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Enhanced IGRP

– EIGRP tables – Configuring EIGRP – Verifying EIGRP
• Open Shortest Path First

– Configuring OSPF – Verifying OSPF – Configuring OSPF with wildcards



What Is Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)?

IP Routing Protocols AppleTalk Routing Protocol IPX Routing Protocols

IP Routing Protocols

Enhanced IGRP

AppleTalk Routing Protocol IPX Routing Protocols

• Enhanced IGRP supports:
Rapid convergence Reduced bandwidth usage Multiple network-layer support Uses Diffused Update Algorithm (DUAL) to select loop-free routes and enable fast convergence – Up to six unequal paths to a remote network (4 by default) AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 – – – –


Comparing EIGRP and IGRP – – – – – – Similar metric Same load balancing Improved convergence time Reduced network overhead Maximum hop count of 255 (100 default) EIGRP can differentiate between internal and external routes AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 4 .

Route updates sent only when a change occurs – multicast on 224.EIGRP for IP • No updates.10 • Hello messages sent to neighbors every 5 seconds (60 seconds in most WANs) Enhanced IGRP EIGRP hello EIGRP AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 5 .0.0.

EIGRP Terminology Neighbor Table—IP Next Hop Interface Router Topology Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Destination 1 Feasible Successor Routing Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Note: A feasible successor is a backup route and stored in the Topology table AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 6 .

use the show ip eigrp topology command AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 7 . Enhanced IGRP EIGRP hello EIGRP To see all feasible successor routes known to a router.EIGRP Tables • The neighbor table and topology table are held in ram and are maintained through the use of hello and update packets.

Successor routes • Successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination • A successor routes may be backed up by a feasible successor route • Successor routes are stored in both the topology table and the routing table Topology Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Destination 1 Feasible Successor Routing Table—IP Destination 1 Successor AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 8 .

2 T1 T1 C D T1 • EIGRP uses a composite metric to pick the best path: bandwidth and delay of the line • EIGRP can load balance across six unequal cost paths to a remote network (4 by default) AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 9 .Choosing Routes IP A B IP AppleTalk IPX AppleTalk IPX 19.

168.0 Router(config-router)#network EIGRP for IP A 192.0 Enable EIGRP Assign networks AS=10 B If you use the same AS number for EIGRP as IGRP.0 C Token Ring 192.10.0 Router(config)#router eigrp 10 Router(config-router)#network 10.0. EIGRP will automatically redistribute IGRP into EIGRP AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 10 .

Redistribution Redistribution is translating one type of routing protocol into another. EIGRP Router B IGRP Router A Router D Router C IGRP and EIGRP translate automatically. as long as they are both using the same AS number AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 11 .

and which route will EIGRP take? T1 56K T1 10BaseT 100BaseT 100BaseT AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 12 . which route will RIP (v1 and v2) take.Route Path Assuming all default parameters.

Verifying Enhanced IGRP Operation Router# show ip eigrp neighbors • Displays the neighbors discovered by IP Enhanced IGRP Displays the IP Enhanced IGRP topology table Displays current Enhanced IGRP entries in the routing table Displays the parameters and current state of the active routing protocol process Displays the number of IP Enhanced IGRP packets sent and received 13 Router# show ip eigrp topology • Router# show ip route eigrp • Router# show ip protocols • Router# show ip eigrp traffic • AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 .

00:04: Serial0/0 P1R1# -D is for “Dual” -[90/2172] is the administrative distance and cost of the route.168. Serial0/0 C 192.0/24 is directly connected. The cost of the route is a composite metric comprised from the bandwidth and delay of the line AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 14 .168. Serial0/0 D [90/2681] via 192. FastEthernet0/0 D 192.0/24 [90/2172] via [90/2707] via IP Route P1R1#sh ip route [output cut] Gateway of last resort is not set D 192. Serial0/0 C is directly connected.

Introducing OSPF • Open standard • Shortest path first (SPF) algorithm • Link-state routing protocol (vs. distance vector) AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 • Can be used to route between AS’s 15 .

