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DISEASE DESCRIPTION CAUSES SIGNS and

SYMPTOMS
TREATMENT NSG MANAGEMENT Prevention

Otitis externa



































Otitis externa is when the
skin of the ear canal
becomes inflamed.















This may happen if you
have:
 scratched the
lining or your
outer ear
canal
 you have a
skin condition
such as
eczema, or
 if you have
picked up a
fungal
infection from
swimming.

















itchiness and a
watery discharge.

the ear will feel
full.
the ear canal will
swell and ear
drainage will
follow. painful
glands of the neck
may enlarge,
difficult or painful
to open the jaw.
decreased capacity
for hearing in the
affected ear.




















While showering or swimming use
an ear plug (one that is designed
to keep water out)
Scratching the inside of the ear or
using cotton swabs should be
avoided.
The most common treatment
consists of ear drops containing
antibiotics or antibiotics with
corticosteroids to reduce
inflammation.
Oral antibiotics may also be
required in some cases. These
should be used as directed. In
some situations, a "wick" will need
to be placed in the ear canal to
stent it open and serve as a
conduit for the ear drops. Periodic,
and sometimes frequent,
suctioning of the ear canal helps to
keep it open, remove debris, and
decrease bacterial counts.




This will only aggravate the
irritated skin, and in most
situations will make the condition
worse. In fact, scratching the
inside of the ear will just make
the ear itch more, and any
medications prescribed will be
ineffective. A hearing aid should
be left out as much as possible
until swelling and discharge
stops.


1. Decrease
exposure to
water. If you are
prone to
infections it is
advisable that
you use an ear
plug when you
bathe or swim.
Swimmer's ear
drops or alcohol
drops (Swim-
EAR®) used in the
ear after water
exposure
followed by
drying the ear
with a hair dryer
held at arms
length will often
help keep the ear
free of moisture

2. Do not
insert instrument
s, scratch, or use
cotton swabs in
the ears.

























PERFORATED
EARDRUM










































Infection of the middle
ear is the most
common cause of a
ruptured eardrum.
 Infections can be
caused
by viruses,bacteria,
or fungi.
 Infections increase
the pressure behind
your eardrum,

























Pain
IVertigo (spinning
sensation)
Hearing change or
loss
o Often
with ringing,
buzzing, or
clicking

In many cases, a perforated
eardrum will heal by itself
without treatment in around two
months. If treatment is needed,
it's mainly to relieve discomfort
and treat infection.
Painkillers
Any pain or discomfort caused by a
perforated eardrum can be
treated using painkillers, such
as paracetamol or ibuprofen.
Never give aspirin to children
under 16.
In some cases ibuprofen is not
recommended, such as if you have
had a peptic ulcer. It can also
cause side effects.
You may want to try placing a hot
water bottle wrapped in a towel
against your ear, as this
sometimes relieves any
discomfort.
Antibiotics
Your GP may prescribe antibiotics

3. Try to keep the
ear free of
wax. This may
require visits to
the doctor to
have your ears
cleaned.

4. If you already
have an ear
infection, or if
you have a hole
in your eardrum,
or if you have
had ear surgery
or ear tubes, first
consult your
doctor prior to
swimming and
before you use
any type of ear
drop.

5. A preventative
ear drop
solution can be
cheaply and
easily made by
mixing equal

is a rupture or perforation
(hole) of
the eardrumwhich can
occur as a result of otitis
media infection, trauma (
e.g. by trying to clean the
ear with sharp
instruments), explosion,
loud noise or surgery
(accidental creation of a
rupture)











stretching the drum
and causing pain.
o When the
eardrum can no
longer stretch, it
bursts or tears.
o Frequently, the
pain gets better,
because the
pressure is now
relieved,
however,
sometimes the
pain can get
worse.
 Trauma can also
cause perforation.
o Blunt or
penetrating
trauma, such as
from a fall on the
side of your head
or a stick that
goes deep in your
ear
o Rapid changes in
pressure, for
example, scuba
diving
(barotrauma, ear
pain, or ear
squeeze), or
going up in an
 Fluid or blood
draining from
the ear

if your perforated eardrum was
caused by an infection, or if there
is a risk that an infection will
develop while your eardrum heals.
You may be prescribed antibiotic
eardrops or tablets to be
swallowed.
Surgery
You may need surgery if your
perforated eardrum is severe
or doesn't heal. The procedure
used to repair a perforated
eardrum is known as a
myringoplasty.
A myringoplasty may be
recommended to:
 prevent water
from entering
your middle ear
(which could
cause an
infection)
 reduce your
likelihood of
getting ear
infections
parts of rubbing
alcohol and
white vinegar
(50:50 mixture).
This solution will
increase the rate
of evaporation of
water in the ear
canal and has
antibacterial
properties. Using
this solution to
rinse the ear
before and after
water exposure
can serve as a
protective
measure against
infection.

