! We hereby promise not to let it overwhelm this short paper.. the fourth might be partly new.row operations that are recorded in L. 2. we can symmetrize A = LU to S = LLT (sometimes named after Cholesky). containing i objects and j objects. .06/. In principle this is straightforward. L. We are close to matrix representations of the M6bius group. (2) 2 In form (2) the sum accounts for the triangularityof L and U. Our purpose is only to look at Pascal's triangle from four different directions-identities. The first selection can be made in (iik) the second selection in (i) ways.mit. The recursive proof uses elimination and induction. graphs. That is Pascal's case with U = LT. L.).x) are particular cases of x (ax + b)/(cx + d). This allows the "meaning" of Pascal's triangle to come through. and this paper is on the course web page web. Pascal matrices led to several Worked Examples in [13. recursions. PROOF BY MATRIX MULTIPLICATION."which has tremendously speeded up the evaluation of sums E ak/ (x . as we want to prove. transformations like x ?-+ 1 + x and x -+ 1/(1 . j) is admissible. It leads toward larger ideas.. p. The functional proof is the shortest: Verify Sv = LUv for the family of vectors v = (1. we have = ( ) ways and chosen i objects out of i + j. and functions. If we select i . All three matrices start with row i = 0 and column j = 0.rk). At the same time S. The first three are known.but the cost adds up: billions a year for the most frequently used algorithm in scientific computing. The direct proof multiplies LU to reach S. and U count paths on a directed graph.edu/18. Then Ax = b is solved by forward elimination and back substitution.

j.j-1 and Pascal's rule is confirmed. David Ingerman showed us how to multiply matrices by "gluing graphs"-and this gives a visual explanation of LU = S [4]. There are six paths from a2 to b2 (three that start across and three that start upwards). The paths that start upward go to level 1 and from there to bj. b3 b2 b. March 2004] PASCAL MATRICES 191 . We show that path-counting gives the same rule (and thus the same matrix S). But the discovery of LU = S would be unlikely this way. by induction those are counted by Si-1. 3. The paths that start across then go from ai-1 to bj. so we are actually going from ai to bj-1 in Si. From that row and column the rest of S is built recursively. (For this we imagine the whole graph shifted down one level. [10]. Binomial people would know the identity (1). [6]. agreeing with Sio = 1. We want to show that Lik counts the paths from ai to the (k. The first step is to identify Sij as the number of paths from ai to bj on the up-and-left directed graph in Figure 1. based on Pascal's rule Si-i.j-1 ways. Now cut the graph along the 450 line in Figure 2. One path goes directly across from ai to bo. Those are counted by Si. ag al a2 a3 Figure 2. A typical entry is S22 = "4 choose 2" = 6.One reference is [14] and a shorter proof is hard to imagine (though Proof 4 comes close). Then Ukjcounts paths from the 450 line to bj. a2 a3 Figure 1. L counts paths to the 450 gluing line.j-1 = Sij.) We do not know who first connected the matrix S with this graph. PROOF BY GLUING GRAPHS. the rest of us are conditioned to take their word for it. k) point on that diagonal line. a a2 a3 bo ao a. b3 - L- b2 b. The directed graph for the path-countingmatrix S.j + Si. agreeing with Soj = 1 in the top row of S. U counts paths above. Only one path goes directly up from ao to bj.

k = Li-l.-1 . The steps of elimination produce zeros below each pivot.-1). and ES.k counts the paths that start to the left from ai. 4. one column at a time. The zeroth row of ones is subtractedfrom all other rows of S.. This completes the second proof. We might remove the edge from al to ao.1).j) (Si. Assume that Ln-Un-1 0 1 0 0 Un- (ELn)(UnET) [nU 0 ET Ln-1 0 (4) Sn-1 " We hope that the last matrix agrees with ESn ET. PROOF BY GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION. Those continuations of the upward start are counted by Li-1. k) start upward from ai. By shifting the graph down and left (along the 450 line) we imagine these paths going from ai-1 to the point (k .k-1. k) to bj.1 + 2 . Li-l. producing the smaller = Sn-1.1. The path counts agree with Pascal's recursion. That cancels all paths that go across to ao before going up. and go from ai-1 to (k. j)th entries of ESn (ESn)ij (ESnET)ij = = Sij (Sij - Si-1.1. Normally we subtractmultiples of the first equation from those below.k-1. The six paths from a2 to b2 come from 1 . By induction.k + Li-1. Then we can premultiply by E-1 and postmultiply by (ET)-' to conclude that LnUn = S. One generalization of this proof (to be strongly resisted) comes from removing edges from the graph. 192 OF ASSOCIATION AMERICA [Monthly 111 @ THEMATHEMATICAL .k-1 when his triangle is placed into L. The first pivot in S (and also L) is its upper left entry 1. tion (3) and its transpose give 1 Li-l. = -1. k).Si-1. Also Lii = 1 for the single path up to (i.j. For 4 x 4 matrices The elimination matrix E has entries Eii = 1 and Eii-1 you can see how the next smaller L appears: 1 i EL4- -1 - 1 1 -1 1 101 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 - 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 L3 0 . 0). which is the first step of Gaussian elimination. Then the sum over k counts all paths (and agrees with Sij). Then equa- This suggests a proof by induction. k . It remains only to recognize that gluing the graphs is equivalent to multiplying L times U! The term LikUkj counts paths from ai to bj through (k. so they are the entries of L.(3) E times L gives the Pascal recursion Lik matrix L-_l-shifted down as in (3). The other paths to (k. Similarly Ukj counts the paths from (k. [6] noticed that we could subtract each rowfrom the row beneath it. Pascal's recursion is Lik = Li-1.The reasoning is again by induction. k). These row operations (edge removals) are at the heart of Proof 3: S = LU is the fundamental matrix factorization produced by elimination. i). For the Pascal matrices Brawer and Pirovino [2].2 + 1 . ET: Look at the (i. Start from Lio = 1 for the single path across from ai to (0. Si-1.

