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Jo˜o Bosco Pitombeira de CARVALHO a Instituto de Matem´tica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade a Universit´ria, Ilha do Fund˜o, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. a a e-mail: jbpfcarvalho@gmail.com ABSTRACT

We present a modern account of Ptolemy’s construction of the regular pentagon, as found in a well-known book on the history of ancient mathematics (Aaboe [1]), and discuss how anachronistic it is from a historical point of view. We then carefully present Euclid’s original construction of the regular pentagon, which shows the power of the method of equivalence of areas. We also propose how to use the ideas of this paper in several contexts. Key-words: Regular pentagon, regular constructible polygons, history of Greek mathematics, equivalence of areas in Greek mathematics.

1

Introduction

This paper presents Euclid’s construction of the regular pentagon, a highlight of the Elements, comparing it with the widely known construction of Ptolemy, as presented by Aaboe [1]. This gives rise to a discussion on how to view Greek mathematics and shows the care on must have when adopting adapting ancient mathematics to modern styles of presentation, in order to preserve not only content but the very way ancient mathematicians thought and viewed mathematics. 1 The material here presented can be used for several purposes. First of all, in courses for prospective teachers interested in using historical sources in their classrooms. In several places, for example Brazil, the history of mathematics is becoming commonplace in the curricula of courses for prospective teachers, and so one needs materials that will awaken awareness of the need to approach ancient mathematics as much as possible in its own terms, and not in some pasteurized downgraded versions. 2 As a matter of fact, this text has been used in a course for future secondary school mathematics teachers. Secondly, it can also be used in secondary education. In many countries, most secondary education mathematics textbooks present just a series of results, some of them justiﬁed by examples, the use of analogies and heuristics, but do not show a single proof. So, using Frank Lester’s words, many, many, students ﬁnish their schooling without ever “meeting the queen”. 3 The construction of the pentagon is genuine mathematics, dealing with a result that arouses interest and at the level of secondary school students and it very suited to show the power of the deductive method in mathematics. In the third place, it is important to show students or readers how mathematics changed along the centuries, how its tools and techniques evolved, and how to appreciate the mathematical accomplishments of past generations, what kind of problems they attacked, how their results were communicated. Discussions on these subjects would certainly enlarge the cultural awareness of students and readers.

For a good discussion, see Schubring [11]. I am deﬁnitely not implying that Aaboe’s treatment, discussed in this paper, is such a version. 3 An allusion to Bell’s Mathematics: Queen and servant of science.

2 1

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.E. and not the square and its diagonal. friezes and tilings of the plane have been widely explored. of the regular pentagon. the same happens to the sides and diagonals of all the pentagons so obtained. providing a ﬁne example of group theory applied to geometry and crystallography. and so on (Figure 2). If the diagonal and the side of ABCDE are commensurable. 4 2 The regular polygons Figures and conﬁgurations that show regularities have always been found interesting. and we arrive at a contradiction. The regular pentagon was important to the Pythagoreans. in Book IV. led von Fritz [13] to propose that the existence of incommensurable magnitudes was discovered using the pentagon and its diagonal. and studied mathematically. This can be seen taking into account that the intersection of the diagonals of the pentagon ABCDE deﬁne a new pentagon. starting from the sixth century B. over the centuries and in countless cultures. Euclid needs it in book XIII. EF GHK. since the pentagram (the regular star polygon of ﬁve sides. The regular polygons.And last but not least. whose sides are regular pentagons. by artists and decorators. However. This fact. He uses only the non-graduated ruler and the compass. together with the familiarity of the Pythagoreans with the pentagon. in which he studies the ﬁve regular polyhedra. The roses. for the construction of the regular dodecahedron. done with very basic and simple tools.C. the construction deserves study because it is beautiful mathematics. Figure 1) was the symbol of the Pythagorean brotherhood. One of the highlights of the Elements of Euclid is the construction. in which a major problem was to “square” a ﬁgure. We would like to thank the referees for the excellent suggestions. C A B D E Figure 1: The regular pentagram The Pythagoreans may have known the fact that the diagonal and the side of the pentagon are incommensurable. stand out among the important ﬁgures that show regularities. which helped to improve this paper. The square also plays an important role in Greek mathematics. von Fritz’s opinion is not the favorite among historians of mathematics. 4 2 . as happens in all constructions in the Elements. The ﬁrst proposition of Euclid’s Elements shows how to construct an equilateral triangle. central in geometry. that is. to build a square with area equal to the area of that ﬁgure.

