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Klaipėda, 2008


Introduction………………………………………………………………………………3 1. History of translation……………………………………………………………..4 2. History of translation theory………………………………………………….......6 2.1 What is translation………………………………………………………………..7 3. Translation differences between the English and Lithuanian languages………....8 3.1 Identifying morphological gaps……………………………………………..……9 3.2 Errors in translation of lexical and morphological gaps (include gaps in ……………………………………………………………………………..12 3.3 Mistakes in translating negative prefixes in English and Lithuanian…………...14 3.4 Mistakes translating by a different part of speech……………………………….14 4. Comparison of the formal document translation………………………………...16 5. Research on identifying common errors in English-Lithuanian translation……20 6. Results of the survey……………………………………………………………..27 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………29 Resources …………………………………………………………………………… …30 texts)


" of "transferre" ("to transfer" — from "trans. The tool to find out the types of mistakes a survey among the students of Social science collage group 2U has been conducted and English and Lithuanian texts compared. "translatum. summarizing the material and drawing conclusions." "to carry" or "to bring"). the errors investigated and grouped. To analyze and classify them. morphology 1. because the English language is one of the best known languages in the world. The main goals of this course work are: • to ascertain what kind of mistakes are common. analysis and classification of the research results. Methods used at the course work were analysis of the information recourses and their selection. conducting of a research. The results of the survey have been analyzed.3 The target of this course work is the errors made in English – Lithuanian translations. • • and lexicology. So it is crucial as fast as it is possible to find ways how to avoid mistakes made in translations. the . HISTORY OF TRANSLATION Etymologically the Latin "translatio" derives from the perfect passive participle. Nowadays this topic is very important. comparison of the linguistic means. To achieve this goal both the languages have been compared on the aspect of parts of speech." "across" + "ferre. Additionally. To point out differences between the Lithuanian and English languages.

so that why they made Arabic versions of its scientific and philosophical works. which showed the weaknesses of an underdeveloped English prose.[10] In 18th century the translators’ catchword was that translation would be easy to read. Arabs were taken over the Greek world. Good example is a case of James Macpherson's "translations" of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the "translator's" own composition.4 Greek term for "translation. During the Middle Ages. And it was popular to put in the text own style. "Metaphrase" equates. The Jews. that were widely spread. the 14th-century Geoffrey Chaucer. has supplied English with "metaphrase" (a "literal translation." or "word-for-word" translation)—as contrasted with "paraphrase" ("a saying in other words. 1382). [3] The first large-scale efforts at translation were undertaken by the Arabs. Scholasticism . some of these Arabic translations were translated in Latin. in one of the more recent terminologies. Such Latin translations of Greek and original Arab works of education and science would help advance the development of European Scholasticism. poet. Luckily in 19th century there were made rules for the translators to make more accurate text and to save the style. had forgotten their mother language and needed Greek versions (translations) of their Scriptures. philosopher. Sometimes he is called the father of the English literature. bureaucrat. The new catchword was “the text." [10] The first important translation in the West was that of the Septuagint. The first good translation in English was made by first great poet. also he was the first author to demonstrate the artistic legitimacy of the native English language The first great English translation was the Wycliffe Bible (ca. 1400?) was an English author. If the translator did not understand the text or it was thought to be boring for the readers. 1343 – October 25. Geoffrey Chaucer (c." "metaphrasis" ("a speaking across"). to "formal equivalence. a collection of Jewish Scriptures translated into Koine Greek in Alexandria between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Moreover translators were so brave in that times that they translated form the language that they barely knew.was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities about 1100–1500." from the Greek "paraphrasis")." and "paraphrase"—to "dynamic equivalence. the translator omitted that part. That is why sometimes translations were like a new composition made by translator. the whole text and nothing but the text” except for “bad” . courtier and diplomat.

" or equivalents. "counterparts. In regard to style. History of Translation Theory Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. it was important to remind to reader that he is reading foreign classic.[3] . who represented translation as the rationally blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting. [3]. 2.5 word passages and for enormous explanation notes. for the expressions used in the source language. The distinction that had been drawn by the ancient Greeks between "metaphrase" ("literal" translation) and "paraphrase" would be adopted by the English poet and translator John Dryden (1631-1700). in the target language.