. consider the "functional" meaning of L. . Multiplying Lv shows that (5) ends with a series in powers of (1 + x): 1 - 1 Lv 1 1 1 1 2 1 x x2 ( (1 + l+x + )2 (6) The simple multiplication (6) is very useful. The (i. AND LOGARITHM OF L. The complete elimination from S to U corresponds to removing all horizontal edges below the 450 line. 5.. shifted down as in (4). a2.j1. x.. Multiplication by LP gives powers of p + x. Then all paths must go upward to that line. a1. A second multiplication by L would give powers of 2 + x. multiplying by E is like removing all horizontal edges that reach the 450 line from the right. Every Taylor series around zero is the inner product of a coefficient vector a = (ao. POWERS. On the graph. containing all of the Pascal triangle. This is the (i. .). Then L = I since every path to that line goes straight up. The induction is complete. we may take their last step for granted-leaving a triangulargraph one size smaller (corresponding to L-1 !). This "algorithmic" approach could have led to LU = S without knowing that result in advance. This gave the induction in Proof 3. oc the powers LP are a representation of the groups Z and R (integer p and real p). which is DLD-' with D as indicated: ~1 -1 1 L-1 ~ 1 -2 3 1 -3 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 -17) 1 _ 1 -1 . 2. The Taylor series represents a function f(x): Sakx k aTvaT L-1Lv. INVERSE.. (5) Here L becomes an infinite triangular matrix."7 March 2004] PASCAL MATRICES 193 . as earlier authors have observed (the 4 x 4 case is displayed): [1 pL 2p p3 3p2 1 3p 1 1 For all matrix sizes n = 1. j)th entry of LP must be pi-j (). In counting.. j)th entry for the smaller matrix S..In that last expression.. Call and Velleman [3] identified L-1. In preparing for Proof 4.) with the moment vector v = (1. Elimination usually clears out columns of S (and columns of edges) but this does not leave a smaller Sn-1._1. x2. . The good elimination order multiplies by E to remove horizontal edges one diagonal at a time. The inverse matrix L-1 has the same form with p = -1. the first three terms cancel to leave Sil-.

. all ones.. Transposing L-' = DLD-1 in equation (7) leads to U-' = DUD-'. (There must be new connections still to explore.. PASCAL EIGENVALUES. PROOF BY EQUALITY OF FUNCTIONS. only n terms.The matrix LP has the exponential form epA. x2.I =- 1 pO0 p 0 2 0 0030 1 0 (8) The beautiful paper [1] takes this "creationmatrix"A as its startingpoint and connects L to the Vandermondeand Stirling and Bernoulli and Bernstein matrices. and help pascal in MATLAB. 6. The first step Uv has extra powers of x because the rows have been shifted: 194 OF ASSOCIATION AMERICA [Monthly 111 @ THEMATHEMATICAL . and )3 = 1. and X3 = 1 is self-reciprocal. lead to other properties of S = pascal(n). A brief comment about eigenvalues can come before Proof 4 of S = LU. The eigenvalues of S must come in reciprocal pairs X and 1/X. . . because D-1 = DT.has -. since similar matrices have the same eigenvalues: S-' = U-'L-' = DUD-IDLD-1 = (DU)S(DU)-'. = (DU)(LU)(U-'D-') The eigenvalues of the 3 x 3 symmetric Pascal matrix are XI = 4 + V-5. The product S = LU inherits this property of having all positive minors (see [6]). Then its exponential L is also totally positive [11. and we can compute A = log L: [0 A = lim epA - I p-*O p = lim LP. If Sv = LUv is verified for enough vectors v. The top row of Sv displays the geometric series 1 +x X2 1 1 1--x The derivative of each row of Sv gives the next row. p. we are justified in concluding that S = LU. X)4 (9) The same result should come from LUv. It is more remarkable that S-1 is similar to S. Then '1•X2 = 1 gives a reciprocal pair. So L and U are similar to their inverses (and matrices are always similar to their transposes). A has no negative subdeterminants. producing the binomial coefficients in L. The eigenvalues of L and U are their diagonal entries. )2 = 4 /15. 7. We need IxI < 1 for convergence (x could be a complex number): 1 1 1 Sv= 1 2 1 4 1 3 6 10 10 20 3 4 1 ? - x 1 1/(1-x) 1/(-x)2 x2 x3 _ 1/( )3 . x.)..) The series L = eA = I + A + A2/2! + . 115]. Our fourth and favorite proof chooses the infinite vectors v = (1. The references in Higham's excellent book [8].

