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Drug and alcohol abuse are important problems that affect school-age youth at earlier ages than in the past. Young people frequently begin to experiment with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs during the middle school years, with a smaller number starting during elementary school. By the time students are in high school, rates of substance use are remarkably high. According to national survey data, about one in three twelfth graders reports being drunk or binge drinking (i.e., five or more drinks in a row) in the past thirty days; furthermore, almost half of high school students report ever using marijuana and more than one-fourth report using marijuana in the past thirty days. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among high school students. However, use of the drug ecstasy (MDMA) has seen a sharp increase among American teenagers at the end of the twentieth century, from 6 percent in 1996 up to 11 percent reporting having tried ecstasy in 2000. Indeed, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, ecstasy was used by more American teenagers than cocaine. Many educators recognize that drug and alcohol abuse among students are significant barriers to the achievement of educational objectives. Furthermore, federal and state agencies and local school districts frequently mandate that schools provide health education classes to students, including content on drug and alcohol abuse. The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program is a comprehensive federal initiative funded by the U.S. Department of Education, which is designed to strengthen programs that prevent the use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and violence in and around the nation's schools. In order to receive federal funding under this program, school districts are expected to develop a comprehensive education and prevention plan, which involves students, teachers, parents, and other members of the community. Thus it is clear that schools have become the major focus of drug and alcohol abuse education and prevention activities for youth. This makes sense from a practical standpoint because schools offer efficient access to large numbers of youth during the years that they typically begin to use drugs and alcohol.

Since the 1970s several approaches to drug and alcohol abuse education and prevention have been implemented in school settings. Traditionally, drug and alcohol abuse education has involved the dissemination of information on drug abuse and the negative health, social, and legal consequences of abuse. Contemporary approaches include social resistance and competenceenhancement programs, which focus less on didactic instruction and more on interactive-skills training techniques. The most promising contemporary approaches are conceptualized within a theoretical framework based on the etiology of drug abuse and have been subjected to empirical testing using appropriate research methods. Contemporary programs are typically categorized into one of three types: (1) universal programs focus on the general population, such as all students in a particular school; (2) selective programs target high-risk groups, such as poor school achievers; and (3) indicated programs are designed for youth already experimenting with drugs or engaging in other high-risk behaviors. Traditional Educational Approach Information dissemination. The most commonly used approach to drug and alcohol abuse education involves simply providing students with factual information about drugs and alcohol. Some information-dissemination approaches attempt to dramatize the dangers of drug abuse by using feararousal techniques designed to attract attention and frighten individuals into not using drugs, accompanied by vivid portrayals of the severe adverse consequences of drug abuse. Methods. Informational approaches may include classroom lectures about the dangers of abuse, as well as educational pamphlets and other printed materials, and short films that impart information to students about different types of drugs and the negative consequences of use. Some programs have police officers come into the classroom and discuss law-enforcement issues, including drug-related crime and penalties for buying or possessing illegal

Therefore. It has become increasingly clear that the etiology of drug and alcohol abuse is complex. drug and alcohol abuse. and skills needed to handle peer pressure in these and other situations. There has been a growing recognition since the 1970s that social and psychological factors are central in promoting the onset of cigarette smoking and. health effects of drug use. Contemporary Educational Approaches Social resistance approach. social influence programs focus extensively on teaching students how to recognize and deal with social influences to use drugs from peers and the media. drink. These resistance-skills programs focus on skills training to increase students' resistance to negative social influences to engage in drug use. later. 1997 meta-analytic studies by Nancy Tobler and Howard Stratton consistently fail to show any impact on drug use behavior or intentions to use drugs in the future. Drug abuse education and prevention approaches are increasingly more closely tied to psychological theories of human behavior. The social resistance approach is based on a conceptualization of adolescent drug abuse as resulting from prodrug social influences from peers. and prevention strategies that rely primarily on information dissemination are not effective in changing behavior. Evaluation studies of informational approaches to drug and alcohol abuse prevention have shown that in some cases a temporary impact on knowledge and antidrug attitudes can occur. confidence. particularly peer pressure. along with exposure to drug-using role models. or use drugs.drugs. Effectiveness. Other programs use doctors or other health professionals to talk about the severe. and media portrayals encouraging drug use. often irreversible. persuasive advertising appeals. However. These programs frequently include a component that makes . Methods. and/or acquire the knowledge. The goal of resistance-skills training approaches is to have students learn ways to avoid high-risk situations where they are likely to experience peer pressure to smoke.