. famously and literally cautioned against translating "word for word" ("verbum pro verbo"). cultural context of the source language text. Translation is basically a change of form. and the 18th century). Despite occasional theoretical diversities. The text that we are translating is called “source text” and the form into which it will be changed is called “target language”. etc. we use words. style. with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.2 What is translation? Translation is an action of interpretation of the text that gives the same massage in other language. [10] 2. paragraphs. study the lexicon.6 This general formulation of the central concept of translation — equivalence — is probably as coresponding as any that has been proposed ever since Cicero and Horace.. sentences. in films. in first-century-BCE Rome. determine the meaning and finding the . paraphrastic where necessary — for the original meaning and other crucial "values" (e. verse form. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages. the actual practice of translators has hardly changed since antiquity.g. translators have generally shown wise flexibility in seeking equivalents — "literal" where possible. [5] Translation must take into account restricts of grammatical rules of both languages. When we speak of the form of the language. which are written or spoken. and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome. harmony with musical accompaniment or. their idioms.

Besides. TRANSLATION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ENGLISH AND LITHUANIAN LANGUAGES Lexical gaps are examples of lack of lexicalization detected in a language while comparing two languages. Then he must read the text and to discover the meaning of it. The process could be shown in picture like this: Text to be translated Translation MEANING According to this picture translator must have a text. . which he is going to translate. for the concepts explained by the expressions mentioned above. because they are fixed word expressions and are used as single units of meaning. 3. It was claimed the existence of a lexical gap only when a concept lacks lexicalisation and is expressed by a free word combination or any other transformation in translation. And then re-express the discovered meaning into target language. Lithuanians have no alternative expressions. But a multi-word expression “juvelyriniai dirbiniai” (“jewellery”) or “zoologijos sodas” (“a zoo”) are not lexical gaps. an idiom or a collocation – to express it. A concept is lexicalized when a language has a lexical item – a single word. a complex word.7 same meaning in the source text.

for example.e. “atleidimas dėl darbo vietų mažinimo” (“redundancy”) or “derliaus nuėmimo mašina” (“a harvester”) are lexical gaps. they do not comply with the norms of the English language. The English language has a potential to collect complex concepts into one word because of its rich choice of prefixes. in real language convert by different techniques – lexical or syntactic changes. the morphological gaps are gaps of the Lithuanian language. For example. suffixes and stems. in the target language.. during translation from English into Lithuanian. usually of some specialized areas. A type of this group is morphological gaps. caravanning . but not acceptable in a language. only prefixes or suffixes appearing mostly in international words. In order to make a difference from the cases indicated above. Lithuanian food names “vėdarai” or “skilandis” cannot be translated into English. In other words. In many cases such complex concepts covered by one English word have to be changed by several Lithuanian words. Such kind of lexical gaps results from different morphological cases in the source and target languages. has to be expressed by a free word combination “nepakankama mityba”. Derivational gaps are words produced from partially productive stems and suffixes. “metamotyvacija” (“metamotivation”).autoturizmas su nameliu-priekaba – (autotourism by a house-trailer). although it is understood the meaning of “mistelephone”. because they are free word combinations. A major group of lexical gaps can be explained by social and cultural differences of source and target language. in non-specialised vocabulary these prefixes and suffixes are rare. “parametras” (“parameter”). “socializmas” (“socialism”) or “imunoterapija” (“imunotherapy”). a free word combination. which are understandable. For example. A lexical gap in a target language is identified when its users do not know a concept of a source language. most of which have roots in Latin or Greek. or “undernourishment”. which due to the peculiar combination of the prefix “under-” and “nourishment”. “Caravanning” is an especially interesting example. Meanwhile.g. because it shows the complexity of the problem. In this study. It is important to say that a lexical gap appears only in one of the compared languages. However. because they show Lithuanian culture. which comes from word formation differences. which had to be explained in Lithuanian.[5] The term “derivational gaps” identify those gaps within the limits of one language. in Lithuanian. it is identified a lexical gap only in Lithuanian. the term “morphological gaps” will be used in this course work. matches to their English analogues. i. For example. Another group of lexical gaps could be called paradigmatic (tipical) due to differences in various examples of two languages. “biculturalism” is translated by a free word combination “priklausymas dviem kultūroms” because of the “bi-”. Not only it represents a concept that is not common enough to have a fixed . e. “conversate” or “friable”. usually.8 Meanwhile.