OSPF Hierarchical Routing AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 • • • • Consists of areas and autonomous systems Minimizes routing update traffic Supports VLSM Unlimited hop count 16 .

Distance Vector Link State: • Provides common view of entire topology • Calculates shortest path • Utilizes event-triggered updates • Can be used to route between AS’s Distance Vector: •Exchanges routing tables with neighbors •Utilizes frequent periodic updates AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 17 .Link State Vs.

Types of OSPF Routers Area 1 Backbone Area 0 ABR and Backbone Backbone/ Router Internal Routers Area 2 Internal Routers Internal Routers ASBR and Backbone Router ABR and Backbone Router •External AS AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 18 .

Configuring Single Area OSPF Router(config)#router ospf process-id Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol Note: The process ID is locally significant and is needed to identify a unique instance of an OSPF database Router(config-router)#network address mask area area-id Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 19 . 10.255.0 R1 Area 0 area 0 network 10.0 area 0 hostname R2 router ospf 20 network 10.0 area 0 network 10.0.OSPF Example R2 10.255 area 0 hostname R1 router ospf 30 network hostname R3 router ospf 10 network 10.0.0 0.0.0 area 0 AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 20 .0.0 R3 10.0 0.

Verifying the OSPF Configuration Router#show ip protocols Verifies that OSPF is configured Router#show ip route Displays all the routes learned by the router Router#show ip ospf interface Displays area-ID and adjacency information Router#show ip ospf neighbor Displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 21 .

0.0.5 Hello? 224.0.5 • • • Hello packets provides dynamic neighbor discovery Hello Packets maintains neighbor relationships Hello packets and LSA’s from other routers help build and maintain the topological database 22 AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 .0.OSFP Neighbors • OSPF uses hello packets to create adjacencies and maintain connectivity with neighbor routers • OSPF uses the multicast address 224.

OSPF Terminology • Neighbor • Adjacency Neighbors ABR DR Adjacencies Non-DR Cost=6 BDR 23 AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 .

AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 24 .Router ID (RID) Each router in OSPF needs to be uniquely identified to properly arrange them in the Neighbor tables.

Electing the DR and BDR Multicast Hellos are sent and compared Router with Highest Priority is Elected as DR Router with 2nd Highest Priority is Elected as BDR • OSPF sends Hellos which elect DRs and BDRs • Router form adjacencies with DRs and BDRs in a multi-access environment AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 25 .

Configuring Loopback Interfaces Router ID (RID): – Number by which the router is known to OSPF – Default: The highest IP address on an active interface at the moment of OSPF process startup – Can be overridden by a loopback interface: Highest IP address of any active loopback interface – also called a logical interface AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 26 .

Dead 40.1. Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 192.137 No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured.168.137.168. Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:06 Index 2/2.1. flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 0.168.137/29. maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 0. line protocol is up Internet Address 192. State DR.1. maximum is 0 Last flood scan time is 0 msec.168. Interface address 192. Network Type BROADCAST. Area 4 Process ID 19. Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec.Interface Priorities What is the default OSPF interface priority? Router# show ip ospf interface ethernet0/0 Ethernet0 is up. Adjacent neighbor count is 0 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 27 . Router ID 192.137. Wait 40.1. Hello 10.

0.255 means that the first three match exactly. you must remember your block sizes….0.0. AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 28 . – 0.0 means all octets match exactly – 0.0.Configuring Wildcards If you want to advertise a partial octet (subnet). you need to use wildcards. but the last octet can be any value After that.

0. – – – – 192.168.3 192.63 AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 29 . = 0.15 192.31 192.48/28 = 0.Wildcard The wildcard address is always one less than the block size….96/27 = =

16.168.5/30 • • Lab_B • E0: 192.10/30 • S1: 192.1/24 • S0: • S0: Lab_C E0: 192.1/24 S1: 172.Wildcard Configuration of the Lab_B Router • • • • Lab_A E0: 192.9/30 30 AITA\SWBU\CCNA\08 .