The most popular school-based drug education program based on the social influence model is Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Furthermore. A comprehensive review of resistance skills studies published from 1980 to 1990 reported that the majority of prevention studies (63%) had positive effects on drug use behavior. Despite the popularity of DARE. and drug use. 1998 evaluation studies of DARE by Dennis Rosenbaum and Gordon Hanson examined the most scientifically rigorous published evaluations of DARE and concluded that DARE has little or no impact on drug use behavior. with an emphasis on the techniques used by advertisers to influence consumer behavior. several follow-up studies of resistance skills interventions have reported positive behavioral effects lasting for up to three years. Effectiveness. Resistance skills programs as a whole have generally been successful. drinks alcohol. that the instructional . with fewer studies having neutral (26%) or negative effects on behavior (11%)±with several in the neutral category having inadequate statistical power to detect program effects. uniformed police officers in the classroom to teach the drug prevention curriculum. particularly beyond the initial posttest assessment. adolescents will be less likely to resist offers of drugs. suggesting the need for ongoing intervention or booster sessions. Also. The core DARE curriculum is typically provided to children in the fifth or sixth grades and contains elements of information dissemination and social influence approaches to drug abuse prevention. because adolescents tend to overestimate the prevalence of tobacco.students aware of prosmoking influences from the media. or uses drugs. alcohol. although longer term follow-up studies have shown that these effects gradually decay over time. Some of the possible reasons why DARE is ineffective may be that the program is targeting the wrong mediating processes. DARE uses trained. social resistance programs often attempt to correct normative expectations that nearly everybody smokes. it has been proposed that resistance skills training may be ineffective in the absence of conservative social norms against drug use. or Project DARE. since if the norm is to use drugs. In fact.

a distinctive feature of competenceenhancement approaches is an emphasis on the teaching of generic personal self-management skills and social coping skills. general social skills (complimenting. imitation. and that teenagers may simply "tune out" what may be perceived as an expected message from an ultimate authority figure. and beliefs. and reinforcement and is influenced by an adolescent's pro-drug cognitions. drug use behavior is learned through a process of modeling. for example. in combination with poor personal and social skills. it may. and skills for forming new friendships). and general assertiveness skills. conversational skills. help them deal with anxiety. role playing. are believed to increase an adolescent's susceptibility to social influences in favor of drug use. adaptive coping strategies for dealing with stress and anxiety. Methods. For some youth. behavioral rehearsal (in-class practice) and extended (out-of-class) practice through behavioral homework assignments. Examples of the kind of generic personal and social skills typically included in this prevention approach are decision-making and problem-solving skills. These skills are best taught using proven cognitive-behavioral skills training methods: instruction and demonstration.methods are less interactive than more successful prevention programs. low self-esteem. cognitive skills for resisting interpersonal and media influences. . or a lack of comfort in social situations. using drugs may not be a matter of yielding to peer pressure but may have instrumental value. however. Although these approaches have several features that they share with resistance-skills training approaches. group feedback and reinforcement. A limitation of the social influence approach is that it assumes that young people do not want to use drugs but lack the skills or confidence to refuse. According to the competenceenhancement approach. Competence enhancement approach. skills for enhancing self-esteem (goal-setting and self-directed behavior change techniques). attitudes. These factors.

Challenges for School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention In the final analysis. SCHOOL. and institutionalized. programs with proven effectiveness are not widely used. In summary. competence-enhancement approaches) appear to show the most promise of all school-based prevention approaches. with studies reporting reductions in drug use behavior in the range of 40 to 80 percent. testing the efficacy of competence-enhancement approaches to drug abuse prevention. subentry on ALCOHOL. the magnitude of reported effects of these approaches has typically been relatively large. More important.. However. See also: FAMILY COMPOSITION AND CIRCUMSTANCE. Long-term follow-up data indicate that the prevention effects of these approaches can last for up to six years. Drug prevention programs most commonly used in real-world settings are those that have not shown evidence of effectiveness or have not been evaluated properly. Furthermore. steps must be taken to ensure that programs are implemented with sufficient fidelity. TOBACCO. once effective programs are disseminated. BIBLIOGRAPHY . research-based prevention programs proven to be successful are unlikely to have any real public health impact unless they are used in a large number of schools. adopted. Thus an important area that deserves further attention is how effective school-based drug abuse prevention programs can be widely disseminated. These studies have consistently demonstrated behavioral effects as well as effects on hypothesized mediating variables.Effectiveness. HEALTH EDUCATION. drug abuse prevention programs that emphasize resistance skills and general life skills (i. AND OTHER DRUGS. Regardless of how effective a prevention program may be. Over the years.e. a number of evaluation studies have been conducted. it is not likely to produce the desired results unless it is provided in full and by qualified and motivated staff.

