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O.S.A. W.



SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: obin Jarora 1070844 R 1


E. M M

INDEX S. • Title Certificat e • Acknowle dgement • Introduct ion • • r Soldering Voltmete . No.

I extend my special thanks to Mr. I have received from various quarters. I also convey my special thanks to all staff members for industry familiarization and understanding various industrial processes. Raj Kumar training division for their guidance and special kind of operation throughout whole training period.• mer • meter • bridge Transfor Moisture Kelvin ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This present report would not have been possible without the help. and I should have failed in my duties if I did not acknowledge the help and guidance from these sources. .

deciding the list of equipments for their labs and their supply and . ➢ OSAW has undertaken many projects on turnkey basis in India and abroad. interaction with the teaching faculty for decisions of practical curriculum. and Undergraduate to Postgraduate Institutions. OSAW also caters to the needs of Defense and Industry wherein development of tailor-made products are undertaken on order. yds. The premises is spread over an area of 6000 sq. Nand Lal who was a school teacher. the company has worked with perseverance to strike a synthesis between technical innovation and the needs of its customers. Is located on the state highway. Engineers. these include.I. TECH (final year) E. ➢ We manufacture a wide range of equipments used by Primary School. from New Delhi. trained Technicians and Management professionals capable of designing new products and constantly upgrading the existing ones. ➢ OSAW employs about 250 personnel including a dedicated team of Scientists. Secondary Schools. 200 km s. This small industrial town is well connected by rail and road.Robin Jarora B. Since its inception. MMU INTRODUCTION ➢ Established in the year 1919 by Mr.E.

Europe. quality and manufacture. ➢ We have a test house status with calibrated instruments having traceability to the National Laboratories. Our consistent efforts in Export have given us numerous Export Excellence Awards. which led to the saving of a huge amount of foreign exchange. Rigorous in house tests are carried out on all products to ensure defect.East. Middle.installation. Research and Development division constantly improves existing products as well as adds new ones. customers in the premium segment requiring the highest reliability. OSAW enjoys a prestigious place in the USA. Our consistent efforts have resulted in tripling the sales turnover of the company in the last in 5 year. South. as well as. . ➢ OSAW is the pioneer exporter of Scientific Instruments for over six decades. We have also in degenised various products for our leading laboratories.East Asia and African countries besides catering to its valued customers in India. Our products are suited for both the competitive tender business.

Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal. which is below 400 °C (752 °F). causing the solder to melt and be drawn into the joint by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. it is distinguished from welding by the base metals not being melted during the joining process.Soldering:Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and filling a filler metal into the joint. In a soldering process. Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of a lower melting-temperature filler metal. and watertightness for many uses. The filler metal used in the process is called solder. Solder Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. the eutectic alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead (or . but have adequate strength. the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. electrical conductivity. After the metal cools. the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal. heat is applied to the parts to be joined. In electronics assembly.

Common solder alloys are mixtures of tin and lead.60/40. Of all the brazing alloys. Specialty alloys are available with properties such as higher strength. Other alloys are used for plumbing. and other applications. adhesion and wetting characteristics. For example. Flux In high-temperature metal joining processes (welding. the silver solders have the greatest strength and the broadest applications. the primary purpose of flux is to prevent oxidation of the base and filler materials. Tinlead solders. but poorly to the various oxides of copper. and tensile strength. mechanical assembly. better electrical conductivity and higher corrosion resistance. which form quickly at soldering temperatures. which is almost identical in performance to the eutectic) has been the alloy of choice. respectively: • • • 63/37: melts at 183 °C (361 °F) (eutectic: the only mixture that melts at a point. brazing and soldering). Flux is a substance which is nearly . attaches very well to copper. instead of over a range) 60/40: melts between 183–190 °C (361–374 °F) 50/50: melts between 185–215 °C (365–419 °F) .Alloying silver with other metals changes the melting point.