nepasisekti. immoderate – per didelis. 2. besaikis. antiwar – antikarinis. 4. the translation difficulties when the target language is Lithuanian comprise of translating lexical gaps. 5. Some English negation prefixes are easily transformed into the Lithuanian prefix ne-. collapse). antibiotic – antibiotikas. 3. misbecome – netikti. for example. because the lack of direct translation of “caravan” is compensated by skipping the meaning component of “auto” to “auto-turizmas”. disparage – peikti. menkinti. it could be considered as a micro-transformation. 3. inordinately). be saiko (too big. In other words. degeneration – išsigimimas. these are the examples of borrowing: disbalance – disbalansas. A major group of lexical gaps can be explained by social and cultural differences of source and target language. Data analysis has shown that there is a system in the way negative English prefixes are translated into Lithuanian: 1. Moreover. A lexical gap could be identified when users do not know a concept of a source language. antimissile – antiraketa. [5] To sum up. miscarry . mismatch).9 lexicalisation in Lithuanian. nederėti (misfit. unconscionable. dislike – nemėgti. Only prefixes are translated by their international analogues: antimatter – antimedžiaga. Many English words with negative prefixes are explained through a number of synonyms. nenuosaikus. unreasonable. The suffix -ing is changed by a lexical word “autoturizmas”. disorder – netvarka. nesaikingas.1 Identifying morphological gaps First lexicographic data from the bilingual English – Lithuanian dictionary (2000) was analysed. for example. Negative prefixes in international words are transformed into Lithuanian international words with their analogues. It is interesting to note that the Lithuanian equivalents express the same concepts without a formal negative feature in a word: they signify a negative aspect without specific negative prefixes. žlugti (fail. . but in this particular instance it shows the disability of the language to express an action or its process too. Misunderstanding of concept is also a common translation mistake. It is possible that such translations appear when two problems – cultural/economic and morphological – go together. Some English words with a negative prefix have direct equivalents: disappear – dingti.

6. a dictionary user will be confusing facing the multitude of equivalents for each word. In other words. neturintis teisės. unable to be elected).nepažinus. a bride. In case of 5. as if they were equivalent. to distribute roles wrongly). neteisingai paskirstyti vaidmenis (to give an actor a wrong role. Some English .skirtas -žmonėms naikinti (designed/created for killing people). the proposed translations are not equal. like it is done in English. a lexicographer is not able to give one precise equivalent. incognizable .10 Needless to say. they are not absolute synonyms to be used in identical contexts. etc.skirti aktoriui netinkamą vaidmenį. Instances like in 6 (see above) are obvious indications to morphological gaps in Lithuanian. antipersonnel . netinkamas (ypač karo tarnybai) – unfit (especially for military service). It is also important that even in cases when a direct equivalent for an English word exists. It is not at all clear whether at least one of the equivalents mirrors the concept indicate by the English word. The provided context helps to disambiguate the equivalent that as an individual word would not be clear. 2. because they are free word combinations originating due to the inability of the language to pack a complex of concept into one word. antipollution apsaugantis aplinką nuo užteršimo (protecting the environment from pollution). thus transformations in cases like these are inevitable. For example. Their incorporation into a sentence by a machine translation system would produce awkward and unnatural structure. jaunąją ir pan. [5] To sum up abilities of identifying morphological gaps the mistakes occur when the translator does not find free word combinations to express the English words with negative prefixes. 3. providing most common phrases the word appears in as well as its possible contexts. it is not at all clear which translation equivalent presented without any usage context is closest to the original. where words explain or illustrate one another. Most English words with negative prefixes are simply expressed by free word combinations: misadvise – duoti blogą/neteisingą patarimą (to give bad/wrong advice). miscast . nepageidaujamas (apie jaunikį. such layout of lexicographic data implies that translation units should be expanded.). Although they do share common meaning components. However.) – undesirable (about a groom. Therefore we can claim that such meaning converting into bilingual dictionaries is not effective. Second. negalintis būti renkamas/išrinktas (not having the right. Such synonymic explanation represents two sides of the problem. 7. They are caught into a kind of “a vicious circle” with groups of synonyms. negalimas pažinti (unknowable. impossible to be recognized). Meaning explanations like above are often difficult to use in real language situations or translation. dictionary entries should be based on corpus material. ineligible: 1. therefore leaves the decision to the user as to the appropriateness of a multitude of synonyms provided for her/him. First. additional information concerning usage is provided in remarks.