. GORDON S. HERBERT H. STEVE. 2000. SEVERSON. 1998. "Long-Term Follow-Up Results of a Randomized Drug Abuse Prevention Trial in a White Middle-Class Population. ELIZABETH M.E.. "School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of the State of the Art in Curriculum. . JERALD G. GILBERT J. GILBERT J. and BACHMAN.. and HANSON.. ROSENBAUM. 2000. STEWARD I. 1: Secondary School Students. ELI. TRACY. Vol. 1980±1990. et al. TRACY.. BAKER. 1975± 1999. et al. "Drug Abuse Prevention Programming: Do We Know What Content Works?" American Behavioral Scientist 39:868± 883. LAWRENCE M.1996.. Rockville. LLOYD D. DAVID P." Health Education Research: Theory and Practice 7:403±430. DENNIS P. KENNETH W. O'MALLEY. JOHNSTON.. BOTVIN. MACKINNON. WILLIAM B. DONALDSON.. and DIAZ.. 1992. GRIFFIN. MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.A. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use. SCHEIER. DIAZ. BOTVIN. "Preventing Drug Abuse in Schools: Social and Competence Enhancement Approaches Targeting Individual-Level Etiological Factors. LINDA.R. BOTVIN. GILBERT J.. PATRICK M." Addictive Behaviors 5:769±774." Journal of the American Medical Association 273:1106±1112. 2000. 1995. DUSENBURY." Addictive Behaviors 25:887±897. "Assessing the Effects of School-Based Drug Education: A Six-Year Multilevel Analysis of Project D. HANSEN.BOTVIN.. "Preventing Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents: LongTerm Follow-Up Data from a Randomized Control Trial of a School Population. SUSSMAN." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35:381±412.

and other drug use represents a ubiquitous problem for American colleges." Journal of Primary Prevention 18:71±128. tobacco.TOBLER. GILBERT J. governmental. Alcohol and other drug use on college campuses radically increased between 1993 and 1997. no institution of higher education is immune to substance use and its related adverse consequences.. It is in the interest of society to design and implement policies and programs that aim to curb college student substance use and abuse. Extent of Use Alcohol. and STRATTON. 1997. BOTVIN KENNETH W. Ads by Google Become a Partner Online Partner Program for International . catapulting this issue into the forefront of the national agenda. Institutions of higher education are under increased scrutiny due to policy developments from the public health. The negative effects reach beyond the parameters of the campus. GRIFFIN Alcohol. and higher education sectors in the 1990s that place revised importance on initiatives addressing student substance use. then stabilized between 1997 and 1999. HOWARD H. tobacco. Despite variation in campus use rates. "Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis of the Research. NANCY S. and other drugs used in American colleges and universities represents a public health problem of critical proportions. This trend produces great concern as college student use rates are expected to climb due to a radical increase in drug use among those aged twelve to seventeen.

The prevalence of marijuana use rose 22 percent between 1993 and 1999±an increase that occurred among most student demographic . and 3. 84 percent of college students report having drunk alcohol within the last year.com Used Printing Machines Heidelberg. 68 percent within the previous month. Portal with more than 1500 machines PressCity. KBA. and marijuana represent the most frequently used drugs on college campuses. Arthur Levine and Jeanette S. according to Henry Wechsler (1996).reecedorward.com Alcohol. An Award Winning Publisher Looking for New Writers www.. with nearly onethird of college students having smoked within the past year.. Komori.com Write Your First eBook Learn how to write and publish your own ebook purchase your copy now! www.RaiderPublishing. Tobacco use shares a student use rate similar to alcohol. Roland. Nationwide. Schools indicate a significant increase of 28 percent in student smoking during the 1990s.6 percent on a daily basis.Asian Marriage Agencies here! AsianBeauties. Cureton estimated that 25 percent of students indicated that they had used some form of illegal drug within the past year. Drug use rates are rising on campuses. tobacco.com Raider Publishing Int.