in 1796. 80. 257. for the polygon of 17 sides. 8. 5. 256. 257 and 65537. and Friedrich Julius Richelot proposed. 34. with ruler and compass. 255. a French mathematician. 170. 85. 120. 34. 32. in 1832. 15. 5. 20. 30. in 1836 ([14]). 170. a method to construct the polygon of 257 sides. 12. 240. 160. it is possible. 4. 60. 51. 64. 68. B A F G C E H K E D Figure 2: The regular pentagon and its diagonals A complete answer for which regular polygons can be constructed with ruler and compass was given only in the nineteenth century. 160. 64. 24. 10. Gauss stated that his condition is also necessary. to construct the regular polygons with the number of sides equal to these primes or to products thereof. at least. 48. The criterion of Gauss does not provide an explicit construction of a regular polygon. 15. 3 n . . but this was proved only by Pierre Wantzel. A little later. they were able. 272. 192. be of the form n = 2k p1 p2 . Thus. 32. for example. 102. 4. 12. When they could not ﬁnd constructions that obey the Euclidean canons. 5. 17. 240. 6. 20. 30. in the construction for the regular heptagon given by Archimedes. . in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae [4]. 60. 204. 8. he proved that a suﬃcient condition for the regular n-sided polygon to be constructible with ruler and compass is that n. 40. 16. 272 136. that is. 68. The German mathematician Johannes Erchinger gave such a construction. 10. 128. 128. or which require other resources besides the ruler and compass. 136. in 1825. ps . 3. 40. 48. 24.The search for the construction of the regular polygons has been a recurring theme among mathematicians. 96. 17. Since the Fermat primes known presently are 3. 255. 51. primes of the form pi = 22 i + 1. 120. in which all p’s are Fermat primes. 96. 80. 204. The ﬁrst proved. the regular polygons with less than 300 sides which can be constructed with ruler and compass are the ones with the following number of sides: 3. that it is possible to construct with ruler and compass the regular polygon of 17 sides. 257. the number of sides of the polygon. in a work that proved the impossibility of solving the problems of angle trisection and of doubling the cube. 85. by Gauss and Wantzel. in principle. 16. 192. 17. but there are doubts about its validity (see Reich [10]). 256. 102. to ﬁnd approximate constructions. 6. as seen.

in Figure 4. It follows that the angle T KL measures 36o . draw a circle. it is easy to construct the pentagon. some of which use only the tools prescribed by Euclid. well known and particularly simple.10 of the Elements. in Proposition XIII. OT = KT = KL = x. One. Thus. Euclid shows. the angle LOK measures 36o .6 Note that all the steps in this construction can be made with ruler and compass. We shall initially justify this construction. Then. the triangle OKL. Consider. See also Aaboe [2]). starting from the center O of the circle. 10. pp. 54-56. Then. Then RO will be the side of the regular decagon inscribed in the circle of radius OB. and M the midpoint of OB. 5 proceeds as follows to inscribe a regular pentagon in the circle of center O and radius OB (Figure 3). pp.3 A well-known construction of the regular pentagon There are many constructions of the regular pentagon. and so each one measures 72o . Since LOK is an isosceles triangle. P A R O M B Figure 3: The construction of a regular pentagon inscribed in a circle Let OP be the perpendicular to the diameter AB. I. and therefore OKT is also an isosceles triangle. This implies that P R will be the side of the regular pentagon. we have OL KT = . 14-15. KLT is an isosceles triangle. due to Ptolemy. With center K and radius KL = x. and therefore the angle KT L also measures 72o . its base angles are equal. in which KL = x is the side of the regular decagon inscribed in the circle of radius OK = OL = r. Once one knows the side of the regular decagon. LK TL See Ptolemy. that the sides of the regular dodecagon. connecting the vertices of the decagon two by two. Since the triangles OKL and KT L are similar. and OKT is equal to 36o . [9]. 6 5 4 . pentagon and hexagon inscribed in a circle form a right-angle triangle. On the size of chords in a circle. and let T be the point at which it cuts OL. because of the way it was drawn. following Aaboe ([1]. With center M and radius M P draw the arc of a circle which cuts AB in R.