The powers of this positive matrix are suddenly negative from :01(1 . the components of Uv are the powers of a = x/(1 . The nth row of L times Uv contains )n 1 )n +I (1 + a)n • 1000 L = (Uv) 1 1-x 1 1 a 1 2 1 0 1 3 3 1 1 0 0 -x) 1/(1 1/(1 1/(1 1 a2 a34/( x) X)2 Thus Sv = LUv for the vectors v = (1. Introduce va = (1..).. There may be some slight issue of convergence. every derivative is legitimate.x). 1. . ..-March 2004] =-1. since an algebraist working alone might apply S to Sv.0. The quickest way to reach (0.. then all the columns of S and LU must agree. .x).. . An alternative is to see the coordinate vectors as linear combinations of (a continuum of) the vectors v. A2. 195 PASCAL MATRICES . and we must be seeing a matrix generalization of his geometric series for 1/ (1 . These functional proofs need an analyst somewhere.I. The functional meaning of L is in the binomial theorem.2): 1+2+4+8+. If we can construct the other coordinate vectors from the vectors v. using Cauchy's integral theorem around x = z = 0. Things get even worse if you multiply again by S to discover that S3v = -v: -1ix S2 -(x (X1)/x2 -(x-)2/x3 -(X - 1)2X3 . Every series is uniformly convergent. S = LU is confirmed for all orders n at the same time.. 0. By working with infinite matrices. and the columns of S and LU are identical. This didn't bother Cauchy (on his good days).Uv- 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 -x x2 1/(1- x) x)2 x/(1 = X2/(1-X)3 x3 x3/(1 -x) Factoring out 1/(1 . A. Does it follow that S = LU? The choice x = 0 gives the coordinate vector vo = (1. Now multiply by L.. x. x2.x)-n -1/x. 0.) and form a linear combination of vA and vo: va S(VA-vo = LU vo Let A -.. -i S3v L j -X 2 -1 =-V -v. Then Svo = LUvo gives agreement between the first columns of S and LU (which are all ones).. L We seem to have proved that S3 = . Higher derivatives give the other coordinate vectors. every function is analytic. with no problem of convergence because all sums are finite..). 0.) is to differentiate v at x = 0.

TWO OPINIONS OF PASCAL'S TRIANGLE. Here is the case n = 3: 1 M3 1 -1 1 -3 0 = I -2 because 1 = 1 -xx.x) and z = y + 1 from U and L: x z(y(x)) = 1-x 1 + 1=1-x represents L o U = S.1/(1 .andbothauthors the Singapore-MIT by by 196 OF ASSOCIATION AMERICA [Monthly 111 @ THEMATHEMATICAL . No one could say better than that.for besides concealing within itself the mysteriesof Combinatorics. Waterhouse [15] applied that idea (modulo p) to prove a theorem of Strauss: If n is a power of p. in Persia (Omar Khayyaimhimself) and in China and Europe and India. by composing y = x/(1 .8. except the discoverer! in The was the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.it is knownby those expertin the higherpartsof Mathematics also to hold the foremost secrets of the whole of the rest of the subject. second Alliance. Then LU = S would have an even shorter Proof 5. We very much appreciated the sentiments of James Bernoulli. Wouldn't it be ironic and wonderful if Pascal's triangle turned out to be applied mathematics? 9. This comes from Don Knuth [12] and is quoted (with Bernoulli) in the preface to [5]: Thereare so many relationspresentthatwhen someone finds a new identity. It seems quite possible that digital transformsbased on Pascal matrices might be waiting for discovery. A true algebraist would look for matrices of Pascal type in a group representation. author thed'Arbeloff Fund. which our friendly readers would surely never share. A finite-dimensional representation leads to M3 = I for the rotated matrix with alternating signs known to MATLAB as M = pascal(n.+ NP: This Tablehas trulyexceptional and admirableproperties. Suppose that the infinite matrices S and U and L represent the Mbbius transformationsx . who completed the connection with powers by computing 1P + . We hope to study a larger class of "M6bius matrices" for (ax + b)/(cx + d).x) and x x/(1 . firstauthor supported partby NSFAward DMS-9971591.. But a genius of our own day expressed a different thought. 2). Edwards [5] describes the gradual discovery of its entries. The proofs were Pascal's (including a proof by induction that became a model for future mathematicians).therearen'tmany people who get excited aboutit any more. but the right infinite-dimensional representation is elusive..x) and x -->x + 1 that we met in Proof 4. Pascal was not the first to create his triangle. then S3 = I (mod p). MOBIUS MATRICES.