vandalism. are linked to alcohol and other drug use. and education. accidents. sexual assaults and rape. and hallucinogens by nearly 5 percent. health. is on a substantial increase. social norms. Alcohol use can be associated with injury and death from drinking and driving. For college students. affecting about two fifths of the college population. Binge drinking. and suicide. During these years.5 drinks per week and about two in five college students engage in high-risk or binge drinking at least once in an average two-week period. alcohol poisoning. and continues to pose tremendous challenges to higher education. Alcohol Alcohol is the number one drug of choice for college students of both two-year and four-year institutions. tobacco in the form of cigarettes. the institution. consuming five or more drinks in succession for men and four for women. impacting students' social lives. and the community. college students consume about 4. it is common for intermittent tobacco use to quickly manifest into a life-long habit. Unplanned and uninhibited sexual behavior may lead to pregnancy and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. The negative consequences of student alcohol use span well beyond the parameters of the college campus and affect students. Tobacco Many students perceive the college years as a time of experimentation. and cigars presents a . which results in a lower grade point average. Marijuana is used by 24 percent of college students. and peer influences. smokeless tobacco. Alcohol is associated with increased absenteeism from class and poor academic performance. It accounts for the majority of alcohol consumed and is associated with the bulk of problems encountered on campuses. On average. cocaine by 4 percent. The majority of injuries. fighting. on and off college campuses. although in fact it is a period heavily shaped by environmental factors.groups and at almost all kinds of colleges. and other crime.

colleges must address the problem somewhat differently than they do alcohol and tobacco. Other Drugs By their nature. violence. Nonbinging and abstaining students may become the targets of insults and arguments. Therefore. heart disease. Variation exists among college and universities as to the rate and type of substances used. and smoking within residence halls places people at risk due to fire. Campus Environment Perceptions of campus use. consumption. and death. physical assaults. use legally. substance availability. emphysema. and humiliation. which predisposes them to substance dependency. Marijuana is reported as the illicit drug of choice on campuses. vandalism. inhalants. unwanted sexual advances. Memory loss. Secondhand Effects The secondhand effects of substance use on campus are often overlooked and underappreciated for the deleterious effects they may have on students and the quality of their collegiate experience. Passive smoke is associated with life-threatening health risks. hallucinogens. amphetamines. and other life-threatening illnesses. and designer drugs represent but a few general forms entering the higher education arena. Illicit drug use factors into tragedies that include rape.legal and accessible alternative to other drug use. Sleep deprivation and study interruption results when these students find themselves caring for intoxicated students. diminished concentration and attention. Its use is linked to various cancers. Students are entering higher education with increased exposure to drugs. campus climate. Students who abstain. cocaine. increased absenteeism. vandalism. overdose. and students' family histories of . and physical illness are also associated with drug use. illicit drugs do not carry a legal age for purchase. or in moderation often suffer secondhand effects from the behaviors of students that use substances in excess. impaired academic performance. Marijuana. steroids. awareness of campus policies and enforcement. or distribution.

tobacco use. However. and experience binge drinking more than nonparticipating students.substance abuse impact the extent of substance use on any given campus. and athletics typify student groups at high risk for substance abuse. Collegiate athletes are more likely to use alcohol and smokeless tobacco. the college athlete may experience anxiety associated with the dual roles and conflicting expectations of being both an athlete and a student. the practices they espouse often advocate the use of alcohol. Colleges and universities compound the . and other drugs. By exploring how students perceive substance use. sororities. and illicit drug use on their campus and on college campuses in general. particularly male members. accounted for the highest alcohol consumption on many college campuses. tobacco. These misconceptions lead students to feel pressured and justified in their increased substance use. Attempting to rectify this discourse. policies. academic. and other drug use. Fraternities and sororities often find themselves at the center of growing concern as their mere presence on campus is associated with higher campus-wide levels of substance use. The social. and rule enforcement on campus. The campus and surrounding community exert profound influence on innumerable facets of student life. Establishments encircling college campuses that cater specifically to college students contribute to the substance use climate by selling to underage or intoxicated students. Leaders of Greek organizations. Students typically overestimate the amount and the extent of high-risk drinking. tobacco. particularly alcohol consumption. Due to the integral social role these organizations occupy on most college campuses. and cocurricular milieux are often shaped by the social norms and perceptions related to campus alcohol. Intercollegiate athletics represents an important aspect of the college experience. college athletes may become increasingly susceptible to substance dependency. college administrators are better able to discern and roughly predict how students will react to the perceptions of social norms. Social fraternities.

Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1989. data gathering. the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention was established by the United States Department of Education to assist in developing and carrying out substance prevention . Local. Institutions often find themselves caught in a legal quagmire when they attempt to combat rising substance use and are confronted with issues of legal responsibility and institutional liability while simultaneously acknowledging the behavioral and health implications related to substance abuse. The 1998 Parental Notification law permits schools to inform parents if their child violates the rules or laws governing alcohol or controlled substances. The Drug-Free Schools and Campuses regulations mandate that schools prepare a biennial report. Focused policy. and federal governments play a central role in assisting and bolstering higher education's efforts to reduce substance use and the resulting problems that plague American college campuses. Policies Affecting the campus environment relies heavily on the pervasive commitment of the college or university. it is difficult to assure adequate and continuous funding for substance-related programs and policy enforcement. procedures. state. and referral approaches enable schools to effectively address this problem. and the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990 represent such initiatives. which certifies that the school has implemented and assessed prevention policy and programs and documents the consistency of policy enforcement. In 1993. prevention strategies.problem by sending students mixed messages concerning substance use by endorsing alcohol and tobacco industry advertising at collegiate sporting events. This report must be made available to anyone who requests it. counseling. With increasing cost pressures on colleges. Federal legislative such as the 1986 amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965.

schools are attempting to further shape the social climate. campus organizations. while providing alternative alcohol-free campussponsored activities. By targeting social groups such as fraternities and sororities for programming and monitoring of policy compliance. physical. Specialized task forces and advocacy groups. and treatment services. Novel disciplinary actions exhibit the decisive consequences of such behavior. and offering extended hours for library and recreational facilities. students. campus leaders ensure that initiatives span all facets of the institution. adjusting course scheduling. Department of Education and other granting organizations provide national funding support in an effort to address this issue. such as the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse task force on college drinking. To effect change. alumni.S. parents. substance-related strategies strive to alter the social. and offer mandatory alcohol or drug assessment with the possible introduction of counseling. and economic environment on campus and in surrounding communities.policies and programs. strengthening academic requirements. institutions of higher education acknowledge the need to form committees and coalitions. Effective initiatives offer diversified programs that account for . provide support services. Schools are withdrawing endorsement of alcohol and tobacco industry advertising on campus and establishing substance-free residences. The U. Twelve Step. intellectual. faculty. comprised of administration. legal. Substance abuse is not a campus-centered problem but one that impacts the entire community. illustrate the nation's commitment to this problem. Schools are tightening regulations. campus-wide policy levers. Programs Through a paradigm that conceptualizes students' college experience systemically. and the community. By activating multiple. governmental and law enforcement agencies.

student organizations. provide suggestions for alternative substance-free activities. and committees corrals the campus community around efforts to devise strategies and initiate change in campus norms. and treatment programs are the most commonly utilized. Campus-initiated programming offers another option for colleges and universities. Typically cheaper than standardized initiatives. policies. and substance-free social activities. prevention. safe spring break. The formation of substance use task forces. offer schools an alternative method for educating students. programs. developed and distributed by external vendors. and other drugs. Education. Approaches that promote increased understanding about substance use and the related effects. age. Nevertheless. Often expensive. campus communities significantly impact the problem through policy and program initiatives that are directed at altering social norms. standardized programming may not to be a viable option for institutions with limited resources. Higher education must recognize that alcohol and other drug use and the problems that result from substance abuse are never entirely going to go away. These efforts may include programming such as alcohol awareness month. these methods are readily utilized. perceptions. Many schools find these programs beneficial because of the variety of issues targeted. and level of readiness to change behavior with special attention to the first-year experience. tobacco. climate. A variety of creative and versatile approaches are available to institutions of higher education to address issues related to substance use. To initiate and maintain change in higher education with respect to alcohol. through continued commitment. and attempt to counter misconceptions around social norms comprise the foundation to effective program initiatives. counseling. and partnerships must become permanent .students' developmental level year in school. With the advent of novel technology. innovative and interactive computer programs add to the program arsenal. and climate. and practices. Standardized programs.