or large stained-glass lead came. but not give adequate performance for a poorly-controlled hand-soldering operation. 450 °C. Fluxes currently available include water-soluble fluxes (no VOC's required for removal) and 'no-clean' fluxes which are mild enough to not require removal at all. a very mild 'no-clean' flux might be perfectly acceptable for production equipment. since it involves filler materials with melting points in the vicinity of. while a 25 watt iron will not provide enough heat for large electrical connectors. Secondarily. removing heat and holding the assembly still until the filler metal has completely solidified. but which becomes strongly reducing at elevated temperatures. with sufficient stored heat in the mass of the soldering copper to complete a joint. but protracted heating by a tool that is too cool or under powered can also cause extensive heat damage. applying flux. joining copper roof flashing. Sheet-metal work was traditionally done with "soldering coppers" directly heated by a flame. Basic soldering techniques Soldering operations can be performed with hand tools. Although the term "silver soldering" is used much more often than "silver brazing". All soldered joints require the same elements of cleaning of the metal parts to be joined. Depending on the nature of flux material used. flux acts as a wetting agent in the soldering process. . Performance of the flux needs to be carefully evaluated. A 100 watt soldering iron may provide too much heat for printed circuit boards. based on the melting temperature of the filler material. heating the parts. the goal is generally to give a beautiful. or in excess of.inert at room temperature. especially in the field of jewelry. A temperature of 450 °C is usually used as a practical cut-off. Using a tool with too high a temperature can damage sensitive components. Hand soldering is typically performed with a soldering iron. the heat source tool should be selected to provide adequate heat for the size of joint to be completed. or a torch. "Hard soldering" or "silver soldering" (performed with high-temperature solder containing up to 40% silver) is also often a form of brazing. In silver soldering ("hard soldering"). it may be technically incorrect depending on the exact melting point of the filler in use. structurally sound joint. applying the filler. fitting up the joint. soldering gun. cleaning of the joints may be required after they have cooled. Electronic components (PCB) For hand soldering of electronic components. preventing the formation of metal oxides. or en masse on a production line. The distinction between soldering and brazing is arbitrary. reducing the surface tension of the molten solder and causing it to better wet out the parts to be joined. or occasionally a hot-air pencil. torches or electrically-heated soldering irons are more convenient. one joint at a time.

or 'tube'. (Note the heat sink will mean the use of more heat to complete the joint. proper selection and use of flux helps prevent oxidation during soldering. the solder will flow around the joint. After inserting a through-hole mounted component. Plastic or metal mounting clips or holders may be used with large devices to aid heat dissipation and reduce joint stresses. so a propane torch is most commonly used. For attachment of electronic components to a PCB. The soldering iron tip must be clean and pre-tinned with solder to ensure rapid heat transfer. leaving a length of about the radius of the pad. A heat sink may be used on the leads of heat sensitive components to reduce heat transfer to the component. When sufficient solder is applied.An improperly soldered 'cold' joint Hand-soldering techniques require a great deal of skill to use on the finest pitch chip packages. In particular ball grid array (BGA) devices are notoriously difficult if not impossible to rework by hand. Pipe soldering Copper pipe. . rather than the solder being applied direct to the iron. the result will be an unreliable "cold solder joint". therefore it requires more heat than a soldering iron or gun can provide. the excess lead is cut off. beginners are usually advised to apply the soldering iron and the solder separately to the joint. This is especially applicable to germanium parts. Components which dissipate large amounts of heat during operation are sometimes elevated above the PCB to avoid PCB overheating. which is essential for good wetting and heat transfer.) If all metal surfaces are not properly fluxed and brought above the melting temperature of the solder in use. When the surfaces are adequately heated. The iron is then removed from the joint. To simplify soldering. for large jobs a MAPP or acetylene torch is used. the solder wire is removed. Copper is an outstanding conductor of heat. is commonly joined by soldering.