6. Mineral oil ear
drops can be
used to

7. protect the ear
from water when
a dry crusty skin
condition exists.


















elevator too fast

o Slaps to the ear,
such as a fall
while water skiing
or a hand slap to
the side of the
head
o Lightning blasts
o Blast waves from
gunshots,
fireworks, and
other loud noises
o Changes in air
pressure during
air travel or scuba
diving
o Sharp objects or
cotton-tipped
swabs
o Motor vehicle
accidents
o Falls
o Sports injuries

 improve your
hearing
If your GP refers you to a
consultant for specialist
treatment, such as surgery, you
have the right to start treatment
within 18 weeks of your referral.
You may be able to book your
hospital appointment
through Choose and Book while
you’re still in your GP surgery.















Some causes of
ruptured eardrums
cannot be
prevented or
avoided. A little
caution can lower






the risk.
 Treat ear
infections early.
 Avoid flying or
scuba diving if
you havesinus
infection or
upper respiratory
tract infection.
 If you must fly or
scuba dive, pinch
your nose and
swallow air
frequently to
help equalize the
pressure.
 Never put
anything in your
ear, even to clean
it (for example,
Q-Tips).
 Wear proper ear
protection such
as ear plugs or
protection
designed for
sports activities.





buzzing. Pain IVertigo (spinning sensation) Hearing change or loss o Often with ringing. Never give aspirin to children under 16. In some cases ibuprofen is not recommended. Infections increase the pressure behind your eardrum.In many cases. 5. a perforated eardrum will heal by itself without treatment in around two months. Painkillers Any pain or discomfort caused by a perforated eardrum can be treated using painkillers. as this sometimes relieves any discomfort. Antibiotics Your GP may prescribe antibiotics 3. y Infections can be caused by viruses. If you already have an ear infection. or if you have a hole in your eardrum. or fungi. y A preventative ear drop solution can be cheaply and easily made by mixing equal . If treatment is needed. first consult your doctor prior to swimming and before you use any type of ear drop. 4. such as if you have had a peptic ulcer.bacteria. such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Try to keep the ear free of wax. This may require visits to the doctor to have your ears cleaned. It can also PERFORATED EARDRUM Infection of the middle ear is the most common cause of a ruptured eardrum. or clicking cause side effects. or if you have had ear surgery or ear tubes. it's mainly to relieve discomfort and treat infection. You may want to try placing a hot water bottle wrapped in a towel against your ear.

This solution will increase the rate of evaporation of water in the ear canal and has antibacterial properties. o y parts of rubbing alcohol and white vinegar (50:50 mixture). scuba diving (barotrauma. trauma ( e. o Blunt or penetrating trauma. for example. You may be prescribed antibiotic eardrops or tablets to be swallowed. loud noise or surgery (accidental creation of a rupture) o When the eardrum can no longer stretch. Trauma can also cause perforation. The procedure used to repair a perforated eardrum is known as a myringoplasty. Frequently. . by trying to clean the ear with sharp instruments). is a rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrumwhich can occur as a result of otitis media infection. Mineral oil ear drops can be used to o protect the ear from water when a dry crusty skin condition exists. explosion. 6. or if there is a risk that an infection will develop while your eardrum heals. A myringoplasty may be recommended to: y prevent water from entering your middle ear (which could cause an infection) y reduce your likelihood of getting ear infections 7. such as from a fall on the side of your head or a stick that goes deep in your ear Rapid changes in pressure. Surgery You may need surgery if your perforated eardrum is severe or doesn't heal.g. sometimes the pain can get worse. it bursts or tears. the pain gets better.stretching the drum y and causing pain. Using this solution to rinse the ear before and after water exposure can serve as a protective measure against infection. however. or ear squeeze). because the pressure is now relieved. ear pain. or going up in an Fluid or blood draining from the ear if your perforated eardrum was caused by an infection.

o o o o o . you have the right to start treatment within 18 weeks of your referral. A little caution can lower consultant for specialist treatment. You may be able to book your o o hospital appointment through Choose and Book while you re still in your GP surgery. fireworks. and other loud noises Changes in air pressure during air travel or scuba diving Sharp objects or cotton-tipped swabs Motor vehicle accidents Falls Sports injuries Some causes of ruptured eardrums cannot be prevented or avoided.elevator too fast y improve your hearing If your GP refers you to a o Slaps to the ear. such as a fall while water skiing or a hand slap to the side of the head Lightning blasts Blast waves from gunshots. such as surgery.

pinch your nose and swallow air frequently to help equalize the pressure. Q-Tips). Wear proper ear protection such as ear plugs or protection designed for sports activities. y y y y . y Treat ear infections early. even to clean it (for example.the risk. Never put anything in your ear. Avoid flying or scuba diving if you havesinus infection or upper respiratory tract infection. If you must fly or scuba dive.