During the last decade the percentage of children using drugs by sixth grade has tripled. what teachers and principals can do. and future needs for drug abuse prevention programs. ERIC Digest 17. WHY DRUG ABUSE OCCURS Studies show peer pressure plays the largest role in causing children to begin using drugs (Englander-Golden. high school students drink alcohol daily (Towers. an illegal drug for minors. Sixty-one percent of high school seniors have used drugs. Towers. During a 30-day period in 1985. prevention programs. standards.S.S. Efforts to fight drug abuse must occur in the schools since they provide a major influence in transmitting values.stateuniversity. At this critical age.and pervasive fixtures on college and university campuses. 1987). 65 percent of high school seniors drank alcohol. Department of Education. 1987. More males use drugs than females. All communities throughout the United States.html Drug Abuse: Prevention Strategies for Schools. the effects of drug abuse. 1986). "adolescents seem to be . 1986). cocaine. and amphetamines (EDUCATION WEEK. urban and suburban. and a decline in educational achievement and productivity. what schools can do to combat the problem. The average age of initial marijuana use has dropped to 11 (Towers. 30 percent used marijuana. Department of Education. show a high use of illicit drugs (U. 8 October 1986). Acceptance by peers becomes especially important when children leave elementary schools and begin junior high. 1986).com/pages/1923/Drug-Alcohol-Abuse. emotional damage.S. This digest discusses the extent of drug abuse among youth. and information to children (U. but the gap between the two has become smaller. 1986). Alcohol. and approximately 20 percent of U. EXTENT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG YOUTH Teenage drug use in the United States is the highest of any industrialized nation (U. The average age for beginning alcohol consumption is 12. Drugs threaten our nation's youth. represents an even more serious problem than drugs such as marijuana. 15 percent snorted cocaine (Tarlov and others. http://education. Department of Education. Department of Education.S. 1986). U. 1987). why drug abuse occurs. 1984). Drug abuse can lead to physical problems.S.

Experimenting with drugs. Regular marijuana users are twice as likely as their classmates to receive low grades (U. 1984). perceptions. The user may feel good after taking drugs but may be unable to enjoy activities such as hobbies and sports (Towers. particularly at a young age. WHAT SCHOOLS CAN DO Early intervention and prevention activities should characterize a school's drug abuse program (Towers. The U. Those dependent on drugs sometimes support their habits by stealing. 1984). So-called designer drugs. This can be accomplished by an anonymous survey of students and consultation with local law enforcement officials. including distortion of memory. cocaine and amphetamines give users a false sense of performing at a high level when on the drug. Security measures should be implemented to eliminate drugs from school premises and school functions. Department of Education (1986) further recommends that school officials establish clear. consistently enforced drug-use policies that specify drug offenses. 1986).S. a need to experiment. 1987). Other reasons for taking drugs include the constant exposure to our chemical society of pills and liquor through ads. movies. 1987). For example. bronchitis. and emphysema within a year of beginning use (Wagner. EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE Drugs produce many effects. pharyngitis. 1987).S. Often simple pleasure serves as a motive. . and concerned groups within the community to ensure successful programs. consequences (including notification of police). rebelliousness. have caused brain damage and death (Towers. 1986). Frequent drug users skip school or arrive late to class (Wagner. Department of Education. and procedures. 1984). treatment agencies. chemical variations of illegal drugs. 1984). and sexually prostituting themselves. and low self-esteem. Continued marijuana use can cause memory gaps and also lead to decreased physical endurance (Wagner. and television. 1987). Department of Education. school boards. often leads to dependence (Towers.either unwilling or unable to successfully resist peer pressure in substance abuse situations" (Englander-Golden. Collaborative plans should be made with parents. selling drugs to others. Marijuana users often develop sinusitis. School administrators should determine the extent of the drug problem within their jurisdiction before initiating a new intervention program. and sensation (U.S.