It is now easy to construct the regular pentagon: it is suﬃcient to join the vertices of the decagon. 7 5 .16). and we know how to construct the polygons with respectively r and s sides. the segment OR is the side of the regular decagon. 2 2 2 Thus.O T K L Figure 4: The triangles LKT and KOL are similar that is. Firstly.7 OR = RM − OM = P M − OM = More generally. Aaboe says simply that it is “more convenient” to ﬁnd the side of the regular decagon. if you can construct with ruler and compass the regular polygon of n sides it is possible to construct the regular polygon of 2n sides. two by two. as far as pedagogy is concerned. 2 Let us return to Figure 3. and conversely. equally important. but deserves pedagogical and. if r and s are co-prime natural numbers. As a matter of fact. Figure 5 shows a pentagon and a regular decagon inscribed in a circle. which is mathematically correct. x r−x The only positive root of this equation is 1 √ x = r( 5 − 1). It is also true that starting with the pentagon we can construct the decagon. The triangle P OM has a right angle. Euclid proves this for the case r = 3 and s = 5 in the last proposition of Book IV (IV. r x = =⇒ x2 + rx − r2 = 0. ) r√ 1 1 (√ 5− r = r 5−1 . We can make some comments about the treatment presented by Aaboe. We will try to show why it is actually more convenient to work with the regular decagon. it is then possible to construct the polygon with rs sides. and therefore ( r )2 (r) √ 2 2 PM = r + =⇒ P M = 5. we can construct the pentagon. If we construct the decagon. historiographic remarks. 2 2 So. joining the vertices of the decagon two by two. without explaining why this is so.

that is ODE = 2 × DOE. Therefore. Thus. worked in the manner shown by him. the regular pentagon? In Figure 5. to measure angles this way is entirely avoided in the Elements. the fact that the triangles OKL and KT L are similar (Figure 4) implies that the radius of the circle. GOS . areas. As shown by Aaboe. is the relationship between the angles ODE and DOE (Figure ??). is divided by T in extreme and mean ratio. AOB. and so to half the arc KHGF E. 6 . angles are compared with the right angle. they dealt directly with these. we have historiographic problems. The only thing necessary. polygons are transformed into squares (they are “squared”) and the resulting squares are compared. the angles DOE. the angle ODE is equal to the angle KDE. it is enough to construct an isosceles triangle ABC such that its base angles are both twice the vertex angle and then draw in the circle a triangle DEF equiangular with the triangle ABC. In fact. areas and volumes. giving the reader the impression that the Greeks. Aaboe’s presentation is mathematically correct.A L B K C O H D G F E Figure 5: The regular pentagon and decagon inscribed in a circle Why should one construct the regular decagon and not. His mistake is to encase it in Greek dress. in the isosceles triangle ODE. which follows from the results contained in the Elements about the angles inscribed in a circumference. Euclid never measures lengths. as we explained above. angles. in particular Euclid. COD are equal. it was unknown in classical Greek mathematics. However. The crucial point is that (See Figure 5) in the isosceles triangle OAB the vertex angle. to construct the regular decagon inscribed in the circle of radius R. As this arc is equal to four times the arc DE. Since the Greeks did note have the real numbers. is equal to half the base angles. Aaboe. volumes and angles. respectively. . Furthermore. they did not measure magnitudes. For example. since they are the central angles of the regular decagon ABCDEF GHKL. Secondly. EOF . . OK. comparing them. Aaboe uses the fact that we are dealing with angles that measure 72o and 36o . . each base angle is twice the vertex angle. we see that the angle ODE is equal to twice the angle DOE. directly. Of course one can add segments.