Mechanical and aluminum soldering A number of solder materials. Once the solder's capacity for the base metal has been achieved it will no longer properly bond with the base metal. Multiple tips were used. are usually used for copper joints. clean junction to be re-soldered. in that the mechanical characteristics of the joint are reasonably good and it can be used for structural repairs of those materials. De-soldering wicks contain plenty of flux that will lift the contamination from the copper trace and any device leads that are present. This mechanical soldering is similar to a low temperature brazing operation. This will leave a bright. Tiffany type stain-glass is made by gluing copper foil around the edges of the pieces of glass and then soldering them together. shiny. The lower melting point of solder means it can be melted away from the base metal. stained glass soldering tips were copper. resulting in a new joint. are used for soldering aluminum metal and alloys and to some lesser extent steel and zinc. This method makes it possible to create three dimensional stain-glass pieces. primarily zinc alloys. though the outer layer will be "tinned" with solder.Solder fittings. it was placed back in the brazier of charcoal and the next tip was used. which are short sections of smooth pipe designed to slide over the outside of the mating tube. heated by being placed in a charcoal-burning brazier. leaving it mostly intact. This tinned layer will allow solder to flow into a new joint. usually resulting in a brittle cold solder joint with a crystalline appearance. Stained glass soldering Historically. Solder-ability The Solder-ability of a substrate is a measure of the ease with which a soldered joint can be made to that material. More recently. Soldering irons designed for electronic use are often effective though they are sometimes underpowered for the heavy copper and lead came used in stained glass work. It is good practice to remove solder from a joint prior to re-soldering de-soldering braids or vacuum de-soldering equipment (solder suckers) can be used. . and solder ring fittings. when one tip cooled down from use. in which there is a ring of solder in a small circular recess inside the fitting. electrically heated soldering irons are used. De-soldering and re-soldering Used solder contains some of the dissolved base metals and is unsuitable for reuse in making new joints. There are two types of fittings: end feed fittings which contain no solder. These are heated by a coil or ceramic heating element inside the tip of the iron. Flux will remain which can easily be removed by abrasive or chemical processes. as well as making the new solder flow very quickly and easily .

.. Therefore heating the solder first may because the flux to evaporate before it cleans the surfaces (PCB pad and component connection) is soldered. and either lead. lumps or balls of otherwise shiny solder the metal has not 'wetted' properly. tin. This is usually the result of the soldering iron being used to heat the solder directly. This appearance is caused by crystallization of the liquid solder. resulting in a "cold solder" joint. which in turn melt the solder. rather than being smooth. bright and shiny. In electronics' soldering terminology this is known as a 'dry' joint. bright and shiny. pins. rather than the parts themselves. As mentioned it should be smooth. Movement of metals being soldered before the solder has cooled will cause a highly unreliable cracked joint. gold or other finishes. The most common defect when hand-soldering results from the parts being joined not exceeding the solder's liquids temperature. In 'electronic' hand soldering solder the flux is embedded in the solder. Not being bright and shiny suggests a weak 'dry' joint. Without flux the joint may not be clean. Lead-free construction has also extended to components. resulting in an unsound joint.e. Properly done. A dry joint is weak mechanically and a poor conductor electrically. or may be oxidized. the iron heats the parts to be connected. and connectors. Tin finishes are the most popular of lead-free finishes. or if not properly cleaned off the joint. guaranteeing adequate heat in the joined parts for thorough wetting. It has a characteristically dull or grainy appearance immediately after the joint is made. Most of these pins used copper frames.Lead-free electronic soldering More recently environmental legislation has specifically targeted the wide use of lead in the electronics industry. Soldering defects Various problems may arise in the soldering process which lead to joints which are non functional either immediately or after a period of use. In general a good looking soldered joint is a good joint. If not smooth i. this brings up the issue of how to deal with tin whiskers. An improperly selected or applied flux can cause joint failure. Nevertheless.. may corrode the metals in the joint over time and cause eventual joint failure.