1987). Members find that the clubs give them a reason and way to say no. 1985). decision making. . WHAT TEACHERS AND PRINCIPALS CAN DO Teachers exert a significant influence on students' attitudes. seventh. For example.A comprehensive drug curriculum from kindergarten through grade 12 is needed. The National Institute of Drug Abuse sponsors "Just Say No" clubs that offer booklets. School systems generally combine two approaches to preventing drug abuse (Lachance. The other concerns education instructing students about drugs and helping them develop skills and attitudes that will keep them away from drugs. "Saying No" is one example of a drug abuse prevention program that emphasizes teaching students to resist peer pressure by understanding and practicing reasons for not taking drugs (Lachance. knowledge. This classroom practice will increase the students' ability to identify options in other situations. and assertiveness training to help students learn how to refuse drugs. 1987). and eighth graders. The social influences model teaches skills for resisting drug use.what school personnel should do when drug abuse or peddling is encountered at the school. uses methods such as role modeling. 1985). Preliminary evidence suggests the approaches also work to reduce marijuana use and excessive drinking. Both approaches have led to significant reductions in cigarette smoking. Research reviews indicate the two most promising prevention approaches are the social influences model and a strategy that emphasizes personal and social skills training (Botvin. The approach. pins. Towers (1987) lists additional in-class prevention activities for all grade levels. Teachers should receive appropriate training to participate in the program. teachers can structure activities that require students to consider several options before making a decision. and opinions. and conversation as well as strategies for reducing stress. They can complement a school's drug abuse program by incorporating drug abuse prevention strategies into their subject at any grade level (Towers. and Tshirts (Towers. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (1980) provides prevention ideas that can be incorporated into existing junior high school curricula. targeted to sixth. PREVENTION PROGRAMS Programs popular in the 1960s and 1970s that focused only on drug information have been shown to be of questionable value (Lachance. assertiveness. 1985). The personal and social skills approach expands the social influences model to include skills in problem solving. videotaped practice. 1986). One emphasizes discipline .

ericdigests. slurred speech. Remaining quiet gives the impression of approval or unconcern. Intervention strategies must be supported by the school principal (Towers. http://www. They need to have professionals available to counsel students.In addition. U. Signs that may indicate drug abuse include redness around the eyes. The prevention models that have shown promise need further research. 1987. falling grades. the teacher should express concern to the student and to the parents. dramatically changed appearance such as dirty hair. 1987). 1987). Department of Education. Any teacher who believes a student is abusing drugs should take action (Towers. 1986. short attention span. 1986). Students should be told that they will be reported if they come to school in possession of drugs or under their influence. and uncompleted assignments (Towers. Otherwise. The first step when suspecting drug abuse is to notify the appropriate school committee if one exists. 1987). principals should follow up with students and/or parents after school personnel have intervened. Finally. Most states do not collect information on the programs nor evaluate their effectiveness. reduced motivation. FUTURE NEEDS Today only 27 states have mandatory K-12 drug abuse prevention programs (National Association of State Boards of Education. dilated pupils.htm Proven Ways to Prevent Drug & Alcohol Abuse By Julie Maria Anderson. eHow Contributor y y y Print this article y . Principals need to provide opportunities for teachers to meet for discussions about drug use and how they can fight the problem. They must inform students and parents that teachers have been authorized to communicate their concern. teachers must inform students that they disapprove of drug abuse (Towers. 1987).S. citing observed behaviors (Towers.org/pre-925/drug. 1984). changes in school attendance. Students who have been abusing drugs should be referred to professionals for help. A database is needed about the status and success of drug abuse prevention programs in each school so decisions can be made about allocating resources. Wagner.

Australia Seek Ladies For Love And Dating. It is much better to prevent alcohol and drug abuse before it ever gets to the point where someone has to be checked into a rehab program or attend weekly Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Let them see the harmful and long-lasting effects this could have on their lives.com Men From USA. Risk Factors o There are specific risk factors that can make a person more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol. . other peers may tell your child that drugs or alcohol are fun and cool. Monitor your child's academic and behavioral progress from kindergarten until he graduates from senior high school. their families and their futures. not his friend. secure. it is difficult to ever completely stop. abuse-free environment for your child.It is much better to prevent alcohol and drug abuse than to have to deal with addictions. the first proven method to prevent drug and alcohol abuse. and set reasonable ground rules for proper behavior early on. a school or a community organization. Be there for your child. and possibly the most important. having a caregiver who abuses drugs or alcohol. Know who your child's friends are. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Awareness Programs o Substance abuse education and awareness programs can also be helpful.AsianDating. Set a curfew. Some of these include childhood abuse or neglect. Family Prevention o With the risk factors in mind. Children need to be educated on the effects of drugs and alcohol on themselves. is good parenting. like any addiction. Have teens visit a homeless shelter or a halfway house and talk to men and women who have struggled with drug or alcohol problems. Parents are often rightfully concerned about how to stop their children from ever starting these dangerous behaviors.  Sponsored Links Find A Foreign Husbandwww. Once someone is addicted to drugs or alcohol. These could be made available through a church. At school or even in after-school activities. inattentive parenting. Educate your child on the dangers of drug and alcohol use. and having friends who use drugs. Be a good example yourself. Parents must combat these false messages. This means providing a loving. Related Searches: y y Easy Ways to Stop Smoking Drug Awareness 1. Canada. Have teens hear the story of someone who has lost a loved one due to a drunk or drug-impaired driver. and know where your child is at all times. Be his parent.