In particular. Since Euclid. 9 A thoughtful and balanced view of this question can be found in Vitrac ([12].5 and II. because the faces of the regular dodecahedron are regular pentagons. We recommend “Greek geometrical algebra” was created. It is based entirely on equivalence of areas. 4 The construction of the pentagon by Euclid The construction of the regular pentagon inscribed in a circle is the climax of Book IV of Euclid’s Elements. 11 A broad and deep discussion of this interpretation of Greek mathematics can be found in Fried and Unguru. exclusive. Ptolemy’s original treatment is entirely in accordance with the methods and tools developed in the Elements of Euclid. 9 The anachronism of Aaboe’s text is shown particularly in the interpretation of Proposition II. 8 7 . pp. in several papers (see [3] and also [11] for full references). the regular pentagon. that is. 366-376) 10 Of course. with ruler and compass. by Neugebauer. but then one should not claim to be presenting what Euclid did. a brief survey of his construction. he could not avoid constructing. failing to understand its importance in the geometric context of the Elements.6 of the Elements as a way to solve second degree equations. beforehand. at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. widely used by Euclid. It should be stressed that this construction does not use similarity. like other classical Greek mathematicians. merely presents his results logically linked. [15]). moreover. 11 We now present Euclid’s construction of the regular pentagon. the anachronistic interpretation of Greek and Babylonian mathematics done by the proponents of the “Greek geometric algebra”. the widespread algebraization of mathematics. We emphasize. Once discovered. we give.8 which has been the subject of heated discussion in the last decades. initially. the ﬁve regular polyhedra. [3]. Thus.6 certainly can be interpreted in an algebraic way. for example.More serious in Aaboe’s presentation is his use of the so-called “Greek geometric algebra”. who agreed with this interpretation. It became very generally accepted because of Heath’s inﬂuential and well known translations of Greek mathematics. M R N Q P Figure 6: The angle at M is half the angle M QP Euclid. Tannery and Zeuthen (See. in the light of modern developments. until Book V. It was continued by van der Waerden. Sabetai Unguru has denounced. in Book XIII of the Elements constructs. that the construction in Book IV clearly shows the strength of the method of the equivalence of areas. totally out of the context of classical Greek mathematics.10 Elements II. it can easily be done.

KV T .36 and III. which passes through points K.11 to the radius of the circle.15 In other words. 12 8 . together with the square on CB. he ﬁnds the point Z such that the rectangle on KV and ZV is equal to the square on KZ (See Figure 7). the rectangle contained by the whole with the added straight line and the added straight line together with the square on the half is equal to the square on the straight line made up of the half and the added straight line. very important in the Elements. We now turn our attention to the actual construction. the isosceles triangle M QP is such that its vertex angle is equal to half of each base angle. If we can inscribe such a triangle in a circle. he shows. we can construct the pentagon. Euclid starts from the easily seen fact that in the regular pentagon.returning to this initial description. K VT=KZ Z V T Figure 7: The triangles KV T and ZV T After this. ﬁnally. after reading through the text. expounded in Book V. the angle at its vertex is equal to half of each base angle. 13 Then Euclid draws an auxiliary circle.2. 12 Let T .6: If a straight line be bisected and a straight line be added to it in a straight line. 13 This can be done by proposition I. i. applying II. The construction itself is done in Propositions 10 and 11 of Book IV. on the circumference. M N P QR (Figure 6). The ﬁrst. that the triangle KV T satisﬁes the required property. We begin with Proposition II.37. is equal to the square on CD. DB. without proofs. Proposition II. be such that V T = KZ.6.. the rectangle with sides AD. for Euclid. straight line can mean either a segment or the whole straight line.5. To perform this construction Euclid requires two lines of argumentation. We state. following Heath’s versions ([6] and [7]). Z and T 14 and using results about secants and chords in a circle. 14 Euclid shows how to do this IV. the results from the Elements he needs. this is equivalent to the division of KV in mean and extreme ratios. Using the theory of proportions. 15 We recall that. Euclid uses also the following result. and applied to ﬁgures in Book VI. which is a consruction problem Proposition II. contained in II. KV .11:To cut a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the square on the remaining segment. to construct the regular pentagon inscribed in a given circle.e. Euclid inscribes in this circle a triangle equiangular with the triangle just constructed.

the rectangle contained by the whole of the straight line which cuts the circle and the straight line intercepted on it outside between the point and the convex circumference will be equal to the square on the tangent.36: If a point be taken outside a circle and from it there fall on the circle two straight lines. from Book III of the Elements. and if further the rectangle contained by the whole of the straight line which cuts the circle and the straight line intercepted on it outside between the point and the convex 9 . if one of them cut the circle.37: If a point be taken outside a circle and from the point there fall on the circle two straight lines. Proposition III. the rectangle with sides P R and P S is equal to the square on P T (Figure 10). and if one of them cut the circle and the other touch it. Euclid shows how to ﬁnd. F G A C B E H K D Figure 9: Elements II. Proposition III. using only a straightedge and a compass. That is. a point C on AB such that the rectangle of sides AB and CB is equal to the square on AC (Figure 9).11 Now we need some results about circles and their chords.Figure 8: Elements II. and the other fall on it.6 That is.