but additional flux may be used from a flux pen or dispensed from a small bottle with a syringe-like needle. as on a new prototyping board that has been on the shelf for about a year or more. A heat sink. such as a crocodile clip. the same kind used for heat-stripping paint and thawing pipes. Wire brush. . Some fluxes for electronics are designed to be stable and inactive when cool and do not need to be cleaned off. For PCB assembly and rework. may need to be polished to a shine with steel wool before being soldered. which has a variety of tips available ranging from blunt to very fine to chisel heads for hot-cutting plastics. Electronic joints rarely require mechanical cleaning. alcohol and acetone (one or the other) are commonly used with cotton swabs or bristle brushes to remove flux residue. For electronic work.) either with or without a soldering tip attachment. while the thermal resistance of the leads maintains the temperature difference between the part of the leads being soldered and the component body so that the leads become hot enough to melt the solder while the component body remains cooler. though they still can be if desired. Soldering torches Soldering torches are a type of soldering device that uses a flame rather than a soldering iron tip to heat solder. The heat sink limits the temperature of the component body by absorbing and dissipating heat (reducing the thermal resistance between the component and the air). Hot-air guns and pencils allow rework of component packages which cannot easily be performed with electric irons and guns. though copper traces with a dark layer of oxide passiva-tion (due to aging). A heavy rag is usually used to remove flux from a plumbing joint before it cools and hardens. which typically provides more power. Common multipurpose propane torches. Bristle brushes Bristle brushes are usually used to apply plumbing paste flux. to full-size oxy-fuel torches suitable for much larger work such as copper piping. pipes are generally soldered with a torch by directly applying the open flame. A fiberglass brush can also be used. Soldering torches are often powered by butane and are available in sizes ranging from very small butane/oxygen units suitable for very fine but high-temperature jewelry work. flux-core solder is generally used. can be used for soldering pipes and other fairly large objects (but not electronics. and the soldering gun. while other fluxes are acidic and must be removed after soldering to prevent corrosion of the circuits. wire wool and emery cloth are commonly used to prepare plumbing joints for connection.Tools Hand-soldering tools include the electric soldering iron. can be used to prevent damaging heat-sensitive components while soldering. giving faster heat-up and allowing larger parts to be soldered.

zinc-aluminum for aluminum and corrosion resistance. rain gutters and automobile radiators have also historically been soldered. Soldering is also used to join lead came and copper foil in stained glass work. and lead-silver for strength at higher than room temperature. Small mechanical parts are often soldered as well. and occasionally still are. and tin-silver and tinbismuth for electronics. • Jewelry components are assembled and repaired by soldering. roof flashing. tin-zinc for joining aluminum. cadmium-silver for strength at high temperatures.Applications: • One of the most frequent applications of soldering is assembling electronic components to printed circuit boards (PCBs). Voltmeter . • Some examples of solder types and their applications are tin-lead (general purpose). a soldered joint has limited service at elevated temperatures. Solders generally do not have much strength. Joints in sheet metal objects such as food cans. since soldering temperatures are so low. • Another common application is making permanent but reversible connections between copper pipes in plumbing systems. so the process should not be used for load-bearing members. • Guidelines to consider when soldering is that. Soldering can also be used as a semi-permanent patch for a leak in a container or cooking vessel.

Meters using amplifiers can measure tiny voltages of micro-volts or less. Precision voltage references are available based on electronic circuits. Digital meters can be made with high accuracy. flow or level in a chemical process plant. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit. A voltmeter (V) and an ammeter (A) are shown measuring a voltage and a current respectively. typically better than 1%. Instruments permanently mounted in a panel are used to monitor generators or other fixed apparatus. Part of the problem of making an accurate voltmeter is that of calibration to check its accuracy.A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. Any measurement that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed on a meter that is suitably calibrated. . with laboratory instruments capable of measuring to accuracies of a few parts per million. the Weston Cell is used as a standard voltage for precision work. are standard test instruments used in electrical and electronics work. in a simple series circuit. temperature. pressure. for example. General purpose analog voltmeters may have an accuracy of a few per cent of full scale. Analog voltmeter Voltmeters are made in a wide range of styles. Portable instruments. Specially calibrated test instruments have higher accuracies. and are used with voltages from a fraction of a volt to several thousand volts. digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of an analog to digital converter. In laboratories. usually equipped to also measure current and resistance in the form of a multi-meter. Analog voltmeter Schematic Symbol The voltmeter symbol is seen in this example circuit diagram.

Transformer .

secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. In an ideal transformer. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. This effect is called mutual induction. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP. If a load is connected to the secondary. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. In the vast majority of transformers. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). Basic principle: The transformer is based on two principles: firstly. or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. although the range of designs is wide. transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. and.A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core. air-core transformers being a notable exception. . the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP). All operate with the same basic principles. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed.

The area is constant. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines.An ideal transformer An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. such as iron. which states that: Where VS is the instantaneous voltage. [26] the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage Ideal power equation .

Operation In particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. if an impedance ZS is attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. This relationship is reciprocal. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power: Giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers normally have high efficiency. so this formula is a reasonable approximation. If this condition is met. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turn’s ratio.The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. then the current is decreased by the same factor. If the voltage is increased. Ideally. so that the impedance ZP of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be . it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of . . all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. the transformer is perfectly efficient. For example.

