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Thermal Physics – T1

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1) A sample of monoatomic ideal gas is put through the cycle of operations as shown in the P-V diagram below. XY is an isothermal process and YZ is an adiabatic process.
P/ 105 Pa Z 5 4 3 2 1 W 1 2 X 3 V/ m


a. The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed in terms of the equation ∆U = ∆Q + ∆W . Identify each of the terms in the equation. b. Fill up this table with ‘0’, ‘+’ or ‘-‘ Path ∆U ∆Q ∆W ∆T XY YZ ZW WX 2) A refrigerator works by removing heat from a cold place, for instance, the freezer compartment maintained at zero degrees Celsius, and delivering it to a warmer place, which is the kitchen itself at room temperature. The transfer of heat takes place via a gas called the coolant stored within the refrigerator. The gas, which can be considered to be ideal, undergoes a cycle of changes of pressure and volume as shown in the figure below.
Pressure A


B C Volume

a. The energy changes for each of the four sections of the cycle can be summarized in the table below. Complete the table.


40 × 105 Jkg −1 ) 3) A heat engine contains an ideal monoatomic gas. You may assume that the gain in heat in the freezer when it is switched off is used completely to melt the ice (specific latent heat of fusion of water = 3. fill up the spaces in this table with either ‘+’. State the first law of thermodynamics d.Section ∆ Q/J ∆ W/J ∆ U/J A-B 0 B-C -36 0 C-D 0 +38 D-A -40 0 b. Use your completed table to calculate the net work done on the gas for one cycle. The net amount of work done on the gas for one cycle is provided by an electric motor in the refrigerator. ‘–’ or ‘0’ Path ∆U ∆Q ∆W ∆T AB BC CA b. a. Calculate the heat supplied to the gas from A to B e. The gas goes through a cyclic process as shown in the P-V diagram below. The removal of heat from the freezer compartment occurs during the section from B to C. d. What is the work done by the gas from C to A 2 . were T = 300K. c. Referring to the P-V graph given in the question. Find the number of moles of gas in the heat engine c. Given that the motor has a power of 200W. calculate the total amount of heat extracted in one second e. calculate the number of cycles the gas undergoes in one second. Use you answer in (d) to calculate how long it takes for 2kg of ice to melt completely if the refrigerator’s motor is switched off. Write down the amount of heat removed in one cycle and hence. B to C is an isothermal expansion. The gas starts at A.

State the increase in internal energy from the initial to the final state when the gas completes the cyclic process ABCDA 5) A sample of ethanol of mass 0. it is expanded at constant pressure to D. and then its pressure is raised at constant volume during the process B to C. What is the work done by the gas when it expands from C to D e. temperature and/or volume of the gas.e. P/ 10 5 Pa 0. calculate the increase in internal energy of the system 3 .400 m 3 and contains 2.6kgm −3 a. fill up the spaces in this table with either ‘+’. adiabatic). The balloon has a volume of 0. Hence.400 3 a. Assume that the helium gas behaves like an ideal gas.0 × 105 Pa . On the graph label the points corresponding to states A. the gas further expands from D to A without any heat gain or lost from the system (i. Complete this part of the question using the following data for ethanol: > Specific latent heat of vaporization = 0. The gas first undergoes an isothermal contraction from A to B.50 moles of helium gas at 27. 4) A boy receives a balloon during a funfair. d. Calculate the work done by the system b. Determine the heat supplied during the process B to C. The temperature (in degrees Celsius) at C is double that at B. The helium gas is taken through the cycle ABCDA as shown in Fig 2. All the gas is now emptied into a gas piston where the experimenter may vary the pressure.35kg is vaporized at its boiling point of 78 degrees Celsius. B and C and with appropriate values. under an atmospheric pressure of 1. ‘–’ or ‘0’: ∆U ∆Q ∆W ∆T Path AB BC CD DA b. Sketch a graph to show how the internal energy of the gas varies with volume over one cyclic process. The state at A corresponds to the state in the balloon which the boy received. Finally.250 0.100 0.0 degrees Celsius – this corresponds to state ‘A’ as shown on the P-V graph below.95 × 106 Jkg −1 > Density in liquid state = 790kgm −3 > Density in gaseous state = 1.680 C D B A V /m 0.f. With reference to the P-V graph above. From C. Calculate the pressure at B c.