B A C D Figure 11: Elements III. and that in a less segment greater than a right angle. less than the semicircle. We need also the following result. the straight line which falls on it will touch the circle. also without proof: Proposition III. The same is true of the angles ADC and ABC. taken together.22: The opposite angles of quadrilaterals in circles are equal to two right angles. the angle in the semicircle is right. is greater than a right angle. Proposition III. and further.36. and the angle of the less segment less than a right angle.36 circumference be equal to the square on the straight line which falls on the circle. the angle ABC in the arc greater than the semicircle is less than a right angle. 10 . the angle BAC is right. for the quadrilateral ABCD of Figure 11. This means that in the circle of Figure 12. the angle of the greater segment is greater than a right angle.31: In a circle.22 That is. that in a greater segment less than a right angle.P R S T Figure 10: Elements III. and the angle ADC in the arc ADC. This proposition is the converse of III. the angles BAD and BCD are equal. For the last step before reaching the construction of the regular pentagon. we will use two additional results. inscribed in a circle. to two right angles.

ﬁnd the point C such that the rectangle of sides AB. draw BD equal to AC. Draw the circle with center at A and radius AB. A D C E B F Figure 13: Elements III. namely.32: If a straight line touch a circle and from the point of contact there be drawn across. The essential step is the following construction problem. Then. the angles which it makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle.31 Proposition III.11. the reasoning of Euclid. BC) = quad(AC). Euclid’s text can be found in Heath ([7]). Proposition IV. that each of the base angles is equal to twice the vertex angle. in the circle. This proposition states that the angle DBF is equal to the angle BAD (Figure 13). We summarize below.C D A E B Figure 12: Elements III. in a symbolic and compact way. Using II. a straight line cutting the circle. ret (AB. The point C is such that ret(AB. Let a line segment AB be given (Figure 14). and quad (AC) represents the square on the segment AC.10: Construct an isosceles triangle in which each base angle is double the vertex angle. 11 . CB is equal to the square on CA. BC) designates the rectangle of sides AB and BC. the triangle ABD has the required property. In what follows. From B.32 What remains now is just to construct the regular pentagon.

BC) = quad(BD). we have BCD = BDA = DBA =⇒ BCD = DBC =⇒ DB = DC. CAD + CDA = 2CAD =⇒ BCD = 2 × CAD. each base angle is twice the vertex angle. and therefore BCD = BDA = DBA = 2 × CAD = 2 × BAD.5). by construction.B C A D Figure 14: Elements IV. we have BDC = DAC =⇒ BDC + CDA = DAC + CDA. Thus. in the triangle ACD. Thus. we have ret(AB.2: In a given circle to inscribe a triangle equiangular with a given triangle. it follows from III. that BD is tangent to the circle ACD.32. By III. Since BDA = DBA. Thus.37. Consider. the external angle BCD. and therefore CAD = CDA. Since AC = BD. we need Proposition IV. Then BCD = DAC + CDA =⇒ BCD = BDA. Since DB = CA. 12 . in the triangle ABD. BDA = DAC + CDA. Before the ﬁnal construction. But then. it follows that CA = CD.10 Draw AD and DC and construct the circle ACD circumscribed to the triangle ACD (This can be done by IV.

Let GH be the tangent to the circle. we can show that the angles ACB and DF E are equal. Since each one of the angles ACD and CDA is twice the angle CAD. 13 . with angles respectively equal to the angles of the given triangle. respectively.11 Construct the triangle F GH in which each base angle is twice the vertex angle. Proposition IV. by III. with the angle CAD equal to the angle at F and the angles ACD and CDA equal. passing through the point A. A F B E G C D H Figure 16: Elements IV. and have been bisected by the lines CE and DB. Draw BC. Draw the straight line segments AB. DE and EA. the angle BAC will be equal to the angle EDF . Therefore. respectively. We can ﬁnally present the result we set out to prove. it follows that the angles DAC. respectively. ACE. Bisect the angles ACD and ADC by EC and DB. Therefore. BC. the angle HAC is equal to the angle ABC and therefore the angle ABC is equal to the angle DEF .2 Let the circle and the triangle DEF be given (Figure 15). Similarly. Draw the angle HAC equal to the angle DEF and the angle GAB equal to the angle DF E. Then. Inscribe the triangle ACD in the circle. in the given circle there has been inscribed a triangle. to the angles at G and H (Figure 16).32.11: In a given circle to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon.E F B D C G A H Figure 15: Elements IV.

