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O ORGANIZATION 1.What are called memory-mapped I/O devices?

When I/O devices and the memory share the same address space the arrangem ent is called memory-mapped I/O devices. 2.What constitutes the deviceâ s interface circuit? The address decoder, the data and the status registers, and the control c ircuitry required to coordinate I/O transfers constitute the deviceâ s interface circ uit. 3.What are the two important mechanisms for implementing I/O operations? There are two commonly used mechanisms for implementing I/O operations. They are interrupts and direct memory access. 4.What are known as interrupts? In the case of interrupts, the synchronization is achieved by having the I/O device send a special signal over the bus whenever it is ready for a da ta transfer operation. 5.What do you mean by direct memory access? Direct memory access is a technique used for high speed I/O devices. It involves having the device interface transfer data directly to or from the m emory. 6.What do you mean by an interrupt- request line? The bus control line is also known as an interrupt-request line. 7.What do you mean by an interrupt acknowledge signal? The processor must inform the device that its request has been recog nized so that it may remove its interrupt-request signal. This may be accomplish ed by an interrupt acknowledge signal. 8.What is a subroutine? A subroutine performs a function required by the program from which it is called. 9.What is interrupt latency? Saving registers also increases the delay between the time an interr upt request is received and the start of execution of the interrupt-service rout ine. This delay is called interrupt latency. 10.What is known as real-time processing? The concept of interrupts is used in operating systems and in many c ontrol applications where processing of certain routines must be accurately time d relative to external events .The latter type of application is referred to as real-time processing. 11.What is known as a edge triggered line? The processor has a special interrupt-request line for which the int errupt handling circuit responds only to the leading edge of a signal .such a li ne is called a edge-triggered line. 12.What is known as an interrupt vector? The location pointed to by the interrupting device is used to store the starting address of the interrupt-service routine .The processor reads this address ,called the interrupt vector. 13.What is known as a debugger? System software usually includes a program called a debugger, which helps the programmer find errors in a program. 14.What is an exception? The term exception is often used to refer to any event that causes a n interruption. 15.What are known as privileged instructions? To protect the operating system of a computer from being corrupted b y user programs, certain instructions can be executed only while the processor i s in the supervisor mode. These are called privileged instructions. 16.What is known as multitasking? Multitasking is a mode of operation in which a processor executes se veral user programs at the same time. 17.What is known as time slicing? A common OS technique that makes multitasking possible is known as t

ime slicing. 18.What is a process? A program, together with any information that describes its curre nt state of execution, is regarded by the OS as an entity called a process. 19.What is a device driver? A self contained module that encapsulates all software pertaining to a particulardevice is known as a device driver. 20.What is data abort? Data abort arises from an error in reading or writing data. 21.What is known as prefetch abort? Prefetch abort arises from an error when prefetching instructions fr om the memory. 22.What are banked registers? The registers that replace user mode registers are called banked reg isters. 23.What is known as direct memory access? A special control unit may be provided to allow transfer of a block of data directly between an external device and the main memory, without continu ous intervention by the processor. This approach is called direct memory access, or DMA. 24.What is known as a DMA controller? DMA transfers are performed by a control circuit that is part of the I/O device interface. This circuit is known as DMA controller. 25.What is known as cycle stealing? The processor originates most memory access cycles, the DMA controll memory cycles from the processor. Hence ,this interweaving te er can be said to â stealâ hnique is usually called cycle stealing. 26.What is known as block/burst mode? The DMA controller may be given exclusive access to the main memory to transfer a block of data without interrupt. This is known as block/burst mode . 27.What is called a bus master? The device that is allowed to initiate data transfers on the bus at any given time is called the bus master. 28.What is known as distributed arbitration? Distributed arbitration means that all devices waiting to use the bu s have equal responsibility in carrying out the arbitration process, without usi ng a central arbiter 29.What is a strobe? Strobe captures the values of the data given instant and store them into a buffer. 30.What is meant by handshake? Handshake is used between the master and the slave for controlling d ata transfers on the bus. 31. What is known as full handshake? A change of state in one signal is followed by a change in the other signal. This is known as a full handshake. 32.What is a bitrate? The speed of transmission is known as a bit rate. 33.What is a initiator? A master is called an initiator in PCI technology. 34.What is called a target? The addressed device that responds to read and write commands is cal led a target. 35.What is a transaction? A complete transfer operation on the bus involving an address and a burst of data ,is called a transaction. 36.What are sectors? Data are stored on a disk in blocks called sectors. 37.What are known as asynchronous events?

The event of pressing a key is not synchronized to any other event i n a computer system.the data generated by the keyboard are called asynchronous. 38.What are known as isochronous events? The sampling process yields a continuous stream of digitized samples that arrive at regular intervals,synchronized with the sampling clock. 39.What is known as plug- and- play?