80 20 0. Calculate the number of moles of gas that has escaped. The temperatures of the liquid at the inlet and outlet are 15 degrees Celsius and 19 degrees Celsius respectively. Calculate the temperature of the gas. The heater is used to boil water and.s. Power of heater/W Mass of water vaporized per minute/g 75 1. some of the gas escaped from the vessel. Calculate the amount of heat energy supplied to the system. 75W’. the flow rate is increased to 0. He has available a 12V supply and a heater marked ‘9V.6) An ideal monoatomic gas.m. when the water is boiling. while the heater provides power at 25W.15kg min −1 . a man is placed inside a chamber around which water is pumped as shown in the figure below 4 .2MPa.5kg f. Explain why it is necessary for the inlet and outlet temperatures to remain unchanged b. which is made up of 1. The gas is now heated to a higher pressure of 2.7MPa a. The heated gas in part ‘c’ is now allowed to expand isothermally to a volume of 6 × 10 −3 m 3 while its pressure is reduced to 1.34 a. speed of the gas molecules is higher or lower than the answer in part ‘e’ 7) A student has been asked to determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water by an electrical method. With the inlet and outlet temperatures unchanged. e. Calculate the r. and the specific heat capacity of the liquid 9) In an experiment to determine the rate at which the human body loses energy. Calculate a value for the specific latent heat of vaporization of water 8) In a continuous flow method for determining the specific heat capacity of a liquid. Comment and give a reason whether the intitial r.5 × 10 24 molecules.s speed of the remaining gas molecules in part ‘d’ if the mass of the remaining gas is 0. the liquid flows through the tube at 0. The results are shown in the table below. Determine the rate of heat loss of the liquid. and the number of moles of molecules in the gas b. In the process. d. Calculate the internal energy of the gas c. the mass of water vapor produced per minute is measured at two different powers for the heater.0MPa at a constant volume. is kept in a vessel which has a volume of 4 × 10 −3 m 3 and a pressure of 1.m. Calculate the current in the heater when the heater is operating normally at 75W b.23kg min −1 and the power of the heater is increased to 37W a.

0 degrees Celsius. Suggest what might happen if the collisions were not elastic. explain why the air temperature at the top of mountains is colder than down below c.0 degrees Celsius.0kgh −1 and the inlet temperature is again 23. What is meant when by the phrase ‘thermal equilibrium’? j. for an ideal gas. in words. The rate at which energy is lost from the chamber by means other than the flow of water (assume that the specific heat capacity of water = 4200 Jkg −1 K −1 ) 10) Theory questions: a. State 3 differences between an ideal and real gas i. it is found that the outlet temperature reaches a steady value of 31. two men occupy the chamber. the relation between the increase in the internal energy of a gas. State. the outlet temperature again reaches a steady value of 31.0 degrees Celsius. and the heat supplied to the gas f.0kgh −1 and the inlet temperature is 23. Find the final temperature of a flask of helium if it is heated from an initial temperature of 10 degrees Celsius until it has twice the internal energy. If the flow rate is increased to 11. g. 5 . b. when a liquid is boiling. The rate of loss of energy from the human body b. If warm air rises. One of the assumptions of the simple kinetic theory of ideal gas is that the molecules of the gas make perfectly elastic collisions with the walls of the container. Explain what is meant by the term ‘internal energy’ of a system. In a second experiment.0 degrees Celsius. The internal energy of helium is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Explain why. Define specific latent heat of fusion e. Assuming that each of the men loses energy at the same rate. an increase in its internal energy is due only to an increase in the random molecular kinetic energy h. What is the distinction between heat and temperature? k. By reference to the first law of thermodynamics explain why. d. the work done on the gas. the temperature of the liquid does not change despite a continuous supply of thermal energy to the system.When the rate of flow of water is 4. calculate a.

l. Use the molecular model of matter to explain why the evaporation of a liquid is accompanied by cooling of the // // +65-92210451 6 .scruuphysics. Join our Tuition Classes www.