can be a solution to many translation questions arising from mismatches of different nature between two languages. contextual or stylistic differences. Translations from the Corpus were compared with bilingual dictionary data. A few examples will be discussed and illustrated in the tables. Although one can already study translations of frequent words. This is related to the nature of the phenomenon – rare concepts are not important enough to be lexicalised by a large number of language users. especially in case of problematic instances – and lexical gaps are indeed problematic. Some instances of translation were amazing because they showed different translation equivalents from those provided in the bilingual dictionary. unfortunately. Moreover. It should be admitted that many English words with negative prefixes are translated by single word counterparts. Thus examples of translation by a multiword expression and by a different part speech (with subsequent syntactic changes in the translated sentence) are presented. whereas a bilingual dictionary offers a mere gloss of a meaning captured by a source language unit.e. it is hard to perform a reliable research on rare words. 3. The Parallel English – Lithuanian Corpus has become publicly available in the autumn of 2005 and is still in its initial stage in regard to its size. usually represent rare words. Lexical gaps.11 words with a negative prefix have direct equivalents in the target language or negative prefixes in international words are transformed into Lithuanian international words with their analogues an on case the translator does not know them error are made. but also offers data on language variation (when a source language unit can be translated by several target language units) due to conceptual. They also strongly supported the idea that dictionary translations have to be based on main data. A parallel corpus not only provides translation equivalents that are in actual language use. The Corpus is still not big enough to arrive at substantial generalizations – today it contains 35505 listed English – Lithuanian sentences. when longer units of translation are treated as single units and translated by a single word. The opposite phenomenon. a collection of listed source and target language texts. . Nevertheless. thus more options for a linguist or a translator using the data.2 Errors in translations of lexical and morphological gaps A parallel corpus. is also discussed. i. all translations of English words starting with negative prefixes were analyzed. It is provided parallel source and target language sentences coupled with equivalents from the bilingual dictionary. a parallel corpus can show a strategy employed by a translator in case of non-equivalence.

il-. dis.12 Finally. It is seen that the noun “untouchables” and the adjective “undirected” are expressed by phrases both in the dictionary and the text translation. while “griauti pasitikėjimą” (to ruin trust) is a phrase. de-.diskredituoti. neliečiamųjų kasta. enemies. discredited leaders of the Party had been used to gather there before they were finally purged. The adjective “discredited” is not even translated in the dictionary. nekryptingas No equivalent for the adjective in the dictionary. In case of “untouchables”. untouchables. contra-. If it is looked at the equivalents of the verb “to discredit”. As was mentioned before. which can also be explained by complex concepts . mėgo rinktis seni reputacijos netekę partijos vadai Equivalent in a bilingual dictionary Asmuo iš neliečiamųjų kastos 3. it is seen that two equivalents out of three are international words (“diskredituoti” and “kompromituoti”). To discredit . Although Lithuanian is an inflectional language. Source language text But also they were outlaws.[5] The translator had to expand the noun phrase into an adjective + noun phrase.kompromitituot i. priešai. jį galėdavai perkelti nuo vieno objekto prie kito kaip litavimo lempos liepsną Joje. į nieką konkrečiai nenukreiptas. ir-. one way in which lexical gaps are often filled is through the use of free word combinations. a few examples of source language multiword expression transference into the target language multiword expression are given. prieš galutinai sutriuškinami. Target language text Bet jie buvo įstatymo atstumtieji. such as in-. in-. griauti pasitikėjimą. undirected emotion which could be switched from one object to another like the flame of a blowlamp The old. the lexicographer is used in the descriptive translation because the concept is not relevant to the Lithuanian society. doomed with absolute certainty to extinction within a year or two.and others.3 Mistakes in nenukreiptas. be vadovavimo. translating negative prefixes in English and Lithuanian English is full of prefixes of negatives or opposition. And yet the rage that one felt was an abstract. Table 1 gives examples with single words translated by multiword Lithuanian expressions. pasmerkta išnaikinimui per metus ar dvejus Bet tas įniršis būdavo abstraktus. be jokios abejonės.