EA are also equal. Ges. Episodes from the early history of mathematics. BCD. it follows that the arc ABCD is equal to the arc EDCB. von Rudiger Thiele.) Ptolemy. and so the line segments AB. PTOLEMY. T. vol 1. Apollonius of Perga’s Conica: text. Robert Maynard (ed. 16. to become quicker and more eﬃcient. New York: Dover.10 directly to the circle in which we want to inscribe the regular pentagon. Festschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstag von Matthias Schramm. BC. 14 . 1870. and UNGURU. Euclid’s construction can be modiﬁed. The thirteen books of the Elements of Euclid. New York: Dover. Robin. subtext. “Die Entdeckung und fr¨he Rezeption der Konstruierbarkeit des u regelmaßigen 17-Ecks und dessen geometrische Konstruktion durch Johannes Erchinger (1825)”. DE. T. New o Haven. GAUSS. Almagest I . CDB and BDA are equal to one another. “The debate on a geometric algebra and methodological implications”. 45-51). 1956. o der Wiss. New York: Dover. vol. 2000. For the same reason. Therefore the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. since the arc AB is equal to the arc DE. The thirteen books of the Elements of Euclid. Obviously. 1964. Asger. 2.Mexico. 4. Werke. Carl Friedrich. Conn: Yale University Press. 222. 2 (Books III-IX). Leiden: Brill. if we add the arc BCD to both. pp. T. DE. Now. Copernicus. Therefore the pentagon is equiangular. REICH. vol. Ill. In Proceedings of HPM . From this we see that the angle BAE is equal to the angle AED. 1 (Books I-II). Ciudad de Mexico. 8. It is enough to apply IV. K¨nig.J. Washington. a 3. xii. 9. 5. Mnemosyne. Kepler. In Hutchins. Sabetai. 3 (Books XXIII). Chigago. The thirteen books of the Elements of Euclid. CD. 1966. 1956.101-118. English translation by Arthur Clarke. Encyclopaedia Britannica. each of the angles ABC. 10. REFERENCES 1. 11. New York: Springer. translated by R. Supplementum. Claudius.IV. vol. HEATH. Gert. AABOE. Catesby Taliaferro. s. SCHUBRING. DC: Mathematical Association of America. AABOE.ECD.L. 1848. context. CDE is also equal to each of the angles BAE and AED. Michael N. In: Mathesis. 499 p. HEATH. 7. HARTSHORNE. Geometry: Euclid and beyond. 6. zu G¨ttingen. Berlin: Diepholz 2000. Karin. Rio de Janeiro: o o a Sociedade Brasileira de Matem´tica. Asger. EA are equal. 1956. vol. Hrsg. 2008. FRIED.L. Great books of the western world. S. Epis´dios da hist´ria antiga da Matem´tica. 2001. CD. 1997.L. BC. Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. as noted by Hartshorne ([5]. But then the arcs AB. and so it is a regular pentagon. HEATH.

VITRAC. 1836. e e Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Kopenhagen: Host. second series. 1886. WANTZEL. Journal de e e e e e math´matiques pures et appliqu´es. pp. e e 15. 13. 242264. Bernard. ZEUTHEN. Die Lehre der Kegelschnitte im Altertum. “Recherches sur les moyens de reconnaˆ ıtre si un probl`me de g´om´trie peut se r´soudre avec la r`gle et le compas”. von FRITZ.´e 12. Kurt. “The discovery of incommensurability by Hipparcus of Metapontum”. 366-372. 15 . pp. H. Les El´ments. vol. Introduction g´n´rale. 14. vol 46. Annals of mathematics.G. 1. 1990. Livres I IV. Pierre Laurent. No 2 (April 1945). vol 1.

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