C. Baltimore. and M. Oxford. S.S. a lifelong lover of linear algebra. 283 (1998) 115-150. Strang. and GPS (1997).mit. His Ph. Fallat. Philadelphia. E. Strum.Circularplanargraphsand resistornetworks. He can't stop teaching and writing textbooks: Introduction to Linear Algebra (1993.mit.D. this MONTHLY (2001) 232-245.mit.D. 60 (1987) 305-316. and numerical linear algebra remain passions. L. Looking into Pascal's triangle:Combinatorics. University of Washington. Hilton and J. ALAN EDELMAN. was from UCLA and since then he has taught at MIT. 108 7. Pedersen.MA 02139 http://math. A. Geodesy. J.REFERENCES 1. The linear algebra of the Pascal matrix.D. Morrow. MA.Introductionto Linear Algebra. 3rd ed. J. Knuth. Wellesley. 2003). Bidiagonal factorizationof totally nonnegative matrices. 1983. 13. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Math. 105 (1988) 195-198.edu March 2004] PASCAL MATRICES 197 . Binomial matrices. Department of Mathematics. Greengardand V.and J.MA 02139 http://math. parallel computing. a Householder Prize for numerical linear algebra. Rokhlin. Karlin. LinearAlgebra Appl. Wellesley-CambridgePress. He was President of SIAM in 1999-2000 and is chair of the U. Addison-Wesley.S. 1988). this MONTHLY (2001) 697-712. 1987.Cambridge. 9. Mag. R. thesis.S. Ingerman. Ph. G. G. 11. Velleman.Cambridge. recently celebrated his fortieth birthday with a cake bought by his wife with icing Ax = Xx. MA. N. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 8. 1968. 14. The publisher is always Wellesley-Cambridge Press.edu/-edelman edelman@math. 1996. 2002. He plans to learn something new soon. Phys. 174 (1992) 13-23. Higham. 108 2.The map behind a binomial coefficient matrix over Z/pZ.The matrices of Pascal and other greats. 1. Wavelets and Filter Banks (1996). 10. this MONTHLY (1993) 372-376. Aceto and D.mit. Random matrices. He has also spent three years at UC Berkeley.arithmetic. 12. and Linear Algebra. and Johns Hopkins University Press. W. Accuracy and Stability in Numerical Algorithms. He earned a B. vol. 2003. Edelman's thesis on random matrices was supervised by Nick Trefethen (and a book is in progress). except Brooks/Cole for the earlier linear algebra book. Linear Algebra and Its Applications (1976. at Yale University and a Ph. Pascal's matrices. E Edwards. and Calculus (1991). Department of Mathematics. StanfordUniversity Press. Waterhouse.. W. where he has been teaching since 1993. 1997. Brawer and M. 73 (1987) 325348. Call and D. 4. J. He has shared a Gordon Bell Prize for parallel computing. B. 5. Linear Algebra Appl. The Art of Computer Programming.edu/-gs gs@math. 8 (1977) 260-266. Ingerman. Pascal's Arithmetical Triangle: The Story of a Mathematical Idea.and geometry. TotalPositivity. 1998. J. A fast algorithm for particle simulations. His other books (with wonderful coauthors) are just linear algebra in disguise: An Analysis of the Finite Element Method (1973). Charles Griffin. Reading. 6. 100 3. 15. 1973. SIAM. Trigiante. London.D. D. Linear Algebra Appl. D.edu GILBERT STRANG was an undergraduateat MIT and a Rhodes Scholar at Balliol College. A. Pirovino. Two-YearCollege Math. at MIT. Stanford. National Committee on Mathematics.Discrete and Continuous Inverse Boundary Problems on a Disc. S. Introduction to Applied Mathematics (1986). L. and the MAA's Chauvenet Prize. Curtis. Comp. P. Fundamental Algorithms: Volume I.

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