is translated by an adjective. [5] exploring rare words that is why they are lexical gaps.(un-. prieš – (anti-) – as in priešnuodis (antipoison). Lithuanian grammarians mention four prefixes: ne.(-less. it might be shown that such expressions or equivalents are ignored in language use and are changed by transforming the whole sentence. “deprecating”) and in this way candidates represent lexical gaps in Lithuanian. signaling possible morphological gaps with comparing to the English language. non-. be. also by a different part of speech could be an indicator of a lexical gap. nemyli (does/do not love). 3) adjectives translated into verbs 4) adjectives translated into adverbs.Moreover. antitarybinis (antisoviet). suffixes and inflections. becukris (sugarfree). nevertheless are transformed into the other part of speech. Besides.13 with help of the prefixes. Therefore. the meaning of “dissent” is lost in translation.4 Mistakes translating by a different part of speech Translating by a different part of speech can also indicate some lexicalization differences between two languages. the third and quite obvious indicator of a lexical gap could be the absence of translation in dictionaries. which has no dictionary equivalent. only prefix ne. 3. It means that Lithuanian might lack direct equivalents for this variety of negation in English. nebe. . The noun “disreputability”. non-) as in bedarbis (unemployed). It is difficult to say why this translation technique is frequently used.. have direct equivalents. etc. Some words. It should be emphasized that not all examples in this table represent lexical gaps. the number of prefixes for a negative aspect of meaning is poor. 2) nouns translated into adjectives. not) as in nedarbas (unemployment). “malignant”. without. such as “delusion”. This also implies that although concepts expressed by the English words in the examples can be expressed in the language system. nebedainuoja (does not sing any more). for example in dictionaries. Table 2 contains several examples of: 1) nouns translated into verbs. One of the explanations can be that translators working on a literary translation had to match to Lithuanian language norms avoiding unnatural structures if dictionary analogues were used.(not any more) as in nebedirba (does not work any more). but.[5] The translators who do not understand this difference also can make mistakes. We can see a conclusion that not only translating by multi-word expressions. have to be expressed by the other part of speech in texts. It is seen from the table that words explained in the dictionary by phrases (“dissent”. which are hard to translate.

We can state that…. piktai piktas. had a very labai iliuzija serious delusion rimtai klydot indeed A noun −−> a adjective Yet a faint air of Bet vis dėlto jis atrodo disreputability kažkoks nepatikimas always clung to him An adjective −−> a verb It just occurred to me Padeklamavęs kokį žadinantis you might naują keliantis be interested.-> a verb Some years ago you Prieš keletą metų jūs klydimas. TARGET LANGUAGE EQUIVALENT IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARY No translation in the dictionary Disreputable ." he posmelį. apgaulė. 2) nouns translated into adjectives. 3. 3) adjectives translated into verbs 4) adjectives translated into adverbs. įtarė jį pakišus koją To sum up the …. COMPARISON OF THE FORMAL DOCUMENT TRANSLATIONS .turintis prastą vardą/reputaciją Jis atsistojo. Mistakes translating by a different part of speech mostly occur because of not changing part of speech in the target language. for example Nouns are not translated into verbs. pagiežingas žvelgdamas į Vinstoną. matyt. whom he evidently suspected of having tripped him up gailestį. tyliai lyg pasigailėjimą would say with a atsiprašydamas deprecating little nusijuokdavo ir laugh whenever he sakydavo produced a new fragment An adjective −−> a adverb He started to his feet with a malignant glance at Winston.14 Table 2 SOURSE LANGUAGE A noun .

15 The first text is the certificate of the conviction and its translation from Lithuanian into English INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT UNDER THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR Register for Legal Entities Code 188774822 Šventragio str. But when we study it closely it is seen that the headline of the document in the English version that is in the target language: “Certificate concerning the data of a physical person from the Departamental register for . LT. +370 5 271 8921 e-mail: ird@vrm. 2. The structure of the sentences is quite simple and there are no special features that separate them. +370 5 271 7177 Fax.01501 Vilnius For Vitalijus Kiseliovas CERTIFICATE CONCERNING THE DATA OF A PHYSICAL PERSON FROM THE DEPARTAMENTAL R Head of Previous Convictions /Seal/ Departament /Signature/ Brunonas Aranauskas At first sight in these two documents there are no significant differences between them.