The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding. The no-load loss can be significant. when a voltage is applied to the primary winding. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. or even amorphous steel.Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. At higher frequencies. and thicker wire. increasing initial cost. designing transformers for lower loss requires a larger core. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the noload loss. and those in the magnetic circuit. The primary EMF. and may be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss. so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply and a running cost. Winding resistance dominates load losses. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings. good-quality silicon steel. and would be 100% efficient. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. for the core. are equal to the corresponding EMFs. driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings. Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer. (Also see energy efficient transformer). termed copper loss. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. so that there is a trade-off between initial cost and running cost. the magnetizing current is negligible. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. core.This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. and surrounding structures. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. although still required to create the magnetic field. they have no associated voltage drop. Eddy currents . a small current flows. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Since the ideal windings have no impedance. termed iron loss. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage.

and can cause losses due to frictional heating. adding to the buzzing noise. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected.Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. Magneto static Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. For a given core material. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. such as the core. However. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux. an effect known as magneto-striction. any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. rather than a solid block. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction. . and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. the loss is proportional to the frequency. and consuming a small amount of power. all transformers operating at low frequencies use laminated or similar cores. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and Inverse Square of the material thickness. and a core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field. Eddy current losses can be reduced by making the core of stack of plates electrically insulated from each other.

Voltages at the dot end of each winding are in phase. amplifier output. output voltage and current stabilizer. . and multiple windings. but these are usually small. audio-.There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field. By cooling type: air-cooled. particularly for transformers with multiple primary and secondary windings. oil-filled. etc. By application: such as power supply. current flowing into the dot end of a primary coil will result in current flowing out of the dot end of a secondary coil. isolating with equal or near-equal ratio. or radio frequency. fan-cooled. an incomplete list is: • • • • • • • By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. arc furnace. It is common in transformer schematic symbols for there to be a dot at the end of each coil within a transformer. By frequency range: power-. Classification Transformers can be classified in many different ways. The dots indicate the direction of each winding relative to the others.. impedance matching. variable. By winding turns ratio: step-up. By purpose: distribution. step-down. or circuit isolation. rectifier. or water-cooled. By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts.

When power is then reapplied. Such a design tends to exhibit more losses.Construction Laminated steel cores Laminating the core greatly reduces eddy-current losses One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces. and the core assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap. A steel core's re-manence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. leading to its name of "E-I transformer". . reducing reluctance. forming two C shapes. It is then cut in two. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced. but is very economical to manufacture. usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together. They have the advantage that the flux is always oriented parallel to the metal grains.

transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. Consequently. transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances. . Applications ➢ A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires.Over current protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. overhead power transmission lines. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. ➢ Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. On transformers connected to long. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices. ➢ By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward. The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load. Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous (non-crystalline) metal alloy.

most wood is dried before being used. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground. buckling. ➢ Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. sunken joints. the minimum moisture content that can be generally obtained in air drying is about 12 to 15 percent. twist or otherwise change shape as it dries. and can also split. Building inspectors. This is most often done using a kiln. which is much slower. This information can be used to determine if the material is ready for use. In most parts of the United States. such as between external cables and internal circuits. Most air-dried material is usually closer to 20 percent moisture content when used. If this step is skipped. . or otherwise in need of further inspection. ➢ The principle of open-circuit (unloaded) transformer is widely used for characterization of soft magnetic materials. Wood flooring installers. but may use the air drying method. carpenters. and cracked finishes. Since wood shrinks. unexpectedly wet or dry. Meters for wood Newly-cut logs can have a moisture content (MC) of 80% or more. Moisture meters are used to measure the amount of water in the wood so that the woodworker can determine if it is suitable for the intended purpose. In-kiln drying is usually monitored by some type of moisture meter. a vast array of problems may present itself: cracking. have to verify that the MC of the wood matches the relative humidity in the air of the building. cupping. and other woodworkers often are required to have moisture meters.➢ Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. for example in the internationally standardized Epstein frame method. crowning. hobbyists. Moisture meter Moisture meters are used to measure the percentage of water in a given substance. for example. depending on species.