The person may also begin associating with a new crowd or may constantly get into trouble.Law Enforcement o More enforcement of drug and alcohol laws would help prevent abuse of these substances. http://www. slurred speech. the symptoms will become apparent. Also. Symptoms o An individual abusing drugs or alcohol may exhibit some of the following symptoms: bloodshot eyes or large pupils. it is proven that if those attempting to purchase alcohol at a restaurant or a store are consistently carded. Risks . Getting professional help is the only way to treat alcohol and drug abuse. Substance abuse causes difficulties at home. Taxes should be raised on alcoholic beverages and products." and cited by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse in 1996. more severe penalties should be put into place for adults who purchase alcohol for those who are underage. unexplained need for money. and mood swings. In a study done in 1991 published in "Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Related Searches: y y Non 12 Step Drug Rehab Detox Treatment 1. at work. changes in personality or attitude. changes in appetite.com/way_5465261_proven-prevent-drug-alcohol-abuse.html Alcohol and Drug Abuse Information By Emilia Lamberto. and in social relationships.ehow. eHow Contributor y y y Print this article y Alcohol and drug abuse is a serious health problem. Alcohol and drug abuse may go unnoticed at first but over time. lack of concern for physical appearance. less alcohol abuse will take place.

drug abuse remains prevalent. the United States has waged a war against a formidable foe. Since the late 1980s. According to the Common Sense for Drug Policy website. Bankrolling programs whose purpose is to provide vocational training.html Ways to Fight Drug Abuse By Angus Koolbreeze. Children and teenagers who abuse drugs and alcohol have a higher drop-out rate than non-users.ehow. Contact a local drug or alcohol rehabilitation center to find out if an intervention is appropriate. child abuse & trafficking 3. mentorship. unsafe sex. Substance abuse during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage.uk Best selling eBook author on neglect. in spite of negative consequences.o Those abusing drugs and alcohol are at higher risk for socially unacceptable behaviors such as becoming involved in crime. still-born births and infants with learning disabilities. known as drug abuse. Develop an Education Based Model o According to the Common Sense for Drug Policy website. Play Fight Games Fight Against Cancer o In spite of increased prosecution efforts. according to this model. It is very difficult to break the cycle of substance abuse without supportive friends and family. and the acquisition of job related skills is likely to lead to a decrease in the demand for drugs. or self-inflicted injuries. adolescent drug abuse has increased since 1989. A community which succeeds at this is then turning the interests of young people elsewhere. you must be there to support them throughout the course of therapy. eHow Contributor y y y Print this article y Related Searches: y y 1. birth defects. When trying to get help for someone you care about.abigaillawrence. funding programs to keep youth interested in progress instead of drugs is a viable solution. People are continuing to use drugs.com/facts_6949781_alcohol-drug-abuse-information. http://www.  Sponsored Links Abigail Lawrencewww.co. with deadly overdoses skyrocketing to record levels. 2. Provide Treatment on Demand . Treatment o Check yourself into a rehab center if you suspect you have a problem with drugs or alcohol. such as prosecution and incarceration.

such as a rapid loss of weight. Deterioration in physical appearance. can also be a sign. there are signs and symptoms of drug abuse that may signal to parents the existence of a drug crisis. or a sudden change of friendships may also be a clue. Among physical symptoms are chronically bloodshot eyes. Then the teacher can state how each drug's usage impairs judgment.html . Teachers and Parents: Recognize the Symptoms o As the Helpguide website says. who died of drug overdoses. the teacher can cite examples of entertainers. as well as counseling for sexual abuse and domestic violence.ehow. and not so much required as part of a court order. such as Michael Jackson or Elvis Presley. providing drug treatment and counseling on demand is an effective way of fighting this epidemic. Behavioral signs. such as a significant drop in academic performance. In addition. Moreover. http://www. such care also includes mental health treatment. As the website points out. The teacher begins the class by asking the students what they know about the effects of drug abuse.o According to the CSDP website. Alert Children to Negative Consequences o According to the Heads Up website. the therapy is voluntary. leading to unprotected sex. or changes in appetite or sleep patterns. Such treatment not only includes drug abstinence counseling. high schools should administer a course on drugs and their consequences. resulting in an HIV diagnosis.com/list_7443243_ways-fight- drug-abuse. but also access to such alternative maintenance drugs as methadone.