none of the meanings mentioned above suits this sentence. The word order is similar in both the sentences though the target language needs the adverb “according to” at the beginning of the sentence. 1982 m. 2. The main sentence of the document is the following: “Įtariamų. 3. person who trains and organizes a sports team: the new manager of Italy. rugsėjo 27. In the Lithuanian language it sounds: “Teistumo informacijos skyriaus vedėjas” and for translation of the position into the target language was chosen the word “head”: “Head of previous convictions department”. “dėl įtarimų“in the target language.[7] Consequently.16 suspicious.. neteistas. Accused and Convicted Persons on 14-01-2008 Vitalijus Kiseliovas. In the English sentence “physical person” goes as a compliment and in English language it goes as a predicate. is not convicted”. Therefore Lithuanian translators have to cope with a problem by finding a correct equivalent to this meaning. a musician. 1982. is changed into participle „ concerning“. The word order in the sentence is different. In case the translator chooses a wrong meaning a wrong message is passed by the translation. gim. a shop / store or a similar organization or part of one: a bank / hotel manager the sales / marketing / personnel manager a meeting of area managers. . ir teistu asmenų žinybinio registro duomenų apie fizinį asmenį“. person who is in charge of running a business. Its meaning is – 1. There is no such word in the English language meaning “vedėjas”. person who deals with the business affairs of an actor. kaltinamų ir teistų ir teistų asmenų žinybinio registro 2008 – 01. This word can be translated as “manager”. One more difference is noticed in translating the position of the leader of the institution. accused and convicted persons” is different from the Lithuanian one: “Pažyma dėl įtariamų. not minding the word order of the target language and not changing the part of speech in appropriate situations are the common mistakes made by a not experienced translator.” The translation into the target language:” According to the information of Departmental Register for Suspicious. but in that case the meaning of it is quite different. etc. kaltinamų. To sum up we may say that in translating formal documents from English into Lithuanian choosing a wrong equivalent. born on 27 September. The prepositional phrase. The subject in both the languages occurs in the same position.14 duomenimis Vitalijus Kisieliovas.

Lithuanian translations and the results were really surprising. unknown words were translated. In order to find our the type of mistakes made by future translators it has been decided to make a simple research work The survey in the second year students`group 2U of the Social Sciences College was made. The sentences were quoted from the book “Advanced Grammar in Use” (second edition). RESEARCH ON IDENTIFYING LITHUANIAN TRANSLATION COMMON ERRORS IN ENGLISH- To enlist all the errors made in English – Lithuanian translation is very difficult. lexical and stylistic aspects. This book was chosen. This type of survey has been chosen for the reason this was the simplest way to find out what kinds of errors are made in English. Ten students were asked to translate ten sentences from the English language into the Lithuanian language. The text was hand out and the students translated it own their own. . The sentences were selected to contain the variety of grammatical. The target of this survey was to find out how certain linguistic means are translated.17 5. because it was adequate for the advanced level students. and what kinds of mistakes are made. 2005 by Martin Hewings.

I have not liked ice cream since I ate too much and was sick. 8. The sentence “Under these conditions the question cannot be answered.” This sentence seems to be really very simple. 10. 5.3.18 This is the text that was given to the students: 1. 9. Under these conditions the question cannot be answered. but students that have translated it find it quite difficult. I first met Steve and Jane when they had been going out together for five years. The construction “po tokia kondicija” is absolutely incorrect in the Lithuanian language. the sentence construction with “prie” shows the place near or next to something. 6. It is a rude mistake that contravenes the usage of the Lithuanian language. We decided not to go to Paris. it would be 8 of 10. translated it with speech culture mistakes. I’ll have to leave now. And nowadays this is a . The word construction like this is very dangerous. The president is to return to Brazil later today. Preposition “prie” is used with accusative. and they did not get married for another three years after. For example “Klausimas negali būti atsakytas po tokia kondicija“or “Prie tokių sąlygų klausimas negali būti atsakytas“. 2. He couldn’t remember if he had turned the computer off. because almost all of them. My decision to resign from the company was made after deal of thought. “Jie gyvena prie ežero”. because it is translated from the Russian language. Furthermore. I’ll bring some sandwiches in case we don’t find anywhere anything decent to eat. At the university students are offered a curriculum of study which is followed by test and the award degree. 7. If I am going to catch the train. for example “Prie upės”. 4. this is because the sentence is translated word by word.