in construction or for any building project. are less prone to distortion due to changes in moisture content than woods with a high ratio. which becomes increasingly lower as the moisture content of the wood rises. two electrodes are driven into the wood fibers and the electrical resistance is translated into moisture content on the device’s electronic or dial output. EMC means that the wood is in balance with the relative humidity it surrounding environment. . warping and cupping. The difference between radial and tangential shrinkage also varies from species to species. occur because of the difference in the degree of dimensional change in wood cells tangentially (perpendicular to the grain and parallel to the growth rings) versus radically (perpendicular to the growth rings). such as eastern white pine and certain species of oak. Problems with distortions in the shape of the wood. for wood floors. One type measures the electrical resistance of the wood fibers. the ideal state is one of equilibrium moisture content (EMC). The reading helps in determining whether the wood is suitably dry for its intended purpose. such as teak and mahogany. and some degree of dimensional change along with seasonal changes in relative humidity is to be expected. With the electrical resistance type of moisture meter. In reality. For typical woodworking operations. and is therefore neither gaining or losing in moisture content. it is extremely rare for an environment to maintain a constant fixed relative humidity. such as twisting. A moisture meter gives a reading of the approximate moisture content of wood. The moisture content reading can also assist in planning a project design that will accommodate future changes in dimension caused by changes in relative humidity.The problems caused by varying degrees of moisture content in wood go beyond simple shrinkage in the dimensions of wood parts. Species with both low overall shrinkage and a low tangential/radial shrinkage ratio are more stable and will react better to changes in moisture content. two basic types of moisture meter are available. however. For wood that is to be used in making furniture. The amount of overall shrinkage lumber will undergo in the drying process varies from wood species to wood species. Woods with a low ratio of tangential to radial shrinkage.

• Provision for Temperature for all commodities. over range and discrepancy obviating the need of thermometer and correlation dial. Technical Data: • • • • • Commodity: Food grains. Give instant moisture percentage reading by pressing a switch. Digital Moisture Meter Description: This Moisture testing machine works on a single chip computer (micro controller) concept. Pulses.5 to 40%. • Separate code for each commodity. • Calibrated for 96 commodities. . • RS 232 serial interface.2%. and requires only surface contact with the wood.A second type of moisture meter relies on the dielectric properties of wood. Consistency: ± 0. Vegetables Seeds etc. Range: 3. Under range. Two thumbwheel switches provided for commodity selection. Transducer: Compression unit annul the porosity Effect Principal of measurement: Automatic with PT-100 temperature sensor. Oil Seeds. Easy to operate and needs no electrical adjustments.

ohmmeters include Kelvin bridges. Accuracy There are some commercial devices reaching accuracies of 2% for resistance ranges from 0. amongst other measuring instruments. the Valhalla 4100 ATC LowRange Ohmmeter . It is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance below 1 Ω. Its operation is similar to the Wheatstone bridge except for the presence of additional resistors. in order to obtain large measure ranges. Often. operated through 230V. 1st Baron Kelvin. 50Hz. Range selection: Automatic. AC main or 6/R-20 type dry cells.) Weight : 9. Thumb Wheel: Two thumb wheel for commodity selection & temperature. Power: 9V DC Adaptor. Power: 9 V DC Adaptor for AC mains or 6/(R-20) type dry cells.• • • • • • • • Display: Digital. Error Conditions: Displayed. 3 digits LED.000001 to 25 ohms. for example. These additional low value resistors and the internal configuration of the bridge are arranged to substantially reduce measurement errors introduced by voltage drops in the high current (low resistance) arm of the bridge. Size (L x B x H in cm): 30 x 18 x 19 cm (approx.5 Kg (approx) Kelvin Bridge: A Kelvin bridge (also called a Kelvin double bridge and some countries Thomson bridge) is a measuring instrument invented by William Thomson. Attachment: RS 232 port provided for printer/Computer.

micro-ohmmeters. then the last component in the equation can be neglected and it can be assumed that: . If the condition R3·R`4 = R`3·R4 is met (and value of R is low). Principle of operation: The measurement is made by adjusting some resistors in the bridge. millmeters. etc. and the balance is achieved when: Resistance R should be as low as possible (much lower than the measured value) and for that reason is usually made as a short thick rod of solid copper.The instruments for measuring sub-ohm values are often referred to as low-resistance ohmmeters.