Sometimes it happens that translation is spoiled because of choosing the wrong meaning of the word. but anyway there was some uncertainty. 2. Usage of preposition in the following situations “Prie tokios technikos. but as it was expected it was confusing.215] The correct version of this sentence would be: “Tokiomis aplinkybėmis klausimas negali būti atsakytas”.” This sentence was easy to translate. This was the case in this survey. 3. kurią sudaro testas ir po to suteikiamas laipsnis”. It is very said.[9 p. Though it was not completely correct. Two students translated this text correctly. as in the first part of the sentence . but there were no correct translations of this sentence.” . which may affect the whole text and the information that was represented in this sentence looses its value. “At the university students are offered a curriculum of study which is followed by test and the award degree. The worst translation was this one: “Universitetų studentų žinios yra tikrinamos koliokviumu“. which means – mokymo planas. The students did not know how to connect those two words though they knew the meaning of each of them. In this sentence is used a totally wrong meaning. For example in this sentence to choose the meaning “koliokviumas” was a wrong decision. There is one word in this sentence that was unknown for all the students. reason . programa arba koliokviumas.choosing the correct meaning.19 common slang expression used by the youth in our country which linguists consider as harmful for the language. but at least it almost exactly expressed the meaning of the sentence. The correct translation would be: Studentams universitete siūloma mokymo programa. condition and concessive. The best translation was: “Universitete studentams siūloma mokymo sistema. The second part of the sentence was also problematic: “which is fallowed by test and the award degree”. It is the word curriculum. because constructions with the preposition “prie” are not used to express the modifier of manner. Here occurred the same problem. because the context offered the meaning “the study program”. kuri yra sudaryta iš testų. ir galiausiai suteikiamas universiteto baigimo laipsnis. prie optimalaus rėžimo” is wrong. “I’ll bring some sandwiches in case we don’t find anywhere anything decent to eat.

or finished shortly before it. They understand the meaning. the sentence is translated incorrectly. “ 4. and misunderstand the meaning of the sentence. Apparently. because the English language has many tenses of verb and sometimes it is really difficult to understand the sequence of actions. Students translated it in various ways. our students have lexical and stylistics problems while constructing a nice Lithuanian sentence. as it has been stated above. The correct translation would be: “Aš pasiimsiu sumuštinių. jei kartais niekur nebūtų normalaus maisto. continued beyond it. “I first met Steve and Jane when they had been going out together for five years. The problematic words in this sentence were “in case” and “decent”. but they cannot translate it correctly into the Lithuanian language. but the worst translation sounds like that: “Visų pirmą sutikau Styvą ir Džeinę kada jie išėjo kartu penkeriems metams ir jie nesusituokė dar trejus metus“. Students confront the problem of choosing the correct meaning of the word. The rule is: the past perfect continues can be used to talk about situation or activity that went on before a particular past time and finished at that time. This sentence is very complicated because of the tenses. .20 This sentence is similar to the previous one. which is important to know for every translator. Moreover there is the rule for using past perfect tenses. It is a difficult for foreigners. jeigu mes nerasime bet ko ar bet kur padoraus maisto“. Of course there are several correct versions of translation of this sentence. and they did not get married for another three years after”. But. Some students translated this sentence like that: “Aš parsinešiu keletą sumuštinių jeigu nerasime niekur jokio gero maisto“. It shows that if there is chosen a wrong meaning of the word. or like this: „Aš atnešiu sumuštinių tuo atveju. student do not have sufficient skills of usage of verb forms.

” This sentence is easy enough. and it was quite a clumsy thing to translate. And most of the translators translated it correctly. using nice expressions of our language. . “We decided not to go to Paris. Usage of infinitive is similar in both languages English and Lithuanian that is why the translation as not problematic. “My decision to resign from the company was made after deal of thought. The information of the sentence was passed out correctly but the language stylistic use is not as good as it is supposed to be. Fortunately.” There is an idioms in this sentence “deal of thought”. In case the listener does not know English these sentences do not sound nonsense for him. The sentence was translated like this: “Mes nusprendėme nevažiuoti į Paryžių“. Certainly these translations are correct. but which is very specific. The errors that were made. they should be absolutely sure about the meaning they use and their translation would not sound funny. “I have not liked ice cream since I ate too much and was sick. This sentence involves the usage of infinitive. but actually the translator has passed quite a different message. for example “Aš nusprendžiau atsistatydinti iš kompanijos po sandėrio“or “Mano sprendimą atsistatydinti iš kompanijos nulėmė sutartis”.” This sentence was the easiest and the one that all the students translated it correctly. Idioms are expressions of at least two words which cannot be translated literally. The translator needs to learn to recognize the idioms and other figures of source text. That is why students should be careful when translating idioms. kai jų persivalgęs susirgau“. kai suvalgiau jų perdaug ir apsinuodijau”. Idioms – one class of figurative expressions which occurs in all languages. were not very serious. ‚Mes nusprendėme nevykti į Paryžių“.21 5. So the correct translation would be: “Gerai apsvarstęs nusprendžiau atsistadydinti iš kompanijos”. So in this case some students translated the text literally. kada jų persivalgiau ir susirgau“and “Aš nevalgau ledų nuo to karto. but if they had been translated more literally. Some of the translations are the following: “Aš nemėgstu ledų nuo tada. translating it. then they would not have had such a strong influence of the Slavic language. 6. The best translation was this one: “Aš nebemėgstu ledų nuo to karto. 7. there were some students that translated sentence correctly and they noticed that “deal of thought” means “po ilgo svarstymo” or “gerai apsvarsčius “.

The Lithuanian language grammar does not have similar infinitive structures therefore the translator has to recognize the English infinitive structure and know how to translate it.166) The sentence contains a conditional clause. and the lack of knowledge of the English grammar.” (p. There are conditional clauses in the Lithuanian language too. The students that translated it had to cope with understanding the meaning of the sentence. The first one was the strange construction of the sentence. but their usage is not so complicated. The president is to return to Brazil later today (24). turiu išvykti dabar”or “jei aš noriu spėti į traukinį turiu tuoj išvykti”. “If I am going to catch the train. “He couldn’t remember if he had turned the computer off (68). the translated Lithuanian version simply is not logical. . Moreover. 9. This is the first conditional which describes possible future events or situation and their results. The mistakes in translations were made because of confusing word constructions. because of false understanding of the sentence. The best variants of the translations were: “Jei noriu spėti į traukinį. And there were quite a few problems to translate it correctly. „jeigu aš nespėsiu į traukinį. This kind of structure of the sentence is quite weird for Lithuanian students. If the translator wants to understand the meaning he has to read the sentence a few times. The only difficulty was in translating the infinitive of the last sentence “…is to return to Brazil…”. The result of the research will be summarised below. The second problem was to translate it properly. The structure be to + infinitive is used to talk about future events that can be controlled by people. I’ll have to leave now.22 8. turėsiu pasilikti dabar“. 10.” The last two sentences in the survey were very simple and the students dealt with them quite well. It is really confusing. Some students translated in the wrong way: “Aš neišvažiuosiu jeigu aš pagausiu traukinį“. The translation is wrong. It is one of the more difficult topics of the English language grammar.

it could be said that students make a lot of mistakes. chosen prepositional wrong meaning phrases 45% 55% Bad sentence Errors in Errors in construction translating translating in target idioms language infinitive structures 90% 30% 0% Table 3 79% . Also was noticed that Lithuanian language is very difficult as well.23 6. THE RESULT OF THE SURVEY According to this survey. and the reason could be the lack of English language knowledge. The result was collected and classified as it is showed below: The most common mistakes: • • • • • • Speech culture mistakes wrong translations of prepositional phrases bad knowledge of the vocabulary and disability to choose the appropriate meaning bad sentence construction of the target language errors in translating idioms errors in translating infinitive structures These results also can be shown in the Table 3 Language usage mistakes Wrong The lack of translations of vocabulary.

CONCLUSION The target of this course work is fulfilled. A lexical gap could be identified when users do not know a concept of a source language. Misunderstanding of concept is also a common translation mistake. The translator must know mother – tongue and target language perfectly. By analyzing the collected material and conducting the research we can state the following: The translation difficulties when the target language is Lithuanian comprise of translating lexical gaps. The worst translation that might be done is the text translated literally. A major group of lexical gaps can be explained by social and cultural differences of source and target language. . This kind of text will not be amusement for the reader. his translation will be dull and the reader will not understand the text. … … .24 To translate from one language to another language is very difficult. If he is not perfect in none of this languages.

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